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Иностранный язык. Wood processing technologies. Part 1.

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ
УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЛЕСОТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ
УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ИМЕНИ Г.Ф. МОРОЗОВА»
Ю.Ю. Дубровина В.Е. Кравец
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК
WOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES
Part 1
Technologic Processes
Учебное пособие
Воронеж 2015
2
ББК 81.432.1-923
Д79
Печатается по решению учебно-методического совета
ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ» (протокол № 7 от 29 мая 2015 г.)
Рецензенты: кафедра иностранных языков и деловой межкультурной
коммуникации ФГБОУ ВПО Воронежский ГАУ;
канд. филол. наук, доц. ВГПУ В.В. Безрукова
Дубровина, Ю. Ю.
Д79 Иностранный язык. Wood processing technologies. Part 1. Technologic
Processes [Текст] : учебное пособие / Ю. Ю. Дубровина, В. Е. Кравец ;
М-во образования и науки РФ, ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ». – Воронеж, 2015. – 64 с.
ISBN 978-5-7994-0714-8 (ч. 1) (в обл.)
ISBN 978-5-7994-0713-1
Учебное пособие знакомит студентов с терминологией по направлениям подготовки
бакалавров 35.03.02 и магистров 35.04.02 – Технология лесозаготовительных и
деревоперерабатывающих производств, а также с грамматическими явлениями,
характерными для английской научно-технической литературы, развивает навыки работы с
аутентичными журналами по данным направлениям. Пособие состоит из текстов, взятых из
оригинальных английских и американских периодических изданий, адаптированных для
понимания студентами 1-2 курсов, а также магистрами. Послетекстовые упражнения
направлены на закрепление лексического и грамматического материала текстов. Данное
пособие будет способствовать формированию и совершенствованию навыков чтения,
письма, говорения и перевода технической литературы.
Учебное пособие по чтению и переводу текстов на английском языке предназначено
для студентов по направлениям подготовки 35.03.02, 35.04.02 – Технология
лесозаготовительных и деревоперерабатывающих производств.
ББК 81.432.1-923
ISBN 978-5-7994-0714-8 (ч. 1)
ISBN 978-5-7994-0713-1
© Дубровина Ю. Ю., Кравец В. Е., 2015
© ФГБОУ ВО «Воронежский государственный
лесотехнический университет имени
Г.Ф. Морозова», 2015
3
Оглавление
GRAMMAR..................................................................................................................4
Nouns in plural………………………………………………………………………..4
The degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs……………………………......6
Глагол То be.................................................................................................................9
Present…………………………………………….....................................................11
Past ……………………………………….................................................................14
Texts for reading in the classroom…..........................................................................19
Text 1.Choice of sawmill type………........................................................................19
Text 2.Presawing and postsawing equipment.............................................................21
Text 3.Sawing machinery…………............................................................................22
Text 4.Methods of lumber drying …...........................................................................24
Text 5. Predrier…….………………...........................................................................26
Text 6. Conventional kilns...........................................................................................28
Text 7.Solar kilns……….............................................................................................29
Text 8.Steam drier…...................................................................................................32
Texts for individual reading........................................................................................34
Air drying....................................................................................................................34
Radiofrequency drying…............................................................................................35
Adhesives for furniture manufacture (part I)………...................................................36
Adhesives for furniture manufacture (part II).............................................................37
The basics of gluing technologies (part I)….…..........................................................39
The basics of gluing technologies (part II)..................................................................40
Use of sawdust and other mill residues.......................................................................41
Use of wood residues in production of fiberboard and particleboard…………….....43
Seasoning of lumber………........................................................................................44
The durability of wood................................................................................................45
Weathering of wood…………………........................................................................45
Glossary…………………………………………………...........................................47
List of irregular verbs………………………………………………………………..60
Библиографический список......................................................................................63
4
GRAMMAR
Nouns in plural
(множественное число имѐн существительных)
Правила образования множественного числа существительных в
английском языке достаточно разнообразны. Основные из них сводятся к
следующим:
1)
Множественное число существительных (кроме тех, у которых
основа оканчивается на -ch, -s, -ss, -sh, -x), образуется путем прибавления к основе
окончания -s:
a cat – cats
a trick – tricks
2)
Множественное
число
существительных,
основа
которых
оканчивается на -ch, -s, -ss, -sh, -х,- z образуется путем прибавления к основе
окончания -es:
a bench – benches
a bus – buses
При чтении формы множественного числа этих существительных
произносится редуцированная [I]: [boksiz].
3) Существительные, оканчивающиеся на -y (после согласной), во
множественном числе имеют окончание -ies:
An army – armies
A fly – flies
4) Существительные, имеющие окончание -о, как правило, образуют
множественное число путем прибавления к основе окончание -es:
A potato – potatoes
НО:
Некоторые существительные, оканчивающиеся на -о, принимают
окончание -s:
Piano – pianos
photo – photos
5) В форме множественного числа существительных, оканчивающихся на
-f (-fe), конечная согласная, как правило, меняются на -v, давая окончание -ves:
a calf – calves
a knife – knives
5
НО: Ряд существительных оканчивающихся на -f, образуют
множественное число прибавлением окончания -s:
roof – roofs
chief – chiefs
handkerchief – handkerchiefs
5) Ряд существительных образуют множественное число не по общим
правилам:
а) у некоторых существительных во множественном числе изменяется
корневая гласная:
a man – men
a goose – geese
a woman – women
a mouse – mice
a foot – feet
a tooth – teeth
б) у ряда существительных к форме единственного числа добавляется
окончание -еn;
an ox – oxen
a child – children
в) некоторые существительные, заимствованные из латинского и
греческого языков, образуют множественное число следующим образом:
an index – indices
a crisis – crises
a criterion – criteria
a bacterium – bacteria и др.
6) Некоторые существительные имеют одну форму для единственного и
множественного числа:
a deer – олень
deer – олени
a sheep – овца sheep – овцы
a fish – рыба
fish – рыбы
7) Некоторые существительные имеют форму только единственного числа
или только множественного числа:
advice
information
knowledge
furniture
luggage
НО: News, clothes, damages, goods, looks, riches, manners, thanks.
6
8) Некоторые неисчисляемые или абстрактные существительные могут
образовывать форму единственного или множественного числа в идиоматических
выражениях : a piece of music, a piece of luggage, two pieces of equipment, three
pieces of advice:
A folk song is a piece of popular music. – Народная песня – популярное
музыкальное произведение. I ordered twelve bars of soap. – Я заказал двенадцать
кусков мыла.
I. Переведите на английский и затем поставьте существительные во
множественное число:
Ручка, класс, история, дорога, день, кот, куст, стол, лиса, комната, нож,
стул, герой, матч, путь, дом, автобус, семья, город, волк, страна, парк, словарь,
ключ, растение, персик, банан, щѐтка, звезда, гора, дерево, мужчина, женщина,
глаз, полка, коробка, мальчик, часы, мышь, платье, игрушка, овца, зуб, младенец,
ребѐнок, олень, жизнь, томат, магазин, трагедия, яйцо, комедия, фотография,
крыша, бабочка, церковь, жена, тело, муха.
DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
СТЕПЕНИ СРАВНЕНИЯ ИМЕН ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫХ И НАРЕЧИЙ
Adjective or
The comparative
The superlative
adverb
degree
degree
Нулевая
Сравнительная
Превосходная
степень
степень
степень
сравнения
ОдноBig+er =bigger
Big+est=the biggest
Big
двухсложные
большой
больше
самый большой
прилагательные и
наречия
Многосложные
More+beautiful=
Most+beautiful=
Beautiful
прилагательные и красивый
more beautiful
the most beautiful
наречия
красивее
самый красивый
7
СЛОЖНЫЕ СЛУЧАИ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ ФОРМ СРАВНИТЕЛЬНОЙ И
ПРЕВОСХОДНОЙ СТЕПЕНЕЙ СРАВНЕНИЯ ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫХ
Положительная
степень
Сравнительная
степень
Превосходная
степень
Перевод
bad
worse
the worst
плохой-более плохойхуже -худший-самый
плохой
far
farther
the farthest
further
the furthest
далеко-дальше-самый
далекий (o
расстоянии)
далее-дальнейший (о
времени,о работе и
т.д.)
good
better
the best
хороший-лучшелучший
little
less
the least
much
more
the most
old
older
the oldest
elder
the eldest
маленький - меньший
- самый
маленький
много - больше —
больше всего
старый-старше-самый
старший
старше, самый
старший (о
родственниках)
8
I. Дополните предложения, используя сравнительную степень.
1.
Sue’s car isn’t very big. She wants a bigger car.
2.
This house isn’t very modern. I prefer more modern houses.
3.
You’re not very tall. Your brother is …
4.
Bill doesn’t work very hard. I work …
5.
My chair isn’t very comfortable. Yours is …
6.
Jill’s idea wasn’t very good. My idea was …
7.
These flowers aren’t very nice. The blue ones are …
8.
I’m not very interested in art. I’m … in history.
9.
It isn’t very warm today. It was … yesterday.
10.
Britain isn’t very big. France is …
11.
London isn’t very beautiful. Paris is …
12. This knife isn’t very sharp. Have you got … one?
13. People today are not very polite. In the past they were …
II. Дополните предложения, используя превосходную степень.
1.
This building is very old. It’s the oldest building in the town.
2.
It’s was a very happy day. It was … day of my life.
3.
It’s a very good film. It’s … film I’ve ever seen.
4.
She’s a very popular singer. She’s … singer in our country.
5.
It was a very big mistake. It was … mistake I’ve ever made.
6.
It’s a very pretty village. It’s … village I’ve ever seen.
7.
It was a very cold day. It was … day of a year.
8.
He’s a very interesting person. He’s … person I’ve ever met.
9
Глагол То be (быть)
POSITIVE
Present
I am
He
She } is
It
Past
We
You } are
They
I
He
She } was
It
Future
We
You } were
They
I
He
She
It } will be
We
You
They
NEGATIVE
QUESTION
I am not
Am I?
He
She } is not (isn’t)
It
He
Is { She?
It
We
You } are not (aren’t)
They
We
Are { You ?
They
I
He
She } was not (wasn’t)
It
I
He
Was { She ?
It
We
You } were not (weren’t)
They
I
He
She
It } will not be (won’t be)
We
You
They
We
Were {You ?
They
I
He
She
Will { It } be ?
We
You
They
I. Put in am/is/are/was/were/will be. Some sentences are present and some are
past.
1. Last year she was 22, so she is 23 now.
2. Today the weather … nice, but yesterday it … cold.
10
3. I … hungry. Can I have something to eat?
4. I … hungry last night, so I had something to eat.
5. She … in Paris next summer.
6. Where … you at 11 o’clock last Friday morning?
7. Don’t buy those shoes. They … too expensive.
8. Why … you so angry yesterday?
9. We must go now. It … very late.
10. This time last year I … in Paris.
11. Tomorrow at 10 o’clock I … at work.
12. We … tired when we arrived home, so we went to bed.
13. ―Where … the children?‖ – ―I don’t know. They … in the garden ten minutes
ago.‖
14. Bill … 24 years old now. Last year he … 23. Next year he … 25.
15. They travels a lot. Yesterday they … in London. Today they … in Rome. Next
week they … in Tokyo.
