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Иностранный язык. Английский язык(ПЗ 23.03.03 23.03.01)

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ
УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЛЕСОТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ
УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ИМЕНИ Г.Ф. МОРОЗОВА»
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Методические указания к практическим занятиям
для студентов по направлениям подготовки
23.03.01 – Технология транспортных процессов,
23.03.03 – Эксплуатация транспортно-технологических машин и комплексов
Воронеж 2017
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ББК 81.432.1
Милованова, И. В. Иностранный язык. Английский язык [Текст] : методические
указания к практическим занятиям для студентов по направлениям подготовки
23.03.01 – Технология транспортных процессов, 23.03.03 – Эксплуатация
транспортно-технологических машин и комплексов / И. В. Милованова,
Ю. Ю. Киселева ; М-во образования и науки РФ, ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ». –
Воронеж, 2017. – 67 с.
Печатается по решению учебно-методического совета
ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ» (протокол № 4 от 12 мая 2017 г.)
Рецензент директор Центра коммуникативных исследований
ФГБОУ ВО «ВГУ» д-р филол. наук, проф. И.А. Стернин
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Оглавление
Unit I ................................................................................................................ 4
Unit II ............................................................................................................... 7
Unit III ............................................................................................................ 11
Unit IV ............................................................................................................ 13
Unit V ............................................................................................................. 16
Unit VI ............................................................................................................ 18
Unit VII .......................................................................................................... 23
Unit VIII ......................................................................................................... 26
Unit IX ............................................................................................................ 30
Unit X ............................................................................................................. 34
Unit XI ............................................................................................................ 37
Unit XII .......................................................................................................... 41
Unit XIII ......................................................................................................... 43
Unit XIV ......................................................................................................... 45
Unit XV .......................................................................................................... 48
Unit XVI ......................................................................................................... 53
Unit XVII ....................................................................................................... 57
Unit XVIII ...................................................................................................... 58
Unit XIX ......................................................................................................... 60
Unit XX .......................................................................................................... 62
Библиографический список ........................................................................ 65
4
Unit I
Motor Car
Basically, the motor car consists of three parts: the power plant, or the engine,
the chassis and the body. The accessories are the heater, lights, radio/audio system,
speedometer and other devices.
The power plant or engine is the source of power that makes the wheels rotate
and car move. It includes electric, fuel, cooling and lubricating systems. Most motor
car engines have six or eight cylinders. The two most common types of engine for
land vehicles are the petrol engine and the diesel engine. Petrol engines are usually
lighter and smaller than diesel ones. This makes them cheaper, and this is why most
cars and motorbikes use petrol engines. Petrol engines are also less noisy than diesel
engines. They usually go faster. On the other hand, diesel engines use less fuel and
last longer than petrol engines, and this is why larger vehicles such as trucks and
trains use them. Most car engines are cooled by water. The water flows around the
engine and then passes through the heater. It then passes through the water pump and
around the engine again. Many cars have a fuel warning light. When the level of fuel
(petrol) in the tank is very low, this light switches on and the driver can see that he
needs more petrol. When the driver sees the fuel warning light, he puts more petrol
into the tank. This makes the fuel level rise and the fuel warning light then switches off.
The chassis consists of a power train, frame with axles, wheels and springs.
The chassis includes brakes and steering system. The power train carries the power
from the engine to the car wheels and contains the clutch, gearbox, cardan shaft. The
clutch is a friction device connecting the engine crankshaft to the gears in the
gearbox.
Brakes are important mechanisms of the car. They are used to slow or to stop
the car. Most braking systems in use today are hydraulic. They are operated by the
brake pedal. When the driver pushes down on the brake pedal, the car stops.
I. Give Russian equivalents to the following words:
The engine
to slow
Diesel engine
land vehicle
The brake pedal
to make wheels rotate
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The heater
The power plant
The power train
to cool
a friction device
fuel warning light
II. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words:
Ходовая часть
управлять
Цилиндр
фары
Останавливать машину
бензиновый двигатель
Источник силы (энергии)
тормоза
Смазочная система
водяной насос
Колѐса
бензобак
III. Match English and Russian phrases:
1.кузов
a) fuel system
2.водитель
b) body
3.приборы
c) important mechanisms of the car
4.тормозная система
d) pump
5.топливная система
e) driver
6.насос
f) put the petrol into the tank
7.охлаждать
g) to cool
8.уровень бензина
h) devices
9.добавить бензин в бак
i) the level of petrol
10.важные механизмы автомобиля j) braking system
IV. Match two parts of the sentence:
1. Most motor cars consist of …
a) electric, fuel, lubricating systems.
2. The accessories of the car are…
b) a power train, wheels, springs.
3. The power plant is the source of c) the engine, the chassis and the
power…
body.
4. The engine includes…
d) the petrol and the diesel engines.
5. The two most common types of e) to stop or to slow the car.
engines are…
6. Brakes are used…
f) lights, speedometer, etc.
7. The chassis consists of…
g) that makes the wheels rotate and
the car move.
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V.
Correct mistakes if any:
1. Basically the motor car consists of two parts: the chassis and the body.
2. The body is the source of power that makes the wheels rotate and the car move.
3. Most motor car engines have five cylinders.
4. The two most common types of engine for land vehicles are the petrol
engine and the diesel engine.
5. Diesel engines are usually lighter and smaller than petrol ones.
6. Most motor cars and motorbikes use petrol engines.
7. Larger vehicles such as trucks and trains use petrol engines.
8. The chassis consists of the body and the engine.
9. Brakes are not important mechanisms of the car.
10. Most braking systems in use today are hydraulic.
VI. Answer the questions:
1. What parts does the motor car consist of?
2. What is the source of power of the car?
3. What are the two most common types of engine for land vehicles?
4. What are advantages/disadvantages of the petrol engine?
5. What are advantages/disadvantages of the diesel engine?
6. What parts does the chassis consist of?
7. Why are brakes important mechanisms of the car?
VII. Choose the right form of the verb:
1. The engine (is/are) the source of power.
2. Most car engines (is/are) petrol or diesel.
3. Petrol engine (is/are ) rather light or small.
4. Petrol engines (is/are) cheaper than diesel ones.
5. This car (is/are) very fast.
6. Diesel engines (is/are) very noisy.
7. Most car engines (is/are) cooled by water.
8. Truck and trains (is/are) large vehicles.
9. The level of the fuel in the tank (is/are) low.
10. Brakes (is/are) important mechanism of the car.
11. The clutch (is/are) a friction device.
12. They (is/are) used to stop the car.
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VIII. Write the sentences in the Past Indefinite Tense:
1. Most braking systems are hydraulic.
2. This makes them cheaper.
3. Many cars have a fuel warning light.
4. They usually go taster.
5. The driver sees the fuel warning light.
6. The car is very fast.
7. Diesel engines use little fuel.
8. The fuel level rises and the fuel warning light switches off.
9. This is why larger vehicles use them.
10. The water passes through the heater.
11. Most car engines are cooled by water.
12. Most motor car engines have six cylinders.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.
Put general questions to the sentences in ex. VII and ex. VIII.
Divide the text into logical parts.
Compose a plan of the text.
Write down the key ideas of each point of plan.
Compose a summary of the text.
Unit II
Engines
Do you know what the first engine was like? It was called the "water wheel".
This was an ordinary wheel with blades, and the current of the river turned it. These
first engines were used for irrigating fields. Then a wind-powered engine was
invented. Long wide wooden blades were attached to a small wheel. The new engine
was driven by the wind. Both engines are very economical, they do not need fuel in
order to function. But they are dependent on the weather.
Many years passed and people invented a new engine operated by steam.
In a steam engine, there is a furnace and a boiler. The furnace is filled with wood or
coal and then lit. The fire heats the water in the boiler and when it boils, it turns into
steam, which does some useful work. The more coal is put in the furnace, the
stronger the fire is burning, the faster a train or a boat is moving. However, the steam
engine had its disadvantages. It was too large and heavy, and needed too much fuel.
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The imperfections of the steam engine led to the design of a new type. It was
called the internal combustion engine, because its fuel was ignited and burnt inside
the engine itself and not in a furnace. It is smaller and lighter than a steam engine
because it does not have a boiler. It is also more powerful, as it uses better-quality
fuel: petrol or kerosene. The operating cycle of the four-stroke engine can be divided
into four strokes. The upper limit of the piston movement is called the top dead
center. The lower limit of the piston movement is called the bottom dead center.
A stroke is the piston movement from the top dead center to the bottom dead center.
The piston completes a stroke each time it changes the direction of its motion. On the
intake stroke the intake valve is opened. The mixture of air and vaporized gasoline is
delivered into the cylinder. On the compression stroke the inlet valve is closed so that
the mixture can be compressed. On the power stroke both valves (inlet and exhaust)
are closed in order to rise pressure during the mixture combustion. On the exhaust
stroke the exhaust valve is opened to exhaust the residual gas.
The internal combustion engine is now used in cars, diesel locomotives and
motor ships. But to enable airplanes to fly faster than the speed of sound more
powerful engine was needed. It was invented and given the name of 'jet engine'.
The gases reached the temperature of over a thousand degrees.
I. Complete the table:
Types of engines
Fuel
Characteristic features
(appearance
and
functioning)
The devices in which
they were used and the
purpose of their usage
II. Complete the table:
Type of engine
Water wheel
Wind-powered engine
Steam engine
Internal combustion engine
Jet engine
Advantages
Disadvantages
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III. What types of internal combustion engine do you know? Work with
the dictionary and write out all the types of internal combustion engines you
have found.
IV. Find the equivalents of the following words in the text:
a) водяное колесо
k) клапан
b) ветряной двигатель
l) рабочий ход
c) котѐл
m) ход сжатия
d) пар
n) цилиндр
e) недостатки
o) давление
f) двигатель внутреннего сгорания p) выхлопные (остаточные) газы
g) топливо
q) реактивный двигатель
h) поршень
r) скорость звука
i) верхняя мѐртвая точка
s) рабочий цикл
j) нижняя мѐртвая точка
t) четырѐхтактный двигатель
V.