II. Write positive or negative sentences. Use am/am not/is/isn’t/are/aren’t/ will
be/won’t be.
1. (Paris / the capital of France) Paris is the capital of France.
2. (I / interested in football) I’m not interested in football.
3. (I / hungry) ………………………………………………………………………..
4. (It / warm today) ………………………………………………………………….
5. (Rome / in Spain) …………………………………………………………………
6. (I / afraid of dogs) ………………………………………………………………..
7. Don’t telephone me this evening. (I / at home) …………………………….........
8. (My hands / cold) ………………………………………………………………...
9. (Canada / a very big country) ……………………………………………………
10. (Diamonds / cheap) ……………………………………………………………..
11. (Motor-racing / a dangerous sport) ……………………………………………..
12. (Cats / big animals)……………………………………………………………...
13. (I / at home tomorrow) ……………………………………………………….....
11
PRESENT (на примере глагола To work – работать)
QUESTION
NEGATIVE
POSITIVE
Ключевые
слова
Indefinite (Simple)
Continuous
Perfect
Usually, often,
seldom, always,
sometimes, every day
(month, year)
I
We
You } work
They
Now, at the moment,
Look!, Listen!
Ever, never, just, yet,
already, since, for
I am working
I
You
We } have worked
They
He
She } works
It
I
We
You } don’t work
They
He
She } is working
It
I am not working
He
She } doesn’t work
It
I
We
Do { You } + work?
They
He
Does {She} + work?
It
We
You } are working
They
He
She } is not (isn’t) working
It
We
You }aren’t working
They
Am I working ?
He
Is { She } working?
It
We
Are { You } working?
They
He
She } has worked
I
I
You
We } haven’t worked
They
He
She } has not worked
It
I
We
{
Have You } worked?
They
He
Has {She} worked?
It
12
I.
Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of these verbs. (Present
Simple)
1.
He (work) in a bank.
2.
They (live) in England.
3.
I (watch) TV every day.
4.
My brother (watch) TV every day too.
5.
She (like) English?
6.
Alex (go) to computer club on Sundays.
7.
You (live) in London?
8.
I (speak) not French.
9.
He (like) not History.
10.
They (hate) Math.
II.
Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of these verbs. (Present
Continuous)
1.
She (not read now). She (write) a letter.
2.
You (watch) TV. You (not listen) to me!
3.
I (spend) a day at the seaside. The sun (shine) brightly.
4.
Please, be quiet. I (work).
5.
You (stand) on my foot. – Oh, I’m sorry.
6.
Look! Somebody (swim) in the river.
7.
You can turn off the television. I (not watch) it.
8.
Bob (work) now?
9.
What’s the matter? Why you (cry)?
10.
Don’t go out. It (rain) hard.
11.
You can’t listen to music because the stereo (not work).
12.
We don’t want to go for a walk. We (watch) a very interesting film.
III. Present Simple or Present Continuous?
1.
The shops (open) at 9 o’clock and (close) at 5.30.
2.
She (speak) four languages.
3.
They (not listen) to music now.
4.
Listen! The phone (ring).
5.
I (not play) tennis very well.
13
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
He (read) a book at the moment?
Look! It (snow).
It (snow) every year in this country.
Listen! Somebody (sing).
―Excuse me, but you (sit) in my place.‖ – ―Oh, I’m sorry.‖
―Where is Paul?‖ – ―In the kitchen. He (cook) something.‖
He (not like) coffee. He (prefer) tea.
She (hate) history.
He (not drive) usually to work. He usually (walk).
Excuse me, you (speak) English?
―Have a cigarette.‖ – ―No, thank you. I (not smoke)‖.
I can’t talk to you at the moment. I (work).
IV. Present simple or Present Continuous? Correct wrong sentences.
She is liking pop music.
John is having dinner at the moment.
She hates classical music.
He is having two brothers.
We are loving ice-cream.
He is taking photos at the moment.
I don’t understand you.
V. Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of these verbs (Present
Perfect).
1.
―What’s the news?‖ – ―We (win) the tennis competition.‖
2.
―Where is Ann?‖ – ―She (go) out‖.
3.
Mary is having a party on Saturday. She (invite) a lot of people.
4.
You (be) ever to London? - ―Yes, I (be) several times‖.
5.
You (write) to John? – ―Yes, I (finish) just a letter to him‖.
6.
My aunt (live) in Paris for 15 years.
7.
I (not meet) him since January.
8.
She (know) me for a long time.
9.
We (live) in Moscow since I was ten.
14
QUESTION
NEGATIVE
POSITIVE
Ключевые слова
PAST (на примере глаголов to work – работать и to write – писать)
Indefinite (Simple)
Yesterday, the day before
yesterday,
last month (week, day,
year), in…,
a week (month, year) ago
I
He
She
It } worked / wrote
We
You
They
I
He
She
It } didn’t work / write
We
You
They
Continuous
Perfect
At … o’clock yesterday, By … o’clock yesterday,
from … till …
already, before, by the time
yesterday, at this time
yesterday
I
He
She } was working
It
We
You } were working
They
I
He
She } wasn’t working
It
I
He
She
It } had worked / written
We
You
They
I
He
She
It }hadn’t worked /written
We
We
You
You }weren’t working They
They
I
I
I
He
He
He
She
Was { She } working?
She
Did { It }+ work / write?
It
Had { It } worked/ written?
We
We
You
We
You
They
Were { You } working?
They
They
15
Сравните употребление Past Indefinite и Past Continuous. Обратите
внимание на следующие два предложения :
We played chess in the evening (вечером) – Past Indefinite
We were playing chess the whole evening (весь вечер) – Past Continuous
Обратите внимание на следующие предложения:
Father was reading at 7 o'clock yesterday. Действие в процессе Past
Continuous.
Father came home at 7 o'clock yesterday. Однократное действие Past
Indefinite
Сравните также:
I have bought a book today (this week, this month) – неистекший отрезок
времени – Present Perfect.
I bought a book yesterday (last week, last month) – истекший отрезок
времени – Past Indefinite.
Запомните также следующие предложения: I have never been to France.
I haven't seen you for ages. Have you ever been to London? I haven't met him for
a long time. I haven't been to London since last year.
I.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Write the past simple of these verbs.
get
…….
12. know …….
eat
…….
13. stand …….
pay …….
14. take …….
make …….
15. do …….
give …….
16. put …….
leave …….
17. tell …….
see …….
18. lose …….
go
…….
19. think ……
hear …….
20. speak ……
find …….
21. stop …….
buy …….
22. write …….
23. study
24. travel
25. cry
26. open
27. win
28. plan
29. stay
II.
Write sentences about the past (yesterday, last week etc.).
1. He always goes to work by car. Yesterday he went to work by car.
…….
…….
…….
…….
…….
…….
…….
16
2. They always get up early. This morning they …
3. Bill often loses his keys. He …
4. I write a letter to Jane every week. Last week …
5. She meets her friends every evening. She … yesterday evening.
6. I usually read two newspapers every day. I … yesterday.
7. They come to my house every Friday. Last Friday …
8. We usually go to the cinema on Sunday. We … last Sunday.
9. They buy a new car every year. Last year …
10. Ann often takes photographs. Last weekend …
11. We leave home at 8.30 every morning. We … this morning.
III. Put the verb in the correct form of the past (positive, negative or question).
1.
I (play) tennis yesterday but I (not win).
2.
We (wait) for a long time, but the bus (not / come).
3.
That’s a nice shirt. Where (you / buy) it?
4.
She (see) me, but she (not / speak) to me.
5.
(it / rain) yesterday? – No, it was a nice day.
6.
That was a stupid thing to do. Why (you / do) it?
7.
You (have) a nice weekend? – Yes, I (play) tennis with my friends.
8.
We (go) to the cinema, but the film (not / be) very good. We (not enjoy) it.
9.
You (phone) Ann? – No, I (forget).
10. Tom (buy) some new clothes yesterday.
11. The party wasn’t very good, so we (not stay) long.
12. Is Peter here? – No, he (arrive) five minutes ago.
13. I wasn’t well last week, so I (not go) to university.
14. He (spend) his summer holiday in this country.
15. She (come) to your party? – No, we (invite) her, but she (not come).
16. Yesterday I (get) up early.
IV. Put the verb in the correct form of the past simple or present simple
(positive, negative or question).
1.
Now I (live) in London and my brother (live) in Scotland.
2.
Ten years ago my parents (live) in London.
3.
The Earth (go) round the Sun.
17
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Ann (to be) at home yesterday.
I usually (go) to work by car but I sometimes (walk).
What you usually (do) at weekends?
Father (come) home at 8 o’clock yesterday.
Last summer I (go) to Great Britain.
The Chinese (invent) printing.
I (watch) TV every day.
My brother (watch) TV every day too.
Where you (go) last Sunday?
Alex (go) to computer club on Sundays.
The Vikings (come) to England a thousand year ago.
V.
Put the verb in brackets in the Past Continuous.
1.
Kate was at home at 6 o’clock yesterday. She (watch) TV.
2.
At 4 o’clock she was at the sports club. She (play) tennis.
3.
What you (do) at 11.30 yesterday? – I (work).
4.
What did he say? – I don’t know. I (listen / not).
5.
It (rain), so we didn’t go out.
6.
In 1980 they (live) in Canada.
7.
I woke up early yesterday. It was a beautiful morning. The sun (shine) and the
birds (sing).
VI.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Put the verb into the past continuous or past simple.
When we (go) out, it (rain).
Jane wasn’t at home when I went to see her. She (work).
I (get) up early this morning.
The boys (break) the window when they (play) football.
I was late but my friends (wait) for me when I (arrive).
I (get) up at 7 o’clock. The sun (shine) and I (go) for a walk.
He (not/drive) fast when the accident (happen).
Margaret (not/go) to work yesterday. She was ill.
What (you/do) on Saturday evening? – I went to the cinema.
What (you / do) at 9.30 on Saturday evening? – I (watch) a film in the cinema.
What you (do) at 11.30 yesterday?
18
12. Father (come) home at 8 o’clock yesterday.
13. When we (leave) house, it (rain).
14. It (rain) a lot last year.
15. At this time yesterday I (talk) to my friends.
16. How fast you (drive) when the police (stop) you? – I don’t know exactly, but I
(not drive) very fast.
17. Your team (win) the football match yesterday? - No, the weather was very
bad, so we (not / play).
18. What you (do) at 10 o’clock on Sunday? – I still (sleep).
VII. Put the verb in brackets in the Past Perfect.
1.
My best friend was no longer there. He … (go) away.