Finish the sentences:
a) The first engine was called…
b) In steam engine there is…
c) The new type of engine was invented which was called…
d) It was called the internal combustion engine, because…
e) The operating cycle of the four-stroke engine can be divided…
f) The lower limit of the piston movement is called…
g) On the power stroke both valves…
h) The internal combustion engine is used in…
VI. Correct the mistakes if any:
1. The first engine was called a wind-powered engine.
2. The “water wheel” and the wind-powered engine need fuel in order to function.
3. Some time later people invented an engine operated by steam.
4. In a “water wheel” there is a furnace and a boiler.
5. Steam does some useful work.
6. The internal combustion engine is lighter and smaller because it has a boiler.
7. The internal combustion engine was called so because its fuel was ignited
and burnt inside the engine itself.
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8. The upper limit of the piston movement is called the bottom dead center.
9. The piston completes a stroke each time it changes the direction of its
motion.
10. On the power stroke the pressure rises and the mixture of air and vaporized
gasoline combusts.
VII. Answer the questions:
1. What was called the “water wheel”?
2. What were the first engines used for?
3. How does the internal combustion engine work?
4. Where is the internal combustion engine used?
5. What do we need jet engine for?
VIII. Put the verbs into the correct forms:
1. This (to be) an ordinary wheel with blades.
2. These first engines (to be) used for irrigating fields.
3. Then a wind- powered engine (to be) invented.
4. Long wide wooden blades (to be) attached to a small wheel.
5. The new engine (to be) driven by the wind.
6. Both engines (to be) very economical.
7. There (to be) a spoiler in a steam engine.
8. The furnace (to be) filled by wood or coal.
9. The steam engine (to have) its disadvantages.
10. It (to be) too large and heavy.
11. It (to be) called the combustion engine.
12. It (to be) smaller and lighter than a steam engine.
IX. Make the sentences negative and interrogative:
1. This engine is more powerful.
2. A stroke is a piston movement.
3. On the intake stroke the intake valve is opened.
4. On the compression stroke the inlet valve is closed.
5. On the power stroke both valves are closed.
6. The internal combustion engine is now used in cars.
7. The fire is burning.
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8. They are dependent on the water.
9. The operating cycle is divided into four strokes.
10. The upper limit of the piston movement is called the top dead center.
11. The mixture is delivered to the cylinder.
12. The both valves are closed in order to rise pressure.
X.
Write down a summary of this text.
Unit III
I. Read the text which gives the information on construction of
automobile.
Construction of an Automobile
The primary components of a car are the power plant, the power transmission,
the running gear, and the control system. These constitute the chassis, on which the
body is mounted.
The power plant includes the engine and its fuel, the carburetor, ignition,
lubrication, and cooling systems, and the starter motor.
The piston engine
The greatest number of cars use piston engines. The four – cycle piston engine
requires four strokes of the piston per cycle. The first downstroke draws in the petrol
mixture. The first upstroke compresses it. The second downstroke – the power stroke
– following the combustion of the fuel, supplies the power, and the second upstroke
evacuates the burned gases. Intake and exhaust valves in the cylinder control the
intake of fuel and the release of burned gases. At the end of the power stroke the
pressure of the burned gases in the cylinder is 2.8 to 3.5 kg/sq cm. These gases escape
with the sudden opening of the exhaust valve. They rush to a silencer (muffler), an
enlarged section of piping containing expanding ducts and perforated plates through
which the gases expand and are released into the atmosphere.
Greater smoothness of operation of the four – cycle engine were provided by
the development of the four – cylinder engine, which supplies power from one or
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another of the cylinders on each stroke of the cycle. A further increase in power and
smoothness is obtained in engines of 6, 8, 12, and 16 cylinders, which are arranged in
either a straight line or two banks assembled in the form of a V.
II. What words and word combination can be referred to the environment
vocabulary:
engine, to compress the petrol mixture, burned gases, to evacuate the burned
gases, cylinder, exhaust valve, a stroke of the cycle, increase in power, to release the
expanded gases into the atmosphere
III. Finish up the sentences:
a) Piston engines are used in the greatest …
b) The first upstroke compresses …
c) The second upstroke evacuates …
d) Exhaust valve controls the release of …
e) Gases expand and are released into …
f) Four – cycle engine proved greater …
IV. Restore the sentences:
1) The 4 – cycle piston engine requires … strokes of the piston … … .
2) Intake and … valves in the cylinder control the intake of fuel and the … of
burned gases.
3) The first upstroke … petrol mixture.
4) Most automobiles have … engines.
5) A four – cylinder … supplies power from one to another of the … on each
stroke of the cycle.
6) The more cylinder … has the more … it is.
V. Each cycle consist of four strokes. Describe the work of these strokes.
1 stroke –
2 stroke –
3 stroke –
4 stroke –
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VI. Find the English/Russian equivalents:
- цилиндр
- сгоревший газ
- 4 – цилиндровый двигатель
- нижний ход поршня
- двигатель с 16 цилиндрами
- fuel
- intake valve
- piston
- upstroke
- increase in power
VII. Read the general information on the text and learn it:
The text deals with the general information on the internal combustion engine,
with each of the 4 stroke described. It explains to the reader the source of automobile
emissions.
Unit IV
I. Read and translate the text.
Brakes
Every motor vehicle is to be equipped with two independent brakes. Each
brake must be able to stop the vehicle within the shortest distance. Above all, braking
of a vehicle depends on the friction between tyres and road surface. Brakes operate
efficiently when they are applied so that the wheels do not quite lock but continue to
turn without slipping on the road. The force of the slipping friction between tyres and
road is much smaller than the brake power. In addition, the wheel loses all of its
road- holding ability and tends to skidding. In order to utilize the whole wheel load,
i.e. the total ground adhesion of a vehicle for its braking, all vehicles are now
equipped with all-wheel brakes.
Almost without any exception, motor vehicle brakes are "shoe-type brakes".
Depending on their actuation, a difference is made between foot brakes and hand
brakes. The foot brake is also called, service brake, while the hand brake is called
parking brake. However, the parking brake should not be considered as an interior
brake.
According to their mode of operation, the brakes are classified as mechanical
(rod-linkage and cable-operated) brakes, hydraulic brakes (oil brakes), air brakes.
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Depending on their action on the front or rear wheels, the brakes are classified
as front-wheel brakes, rear-wheel brakes or transmission brakes respectively.
Besides, brakes are classified as external-contracting or internal-expanding
brakes.
Modern motor vehicles are almost exclusively equipped with internalexpanding brakes acting on all the wheels of the car.
II. Answer the questions.
1. What do you know about brakes?
2. What are the brakes for?
3. Is there a need in brakes?
4. What may happen if the brakes are broken down?
5. Is the information given in the text useful for you?
III. Read and translate the following words:
vehicle, independent, brakes, exception, surface, efficiently, slipping, skidding,
exception, foot brake, parking brake, road linkage, hydraulic brakes, externalcontracting, internal- expanding.
GLOSSARY
slipping – скольжение, буксование (не путайте со словом sleeping - спящий);
in addition – в дополнение к чему-то сказанному, кроме того;
above all – устойчивое выражение – более того (вышеуказанного);
ground adhesion – сцепление с дорогой;
mode of operation – вид работы;
road-linkage – сцепление с дорогой – синонимичное выражение – ground
adhesion;
internal wheel brake – колесный тормоз с колодками внутри тормозного
барабана;
external contracting brake – тормоз с наружными зажимными колодками;
shoe-type brakes – тормоза колодочного типа.
IV. Guess the meaning of the following words and word expressions:
motor vehicle
to operate
brake power
ground
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brake
skidding
distance
to utilize
friction
load
tyres
to lock
“shoe- type brakes”
road
foot brake
force
hand brake
total
V.
Make a list of the unknown words. Pay attention to the words
characterizing breaks.
VI. Give English equivalents
combinations:
транспортное средство
способность «держать» дорогу
(сцепление с дорогой)
механические тормоза
самое короткое расстояние
тормоза на всех колесах
шина
тормоза колодного типа « башмаки»
поверхность дороги
ножной тормоз
парковочный тормоз
to the following words and wordвращаться
ручной тормоз
быть оборудованным
сила
тормоз заднего колеса
гидравлические тормоза
тормоз с усилителем
тормоз переднего колеса
тормоз с пневматическим приводом
блокировать, сцеплять
VII. Find in the text the synonyms to the following words:
Motor car, rear, to be mounted, power train, to work, outer-constricting, to use, inner
widening, to go on, mechanical, skidding, hydraulic breaks, total, pneumatic brakes,
to fit, oil, action, force.
VIII. Find in the text the antonyms to the following words and phrases:
Dependent, longest distance, inefficiently, stop to turn, whole, total, similarity, rear,
internal, front, outer, to compress.
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IX. Here are the answers to the questions. Write different types of
questions depending on the answers.
Answers
Questions
1. Every motor car is.
2. Each brake must be able to stop.
3. On the friction between tyres and road surface.
4. Its road-holding ability.
5. Yes, it is.
6. Service brake.
7. Mechanical, hydraulic and air brakes.
8. With internal – expanding brakes.
X. Comment on grammar patterns in the text.
XI. Find modal verbs in the text.
XII. Find comparatives and superlatives in the text.
XIII. Find in the text passive verb forms.
XIV. Write out Participles.
XV. Look through the text once again. Make a plan of the whole text.
Compose a short summary of the text using the following expressions:
The heading of the text is.
The text runs about ...
Much attention is devoted to ...
The text goes on to say that ...
In conclusion it should be summarized…
Unit V
I. Read and translate the text:
The body
The body is designed to contain and protect not only the engine and frame but
also the passengers in the car. Much is done to make the body sturdy and thus safe.