2.
I didn’t recognise Mrs. Johnson. She (change) a lot.
3.
Bill no longer had his car. He (sell) it.
4.
When I arrived at the party, Tom wasn’t there. He (go) home.
5.
George didn’t want to come to the cinema with us because he (see) already this
film.
6.
It was his first driving lesson. He was very nervous and didn’t know what to
do. He (not/ drive) before.
VIII. You have to make sentences using the words in brackets.
1.
I wasn’t hungry. (I / just / have / lunch) I had just had lunch.
2.
Tom wasn’t at home when I arrived. (he / just / go / out).
3.
We arrived at the cinema late. (the film / already / begin).
4.
They were not eating when I went to see them. (they / just / finish / their /
dinner).
5.
I invited Ann to dinner last weekend but she couldn’t come. (She / already /
arrange / to do / something else).
6.
I was very pleased to see her again after such a long time. (I / not / see / her for
five years).
IX. Past Simple, Past Continuous or Past Perfect?
1.
Last summer I (go) to Great Britain.
2.
When we came to the station, the train (leave) already. We were late.
19
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Tom burnt his hand while he (cook) dinner.
They (go) out after lunch.
She said that she (not / see) this man before.
What you (do) at 6 o’clock yesterday?
The Chinese (invent) printing.
The film (start) before we arrived.
Where you (go) last Sunday?
By 3 o’clock yesterday John … his car.
I didn’t go to the cinema because I (see) already this film.
The Vikings (come) to England a thousand year ago.
We (discuss) this question from 3 till 5 o’clock yesterday.
X. Past Simple or Present Perfect?
1.
My father is a writer. He (write) many books.
2.
I (play) football yesterday afternoon.
3.
What time (go) to bed last night?
4.
You (meet) a famous person?
5.
The weather (be) good yesterday.
6.
My hair is wet. I (wash) it.
7.
Kate travels a lot. She (visit) many countries.
8.
William Shakespeare (live) from 1564 to 1616.
9.
How long you (be) in Moscow?
10.
When you (go) to Great Britain?
TEXTS FOR READING IN THE CLASSROOM
Text 1. CHOICE OF SAWMILL TYPE
Because of the great variety and complexity of the problems that can arise in
connection with the establishment of a sawmill, sawmills of the standard type seldom can
be installed without special precautions. Consideration of the local climatic conditions
makes it possible to estimate variations in seasonal supply and their effect on the choice
of sawmill. An important factor is the consideration of the species of wood. In certain
cases the presence of internal tensions or the danger of warping during seasoning may
20
dictate a special mode of sawing (symmetrical cutting or complete quarter sawing).
Knowledge of the resistance of the wood to the penetration of the teeth makes it
possible to establish the dimension and the power of the saws.
The choice of the type of sawmill depends also on possibility or impossibility of
coordination the rates of operation of the various sawing stations and at the same time
ensuring the regular operation of each. If this can be done, it is possible to organize a
highly mechanized sawmill entirely analogous to standard type of sawmills.
Notes:
to install – устанавливать, монтировать, размещать
internal tension – внутреннее напряжение
rate operation – скорость операции (обработки )
sawing stations – участки распиловки
Ex. 1. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from
the text.
A sawmill, the local climatic conditions, seasonal supply, the species of wood,
the danger of warping, seasoning, a special mode of sawing, symmetrical cutting, quarter
sawing, the resistance of the wood, the dimension and the power of the saw, operation.
Ex. 2. Answer the questions.
1.
Why can sawmills of the standard type seldom be installed without special
precautions?
2.
What may dictate a special mode of sawing?
3.
What does the choice of the type of sawmill depend on?
4.
When is it possible to organize a highly mechanized sawmill entirely analogous to
standard type of sawmills?
Ex. 3. Divide the text into logical parts and define the key idea.
21
Text 2. PRESAWING AND POSTSAWING EQUIPMENT
In addition to the lumber cutting in the mill, presawing preparation of logs and
post sawing control of lumber seasoning and other general services are part of
sawmill activity.
Sometimes the outside-mill activity requires more than half of the total labour
force. Therefore it is important to have this outside-mill operation well-organized and
mechanized.
Usually the logs are cross-cut before entering the mill. For this operation the
portable electric chain saws are most convenient. It is preferable to debark some
species with heavy bark usually containing sandy particles. For such cases a
mechanical debarker should be used.
If a sawmill cuts a major portion of species susceptible to fungus or insect
attack, a mechanized tank for dipping treatment should be installed at the remote end
of the "green" chain.
Transport and stacking of lumber for air seasoning usually requires a sizeable
labour force. The most economical method is to stack the lumber for air seasoning
immediately after removing it from the "green" chain. The piles should be of a
convenient size for transport by fork-lift. Correct seasoning is a very important
sawmill's activity. Whether kiln or semi-artificial seasoning should be a part of the
post-sawing treatment, or natural air seasoning is enough, can be decided according
to particular requirements.
Notes:
presawing equipment – дораспиловочное оборудование (для выполнения работ,
предшествующих распиловке)
postsawing equipment – послераспиловочное оборудование
the outside mill activity – операции ( работа) за пределами лесопильного завода
susceptible to – чувствительный к чему-либо
dipping treatment – обработка древесины окунанием
fork-lift – погрузочный челюстной захват.
Ex. 1. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions from the
text.
22
Распиловка пиломатериалов, лесопилка, дораспиловочная подготовка
брѐвен, сушка пиломатериалов, рабочая сила, пила, очищать от коры, породы,
использовать, плесень, насекомое, штабель.
Ex. 2. Complete the sentences and then translate them.
1.
Presawing preparation of logs and post sawing control of lumber seasoning
are…
2.
It is important to have this outside-mill operation well-organized and
mechanized because…
3.
The portable electric chain saws are most convenient for…
4.
Mechanical debarker should be used for…
5.
A mechanized tank for dipping treatment should be installed if…
6.
The most economical method is to stack the lumber for air seasoning
immediately after removing it from the "green" chain because…
Ex. 3. Divide the text into logical parts and define the key idea.
Text 3. SAWING MACHINARY
The designer of a sawmill faces many limitations. He must consider the natural
and economic conditions and the limited choice of machines. These two factors
usually decide the size of the mill and the degree of mechanization.
So far as the equipment is concerned, we note the following:
1) Bandsaws are the most versatile. There is practically no sawing operation they
cannot handle. Selection of the size of the saws is made with a view to ensuring that the
strength of the blade is commensurate with the stress to which it is subjected. In the first
sawing of soft woods, six-foot bandsaws are always used, with harder woods bigger
saws are necessary. In resawing, a bandsaw with a rack carrier may be employed where
the use of a gang saw is not possible.
2) The circular saw has limited capacity. Its advantage resides in the fact, that it
can be fitted with high-speed steel teeth that make it possible to use it in the sawing of
both very hard and soft woods. Its use is limited, particularly in the second sawing,
because of the waste of raw material it entails.
3) The gang saw, like the bandsaw, can be used in either rapid or slow sawing. It is
very valuable in rapid sawing, which is rarely-done, except in the second sawing of
23
planks 20-50 centimeters thick. Slow sawing is almost obligatory in the first sawing. It
may, however be acceptable in certain other cases. Gang saws or frame saws, as they
are also called, gives the highest accuracy. So frame-sawn lumber can be used for
building purposes without previous planning which means a saving both in labour
and material.
Notes:
versatile – универсальный
with a view to – с намерением, с целью
commensurate – соответственный, соразмерный
a rack carrier – пластинчатый транспортер
to fit – править (пилу)
to reside (in) – заключиться (в чем-либо)
Ex. 1. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from
the text.
A sawmill, the natural and economic conditions, the equipment, versatile, soft
woods, hard woods, resawing, to employ, a gang saw, capacity, steel teeth, the waste of
raw material, rapid sawing, a plank, building purposes, previous planning.
Ex. 2. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions from the
text.
Распиловочное оборудование, степень механизации, ленточная пила,
прочность лезвия, использовать что-то, необходимый, циркулярная пила,
преимущество, снабжать, возможный, медленная распиловка, толщина,
первичная распиловка, вторичная распиловка, пилорама.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Ex. 3. Complete the sentences and then translate them.
1. The designer of a sawmill must a) …the natural and economic conditions
consider…
and the limited choice of machines.
2. Six-foot bandsaws are always used b) … either rapid or slow sawing.
in…
c) … the highest accuracy.
3. The gang saw can be used in…
d) … the first sawing of soft woods.
4. Gang saws or frame saws gives…
e) … building purposes.
5. Frame-sawn lumber can be used for…
24
Ex.4. Are these sentences true or false. Correct the false sentences.
1.
The circular saws are the most versatile.
2.
With harder woods small saws are necessary.
3.
The circular saw has limited capacity.
4.
Slow sawing is almost obligatory in the first sawing.
5.
Frame-sawn lumber can be used for building purposes with previous planning.
Ex. 5. Answer the questions.
1.
What factors usually decide the size of the mill and the degree of mechanization?
2.
What can be used in resawing where the use of a gang saw is not possible?
3.
What are advantages of the circular saw?
4.
Why is the use of the circular saw limited, particularly in the second sawing?
Ex. 6. Define the key idea of each paragraph of the text.
Text 4. METHODS OF LUMBER DRYING
Historically, the first phase in the manufacture of wood products has been air
drying and kiln drying of lumber. There are many methods that have been used over
the years to dry lumber from the green state to a dry condition suitable to its end use.
There was an era when furniture factories air-dried their lumber for one year or more,
then placed it in dry storage for almost another year to bring the lumber down to a
moisture content with, which to make furniture. Degrade was rather high, but the
price of lumber was low.
The next step was the same air-drying. Then natural draft kilns were used to
shorten the time of drying and provide moisture content usable for furniture. These
natural draft kilns were generally cross-piled, and there are a few still existing. Most
of them have been modified.
The next step to further cut down time in the kilns was double-attack air drying
kilns with a new innovation, automatic control of heat, humidity and ventilation
For years the forest industry has used natural solar drying and steam drying of
lumber. Today a combination of air drying by means of low temperature kilns, or a
predrier, and the modern dry kiln has made drying of green hardwoods possible in a
relatively short time and with little or no degrade. Drying of hardwood lumber for
25
furniture manufacture is an expensive and time-consuming operation. Looses in
drying due to hecks, cracks, splits and warp can easily exceed the operating costs and
result in a loss of raw material and wasted time and labor. Extensive technology,
aimed at reducing degrade and drying, times, has recently been introduced to the kiln
industry. These innovators include the use of vacuum pressures, microwaves, heat
pumps. Four drying methods have come to use as ways to reduce drying losses,
shorten drying times and reduce costs. They are 1) Predrying, 2) Dehumidification
Drying, 3) Vacuum Drying, 4) Radiofrequency Drying.