Also, since the appearance of the body is one of the important factors, an attempt has
been made to shape the contours so that the external structure could have a pleasing
17
appearance and at the same time could provide an ample room for the driver and his
passengers. It should be noted that most modern cars have flowing lines with few
evident sharp angles. Curves are more pleasing to the human eye than sharp angles.
One factor that has received much attention in recent years is stream line. This
involves shaping the car in such a manner as to offer less resistance to the passage of
the body through air. As car speed increases, the resistance of the air also increases.
The air resistance increases approximately as the cube of the car speed. Thus, as car
speed increases, a larger and a larger part of the total driving power is being used to
overcome the effects of air resistance.
Streamlining helps to reduce this air resistance so that greater power economy
could be achieved at higher speeds. The body is made up of a basic framework of
rigid members onto which metal panels are fastened. It is usually supported on the
frame by rubber-insulated bolts that prevent vibration and noise from traveling to the
car body and hence to the passengers.
II.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Find the answers to the next questions:
How is the body designed?
Is the appearance of the body one of the important factors?
What do most modern cars have?
What factor has received much attention in recent years?
What does the stream line involve?
Why is the resistance of the air increase?
What does stream lining help to reduce?
What is the body made of?
What details prevent vibration and noise from?
III.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Put general questions to the sentences:
The body is designed to protect the passengers from noise in the roads.
The external structure of the body must be attractive.
Most modern cars have flowing lines.
Curves are more pleasing to the human eye.
Stream line of the body involves the shape of the car.
The resistance of the air increases as car speed increases.
Stream line helps to reduce air resistance.
18
8.
9.
10.
11.
At high speeds the great power economy is achieved.
The body is made of a framework of rigid members.
Metal panels are fastened to rigid members.
Rubber-insulated bolts protect the passengers from vibration and noise.
IV. Find in the text verbs in Present Simple Active. Make a list of them.
V. Find in the text the verbs in Present Simple Passive. Make a list
of them.
VI. Find the verbs in Present Perfect Active. Make a list of them.
VII. Find the verbs in Present Perfect Passive. Write out these sentences
and translate them.
VIII. Find the verbs in Future Simple Passive.
IX. Give synonyms to the following words. Find them in the text:
To construct, to maintain (to keep), to defend (to prevent), strong, nice, shape
(form, look), outer (exterior, outward), to ensure, to include, to decrease, to enlarge
(to enhance, to extend
X.
Make a list of key words.
XI. Make a plan of the text.
XII. Translate the last passage into Russian.
XIII. Compose a short summary using the following phrases:
The title of the text is ... .
The text deals with ... .
The text gives a detailed account of ... .
The text goes on to say that ... .
In conclusion it should be mentioned that ...
XIV. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences:
1. As car ... increases, ... of the air also ... .
2. ... helps to reduce the air ... .
3. The ... made of a basic ... of ... .
4. It is usually supported on the ... by ... bolts.
Unit VI
I. Read and translate the text.
19
Basic Driver License Information
A driver license shows that you have been given permission by the state to
drive on public roads. You will receive a license after you have paid the fee, correctly
answered questions about the law and safety rules, shown that your physical and
mental condition is satisfactory, demonstrated your ability to drive safely, and have
no outstanding actions on your driver record. If you are 18 years old, meet the
requirements, and pass the tests, you may be issued a driver license. There is no
upper age limit.
Persons under 18 may not be employed to drive a motor vehicle. It is against
the law to loan your vehicle to an unlicensed person. If the person is caught driving,
your vehicle may be impounded. No person of any age may drive on a highway or in
a public parking facility unless the person has a license. The law also says that you
must not employ, permit, or authorize any person to drive a vehicle on a public street
or highway unless the person is licensed to drive that class of vehicle. Your
examination for a driver license includes the following:
• A vision test to measure how clearly you see. If you need glasses or
corrective contact lenses to pass this test, you should wear them. Your license will be
marked to show that you must wear "corrective lenses" while driving.
• A test of traffic laws, road signs, and driving safety rules to find out if you
know how to handle your vehicle in keeping with the laws.
• A driving test to show that you can drive safely. Only you and the examiner
may be in the vehicle with you. No animal may be in the vehicle. The examiner will
give you directions. You will not be tricked or asked to do anything illegal. At the
end of the test, the examiner will give you your score sheet and discuss the results
with you.
You may take driver education (classroom training) and driver training
(behind-the-wheel) in a state licensed professional driving school. The teaching cars
are subject to annual inspection. Instructor must pass qualifying examinations every
three years to show proof of education in traffic safety.
If your driver license is lost or damaged you must pay the required fee for a
duplicate. Once a duplicate license has been issued the previous license is no longer
valid.
You must have your driver license with you whenever you drive. You must
show it to any police officer who asks to see it.
20
I. Find the word combinations with drive(ing):
- безопасное вождение
- водить машину
- правила безопасности вождения
- обучение вождению
- автошкола
- водитель
- водительские права
- экзамен по вождению
II. Put the terms into the gaps in the sentences:
1) There are some rules to receive a driver … .
2) A person can receive a … … after passing a driving … .
3) An unlicensed person must not … a vehicle on public …, park anywhere.
4) Driver … can be in a state professional driving … .
III. Put the key ideas in order:
a) parts of a driving examination;
b) conditions to receive a driver license;
c) the instructions for driver license;
d) state professional driving school.
IV. Conditions to receive a driver license:
?
?
?
V.
1.
2.
3.
4.
?
?
?
Answer these questions (mind the word order):
When can you receive the driver license?
What are the conditions to receive a driver license?
What are the parts of driving examination?
What are the instructions for a driver license?
VI. Translate into Russian correctly:
To drive; driver; driving.
21
VII. Find the English equivalents:
- получать водительское удостоверение
- выдать водительские права
- поймать нарушителя за незаконным вождением
- место парковки
- дорога
- автострада
- направление движения
- ПДД
- транспортное средство
- предмет проверки
- утерять водительское удостоверение
- безопасность
- мотор
- двигатель
VIII. What are the parts of Driving examination:
1) Проверка зрения 2) проверка знаний ПДД 3) проверка безопасности вождения
IX. Translate the sentences into English (Mind the terms and grammar
rules):
1. Существуют некоторые правила для получения водительского
удостоверения.
2. Человек без водительского удостоверения не имеет права ездить по
общественным дорогам, парковаться, водить машину по городу.
3. Получение водительского удостоверения предполагает, во-первых,
проверку зрения, во-вторых, проверку навыков вождения, в-третьих, проверку
безопасности движения.
4. Обучение вождению может быть теоретическим и практическим.
X.
1)
2)
3)
4)
Guess the term:
a document that permits a person to drive a vehicle;
a place with heavy traffic;
they help a driver to avoid traffic accidents;
a motor vehicle;
22
5)
6)
7)
modern road;
special signs for driving;
a special place for parking.
XI. Put general questions to the sentences:
1. A driver license shows that you have been given permission to drive on
public roads.
2. You will receive a license after you have paid the fee.
3. Person under 18 may not be employed to drive a motor vehicle.
4. There is no upper age limit.
5. Your examination for a driver license includes some tests.
6. The examiner will give you directions.
7. The examiner will discuss the result of the test with you.
8. The teaching cars are subject to annual inspection.
9. Instructor must pass qualifying examinations every three years.
10. You must have your driver license with you whenever you drive.
XII. Use the verbs in the correct form, Passive or Active:
1. You have (been given/given) permission.
2. You will (receive/ be received) a license.
3. You have (been paid/paid) the fee.
4. You may (issue/be issued) a driver license.
5. The person (is licensed/ licensed) to drive.
6. The person (is caught/ caught) driving.
7. Your driving license (is lost/lost).
8. You must (be paid/ pay) the required fee for a duplicate.
9. He will (be given/give) you your score sheet.
10. Your license will (be marked/ mark) to show that you must wear lenses.
XIII. Ask 10 special questions on the driver license information.
23
Unit VII
Right-of-Way Laws
Right-of-way rules help people drive safely. These rules go along with courtesy
and common sense. Bicycle, moped riders, and pedestrians must follow these rules,
too. Never insist on taking the right-of-way. If another driver does not yield to you
when he or she should, forget it. Let the other driver go first. You will help prevent
accidents and make driving more pleasant. However, do not always insist on others
going ahead of you. If another vehicle expects you to take your legal turn, you may
delay traffic by stopping or slowing unnecessarily to allow another vehicle to go
ahead of you.
Pedestrians. A pedestrian is a person on foot or using a conveyance propelled
by human power (roller skates, skateboards, etc.) other than a bicycle. The definition
of pedestrian includes persons who are disabled and use self-propelled wheelchairs
because they are not able to move about as a pedestrian. These individuals must be
given the same rights as any other pedestrian.
• Always stop for any pedestrian crossing at corners or other crosswalks. Do
not pass a car from behind that has stopped at a crosswalk. A pedestrian you can't see
may be crossing.
• You must stop for any person using a guide dog or a white cane with a red
tip. Only blind, or nearly blind, persons are allowed to use these canes or guide dogs
and they must be given the right-of-way at all times whether in or out of a crosswalk.
• Remember – just because you make eye contact with a pedestrian doesn't
mean that the pedestrian will yield the right-of-way to you.
Other Vehicles
• At an intersection without STOP or YIELD signs, slow down and be ready to
stop. Yield to vehicles already in the intersection or just entering it. Also yield to the
car which arrives first or to the car on your right if it reaches the intersection at the
same time as your car.
• When there are STOP signs at all corners, stop first; then follow the above rules.
• When you turn left, give the right -of-way to all vehicles on the same road
coming from the opposite direction close enough to be dangerous. Turn only when
you can see that it is safe. Look for motorcyclists and bicyclists. On divided
highways, or highways with several lanes, watch out for cars coming in any lane you
must cross. When you have parked off the road, before you enter the road again, you
must yield to traffic.