Notes:
to bring something down – доводить до чего-либо, уменьшать, снижать
cross-piled kiln – сушилка с поперечной штабелевкой
double-stack kiln – двух штабельная сушилка
operating costs – эксплуатационные затраты
wasted time – зря (бесполезно) потраченное время
dehumidification drying – конденсационная сушка
radiofrequency drying – высокочастотная сушка (сушка ТВЧ)
Ex. 1. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from
the text.
The manufacture of wood products, kiln drying, to use, the green state, a dry
condition, dry storage, heat, the forest industry, natural solar drying, low temperature
kiln, a predrier, time-consuming operation, a loss of raw material, to reduce.
Ex. 2. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions from the
text.
Сушка пиломатериалов, воздушная сушка, мебель, фабрика, брак,
содержание влаги, влажность, паровая сушка, твѐрдые породы древесины, скол,
трещина, рабочая сила, промышленность, давление, потери при сушке.
Ex. 3. Are these sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences.
1.
Natural draft kilns were used to shorten the time of drying and provide
moisture content usable for furniture.
26
2.
The modern dry kiln has made drying of green hardwoods possible in a
relatively short time and with little or no degrade.
3.
Five drying methods have come to use as ways to reduce drying losses, shorten
drying times and reduce costs.
4.
Historically, the first phase in the manufacture of wood products has been
vacuum drying.
Ex. 4. Answer the questions.
1.
Natural draft kilns were generally cross-piled, weren’t they?
2.
What four drying methods are used today?
3.
Is drying of hardwood lumber for furniture manufacture an expensive and
time-consuming operation?
Ex. 5. Divide the text into meaningful parts and give each the name.
Text 5. PREDRIER
Predrying is always followed by kiln drying. The predrying system uses a
nominal temperature of 80 degrees F and low airflow to dry lumber in a large
warehouse from green to 25 % moisture content. Lumber is further dried to 6 %
moisture content in a standard dry kiln.
The predrier is a large insulated steel building, which is loaded by means of fork
lift. They are steam heated and provided with automatic control of heat and relative
humidity. The normal relative humidity in the predrier is kept from 50 % to 70 %
depending on the species and thickness of the last package entering the predrier. The
packages are moved in and out daily. These predriers are run on separate controlling
zones. The lumber is usually pulled out and put into a convectional dry kilns when
the moisture content is 25 % or less for completion of drying.
This system of lumber drying has many advantages. It reduces yard inventory
and carrying charges. There is no degrade from air drying, the lumber stays flat and
bright. The results show that this method is cheaper than air drying, considering the
degrade in customary air drying.
Notes:
to keep (temperature) – сохранять, поддерживать температуру.
27
package – пакетированный материал
to move in – загружать
to move out – выгружать
to ran (a kiln) – эксплуатировать
convectional kiln – конвективная сушильная камера
carrying charges – транспортные расходы
Ex. 1. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from
the text.
Predrying, kiln drying, to dry lumber, a steel building, steam, to provide, species,
to move.
Ex. 2. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions from the
text.
Использовать, содержание влаги, загружать, тепло, относительная
влажность, преимущество, сокращать, брак.
Ex. 3. Are these sentences true or false. Correct the false sentences.
1.
The predrying system uses a nominal temperature of 100 degrees F.
2.
The normal relative humidity in the predrier is kept from 50% to 70%.
3.
Predrying is cheaper than air drying.
4.
The packages are moved in and out every week.
Ex. 4. Answer the questions.
1.
What is the predrier?
2.
What does the normal relative humidity in the predrier depend on?
3.
Are the predriers run on separate controlling zones?
4.
What is predrying always followed by?
5.
What are the predriers provided with?
Ex. 5. Define the key idea of each paragraph of the text and make a short
summary of the text.
28
Text 6. CONVECTIONAL KILNS
There are hundreds of convectional drying kilns in use today in all parts of the
world. Their maximum temperature of drying is 200 F. They are either fork lift
loaded, on rails, or a combination of both: fork lift and rails. Convectional drying kiln can
dry either hardwoods or northern softwoods to any desired moisture content. Schedules
have been developed for these kilns and if they are carefully followed, they do hot
cause degrade of the lumber.
Convectional drying kilns are usually steam heated, there are some direct fired
drying kilns, burning gas, oil or wood waste. Their proportion to the above mentioned
steam heated kilns is very small. The range of final moistures content is rather wide, but
normally these kilns can meet the 15 % moisture content standard.
The time of drying in this type of kiln is approximately 18 to 22 hours (for
softwood species).
Some of the convectional drying kilns in the last few years have been equipped with
automatic or semi-automatic control systems, regulating heat, humidity and ventilation.
These control devices help to escape overheating and in some cases – fires.
Notes:
convectional kiln – конвективная сушильная камера
schedule – режим работы сушильной камеры
direct fired kiln – сушилка с прямым обогревом
to meet standard – соответствовать, удовлетворять требованиям стандарта
Ex. 1. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from
the text.
Drying, hardwoods, softwoods, to develop, the degrade of the lumber, to steam,
wood waste, species.
Ex. 2. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and
expressions.
Использование, загружать, содержание влаги, печь (сущ.), пар, оснащать,
влажность, прибор, перегрев.
29
Ex. 3. Match two parts of the sentence and translate them.
1. Convectional drying kiln can dry either a) ...any desired moisture content.
hardwoods or northern softwoods to…
b) … automatic or semi-automatic control
2. Convectional drying kilns are usually…
systems, regulating heat, humidity and
3. Some of the convectional drying kilns in ventilation.
the last few years have been equipped c) … steam heated.
with…
Ex. 4. Answer the questions.
1. What two types of conventional drying kilns are used today?
2. Why are schedules for conventional drying kilns carefully followed?
3. What is the time of drying in conventional drying kilns?
4. What is the maximum temperature of drying in conventional dying kilns?
5. What devices help to escape overheating and in some cases - fires?
Ex. 5. Divide the text into logical parts and name each of them.
Text 7. SOLAR KILNS
Solar drying kilns apply the principles used in a greenhouse to the drying of
timber. Heat is trapped inside a structure covered with a material which is transparent to
short wave radiation (light) and not transparent to longer wave radiation (heat) and
which at the same time reduces heat loss by conduction and convection. The differences
between a greenhouse and a solar kiln are, however, important. They are as follows:
1) A solar kiln may trap as much heat as possible whereas a greenhouse may not.
2) Air circulation is essential in a solar kiln to remove water from the wood
surface whereas convection gives sufficient air circulation in a greenhouse.
3) Temperatures increase and humidity decreases in a solar kiln as the timber dries
whereas, in a greenhouse, the more constant they remain the better.
Solar kilns vary considerably in size and design but most of them are
modifications of a simple greenhouse-type structure. The characteristics of solar kilns
are as follows:
1) Drying from green to 12 per cent moisture content takes 2-3 times as long as in
a convectional kiln (which is usually steam heated).
30
2) Drying is normally twice as fast as air drying and equilibrium moisture content
varies between 6 and 12 per cent.
3) Quality of drying in solar kilns is high for the following reasons: a) general rate
of drying is slow compared with convectional kilns, b) daily variations in temperature
are larger than with air drying but variations in humidity are much lower. It should be
noticed that with solar drying it is possible to dry timber to 8-10 per cent equilibrium
moisture content.
The advantages of solar kilns are therefore: high quality-drying particularly for
woods that are slow and difficult to dry, low coats and low level of skill required to
operate them. They are simple to erect and energy-saving. Their disadvantages are that
they are slow compared with convectional kilns and dependent on the weather.
Notes:
to trap – улавливать
convection – конвекция (движение воздуха)
compared with – по сравнению с
variations in temperature – колебания температуры
It should be noticed – следует отметить
to be energy-saving – быть экономным в употреблении энергии
to be dependent on – зависеть от чего-либо.
Ex. 1. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from
the text.
Solar drying kilns, to use, heat loss, to reduce, possible, to increase, to decrease, air
drying, an advantage, a disadvantage, to depend on smth.
Ex. 2. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and
expressions.
Теплица, сушка пиломатериалов, свет, циркуляция воздуха, поверхность
древесины, влажность, содержание влаги, подогреваться паром, требовать.
31
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Ex. 3. Match two parts of the sentence and then translate them.
1. Solar drying kilns apply the principles a) … a greenhouse to the drying of
used in…
timber.
2. Solar kilns are modifications of…
b) … solar drying.
3. It is possible to dry timber to 8-10 per c) … the weather.
cent equilibrium moisture content d) … to erect and energy-saving.
with…
e) … a simple greenhouse-type
4. Solar kilns are simple…
structure.
5. Solar kilns are slow compared with…
f) … convectional kilns.
6. Solar kilns are dependent on…
Ex. 4. Are these sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences.
1.
In solar drying kilns heat is trapped inside a structure covered with a material which
is transparent to light and not transparent to heat.
2.
A solar kiln may not trap as much heat as possible.
3.
A greenhouse may trap as much heat as possible.
4.
Temperatures decrease and humidity increases in a solar kiln as the timber dries.
5.
Quality of drying in solar kilns is high.
6.
Daily variations in temperature in solar kilns are larger than with air drying but
variations in humidity are much lower.
Ex. 5. Answer the questions.
1.
The differences between a greenhouse and a solar kiln are important, aren’t they?
2.
Why is air circulation essential in a solar kiln?
3.
What gives sufficient air circulation in a greenhouse?
4.
Do solar kilns vary considerably in size and design?
5.
General rate of drying in solar kilns is slow compared with convectional kilns,
isn’t it?
6.
What are the advantages of solar kilns?
Ex. 6. Divide the text into logical parts and name each of them.
32
Text 8. STEAM DRIER
The idea of drying lumber with steam goes back to the middle of 1800-s. In the
middle of 1900-s, several superheated steam driers were operated at atmospheric
pressure in Germany.
Steam drying is cheaper and faster than convectional drying and steam driers take
up less space than convectional kilns. Unfortunately, due to excessive drying degrade
to the lumber and rapid corrosion of the equipment, drying in superheated steam has
not been adopted by the lumber industry to a significant extent.
But recent developments in the steam drying of lumber have demonstrated that
corrosion problems associated with steam drying can be solved.
A typical pressure steam drier of 100 board foot capacity can dry full-size lumber
in steam at temperatures to 320 °F and pressures to 35 psi. The green wood of yellowpoplar, river-birch, silver maple, white ash, and air-dried black walnut and red oak
are dried to approximately 6 per cent moisture content in the pressure steam drier.
Drying time ranges from 20 to 40 hours, depending on the operating conditions and
physical properties of the wood. Quality of the dried lumber is best for yellow poplar
and still very good for the other species.
Pressure steam drying is the removal of moisture from the wood in a "closed",
chamber at controlled pressure above one atmosphere and temperatures above 212°F,
the normal boiling point of water. In this process, lumber is dried in a recirculating
atmosphere composed of steam generated from the lumber itself.
One of the advantages of pressure steam drying is the ability of the process to
maintain high levels of equilibrium - moisture contents (BMC) at high temperatures.
For example, the BMC in a pressure steam drier operating at 25 psi and 250 °F is 910 per cent.
Pressure steam drying is a valuable method for drying hardwood lumber. The non
refractory species, such as yellow-poplar, river birch, or silver maple, can be dried in
24 to 48 hours, depending upon operating conditions. Air-dried refractory species,
such as black walnut and red oak, can also be dried by this method. Degrade is less
than 3 per cent in the total value of the lumber. Thus, pressure steam drying provides
rapid drying with minimal lumber degrade.
Notes:
Pressure steam drying – сушка паром (под давлением)
33
superheated steam drier – высокотемпературная сушилка (паровая)
to take up space – занимать пространство
recent developments – последние достижения
psi = pounds per square inch – фунтов на квадратный дюйм
operating conditions – условия эксплуатации
refractory species – породы, трудно поддающиеся обработке и сушке.
Ex. 1. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from
the text.
Drying, steam, to operate, degrade, industry, wood, yellow-poplar, river-birch,
white ash, black walnut, red oak, advantage.
Ex. 2. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and
expressions.
Пиломатериалы, атмосферное давление, печь, оборудование, развитие,
серебристый клѐн, содержание влаги, условия работы, физические свойства,
виды, вырабатывать, твѐрдые породы древесины
Ex. 3. Are these sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences.
1.
The idea of drying lumber with steam goes back to the middle of 1900-s.
2.
Steam drying is cheaper and faster than convectional drying.
3.
Solar driers take up less space than convectional kilns.
4.
Drying time ranges from 20 to 40 hours.
5.
Pressure steam drying is a valuable method for drying softwood lumber.
6.
The non refractory species can be dried in 2 to 4 hours.
7.
The refractory species are yellow-poplar, river birch, or silver maple.
8.
Pressure steam drying provides rapid drying with minimal lumber degrade.
Ex. 4. Answer the questions.
1.
Where were several superheated steam driers operated at atmospheric pressure
in the middle of 1900-s?
2.
Why has drying in superheated steam not been adopted by the lumber industry
to a significant extent?
3.
What does drying time depend on?
34
4.
5.
6.
7.
What is pressure steam drying?
What is one of the advantages of pressure steam drying?
What are air-dried refractory species?
Air-dried refractory species can be dried by steam drying, can’t they?
Ex. 5. Divide the text into logical parts and name each of them.
TEXTS FOR INDIVIDUAL READING
AIR DRYING
Wood shrinks as it dries below 30 per cent moisture content (fiber saturation
point). When it dries above fiber saturation point (f.s.p.) water is removed from the
cell cavities but the walls are saturated; when it dries below f.s.p the cell cavities are
empty and water is removed from the walls causing the wood to shrink. Because of
the arrangement of matter in the walls and the arrangement of the cells in the wood
the shrinkage is different in the radial, tangential and longitudinal directions in the
tree. This differential shrinkage may cause distortion of the wood and if joinery or
furniture is made from wet wood which later dries out, gaps will develop and
distortion may occur. The heat from the sun has been used for thousands of years to
dry timber and until recently the only methods of drying timber was air-drying. But it
is not во widely appreciated that air-drying by itself is seldom sufficient to dry timber
to a moisture content with which it can be used for good joinery or furniture work
within a building. The equilibrium moisture content of wood dried in an open shed is
normally 5-8 per cent above the e.m.c. of wood in a closed building in the same
climate. For timber to be used for many structural purposes this difference in
moisture content is not critical but the 5-8 per cent difference is extremely important
for joinery and decorative uses such as furniture. Before the days of kiln drying the
good carpenter kept his timber for a long period after normal air drying, within his
workshop often in a loft, which was warmer than the main shop and which completed
the drying process. The rate of drying varies with the dimensions of the timber, the
structure and nature of the wood and its permeability to water movement Oak, for
instance, takes five to ten times as long to dry as pine, and many tropical woods are
heavy, hard and difficult to dry although the high quality furniture woods such as the
35
Mahoganies. Teak and Merantis are relatively quick and easy to dry. In the last
hundred years the drying of timber has been speeded, up by the development of
drying kilns. These kilns are chambers containing the wood in which temperature.
Humidity and air circulation are controlled to give the fastest possible drying and
good quality of dried timber.
Notes:
fiber saturation point (f.s.p.) – точка насыщения волокна
equilibrium moisture content (e.m.c.) – равновесная влажность
to appreciate – принимать во внимание
loft – верхний этаж (склада)
Mahogany – Махогониевое (красное) дерево
Teak – Тик, джатовое дерево
Merani (s) – Шорея
Remember the following terms:
to shrink, to dry out, to saturate, cell, cell cavities, arrangement of the cells, distortion of
the wood joinery, equilibrium moisture content (e.m.c), fiber saturation point (f.s.p.),
carpenter, workshop, the rate of operation, drying kiln, humidity, air circulation.
Retell the text according to your own plan.
RADIOFREQUENCY DRYING
Radiofrequency Drying (R.F. Drying) can be used to dry certain species of
lumber in several hours. Radiofrequency is combined with vacuum. This method dries
solid-piled lumber, in a steel air cylinder, that holds the lumber under a vacuum. Wood is
placed between a set of plates which apply a radiofrequency to the lumber causing the
water molecules to vibrate inside the wood, creating friction and heat. The heat drives
the moisture out of the wood. The system is used successfully with a variety of
hardwoods and softwoods.
Lumber volumes in the kiln are maximized because lumber is solid-piled, with
no stickers. Solid-piling also helps to eliminate many of the drying defects as the
36
weight of the lumber reduces cupping and splitting. End checking is also reduced due
to the action or the radio waves which dry the lumber from the inside.
In addition to reduced degrade, drying time with R. F. drying, is significantly
lower than with convectional drying. Thus some species which have initial moisture
contents of 160 to 180 per cent can be dried within 27 or 30 hours. Their final
moisture content can be 10 per cent. Hemlock is successfully dried in 14 hours to a
moisture content of 15 per cent.
Numerous tests showed that R.F. method could provide as good or even better
drying of lumber than the other drying systems.
Notes:
Radiofrequency drying (R.F. Drying) – высокочастотная сушка, сушка ТВЧ
a set of plates – набор (комплект) пластин
to drive out – вытеснять, выгонять, ликвидировать
hemlock – гемлок, тсуга
Remember the following terms:
Radiofrequency drying, solid-piled lumber, solid-piling, sticker, to apply, to cause, to
create, to eliminate, a variety of hardwoods (softwoods), lumber volume, drying
defects, cuping, splitting, end checking, initial moisture content, final moisture
content.
Look through the text again; make a plan of the whole text.
ADHESIVES FOR FURNITURE MANUFACTURE (Part I)
There are a wide range of adhesive products to meet the many and varied
requirements of the furniture and wood working industries. They include polyvinyl
acetate (PVA) adhesives, hot melts, pigmented and contact adhesives, flammable and
non-flammable adhesives.
One of the most significant recent developments is a water-resistant PVA
adhesive. The main advantage of the glue is fast setting times. It is suitable for
bonding hard and soft woods, laminates, veneers, and foils. It dries to a transparent
37
film and accept wood stains, polishes and lacquers. Specific setting times of the PVA
adhesive will depend on temperature and humidity, bonding pressure and porosity,
temperature and water content.
Hot melt adhesives are solid. They are ideal for such applications as rapid
bonding of metal frames to wooden parts of furniture. These adhesives are applied in
a molten state using the electrically heated gun that provides a fast time of heating
between three and five minutes. Hot melt glues have usually a long open time
(between 30 and 60 seconds) for adjusting components to their final position. As the
adhesive cools a strong bond develops – reaching full strength in about two minutes.
No further fixing device is necessary.
Notes:
to meet requirements – удовлетворять требования.потребности
setting time – время отвердения клея
to bond – соединять, склеивать
open time – время открытой выдержки клея
Remember the following terms:
adhesive, polyvinyl acetate (РТА) adhesives, hot melts, pigmented adhesive, contact
adhesive, flammable (non-flammable) adhesive, water resistant adhesive, to bond,
laminate, veneer, foil, wood stain, wood polishes, lacquers, open time, electrically
heated gun.
Divide the text into logical parts and define the key idea.
ADHESIVES FOR FURNITURE MANUFACTURE (Part II)
Pigmented adhesives are also hot melts. They are based on established grades
but with the addition of pigments to meet special requirements. There are three types
of pigmented hot melts:
1) Caseomelt HMR - 27 is a white general purpose adhesive, with good thermal
conductivity-promoting rapid melting.
2) Caseomelt HMH - 29 has similar properties but is pigmented brown to match
darker timbers. Like HMR 27, it has excellent flow properties making it suitable for
use on a wide range of banding equipment.
38
3) Caseomelt HMR - 28, with white pigment, has been developed to maintain
good strength of bond even at high temperatures that occur in lacquer curing ovens,
hot presses and hot climates.
Contact cements represent one more type of adhesive widely used with board
lamination. In this type operation contact cement is sprayed on both surfaces: the core
and the back of the laminate. This adhesive may be dispersed in water or dissolved in
solvent. Solvent systems are of two types - flammable and non-flammable. Both
types can be applied by brush, roll spreader or spray coater. More energy and time is
required to dry water based contact cements than the solvent systems. Amount of the
adhesive to be applied will depend on surface smoothness and porosity, strength, required and uniformity of application. Adhesives should be selected relative to
assembly time and setting time. Faster setting times - usually mean shorter assembly
times. Heavier spreads will increase assembly time, but may increase "bleed through"
on porous woods. All these points must always be taken into account by a skilled
furniture maker.
Notes:
Caseomelt HMR – клей расплав Каско (название фирмы)
HMH – hot melt Resin
to match – соответствовать чему-либо, подходить (по цвету)
flow properties – свойства вязкости (клея)
to bond – соединять, склеивать
bond – связь, соединение
lacquer curing ovens – камеры для отверждения лаковых покрытий
to disperse – разводить (клей)
"bleed through" – просачивание клея
Remember the following terms:
grade, to meet special requirements, general purpose adhesive, banding equipment,
strength of bond, contact cements, board lamination, to spray, core, laminate,
assembly tune, setting time, heavy spread, solvent, to dissolve, roll spreader, spray
coater.
39
THE BASICS OF GLUING TECHNOLOGY (Part I)
Most good gluing techniques are simple and easy to follow. Yet, the basics are not
always kept in mind. Let's look: at the art of gluing, from mixing to the inspection of
joints.
Glue mixing
Glue mixing is one of the simplest jobs in the plant. But an incorrect mix can rain
several hours of production. That is why the worker must follow the given
recommendations:
1) All mixing equipment must be cleaned by removing old glues from the
mixer's sides.
2) The mixer blades should be placed correctly to produce a smooth
homogeneous mix.
3) The ingredients must be added in the order recommended by the adhesive
supplier.