24
I. Find the English equivalents:
Участники движения
Водители легковых
слепые люди
автомобилей
инвалиды на самоходных
мотоциклисты
колясках
водители мопедов
пешеходы
велосипедисты
Манѐвры на дороге:
- уступить дорогу
- предоставить право преимущественного проезда
- пропустить другого водителя вперѐд
- совершить поворот по правилам
- притормозить
- позволить другому транспортному средству проехать впереди вас
- остановиться перед пешеходом
- обогнать машину
- въехать на перекрѐсток
- прибыть первым
- повернуть налево
- приближаться с противоположного направления
- пересекать полосу движения
- парковаться на обочине дороги
II. Guess the term:
1. Laws which guide or control behavior of drivers and pedestrians on the
road and actions while driving a car.
2. A person on foot or using a conveyance propelled by human power other
than a bicycle.
3. Symbols on a board or plate used to represent traffic rules and to give
directions to drivers.
25
4. To give way to somebody.
5. To pass from one side to the other side of the street.
6. The wheeled machine propelled by using pedals, for riding on.
7. A place where two streets cross each other.
8. Carriage (car, lorry, van, bus), usually wheeled, for moving goods or
passengers on land.
9. To move over at a reduced speed.
10. To finish moving.
11. Course taken by a moving person.
12. Something which is unsafe, hazardous, harmful for a person.
13. Free from danger, not causing harm or taking risks.
14. A main public road.
15. Marked division of a road; line of vehicles within such a division.
III. Choose the suitable prepositions in brackets:
1. Never insists (in/on) taking the right-of-way.
2. You may delay traffic (with/by) stopping unnecessarily.
3. A pedestrian is a person (at/on) foot.
4. Always stop (behind/ for) any pedestrian crossing at corners.
5. The car has stopped (from/ at) a crosswalk.
6. Blind person must be given the right -of-way (at/in) all times.
7. Also yield to the car, which is (of/on) your right.
8. Look (after/ for) motorcyclists and bicyclists.
9. On divided highways watch out for cars coming (in/on) any lane you
must cross.
10. Before you enter the road, you must yield (for/to) traffic.
IV. Make the sentences negative and interrogative:
1. These rules help people drive safely.
2. You will make driving more pleasant.
3. The definition of pedestrian includes persons who are disabled.
4. These individuals are given the same rights as any other pedestrians.
5. The driver has just passed a car from behind.
6. A roller skater was crossing the road at that moment.
26
7. She stopped her car for a person using a guide dog.
8. A man using a white cane with a red tip was given the right-of-way.
9. They reached the intersection at the same time.
10. Everybody must follow the above rules.
V. Make a brief summary of the text.
Unit VIII
Speed Limits
The 'Basic Speed law' says that you must never drive faster than is safe for the
present conditions, regardless of the posted speed limit.
The maximum speed limit on most highways is 65-70 mph. (100-110 km/h).
However, for two-lane undivided highways the maximum speed limit is
55 mph (90 km/h), unless posted for a higher speed. Other speed limits are set for the
type of road and traffic in each area. All speed limits are based on ideal driving
conditions.
Driving faster than the posted speed limit, or than it is safe for current
conditions, on any road is dangerous and illegal. High speed increases your stopping
distance. The faster you go, the less time you have to avoid a hazard or accident. The
force of a 60 mph crash isn't just twice as great as at 30 mph, it's four times as great!
If you block the normal and reasonable movement of traffic by driving too
slowly, you may receive a ticket. Sometimes, of course, you may have to go slowly.
If you are driving slower than other traffic, do not drive in the "fast" lane. If
you are in the left (or fast) lane, move to the right when another driver is close behind
you and wishes to drive faster.
• Always drive more carefully near schools, play grounds, and parks because
children may suddenly dart into the street. Sometimes lower speed limit signs are
placed near schools, so look for them.
• Blind intersections are intersections where you cannot see for 100 feet (30 m)
in either direction during the last 100 feet before crossing. Trees, bushes, buildings,
or parked cars at intersections can block your view of cars coming from the side. You
need to approach a "blind" intersection slowly enough to be able to stop if a vehicle
pulls out suddenly.
27
• The speed limit is 15 mph (25 km/h) when you come within 100 feet of a
railroad crossing. You may go faster than 15 mph if the crossing is controlled by
gates, a warning signal, or a flagman.
• If you see animals or livestock, slow down. Obey the person in charge of the
animals. If you see a stray animal in your path, slow down or stop, if it is safe
to do so.
If you are driving a slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway or road where
passing is unsafe, and five or more vehicles are following you, pull to the road
wherever you can safely do so to let the vehicles pass.
I. Give the Russian/English equivalents of the following word
combinations:
- Posted speed limit
- ДТП
- To set speed limit
- столкновение, авария
- To increase stopping distance
- получить талон
- To block movement
- знак низкой скорости
- Railroad crossing
- нескоростная (медленно
- Speed of a vehicle
движущаяся) машина
II. Give Russian equivalents to the following dimensions:
a foot, a mile, an inch
III. Say if the sentences are true or false. Correct the false sentences:
1) Speed limit depends on the type of a road.
2) High speed does not influence the stopping distance.
3) There are fast and slow lanes on a highway.
4) Schools don‟t have speed limit signs.
5) A “blind” intersection is blocked with trees, buildings or standing vehicles.
6) Railroad crossing is controlled by a warning signal or a specialist.
IV.
Дети (школы,
игровые площадки,
парки)
Reasons to slow down
«слепые» ж/д переезд любые животные
перекрѐстки
на дороге
28
V. Guess the term:
1. You can go just two directions on this road.
2. A linear dimension for transport in Great Britain.
3. A crash during driving.
4. The necessary distance a driver needs to stop.
5. It can block the traffic and create traffic jams.
6. A part of a highway for fast driving.
7. A part of a highway for slow driving.
8. An intersection where the view is blocked for a driver.
9. It is controlled by a flagman, a warning signal or by gates.
10. A means of transport.
VI. Answer the questions.
1. What are the two lanes of the road?
2. What makes traffic jams?
3. What controls railroad crossing?
4. What is the maximum speed limit on highways?
5. What are all speed limits based on?
6. What driving leads to crashes and accidents?
7. Why is high speed dangerous?
8. Why may you receive a ticket?
9. Where must you drive more carefully? Why?
10. What can you say about blind intersections?
11. What is the speed limit near railroad crossing? May you go faster?
12. What should you do if you see animals on the highway?
13. What should you do if you are driving a slow- moving vehicle?
VII. Translate the word combinations into English:
- идеальные условия для вождения;
- скоростное/медленное вождение;
- полоса движения для быстрой езды;
- дорога с двумя полосами движения.
29
VIII. Translate the Russian sentences into English:
1. Хорошая погода, современная автострада, грамотный водитель и
хороший автомобиль – идеальные условия для вождения.
2. Скоростное вождение часто опасно и приводит к ДТП.
3. Высокая скорость увеличивает тормозной путь, сокращает время для
избегания ДТП, увеличивает силу удара при столкновении.
4. Существуют официальные правила для медленного вождения.
IX. Write out a few short sentences from the text about:
1. speed limits on highways;
2. too fast driving;
3. too slow driving;
4. careful driving near some definite places.
X. Study the plan of the text.
1. The “basic speed limit law” about safe driving and speed.
2. Minimal speed for different types of road.
3. Fast driving is dangerous and illegal.
4. 4/5 Slow driving.
5. 6/7/8/9 Reasons to slow down.
XI. Translate the Russian summary into English, mind the grammar.
Этот текст об ограничении скорости. Вначале мы можем прочитать об
основном правиле ограничения скорости. Оно регулирует безопасное вождение
и скорость транспортного средства.
Абзац 2 описывает разные виды дорог и необходимую скорость для этих
условий. Дороги бывают разными, дорожное движение и скорость автомобилей
также различны.
Абзац 3 информирует о превышении скорости. Это опасно и незаконно.
Скоростное вождение часто приводит к (results in) столкновениям и дорожнотранспортным происшествиям.
Абзацы 4/5 информируют о медленном вождении. Оно часто блокирует
дорожное движение и создаѐт «пробки» (traffic jams).
Последние абзацы говорят о самых обычных причинах для низкой
(небольшой) скорости. Это наличие школ, ж/д переездов, животных на дороге
и пр.
30
XII. Underline the predicates and define their Voice (Passive or Active)
and Tense:
1. The "Basic Speed law" says that you must never drive faster than the
posted speed limit.
2. The maximum speed limit on most highways is 65-70 mph.
3. Speed limits are set for the type of road and traffic in each area.
4. All speed limits are based on ideal driving conditions.
5. Driving faster than posted speed limit is dangerous and illegal.
6. High speed increases your stopping distance.
7. If you are driving slower than other traffic, do not drive in the "fast" lane.
8. Sometimes lower speed limit signs are placed near schools.
9. Parked cars at intersections can block your view of cars coming from
the side.
10. This railroad crossing is controlled by a warning signal and gates.
Unit IX
I.
Read and translate the text:
Following Distance
When another driver makes a mistake, you need time to react. You can give
yourself this time by keeping enough space between your car and the vehicles around
you. Keep a "space cushion" on all sides of your car. It will give you space to brake
or maneuver if you need it.
Many drivers don't see as well as they should because they follow too closely,
and the vehicle ahead blocks their view of the road. Good drivers keep a safe
following distance so they can see better. The more space they allow between their
car and the car ahead, the more time they will have to see a hazard or accident down
the road. Keep enough space between your car and the car ahead so that you will
have 'a bigger picture' of what lies down the road and steering to avoid trouble will be
easier. You can travel in the center of the lane instead of hugging one side or the
other to let you see ahead.