4) Don't mix small amounts of adhesives in a large mixer.
5) Don't mix any more glue than can be used during the given operation. Most glue
mixtures tend to get heavy. A heavy mix is difficult to spread and may set up in
the glue spreader, leading to a difficult cleaning. In addition, large quantities of
unworkable adhesive will remain after the gluing process.
Spreading equipment
Like all machinery, spreading equipment requires maintenance and occasional
repair. In addition, it must be set properly to give adequate spreads.
1.The spreader rolls must be checked at regular time intervals.
2. There must be always some extra rolls at hand not to lose production time
while waiting for the necessary repairs.
3. The spreader must be cleaned after every shift or more often if necessary.
Clean spreader rolls will work more efficiently and longer.
4. The amount of the glue spread vanes with conditions and materials to be
glued. Too much glue spread is not only wasteful, but can cause steam blow in hot
press work and slow setting and warpage in cold press work. Insufficient glue spread
can cause poor bonds.
Notes:
to keep in mind – помнить о чем-либо
40
that is why – вот почему
to follow – придерживаться чего-либо
to get heavy – становиться вязким ( густым)
to set up – затвердевать
to be at hand – находиться под рукой, т.е. близко
Remember the following terms:
Gluing technology, gluing process, joint, to mix, mixing, mix, mixer, mixer's blades,
glue mixture, glue spreader, spreading equipment, spreader roll, setting, slow setting,
warpage, bond, poor bond.
THE BASICS OF GLUING TECHNOLOGY (Part II)
Temperature
Temperature must be controlled from the mixing stage up to the removal of
work from the press.
1. The ideal temperature for any adhesive during the mixing and using periods
is 70°F, which, of course, is difficult to maintain throughout the year.
2. If the ingredients are too cold, they will not combine readily and the final mix
may be viscous.
3. A too warm glue mix will have a short pot life
4. It is impossible to get decent results with many types of adhesives in room
temperatures well below 70 °F. This is true to such adhesives as ureas, epoxies and
PVA. To maintain a 70 °F temperature some heaters should be instilled.
Pressing
An important factor in obtaining a good bond is the time taken between
spreading of glue and putting the work under pressure.
1. The limits of assembly time given by adhesive supplier should be observed
carefully. Excessively long assembly time is a major cause of failure in bonding.
2. Enough glue should be spread so that squeeze out occurs when pressure is
applied. It is a good indication of proper assembly procedures.
3. If the squeeze out is rather hard, the work must be removed from the press.
4. If moisture content of the wood is comparatively high, press time will be
longer.
All those and many other factors, including machining, wood species, and
employee training, affect the success of gluing operations.
41
Notes:
pot life – жизнеспособность клея
squeeze out – выдавливание клея
ureas – карбамидные клеи
Remember the following terms:
urea(s), epoxies, PVA, to obtain, to spread, to apply, to remove, bond, good bond,
assembly, assembly procedure, assembly time, pressing, pressing time, viscous,
adhesive supplier.
Retell the text according to your own plan.
USE OF SAWDUST AND OTHER MILL RESIDUES
In most countries lumber is the chief industrial forest product. According to
FAO's statistics, close to 60 % of the world's timber harvest for all industrial purposes,
including pulpwood, veneer logs, poles, etc., is made into lumber. And about 40 % of
the sawmill industry's supply of raw material annually is not being turned into
lumber. It is left as so-called mill residue, which may be waste or find use as a
byproduct.
From a utilization point of view, it is logical to group mill residues in two
different categories: wood in solid form, such as slabs, edgings, trimmings, etc., and
fines, mainly in the form of sawdust and shavings. In most milling operations about 2/3
of the residue is in solid form. Fortunately, this type of residue is more easily adaptable
as raw material for further conversion.
The most common utilization of slabs and edgings is as raw material for the
sulphate industry, where it is used in pulp for various types of craft paper.
One of the most common use of solid mill residues today is in manufacturing
various types of fiberboard. A more recent but quite promising development is the use
of mill residues in the manufacture of particle boards.
While the solid forms of mill residue are being utilised as fiber, a more
profitable use of sawmill fines is still in its infancy. In many areas the bulk of the
sawdust and shavings produced is discarded. Fines in various forms represent roughly 1/3
to 1/2 of the total amount of mill residues. Mill residues provide an excellent type of fuel.
42
Most frequent uses of sawdust and shavings today are due to their properties. With
their absorbent qualities they are widely used for livestock bedding, poultry litter,
floor covering, sweeping compounds and many other applications. For its abrasive
qualities, sawdust is being employed in metal polishing, cleaning soap and so on. On
the basis of present techniques and equipment, mill fines are sometimes used in
malting fiber manufactured products.
The lumber and the woodworking industries have taken precautions to ensure
that residues can be used as raw material in other branches. The pulp and fiberboard
industries, on their part, have taken steps to accept such residues to a greater degree.
Obviously, the possibilities of utilization of residues vary broadly from country to
country and from region to region, depending on the size, structure, location and
diversity of the pulp and board industry as compared to the sawmill industry. In
localities in which various types of forest products industries are well represented, the
possibilities for integrated utilization are the beat.
Notes:
FAO – Food and Agricultural Organization – Организация ООН по вопросам
продовольствия и сельского хозяйства, ФАО.
sulphate industry – промышленность сульфатной целлюлозы
kraft paper – крафт-бумага, бумага из крафт-целлюлозы
infancy – ранняя стадия развития
to be due to – быть обусловленным чем-либо
livestock bedding – подстилка для скота
poultry litter – подстилка для птицы
to take precautions – принять меры предосторожности
Remember the following terms:
sawdust, mill residues, pulp, pulpwood, veneer log, poles, slabs, edging, trimmings,
shavings, fines, solid mill residues, fiberboard, particle-board.
Make a short summary of the text, using the word combinations:
This text speaks about...
From the text we learn that...
It's said that...
43
USE OF WOOD RESIDUES IN PRODUCTION OF FIBERBOARD AND
PARTICLEBOARD
One of the features that attracts manufacturers of fiber-board and particle board is
the flexibility of the raw materials that can be used. While roundwood from
commercial species is the most versatile raw material, wood residues are often
preferred by economics.
Raw material for board manufacture may be classified according to its form:
1. Rounwood;
2. Solid wood residues (slabs, edgings, cutoffs, veneer clippings, forest
thinnings, limbs, tops, crooked logs, etc.);
3. Comminuted wood residues (shavings and sawdust).
Normally, roundwood may be considered the most desirable material for board
manufacture. Such wood is easily processed by common methods in the pulp and paper
industry. Roundwood may be converted to groundwood pulp and used in the manufacture
of insulation board, or it can be converted to palp chips and used in the production of any
type of fiberboard.
The headline "Solid Wood Residues" is given to all forms of wood residue other
than shavings, sawdust, and round-wood ordinarily used as the primary raw material for
pulp and paper manufacture, lumber, or plywood production. This grouping includes
such materials as slabs, edgings, cutoffs, forest thinnings, tope, crooked logs, etc. It can
be said that almost any type of solid wood residue finds application in the manufacture of
one more types of fiberboard or particleboard. Forest thinnings, slabs and edgings may
be used in tat preparation of groundwood pulp for insulation board manufacture. Certain
types of bark-containing residues, such as tops, limbs, and crooked logs, present certain
problems in barking, because high-quality board requires bark-tree raw material.
Shavings from planers and other woodworking equipment are not considered the
most desirable raw materials for fiberboard manufacture. Nevertheless, these
materials contain a considerable percentage of undamaged fiber and they may be pulped
and used in the fiberboard production. Of all forms of wood residue, coarse sawmill
sawdust is the least desirable for board manufacture. The terrific impact that the sawdust
particles have received from the saw teeth, due to the high speed of the saw, severely
crushes and tears the fiber. Sawdust does not produce a suitable pulp for fiberboard.
Also, it is not an acceptable raw material for particleboard manufacture, since it is
usually very wet, absorbs large quantities of binder, and gives a product of low strength.
44
Notes:
versatile – универсальный
flexibility – гибкость, мягкость.
to community – измельчать
to process – обрабатывать
pulp chips – целлюлозная щепа
binder – связующее вещество, клей
Remember the following terms:
roundwood, board manufacture, cutoffs, veneer clipping, limbs, tops, thinnings,
crooked logs, pulp and paper industry, insulation board, groundwood pulp.
Divide the text into logical parts.
SEASONING OF LUMBER
Before lumber can be utilized, a large proportion of the moisture must be
removed from the green wood. The moisture content of green lumber is often as high
as 75 to 100 percent of the dry weight of the wood, it is apparent, that a considerable
amount of water must be removed from the wood, and this removal is accomplished
by the seasoning process. Practically all lumber cut from the small mills is air
seasoned. After that the process is completed in dry kilns. In dry kilns, by means of
independent control of temperature, humidity, and air-circulation conditions, the
moisture content can be reduced to any desirable percentage.
There are numerous reasons for seasoning wood. First, the shipping weight is
reduced greatly, which means a direct saving in transportation costs. When wood is
seasoned below a certain point (25-35 per cent of its dry weight), its strength is
increased greatly. Seasoned wood is less subject to the attacks of insects and fungous
growth. Wood must be dried before it can be treated with preservatives. Seasoned
wood is far more durable than unseasoned. Wood must be seasoned in order to
eliminate shrinkage, checking, and swelling once it is placed in service.
The amount of moisture in a tree is the same at all seasons of the year.
However, autumn and winter cuttings are safer than spring and summer ones, since
the natural seasoning goes on slowly during the colder months. This means less
45
checking and other drying injury than that which occurs when seasoning is too rapid.
Besides, the logs cut in winter are less subject to attacks of insects and fungi.
THE DURABILITY OF WOOD
The durability of wood may be defined as its resistance to destruction by the
action of wood-destroying fungi and insects. It does not include its resistance to
breakdown from mechanical forces.
The action of wood-destroying fungi results in decay. Insects are also extremely
destructive as they burrow about and feed in wood. The preservative treatment that
will protect wood against decay will also protect it against the attacks of insects.
There are many native woods that have every desirable property for use, except
the quality of withstanding decay. For example, excellent fence posts could be made
of beech, maple, or oak. Yet these woods will last only 5-6 years under normal
conditions. If, by certain forms of treatment they can last 20-25 years, the great
advantage is obvious.
The art of treating wood is not difficult nor is the expense high. The work of
treating should be done thoroughly or otherwise not attempted. Almost every
nondurable species can be treated with profit. The commercial timbers are treated
under pressure of compressed air, and the preservative is forced into the wood usually
to a depth of 1 in or more. With farm timbers the pressure methods cannot be applied,
and other processes suitable for local use may be advised.
The weight, strength, stiffness, and hardness have no direct relation to the
lasting qualities of wood. Durable woods generally have dark heart woods.
Nevertheless, the color of the heart wood is not a criterion of durability. The season
of cutting a tree bears no relation to the later durability of the wood.