When you follow too closely and another driver "cuts" in front of you, the
normal reaction is to slam on your brakes and swerve out of the way. Swerving out of
31
way most often results in cutting someone else off or possibly driving off the road
way. It might also result in the car behind you crashing into you or other cars around
you. If another driver "cuts" in front of you, it would be better if you just take your
foot off the gas. Don't overreact if you are cut off. Plan your emergency escape route
before an emergency happens.
Keep a space cushion on each side of your car. Don't drive in the blind spot of
another driver. The other driver may not see your car and could change lanes and hit
you. If possible, make room for vehicles entering freeways even though you have the
right-of-way.
Keep a space between yourself and parked cars. Someone may step out from
between them. A car door may open. A car may start to pull out suddenly.
Be careful when riding near bicycles. A bicycle rider could be seriously hurt in
an accident. Always leave plenty of room between your car and bicycle. Watch for
tailgaters! If one is following you, be careful! Brake slowly before stopping. Tap your
brake lightly a few times to warn the tailgater before you slow down. Your brake
lights will flash. "Lose" the tailgater as soon as you can by changing lanes. If you
can't change lanes, slow down enough to encourage the tailgater to go around you.
If this does not work, pull off the road when it is safe and let the tailgater pass.
Sometimes there will be dangers on both sides of the road. If one danger is
greater than the other, give the most room to the worst danger.
I. Find the Russian equivalents:
to maneuver, to follow closely, to steer, to avoid trouble, to swerve, to drive in
the drive spot of another driver, emergency escape route, to slam on the brake, to take
the foot off the gas, to brake slowly, to tap the brake slightly, to slow down, safe
following distance, enough space between cars, to keep a space cushion, lo leave
plenty of room.
II. Find the English equivalents:
закрывать вид (пространство) дороги, ухать близко к обочине дороги,
подрезать другого водителя, «врезаться» в другой автомобиль, «слепое место»
водителя, припаркованные машины, велосипедисты в потоке движения.
III. Find the difference between synonyms, consulting the dictionary:
1) Space – room, 2) route – way
32
IV. Guess the term:
1) A means of transport;
2) To have the opportunity to move any direction;
3) The distance between the vehicles on the road;
4) The fact of crashing the vehicles during traffic;
5) A part of the road in one direction;
6) The place where another driver cannot see you;
7) It gives you the right to go first;
8) A two-wheeled vehicle;
9) A car following your vehicle without a safe following distance;
10) A plan to help you to avoid an accident.
V. Translate the Russian sentences into English:
1. «Слепая» зона водителя – опасное место, о котором водителю следует
всегда помнить.
2. Соблюдение безопасной дистанции между машинами помогает
избежать неприятности на дороге.
3. Ничто не должно мешать водителю видеть дорогу хорошо.
4. Водители, которые «подрезают» других участников движения, не
соблюдают дистанцию между машинами и создают условия для ДТП.
VI. Define the main idea of each passage of the text. Choose the right
variant:
Passage 1speaks about: a) enough time for a driver to react;
b) means to react;
c) space cushion.
Passage 2speaks about: a) to see well is to drive well;
b) “a big picture” of the road;
c) a way to see better while driving.
Passage 3speaks about: a) driving skills;
b) different reactions of a driver if he/she is cut ;
c) emergency escape route.
33
Passage 4speaks about: a) the blind spot of a driver;
b) driving in the blind spot;
c) possible results of driving in the blind spot..
Passage 5speaks about: a) parked cars;
b) ways to be careful in traffic;
c) ways to drive safely when cyclists ride along the road.
Passage 1speaks about: a) enough time for a driver to react;
b) means to react;
c) space cushion.
VII. Make the plan of the text.
VIII. Translate into English:
В этом тексте рассказывается о дистанции следования. Она необходима
для безопасного вождения. Следующие абзацы описывают опасности на
дороге. Они многочисленны и разнообразны. Это «подрезание» другой
машины, вождение в слепой зоне другого водителя и рядом с припаркованными
машинами, вождение в присутствии велосипедистов. Каждая чрезвычайная
(угрожающая) ситуация на дороге должна иметь свои способы решения.
IX. Complete the sentences using one of the following verbs in the
correct form: crash, avoid, park, slam, brake, enter, hug, stop, react, pull
1. When another driver makes a mistake, you need time to...
2. It will give you space to ... if you need it.
3. It might also result in the car behind you ... into you.
4. If possible, make room for vehicles ... freeways.
5. A car may start to ... out suddenly.
6. You will have "a bigger picture" of what lies down the road and steering
to ... trouble will be easier.
7. You can travel in the center of the lane instead of one side of the other.
8. You keep a space between yourself and ... cars.
9. Brake slowly before ...
10. The normal reaction is to ... on your brakes.
34
X.
Put special questions to the text about:
1. a "space cushion";
2. a safe following distance;
3. a "bigger picture";
4. another driver "cuts" in front of you;
5. the blind spot of another driver;
6. the tailgaters;
7. brake lights;
8. changing lanes;
9. bicycle riders;
10. emergency escape route.
XI. Make a brief summary of the text using ex. VIII. Write down the
conclusion.
XII. Express your opinion concerning the topic of the text. Why is it
necessary to observe distance? Have you ever been in dangerous situations on the
road? What is it necessary to do in order to avoid hazards while driving?
Unit X
I. Read and translate the text:
Know Your Signs
In the world of communications, signs form a vital part. Traffic signs are an
integral part of the system of safeguard for the safety of road users.
Traffic signs may be classified into three categories:
1. Mandatory signs:
They are also known as regulatory signs.
All mandatory signs are indicated in a circular form and they have to be
followed compulsorily.
35
2. Cautionary signs:
These are meant for your safety. These are given in triangular form.
3. Information signs:
These signs are those which provide information to help you. They are in Blue
color in square shape.
Mandatory signs:
1. Violation of these traffic signs, which denote a specific traffic regulation, is
a legal offence under Section 119 of Motor Vehicle Act.
2. Speed limit, stop and give way signs are the most important of these signs.
The other major signs relate to prohibiting entry or turn and permitting entry or turn
only in one direction. No parking signs and signs relating to No stopping or standing
and No ’U’ turn, No entry etc. should be observed scrupulously and violation of these
signs would affect the road users by creating jams and accidents.
Cautionary signs:
Signs denoting Pedestrian crossing, school zones and Intersections are the most
important among the cautionary signs. As already pointed out in the pedestrian
crossing, the pedestrian has the right of way and you should not proceed when the
pedestrian is crossing nor should you stop the vehicle on pedestrian crossing
hindering his movement.
In school zones, you have to drive very cautiously and reduce the speed since
any time a boy or girl can run or dart across.
Comments to the text
A vital part – жизненно важная роль
Traffic signs – дорожные знаки
Mandatory signs – предписывающие знаки
Compulsorily – обязательно
Cautionary signs – предупреждающие знаки
Information-signs – информационно-указательные знаки
Violation – нарушение
Jam – дорожная пробка
„U‟-turn – разворот
Right of way – преимущество на дороге
Hinder – мешать, препятствовать
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II. Answer the questions:
1. What are the three categories of traffic signs?
2. What form are all mandatory signs indicated in?
3. What are cautionary signs meant for?
4. What signs provide information to help you?
5. What are the most important mandatory signs?
6. What are the most important cautionary signs?
III. Write out of the text all the terms connected with traffic rules, laws
and safety on the road.
IV. Use these terms in the sentences of your own. Compose at least five
sentences.
V. Give a few examples of traffic signs (mandatory, cautionary and
information signs). Consult a dictionary.
VI. Comment on grammar patterns used in the text:
1) Write out of the text sentences in Passive voice. Define their tenses.
2) Write out of the text two sentences containing modal verbs and their
equivalents with Indefinite infinitive active.
3) Write out of the text two sentences containing modal verbs and their
equivalents with Indefinite infinitive passive.
4) Write out of the text a sentence with Gerund.
5) Write out of the text a sentence with Participle I.
6) Write out of the text a sentence with Participle II.
VII. Compose a plan of the text.
VIII. Write down the key idea of each part.
IX. Compose a summary using your plan.
37
Unit XI
I. Read the text:
Dashboard gauges and other devices in modern cars
The minimum number of gauges on a passenger car dashboard is the
speedometer and the fuel gauge. The most common additional gauge is the
temperature gauge followed by the tachometer, voltmeter and oil pressure gauge. If
your car does not have a temperature gauge, oil pressure gauge or charging system
gauge, then you will have a warning light for these functions. The most common
configuration in today‟s family car is: Speedometer, Tachometer, Fuel &
Temperature.
Oil pressure gauge or warning lamp measures oil pressure in pounds per square
inch. Oil pressure is just as important to an engine as blood pressure to a person. If
you run an engine with no oil pressure even for less than a minute, you can easily
destroy it. If it comes on while you‟re driving, stop the vehicle as soon as is safely
possible and shut off the engine. Then, check the oil level and add oil as necessary.
The tachometer measures how fast the engine is turning in RPM (Revolutions
PER Minute). This information is useful if your car has a standard shift transmission
and you want to shift at the optimum RPM for the best fuel economy or best
acceleration. One of the least used gauges on a car with an automatic transmission.
You should never race your engine so fast that the tach moves into red zone as this
can cause engine damage. Some engines are protected by the engine computer from
going into red zone. Usually, the tachometer shows single digit markings like 1, 2, 3
etc. Somewhere, you will also see an indicator that says RPM 1000. This means that
you multiply the reading by 1000 to get the actual RPM, so if the needle is pointing
to 2, the engine is running at 2000 RPM.
Most cars have stereo radios with cassetts and CD players in them. Some big
cars even have televisions and video machines. Many people have telephones in their
cars too. Have you ever called home from your car?
In modern cars there are windows that roll up and down by touching a button.
And you can lock the doors by touching a different button.
Almost every car has a heater and an air conditioner to keep us warm in winter
and cool in summer.
38
People love their cars and spend a lot of time in them. Some cars will tell you
the outside temperature and what direction you are traveling (north, south, east, or
west). There are even cars that can talk to you. Can you imagine a car telling you to
put your seatbelts on? Disciplined drivers always wear a seatbelt.
Comments to the text
Gauge – измерительный прибор, измерять
Dashboard – приборная панель, доска
Additional – дополнительный
Warning light – предупреждающая лампочка
To measure – измерять
Comes on – загорается
Revolution – оборот
Useful – полезный
Least used – меньше всех используемый
Damage – повреждение, поломка
Digit – цифра
Multiply – умножать
Needle – стрелка
Is pointing – показывает
II. Answer the questions:
1. What are the most common gauges on a passenger car dashboard?
2. What will you have if your car does not have a temperature gauge?
3. What does oil pressure gauge do?
4. Why is oil pressure so important to an engine?
5. What should you do when oil pressure is low?
6. What does tachometer measure?
7. Why is this information useful?
8. Why should you never race your engine so fast that the tach moves into
the red zone?
III. Find the English equivalents:
a) нажать на кнопку;
b) от(при)стегнуть ремень;
39
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
двигаться на (север);
зимой, летом;
в одной из наших машин;
звонить домой из машины;
разговаривать с тобой;
в каком направлении вы двигаетесь
IV. Find the meaning of the words in a dictionary:
turn signals
mirror
headlights
trunk
hood
gas tank
windshield wipers
tail lights
steering wheel
bumper
horn
brake
tire (tyre)
V.
Guess what it is:
1) You use these when you want to go left or right.
2) You use it to stop.
3) You use it to lessen the effect of collision.
4) You can put luggage in it.
5) You turn this to steer the car.
6) You use this to warn other drivers.
7) You put gas in it.
8) This covers the engine.
9) You turn these on at night.
10) This is the band of rubber on the rim of a wheel.
VI. Translate from English into Russian:
a.
There are lights on fenders and hoods of the car.
b.
A combination trunk and rear window gives you access to luggage space
in Renault sedan.
c.
Development of tire design has resulted in many changes in suspension
design.
40
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
the engine.
We use brakes to stop a car.
Headlights help drivers to steer a car at night.
The drivers use turn signals when they want to go left or right.
My neighbor backed the car into a drive and parked in front of the house.
He got into the car, adjusted the mirror, fastened his seat-belt and started
VII. Match the terms with their Russian equivalents:
1.
Instrument panel
1 – warning lights
a) тахометр
2 – high beam indicator light b) контрольный индикатор наличия топлива
3 – alternator warning light c) индикатор работы указателей поворота
4 – oil warning light
d) контрольная лампа дальнего света
5 – low fuel warning light
e) спидометр
6 – fuel indicator
f) контрольная лампа открытой двери
7 – temperature indicator
g) одометр (счѐтчик пробега)
8 – turn signal indicator
h) счѐтчик суточного пробега
9 – tachometer
i) контрольная лампа аварийного состояния
работы генератора
10 – seat-belt warning light j) контрольная лампа температуры масла
11 – odometer
k) контрольная лампа ремней безопасности
12 – speedometer
l) контрольные лампы аварийного состояния
13 – trip odometer
m) контрольная лампа малого (аварийного)
запаса топлива
14 – door open warning light n) контрольный индикатор температуры
охлаждающей жидкости
VIII. Match the terms with their Russian equivalents:
1.
Dashboard
1 – horn
a) зеркало заднего вида
2 – instrument panel
b) замок зажигания
3 – wiper switch
c) переключатель стеклоочистителя
4 – rearview mirror
d) противосолнечный козырѐк
5 – clock
e) пассажирское зеркальце
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6 – vanity mirror
f) переключатель света фар и указателей
поворота
7 – sun visor
g) кнопка звукового сигнала
8 – vent
h) ящик для перчаток
9 – glove compartment
i) воздуховод
10 – climate control
j) ручки управления обогревом и вентиляцией
11 – audio system
k) центральная консоль
12 – gearshift lever
l) часы
13 – center console
m) рулевое колесо
14 – parking brake lever n) педаль газа
15 – gas pedal
o) рычаг стояночного (ручного) тормоза
16 – brake pedal
p) педаль сцепления
17 – ignition switch
q) приборный щиток
18 – clutch pedal
r) педаль тормоза
19 – steering wheel
s) аудиосистема
20 – headlight/turn signal t) рычаг переключения скоростей
Unit XII
I. Read the text: (part I)
The Cаr Culture
America B.C. (Before the Car) was a much different place than it was after all
those Fords and Chevys became available to millions of Americans. Soon the average
“man next door”, and his teenage son and daughter as well as his wife, could afford a
car. The many effects of the revolution brought about by the mass-produced car and
its larger brothers, the truck and the bus, are today familiar to most western
industrialized nations. In America, however, this revolution happened earlier and on a
much larger scale.
To simply state, however, that America had and has a lot of roads and cars and
trucks and buses doesn‟t mean much. Therefore it is worthwhile to look at some
current statistics. It is estimated, for example, that today the United States still has
two-fifths of all passenger cars in the world: over 121 million.
42
The figures show that the United States has developed an enormous modern
transportation system, an extensive network of roads and highways which enables
Americans to travel freely and comfortably wherever they want without having to
give up their independence, consult time-tables, or wait for connections. The
American interstate highway system – the non – stop, interconnected “motorways” –
stretches for over 43,000 miles. In the U.S. there are more cars and trucks and buses
per person than anywhere else. In the Soviet Union, for example, there are 26 people
per car, while in the United Kingdom and France there are 3.4 and 2.6 respectively.
The U.S. leads with 1.9 people per car.
Looking at these and similar figures, one could easily reach the conclusion that
America is one big parking lot, clogged by cars and trucks, stinking of exhaust,
covered by concrete, and marred by service stations. Pictures of Los Angeles or New
York City frequently show masses of people on busy sidewalks, traffic – packed
streets, and crowded subways. These pictures, however, are highly misleading. Urban
areas in the United States, towns and cities, large and small, only take up less than
2 percent of the country‟s total land area. It is sometimes forgotten that in the U.S.
today – a country over 30 times the size of Italy and over 40 times that of the United
Kingdom – one-third of the land is still covered by forests. In twenty of the states,
forests make up more than 50 percent of the land area! Maine is 90 percent forested,
New Hampshire 87 percent, and West Virginia and Vermont 76 percent. Perhaps the
easiest way of countering the view of the U.S. as a densely populated and car –
congested country is to note the density figures – the average number of people per
square mile – for several countries which also have a lot of cars and trucks.
II. Find the English/Russian equivalents:
большинство промышленных наций
в гораздо больших размерах
просто утверждать
бетон
стоянка для машин
общая площадь земли
to be familiar to
to stretch over
less tan two percent
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-
to consult timetables
to be available
III. Finish up the sentences:
1. A car in America is available …
2. The most famous automobile producers are …
3. Some current statistics shows that America developed …
4. The non – stop, interconnected “motorways” are …
5. If you think that America is one big parking lot it is …
IV. Count how many and what verbs of Passage 1 are used in Past Simple
Tense.
Unit XIII
I. Read the text: (part II)
The Car Culture
In France, some 261 people along with their cars and trucks and buses share
each square mile. In Italy there are 491, in the U.K. 599, in West Germany 635, and
in Japan 840 persons per square mile. In the United States, on the other hand, there is
an average of only 66 persons per square mile. In the two states with the largest
populations in the U.S., California and New York, the population density is 170 and
375 people per square mile, respectively. Americans may occasionally voice the
feeling that their country is becoming overcrowded; this view, however, must appear
highly exaggerated to a European observer. While there are a great many cars and
trucks in the U.S., there is also an enormous area in which to put them.
The size of the population relative to the size of the country has important
implications for transportation. Public, state – supported mass transportation systems
– buses, commuter trains, streetcars, subways – only make sense in economic and
practical terms for those parts of the U.S. that are densely settled. For example, over
25 percent of all people in New York use the mass transit, public transportation
system. Cities such as Chicago, Boston, Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, San
44
Francisco are also examples of cities where public transportation plays an important
role. Experience has shown, however, that many people still prefer to go by car, and
would continue to do so, even if public transportation were more readily available
and less expensive. Also, it would appear that the superb, state – supported city and
intercity transportation systems in countries such as Japan, West Germany, or the
United Kingdom do not seem to have kept many people from buying and using more
and more cars. In the U.S. as well, convenience seems to be the most common and
most logical answer: cars take you where you want to go and when you want to go
there. One argument that is helping to make public transit in some urban areas in the
U.S. more attractive is time. For example, during the rush hour, a trip from San
Francisco to Oakland takes about 45 minutes by car, but only nine minutes by BART,
that is, the Bay Area Rapid Transit system.
II. Find the Russian equivalents:
relative
state – supported transportation system
to make sense
(less) expensive
the most common
rush hour
suburban bus
III.
-
What is the English for:
ехать на машине
играть важную роль
поездка
городской транспорт
перевозить
проехать большое расстояние
IV. Which of the adjectives are not in the text:
economic, practical, expensive, extensive, large, common, arrogant, timid,
foreign, long, urban, clever, attractive.
45
V.
Write down the plan of the text.
VI. Read the synopsis on the text and learn it:
We can read about the car culture in the U.S.A. It is an industrialized country
when an industrial car is a familiar means of transportation.
Passages 2, 3 describe an enormous modern transportation system. It is very
convenient.
Passage 4 informs us on the unusual picture of the “automobile” America:
heavy traffic, busy sidewalks, crowded subways are true for urban areas only.
The last part of the text tells us about public transportation. The size of the
population relative to the size of the country has important implications for
transportation system. That‟s why public transport is not popular all over the country.