WEATHERING OF WOOD
Like other biological materials, wood is susceptible to environment
degradation. When exposed outdoors above ground, a complex combination of
chemical, mechanical, and light energy factors contribute to what is described as
weathering. Weathering must be taken onto account when considering the
46
preservation and protection of outdoor wood. Weathering of wood is not to be
confused with wood decay, which results from fungal organisms.
In general, with 2 months of exposure to sunlight, all woods will turn yellowish
or brownish, then gray. However, dark woods become lighter and light woods
become darker. After that the wood surface begins a slow process of erosion. The
weathering rate is affected by climatic conditions, the amount of exposure, and wood
density.
Before wood or woodbased products are left to weather naturally, two factors
should be carefully considered. First, when wood that becomes wet, even
periodically, can decay.
The attention given to acid rains during the last decade has prompted interest in
the effect of acids on wood weathering. It has been shown that, in the summer, the
decisive factor in wood weathering is the intensity of solar radiation. Whereas in the
increased amount of sulfur dioxide in the surrounding air. The effects of acid rains on
painted materials can be seen in the degradation of the coating and substrate.
A variety of finishes can be applied to outdoor wood. These include clear
finishes, stains and paints. Finishes or coatings are applied to exterior wood surfaces
for a variety of reasons. The particular reason will determine the type of finish
selected and the amount of protection provided to the wood surface.
47
GLOSSARY
N1. Choice of Type of Sawmill
sawmill
to install
seasonal supply
species
internal tension
warping
seasoning
sawing
mode of sawing
cutting
symmetrical cutting
quarter sawing
resistance of the wood
the power of the saw
the rate of operation
sawing stations
-
лесопилка
сооружать, устанавливать
сезонные поставки
виды, породы
внутреннее напряжение
коробление
сушка на воздухе
распиловка
метод распиловки
распиловка
симметричная распиловка
радиальная распиловка
сопротивление древесины
мощность пилы
скорость операции
участки распиловки
N2. Presawing and Postsawing Equipment
presawmg equipment
postsawing equipment
the outside mill activity
susceptible to
dipping treatment
fork-lift
presawing preparation of logs
lumber
lumber seasoning
to be cross-cut
chain saw
- дораспиловочное оборудование
- послераспиловочное оборудование
- операции за пределами лесопильного завода
- чувствительный к чему-либо
- обработка древесины окунанием
- погрузочный челюстной захват
- дораспиловочная подготовка бревен
- пиломатериалы
- естественная сушка пиломатериалов
- быть распиленным поперечно
- цепная пила
48
to debark
species
mechanical debarker
heavy bark
mechanized tank
the green chain
to stack
stacking
air seasoning
a sizeble labour force
a pile
to pile
seasoning
kiln seasoning
semi-artificial seasoning
treatment
post-sawing treatment
natural air seasoning
-
окорять
виды, породы
механический окорочный станок
твердая кора
механизированный бак
сортировочная цепь
укладывать в штабель
штабелевка
воздушная сушка
значительная рабочая сила
штабель
укладывать в штабель
сушка
камерная сушка
полуискусственная сушка
обработка
послераспиловочная обработка
естественная воздушная сушка
N3. Sawing Machinery
the designer
to face smth.
the degree of mechanization
the equipment
bandsaw
sawing operation
to handle
strength of the blade
stress
the first sawing
soft woods
resawing
a rack carrier
-
проектировщик
сталкиваться с чем-либо
степень механизации
оборудование
ленточная пила
распиловочная операция
выполнять
прочность лезвия пилы
удар, давление
первичная распиловка
хвойные породы
вторичная распиловка
пластинчатый транспортер
49
to employ
a gang saw
circular saw
capacity
to fit (a saw)
high-speed teeth
-
hardwoods
softwoods
the second sawing
waste
a frame saw
accuracy
lumber
frame-sawn lumber
planing
planing previous
-
применять
лесопильная рама
циркулярная пила
мощность
править пилу
высокоскоростные зубья пилы (которые могут
выдержать большие скорости)
твердые породы (лиственные)
мягкие породы (хвойные)
вторичная распиловка
отходы
пилорама = лесопильная рама
точность
пиломатериалы
пиломатериалы, распиленные на пилораме
строгание
предварительное строгание
N4 Methods of Lumber Drying
air drying
kiln drying
green state
air dry
degrade
moisture content
natural draft kiln
to shorten the time of drying
cross-piled kiln
to cut down time
double-stack kiln
humidity
natural solar drying
steam drying
-
воздушная сушка
камерная сушка
сырое состояние
сушить на воздухе
брак
содержание влаги
сушилка с естественной вытяжкой
сократить время сушки
сушилка с поперечной штабелевкой
сократить время
двухштабельная сушилка
влажность
естественная солнечная сушка
паровая сушка
50
low temperature kiln
predrier
time-consuming operation
losses in drying
the operating costs
wasted time
the kiln industry
dehumidification drying
radiofrequency drying
низкотемпературная сушка
предварительная сушильная камера
длительная операция (процесс)
потери во время сушки
эксплуатационные расходы
зря потраченное время
промышленность по производству
сушильных камер
- конденсационная сушка
- высокочастотная сушка (сушка ТВЧ)
-
N5. Predrier
predrier
predrying
80 degrees F
ware house
green
moisture content
insulated building
load
fork-lift
to be steam heated
to provide
relative humidity
species
package
to move in and out
to ran
to pull out
to put into
convectional kill
yard inventory
earring charges
-
камера предварительной сушки
предварительная сушка
80 по Фарингейту
склад
сырой
содержание влаги
изолированное здание
загружать
челюстной погрузочный захват
подогреваться паром
обеспечивать
относительная влажность
виды, породы
пакетируемый материал
загружать и выгружать
эксплуатировать (сушилку)
выгружать
загружать
конвективная сушилка
запасы склада
транспортные расходы
51
degrade
flat
bright
- брак
- ровный
- светлый
N6. Conventional Kilns
conventional kiln
200 F
to load a kiln
lumber
to be fork lift loaded
moisture content
on rails
hardwoods
softwoods
schedule
to cause degrade
to be steam heated
direct fired kiln
wood waste
to meet standard
to be equipped with...
control devices
to escape
overheating
fire
-
конвективная сушильная камера
200 по Фарингейту
загружать сушилку
пиломатериал
загружаться погрузочным челюстным захватом
содержание влаги
на железной дороге
твердые породы
мягкие породы
режим работы сушилки
причинять брак, приводить к браку
подогреваться паром
сушилка с прямым обогревом
отходы
удовлетворять требованиям стандарта
быть оборудованным ...
контрольные приборы
избежать
перегрев
пожар
N7. Solar Kilns
solar kiln
greenhouse
to trap
short wave radiation
convection
-
солнечная сушилка
теплица
улавливать
коротковолновое излучение
конвекция (движение воздуха)
52
convectional kiln
to increase
to decrease
air circulation
equilibrium moisture content
(e.m.c.)
quality of drying
high quality drying
advantages
disadvantages
-
конвективная сушилка
увеличивать
уменьшать
циркуляция воздуха
равновесная влажность
-
качество сушки
высококачественная сушка
преимущества
недостатки
N8. Steam Drier
pressure steam drying
superheated steam drier
to take up space
recent developments
psi=pound per square inch
operating conditions
refractory species
-
nonrefrectory species
-
steam drier
lumber industry
-
full-size lumber
board foot
green wood
air-dried wood
yellow poplar
river birch
silver maple
white ash
-
сушка паром (под давлением)
высокотемпературная сушилка
занимать пространство
последние достижения
фунтов на квадратный дюйм
условия эксплуатации
породы трудноподдающиеся обработке и
сушке
породы, легко обрабатываемые и
высушиваемые
паровая сушилка
промышленность, производящая
пиломатериалы
полномерный пиломатериал
досковый фут
сырая древесина
древесина, высушенная на воздухе
желтый тополь
береза черная
клен серебриcтый
ясень американский
53
black walnut
red oak
properties of the wood
chamber
checking
to occur
knot
degrade
-
черный орех
дуб красный
свойства древесины
камера
растрескивание
происходить
сучок
брак
Air Drying
to shrink
shrinkage
fiber saturation point (f.s.p.)