Unit XIV
I. Read the text:
The Automobile Dilemma
If there is one common problem which most industrialized countries face today
it is that of growing traffic congestion, and nowhere is the problem older that in the
United States. Today it has more then 100 million cars and trucks on the road, and the
world‟s largest automobile industry. And what is perhaps even more interesting,
about 85 per cent of all travelling that is done in the USA is done by car.
Public transportation systems had never been very well organized in many US
cities, and after World War II even the existing ones could not complete with the
flood of new cars and the new highways. Fewer and fewer passengers used trains and
buses, which meant that many train services were shut down and bus services
reduced. One important reason for this was that the average American, whose dream
was to buy a home of this own, could only afford to do so in one of the new suburbs,
which were far away from existing railroads and bus lines. In order to get to work and
back again he needed a car. And so did his wife who could do her shopping only by
car. And if she urgently had to go to the doctor‟s or suddenly felt like visiting a
friend, again it could only be done by car. Not surprisingly, public transportation was
used less.
46
Nowadays almost every American has at least one car, and, as he doesn‟t
believe in walking anywhere if he can go in a car, there are drive-in banks, where you
can cash a cheque without even turning off your engine, drive-in post – offices, or
drive – in cafeterias where a meal is brought to you on a tray that fits neatly on to the
door of your car; there is even a drive – in church.
More cars mean that new highways have to be built. The highways, parkways,
freeways, turnpikes, speedways, with anywhere from four to ten traffic lanes have
made swift motion on wheels possible. Millions of acres of fertile land are being
diverted from agriculture and used for transportation. Reduced use of trains and buses
forced many people to depend upon automobiles.
Super – highways with over – passes and under – passes and few or no traffic
lights, double or treble the rate of traffic movement. They are magnificent for the last
driver. But even roads like these don‟t always prevent accidents and one couldn‟t
help noticing some typical American safety – signs: “Can your wife afford your
funeral?” “This is God‟s country. Don‟t drive through it like hell.” “Only one letter
removes danger from anger.”
On the other hand, the negative side effects of the car problem – noise and air
pollution and demand for huge parking areas in the centers of cities – persuade
people to turn back to public transportation and to use it more.
Public transport of big cities including subways, bus service and taxi cabs. In
rush hours in big cities it is better to take subways. In the subway system of any city
there are parallel tracks for local and express trains. The local train stops at every
station, while the express only at every fifth or sixth one. Another mode of transport
which is making a come – back to the streets of New York, Chicago, Seattle,
Pittsburgh, Detroit and Los Angeles is the double – decker bus. By carrying twice as
many passengers as the normal single – decker, it helps to solve traffic congestion
problems of American big cities. Yet everybody agrees that it will be a very hard job
to change the driving habits of Americans.
I.
-
Find English and Russian equivalents:
крупнейшая в мире автомобильная промышленность;
система общественных перевозок;
железная дорога и автобусные линии;
(выключить) заглушить двигатель;
47
-
сниженный/уменьшенный спрос на поезда и автобусы;
светофор
дорожно – транспортное происшествие;
to face the problem;
to cash a cheque;
traffic lane(s);
to divert from agriculture (into) for transportation;
over – pass(es) and under – pass(es);
a fast driver;
a safety – sign
II.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
What is the preposition:
… more than 100 million cars and trucks … the road;
… suburbs were away … railroads and bus lines;
You can cash a cheque … even turning … the engine;
… forced people to depend (upon) automobiles;
… demand … huge parking areas;
… rush hours … big cities.
III. Recalling information:
1) What happened to many of the public transportation systems in America
after the second World War?
2) Why did so many Americans more to the suburbs and how did this affect
public transportation services?
3) What are the negative side effects of the problem?
4) What has made swift motion on wheels possible?
5) How is subway system of any city organized?
6) Why do you think it will be difficult to change the driving habits of
Americans?
IV. Form new words or word combination with:
- service
- system
- way
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V. Put these sentences in order according to the text:
Some historical facts are suggested to a reader, i.e. poor organization of public
transport and an average dream of an average American to own a home.
The country has the largest automobile industry and hence problem of growing
traffic congestion.
The dream could come true only in suburbs.
Nowadays a car is not a means of covering distances, but certain kind of a
service (drive – in banks, drive – in post – offices; drive – in cafeterias).
The text is about the automobile dilemma in the USA.
So, a car was the only means of transportation to get to work and back.
The next two passages are devoted to the new highways to be built (parking,
freeways, turnpikes, speedways).
Unit XV
I. Read the text:
Cars: Passion or Problem?
For some people, the car is a convenient form of transportation. But for others,
the car is an exciting hobby. Some people spend their lives collecting valuable cars.
Others drive them in races, including the Mille Miglia in Italy, the Carera
Panamericana in Mexico, and the world – famous Indianapolis 500. For many people,
cars are more than transportation: they are a source of passion and pleasure. Yet cars
can also be a source of many problems.
In 1903, Henry Ford began selling the Model T car for 825$. His company,
Ford Motors, was the first to produce cars in large numbers. This made the car
available to large numbers of people and helped them to travel long distances quickly
and easily. The car has brought people much closer to places of work, study, and
entertainment.
Many people also work in car – related industries: fixing cars, washing cars,
advertising, and selling car products such as stereos and cellular phones. Most
Americans buy a new car every five or six years. This means that one American may
own a dozen cars in a lifetime. In fact, there are more cars than people in the United
States. In New York City, 2,5 million cars move in and out of the city each day. In
49
this traffic, the average speed is sometimes 8,1 miles per hour. This speed could
easily be reached by riding a horse instead of driving a car. But New Yorkers
continue to drive, just as people do in California, where freeways are often very
crowded.
Some environmentalists believe that some forms of public transportation such
as buses and trains have not been fully developed in the United States. They try to
teach others that public transportation saves fuel and helps to protect the
environment. Many people are unhappy with car traffic and pollution, as well as with
the use of beautiful land for building new roads. One environmentalist, Jan Lundberg,
left his Mercedes – Benz in Los – Angeles and moved to the forests of northern
California. There he works on the AUTO – FREE TIMES, a newspaper that teaches
people how to live without driving. Lundberg travels on foot, on bicycles, or by bus.
Before he decided to live without a car, Lundberg worked for the oil companies,
studying the prices of gasoline.
Lundberg and other environmentalists dream of turning parking lots into parks
and replacing cars with bicycles, but most people around the world believe that the
car is a necessary part of life in today‟s world. Still, there is an important question
that must be answered: what kind of fuel will we use when gasoline is no longer
available? Lundberg believes that by the year 2021, there will no longer be oil for
gasoline makers to use. To solve this problem, car companies in Korea, Japan,
Europe, and the United States are trying to develop an electric car that will not
require gasoline at all.
The electric car is not a new idea. It had success with American women in the
early 1900s. Women liked electric cars because they were quiet did not pollute the
air. Electric cars were also easier to start than gasoline – powered ones. But gasoline
– powered cars were faster, and in the 1920s they became much more popular.
The electric car was not used again until the 1970s, when there were serious
problems with the availability of oil. Car companies began to plan for a future
without gasoline. The General Motors Company had plans to develop an electric car
by 1980; however, oil became available again, and this car was never produced.
Today there is a new interest in the electric car, which is partly related to a
passion for speed and new technology. In 1977 Paul MacCready, designed a human –
powered airplane that successfully completed a three – mile flight. A similar airplane
crossed the English Channel in 1977, followed by a solar – powered airplane. In
50
1987, the Sunraycer, a solar – powered car, won a 2000 – mile race in Australia. As a
result of this success, the General Motors Company began new work on the
development of the electric car. The Toyota Company recently decided to spend 800$
million a year on the development of new car technology. Many engineers believe
that the electric car will lead to other forms of technology being used for
transportation.
Cars may change, but their importance will not. Cars are important to nearly
everyone, including engineers, businesspeople, environmentalists, and even poets.
Poet Curt Brown believes that cars are part of our passion for new places and
experiences. According to Brown, this “very, very comfortable flying chair” will
continue to bring us travel and adventure, not matter how it changes in future.
I. Find the Russian equivalents from the text:
Form of transportation
Exciting hobby
Valuable cars
To drive in races
World – famous
Transportation
A source of many problems
In large numbers
To travel long distances quickly and easily
A place of work
Washing cars
Advertising
Selling cars
Cellular phones
to move in (out of) the city
traffic
the average speed
New Yorkers
to drive
environmentalists
public transportation
to save fuel
to protect the environment
to live without driving
to travel on foot (by bus)
to work for the oil company
new experience
II. Number the following main ideas in the order they appear in the text:
- Soon there will be no oil to cars.
- Cars, whether gasoline or electric powered, will always be important.
- Cars can cause problems.
- To some people, cars are more than transportation.
- Some environmentalists teach people how to live without cars.
- People in the United States need cars to go to school, to work, and to places
of environment.
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III. Complete the following lists with information from the text:
Advantages of the car
1. Some people enjoy …
2. People can travel …
3. People are closer to …
4. Some people make money by …
Disadvantages of the car
1. Lots of traffic and …
2. Cars use more fuel than …
3. Beautiful land is replaced with …
4. Gasoline may no longer be …
IV. Is the below given information correct? Please, don’t forget to answer
the questions to check your attentiveness.
1) The 1 passage says that cars are not only a means of transportation but also
pleasure.
You read about car races from the passage. Do you know any other car races?
2) Passage 4 informs us on the first Henry Ford‟s car which made trips quick
and easy.
3) The next passage suggests us car statistics in the U.S.A., partly in New
York City and in California.
What is the speed (km/hour) in a usual traffic jam of New York City?
4) Passage 2 gives environmental information: some people believe that buses
and trains save fuel and, thus, protect the nature.
Where can the prices for gasoline be studied?
5) The 7 passage is devoted to the different ideas: some people want to plant
parks on the parking lots, the others can not imagine the life without a car.