to saturate
to dry out
cell
cell cavities
arrangement of the cells
timber
equilibrium moisture content (e.m.c.) distortion of wood
joinery
carpenter
workshop
the rate of operation
drying kiln
humidity
air circulation
loft
permeability to water
Mahogany
Teak
Merantis
-
сжиматься, усыхать
усадка, усушка
точка насыщения волокна
насыщать
высыхать
клетка
клеточные полости
расположение клеток
древесина, лесоматериалы
равновесная влажность
разрушение древесины
столярные работы
плотник, столяр
цех, мастерская
скорость обработки
сушилка
влажность
циркуляция воздуха
верхний склад
водопроницаемость
махагоновое дерево
тик
шорея
54
Radiofrequency Drying
radiofrequence
radiofrequency drying
species of lumber
a set of plates
to drive out
to cause
to pile
solid-piled lumber
piling
solid piling
sticker
to apply
to create
to eliminate
a variety of hardwoods
lumber volume
drying defects
cupping
splitting
end checking
initial moisture content
final moisture content
hemlock
-
ТВЧ (токи высокой частоты)
сушка ТВЧ (токами высокой частоты)
породы пиломатериалов
набор пластин
вытеснять, ликвидировать
заставлять, причинять
укладывать в штабель, штабелевать
плотно штабелеванный пиломатериал
штабелевка, пакетирование
плотная штабелевка
прокладки
применять
создавать
устранять
разные твердые породы
объем пиломатериалов
дефекты сушки
поперечное коробление
раскол, растрескивание
растрескивание концов
начальное содержание влаги
конечное содержание влаги
тсуга, хемлок
Adhesives for Furniture Manufacture (Part I)
to meet requirements
setting tune
to bond
open time
adhesive
polyvinyl acetate (PVA) adhesive
удовлетворять требованиям
время утверждения клея
клеить
время открытой выдержки клея
клей
- клей ПВА
55
hot melts=hot melt glues
pigmented adhesive
contact adhesive
flammable adhesive
non-flammable adhesive
water resistant adhesive
laminate
veneer
foil
wood stain
polish
lacquer
electrically heated gun
лаков, красок, клея
to adjust
components a strong
bond
-
клей расплавы
пигментный клей
контактный клей
возгораемый клеи
невозгораемый клей
водостойкий клей
ламинат
шпон
пленка
краситель для древесины
полироль
лак
электрический пистолет для распыления
- соединять, склеивать
- детали, составные части изделия
- прочное соединение
Adhesives for Furniture Manufacture (Рart II)
Cascomelt HMR
HMR = hot melt resin
to match
flow properties
to bond
a bond
lacquer curing ovens
to disperse
"bleed through"
grade
to meet special requirements
general purpose adhesive
banding equipment
strength of bond
- клей расплав Каско (название)
- соответствовать чему-либо
- свойства вязкости (клея)
- соединять, склеивать
- соединение
- камеры для отверждения лаковых покрытий
- разводить (клей)
- просачивание клея
- качество, сорт
- удовлетворять особым требованиям
- клей общего назначения
- облицовочное оборудование
- прочность соединения
56
contact cements
board lamination
to laminate
laminate
to spray
a core
assembly time
setting time
heavy spread
solvent system
water based contact
cements
to dissolve
rollspeader
spray coater
пульверизации
-
контактный клей
ламинирование (облицовывание) плиты
ламинировать, облицовывать
пластик, ламинат
распылять
сердцевина, средний слой
время сборки
время отверждения клея
толстый слой
системы (клея), основанные на растворителях
-
контактные клеи, основанные на воде
растворять
клеенаносящие вальцы
станок для нанесения клея методом
The Basics of Gluing Technology (Part I)
basics
gluing technology
to keep in mind
that is why
-
основы
технология склеивания
помнить о чем-либо
вот почему
to get heavy
to set up
to be at hand
gluing process
a joint
to mix
mix
heavy mix
mixer
mixing
-
становиться вязким (густым)
затвердевать
быть под рукой
процесс склеивания
соединение
смешивать
смесь
густая смесь
мешалка, смеситель
смешивание
57
mixer's blades
glue mixture
glue spreader
spreader rolls
setting
slow setting
warpage
bond
poor bond
-
лопасти смесителя
смесь клея
клеенаносящии станок
клеенаносящие вальцы
отверждение клея
медтенное отверждение клея
коробление
соединение
плохое (слабое) соединение
The Basics of Bluing Technology (Part II)
pot life
squeeze out
ureas
epoxies
PVA
to obtain
to spread
to apply
to remove
bond
good bond
assembly
assembly procedure
assembly time
pressing
pressing time
viscous
adhesive supplier
-
жизнеспособность клея
выдавливание клея
карбалидные клеи
эпоксидные клеи
клей ПВА
получать, достигать
наносить клей
применять
убирать
соединение
прочное соединение
сборка
процесс сборки
время сборки
прессование
время пресование
густой, вязкий
поставщик клея
58
Use of Sawdust and Other Mill Residues
FAO=Food and Agricultural
Organization
sulphatic industry
kraft paper
infancy
to be due to
livestock bedding
poultry litter
to take precautions
sawdust
mill residues
pulp
pulpwood
veneer log
poles
slabs
edgings
trimmings
shavings
fines
solid mill residues
fiberboard
particleboard
- Организация ООН по вопросам про
довольствия и сельского хозяйства
- промышленность сульфатной целлюлозы
- крафт бумага
- ранняя стадия развития
- благодаря чему-либо
- подстилка для окота
- подстилка для птицы
- применять меры предосторожности
- опилки
- заводские отходы
- целлюлоза
- балансовая древесина
- фанерный кряж
- бревна для столбов
- горбыли
- обрезки кромок
- обрезки (древесные)
- стружка
- мелкая щепа
- твердые отходы
- ДВП (древесноволокнистая плита)
- ДСП (древесно-стружечная плита)
Use of Wood Residues in Production of Fiberboard and Particleboard
versatile
flexibility
to communite
to process
pulp chips
binder
-
универсальный
гибкость
измельчать
обрабатывать
целлюлозная щепа
клей
59
roundwood
board manufacture
cuttoffs
veneer
veneer chipping
limbs
tops
thinnings
crooked logs
barking
planer
to pulp
pulp and paper industry
insulation board
groundwood pulp
-
круглый лесоматериал
производство плит
обрезки
шпон
обрезка шпона
сучки
верхушки веток
обрезки
искривленные бревна
окорка
строгальный станок
измельчать
целлюлозно-бумажная промышленность
изоляционная доска
древесная масса
60
Simple
Present tensе
be
beat
become
begin
bend
bet
bite
blow
break
bring
build
burst
buy
catch
choose
come
cost
cut
deal
dig
do
draw
drink
drive
eat
fall
feed
feel
fight
find
fly
forbid
forget
forgive
Simple
Past tense
was/were
beat
became
began
bent
bet
bit
blew
broke
brought
built
burst
bought
caught
chose
came
cost
cut
dealt
dug
did
drew
drank
drove
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
flew
forbade
forgot
forgave
List of irregular verbs
Past
Present
Participle
Participle
been
being
beating
beaten
becoming
become
beginning
begun
bending
bent
betting
bet
biting
bitten
blowing
blown
breaking
broken
bringing
brought
building
built
bursting
burst
buying
bought
catching
caught
choosing
chosen
coming
come
costing
cost
cutting
cut
dealing
dealt
digging
dug
doing
done
drawing
draw
drinking
drunk
driving
eating
driven
falling
eaten
feeding
fallen
feeling
fed
fighting
felt
funding
fought
flying
found
forbidding
flown
forgetting
forbidden
forgiving
forgotten
freezing
forgiven
getting
Перевод
быть
бить
становиться, делаться
начинать
сгибаться
держать пари
кусать
дуть, цвести
ломать
приносить
строить
разражаться, взрывать
покупать
ловить
выбирать
приходить
стоить
резать
иметь дело, обходиться
копать
делать
тащить, рисовать
пить
гнать, ехать
есть
падать
кормить
чувствовать
сражаться
находить
летать
запрещать
забывать
прощать
61
freeze
get
get
give
go
grow
hang
have
hear
hide
hit
hold
hurt
keep
know
lay
lead
learn
leave
lend
let
lie
light
lose
make
mean
meet
pay
put
read
ride
ring
rise
run
say
see
seek
froze
got
got
gave
went
grew
hung
had
heard
hid
hit
held
hurt
kept
knew
laid
led
learnt
left
lent
let
lay
lit
lost
made
meant
met
paid
put
read
rode
rang
rose
ran
said
saw
sought
frozen
got
gotten
given
gone
grown
hung
had
heard
hidden
hit
held
hurt
kept
known
laid
led
learnt
left
lent
let
lain
lit
lost
made
meant
met
paid
put
read
ridden
rung
rise
run
said
seen
sought
getting
giving
going
growing
hanging
having
hearing
hiding
hitting
holding
hurting
keeping
knowing
laying
leading
learning
leaving
lending
letting
lying
lighting
losing
making
meaning
meeting
paying
putting
reading
riding
ringing
rising
running
saying
seeing
seeking
selling
sending
setting
sewing
замерзать
получать, достигать,
делаться (амер.)
давать
идти, уходить
расти
висеть, вешать
иметь
слышать
прятать
ударять, попадать
держать
причинять вред, боль
хранить, держать
знать
класть
вести
учиться, учить
оставлять
одалживать
пускать
лежать
освещать
терять
делать
значить, подразумевать
встречать
платить
класть, ставить
читать
ехать (верхом и тп.)
звонить
подниматься
бегать
говорить, сказать
видеть
искать
62
sell
send
set
sew
shake
shine
shoot
show
shrink
shut
sing
sit
sleep
speak
spend
split
spread
spring
stand
steal
stick
stink
strike
string
swear
sweep
swim
swing
take
teach
tear
tell
think
throw
understand
wake
wear
win
write
sold
sent
set
sewed
shook
shone
shot
showed
shrank
shut
sang
sat
slept
spoke
spent
split
spread
sprang
stood
stole
stuck
stank
struck
strung
swore
swept
swam
swung
took
taught
tore
told
thought
threw
understood
woke
wore
won
wrote
sold
sent
set
sewn/sewed
shaken
shone
shot
shown
shrunk
shut
sung
sat
slept
spoken
spent
split
spread
sprung
stood
stolen
stuck
stunk
struck
strung
sworn
swept
swum
swung
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown
understood
woken
worn
won
written
shaking
shining
shooting
showing
shrinking
shutting
singing
sitting
sleeping
speaking
spending
splitting
spreading
springing
standing
stealing
sticking
stinking
striking
stringing
swearing
sweeping
swimming
swinging
taking
teaching
tearing
telling
thinking
throwing
understanding
waking
wearing
wining
writing
продавать
посылать
устанавливать
шить
трясти
светить, сиять
стрелять, давать побеги
показывать
сокращать, отступать
закрывать
петь
сидеть
спать
говорить
тратить
расщеплять
распространять
вскакивать, возникать
стоять
красть(ся)
колоть, приклеивать
вонять
ударять
натягивать, нанизывать
клясться
мести
плавать
качать, размахивать
брать
учить кого-либо
рвать
рассказывать сказать
думать
бросать
понимать
просыпаться, будить
носить (об одежде)
выигрывать,добиваться
писать
63
БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК
1. Воронцова, И. И. Английский язык для студентов экономических
факультетов [Текст] : учеб. пособие / И. И. Воронцова, А. К. Ильина,
Ю. В. Момджи. – М., 1999. – 142 с.
2. Голицынский, Ю. Б. Грамматика [Текст] : сб. упражнений /
Ю. Б. Голицынский. – М. : Каро, 1999. – 475 с.
3. Касюкова, Л. М. Wood processing technologies. Part 1. Technologic
Processes [Текст] : практ. пособие / Л. М. Касюкова, Е. А. Маклакова,
И. Б. Минаева. – Воронеж, 2005. – 84 с.
4. Касюкова, Л. М. Wood processing technologies. Part 2: Woodworking
equipment [Текст] : практ. пособие / Л. М. Касюкова, Е. А. Маклакова,
И. Б. Минаева. – Воронеж, 2005. – 91 с.
5. Можаев, Д. В. Англо-русский и русско-английский лесотехнический
словарь [Текст] / Д. В. Можаев, Б. Н. Новиков, Д. М. Рыбаков. – М. : РУССО,
1998. – 456 с.
6. Мюллер, В. К. Англо-русский словарь [Текст] / В. К. Мюллер. – СПб. :
Академический проект, 1996. – 220 с.
7. Португалов, В. Д. Английский язык [Текст] : учеб. / В. Д. Португалов.
– М. : ACT, 1998. – 247 с.
8. Cedric, H. The Management of Farm Woodlands [Text] : моногр. /
H. Cedric, B. S. Guise. – New York and London : Mc Graw Hill Book Company,
Inc., 1969. – 352 с.
9. Forest Products [Text] : journal. – Madison, 2001. – № 1-12.
10. Hornby, A. S. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English
[Text] / A. S. Hornby. – Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1974. – 914 p.
11. Journal of Forestry [Text]. – Washington DC, 2001. – № 1-12.
12. McCarthy, M. English Vocabulary in Use Elementary [Text] /
M. McCarthy, F. O'Dell. – Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1999. – 296 p.
64
Учебное издание
Юлия Юрьевна Дубровина
Виктория Евгеньевна Кравец
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК
WOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES
Part 1
Technologic Processes
Учебное пособие
Редактор Е.А. Богданова
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имени Г.Ф. Морозова»
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