What is gasoline made of?
6) The next passage gives information on the electric car‟s future. Such
famous companies as General Motors and Toyota are interested in the development
of new car technology.
Is “human - powered” and “solar - powered” similar?
7) The next passage describes the electric car. When did the idea of the
electric car first appear?
52
8) This passage deals with the idea that cars may change but cars will never
disappear for they do our life easier.
To whom are cars more important, up to you?
V. Match the word combinations:
a) an exciting hobby
b) car – related industry
c) to build new roads
d) to save fuel
e) to live without driving
f) to replace cars with
g) to be no longer available
h) to plan for a future
i) environmentalists
1) экономить топливо
2) строить новые дороги
3) промышленность, связанная
с автомобилестроением
4) волнующее увлечение
5) защитники окружающей среды
6) планировать на будущее
7) жить без машин
8) быть недоступным
9) заменить машины на …
VI. Read the questions and express your opinion:
1) Is a car a means of transportation for you personally, or just a property to
be proud of, or just a thing for pleasure?
2) The text says soon there will be no oil to make gasoline for gasoline –
engined cars. What do you think about it?
3) Have you known about the electric car before?
4) What do you think about the new technology of electric cars?
5) Some people want to live without cars for they are a great source of
pollution. Do you agree with them?
6) Do you believe that cars will disappear someday in the future?
VII. Enumerate the problems connected with cars and their usage. Make
a list of them in writing. Comment upon each problem and suggest possible
decisions.
VIII. Read the situations and discuss them (in groups).
1. Suppose you are an automobile designer. You‟re suggested to develop a
new automobile which saves fuel and doesn‟t pollute the environment very much.
What will be your choice and why?
53
2. A lot of people around the world prefer travelling easily and quickly, i.e.
gasoline – powered cars. But you support environmentalists. What are advantages of
electric cars, up to you, and disadvantages of gasoline – powered cars? Describe
them.
3. An electric car is not a new idea. Why hasn‟t it developed? Explain, please,
why gasoline – powered cars are much more popular than electric cars?
Unit XVI
I. Read the text:
Vehicle Emissions
Nature means all the things in the world which exist naturally and were not
created by people. The environment means the land, water, and air that animal and
plants live in.
Nowadays the environment is under attack. Through our daily activities, we
manage to pollute and contaminate land, water and air.
a) Transport pollution. Fossil fuels provide the chief source of energy for
transport. They are major source of air pollution, one which over the last two decades
has grown enormously.
b) Replacing fertile territories, good for agriculture with motorways.
c) Traffic noise.
Car and lorry exhausts are a major source of air pollution. Almost half of
Britain‟s NO emissions come from road transport, while other pollutants include lead,
smoke particulates, CO, VOC – mostly gaseous hydrocarbons – and SO. As well as
the greenhouse potential of some of these gases, they also cause other problems. NO
and VOC can react with each other and sunlight to form ground – level ozone, which
at high concentrations may be potentially harmful to health. Some VOC, such as
benzene, may also cause cancer, although background levels in Britain are well
below the point at which there would be significant risks to the public.
Stringent emission standards for passenger cars were introduced at the end of
1992, which effectively require petrol – engined cars to be fitted with catalytic
converters. These typically reduce emission by over 75 percent. Diesel cars are also
54
subject to strict controls on particulate emissions. Since October 1994, vans have had
to meet the same limit as cars. Stricter controls for heavy diesel vehicles, including
lorries and buses, were introduced in 1993. Additional cuts in car emission limits
have been agreed at EC level and will be introduced in 1997.
Compulsory tests of vehicle emission levels are a key element in Britain‟s
strategy for improving air quality. Britain has introduced metered emission tests and
smoke checks into the annual “MOT” test for cars and vans and into the annual
roadworthiness test for lorries and buses.
From January 1996, in-service limits are to be further tightened. Roadside
checks of smoke emissions from heavy diesel – engined vehicles are also carried out.
Over 11,000 roadside checks were carried out in 1993 - 94. In October 1996 a
roadside enforcement campaign concentrating on the city centers was announced.
The worst offenders can be taken off the road.
As a result of these measures, a marked and progressive decline in regulated
pollutants is expected for several years to come.
Sales of unleaded petrol have risen from virtually nothing in the mid – 1980s to
over 58 per cent of all petrol sold. This is mainly to:
- a gradual increase in the differential in duty between leaded and unleaded
petrol;
- the requirement for all new cars from October 1990 on unleaded petrol;
- the necessity for cars fitted with catalytic concerters to use unleaded petrol.
These measures have contributed to a 70 per cent reduction of lead in the air.
Regulations were introduced in 1994 which for the first time set compulsory
limits to the volatility of petrol. The expected benefits include a reduction in VOCs.
The regulations also introduce a new EC standard on low sulphur diesel fuel, which
will further reduce particulate emissions from the whole diesel fleet.
Comments to the text:
CO – carbon dioxide
to carry out – разрабатывать
NO – oxide of nitrogen
SO – sulphur dioxide
VOC – volatile organic compounds
EC – European Community
catalitic converters
55
II. Translate into Russian:
exhaust
air pollution
to cause cancer
pollutant (s)
petrol – engined
particulate emissions
van
to improve air quality
smoke check
unleaded petrol
III. Find the English equivalents in the text:
тепличный эффект
ужесточить контроль
наземный озон
ограничение
ключевой/главный элемент
при высоких концентрациях
благодаря ч-л
злостный нарушитель
сокращать выброс более чем на 75%
проверка пригодности для дороги
проверка объема выброса
существенный риск для населения
IV. What is the difference between the words?
vehicle – van – car – lorry – bus
harm – harmful – to harm
pollution – pollutant
V.
Translate the sentences into English:
1)
Транспорт – главный источник загрязнения воздуха.
2)
Загрязнители вступают в реакцию между собой и солнечным
светом, образуя наземный озон.
3)
В Британии выброс вредных веществ сведен к минимуму.
4)
Впервые допустимый уровень выброса вредных веществ был
представлен в 1992 году.
5)
Программа борьбы за качество воздуха согласована на уровне
Европейского Сообщества.
6)
Британцы ввели ряд проверок на транспорт, в числе которых
проверка объема выбросов.
7)
Нарушителей этих проверок будут удалять с дорог.
56
VI.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
Answer these questions:
What is the main source of the air pollution?
Half of all the emissions in Britain come from road transport, doesn‟t it?
What pollutants did you learn from the text?
What troubles can these pollutants cause?
When did the Britains start the war for air quality?
What were/are the measures against air pollution?
Does EC take part in the above – mentioned programme?
How often are tests of vehicle emission level taken?
What other road tests are there in Great Britain?
What happens to the worst offenders?
Why is the unleaded petrol so popular in Great Britain?
VII. Fill in the table:
Past
Were
Present
Future
PASSIVE VOICE
are carried out
Will be introduced
Clean Fuels – Summary of U.K. Situation
Interest in cleaner, less polluting vehicles and fuel has grown in the UK over
recent years. This is because of three factors:
- increasing awareness of the environmental effect of vehicle use;
- the financial savings that vehicle operators can make by switching to cleaner
vehicles;
- increasingly stringent emission legislation.
Read on to find out more about LPG, Natural Gas, Battery Electric, Hybrids,
and Fuel Cells.
57
Unit XVII
Text 1
I. Read the text:
LPG
LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) is a mixture of propane and butane which, as
well as occurring naturally in gas fields, is also produced during the oil refining
process. LPG is a gas at room temperature and pressure, but is stored as a liquid
under pressure both on-board vehicles and at depots.
Apart from the fuel storage and delivery mechanisms, LPG engines are very
similar to petrol engines, and deliver similar performance. In fact, almost all LPG
vehicles sold in the UK are bi-fuel, allowing the driver to change from LPG to petrol
and visa versa at the flick of a switch.
The low rate of duty on gaseous fuels in the UK, and the availability of
Government funded Powershift grants for approved vehicles, makes LPG vehicles
significantly cheaper to run than their petrol or diesel equivalents, and explains why
hundreds of UK companies have LPG cars or vans in their fleets.
I. Find the Russian equivalents:
oil refining process
bi-fuel
fuel storage
rate of duty
II.
1)
2)
3)
Answer the questions:
What is “LPG”?
Why is LPG stored under pressure?
What makes LPG vehicles cheaper than their petrol equivalents?
Text 2
I. Read the text:
Natural Gas
Natural gas, which is the main gas that we are all familiar with for cooking and
heating purposes, can also be used as a vehicle fuel. It is approximately 92 %
58
methane (CH4), with the remainder being a mixture of nitrogen, ethane, propane and
other gases. Natural gas, unlike LPG, does not liquefied at approximately minus 190
degrees centigrade.
Natural gas is an excellent engine fuel, but neither form of on-board fuel
storage is as convenient as the storage of petrol or diesel. For this reason the majority
of natural gas vehicles in the UK are heavy – duty trucks and buses, as larger and
heavier fuel tanks pose less of a problem for these vehicles.
In the appropriate situations natural gas vehicles are an excellent choice as they
are generally quieter, cleaner and cost less to run than their diesel equivalents. The
financial savings are possible because, as with LPG, the rate of duty on natural gas is
low in the UK, and because Government funded Powershift grants are available for
approved vehicles. Many local authorities and companies, including well – known
household names, operate natural gas vehicles in the UK.
I. a) What is the difference between the words:
Liquid – liquefy – liquefied
b) What adjectives are used in a comparative degree?
natural, familiar, excellent, convenient, large, heavy, little, quiet, clean
II.
1)
2)
3)
4)
Answer the questions:
What does natural gas consist of?
How is it stored?
What UK vehicles are fitted with natural gas engines?
What are the advantages of natural gas vehicles?
Unit XVIII
Text 1
I. Read the text:
Battery Electric
Battery electric vehicles produce no emissions themselves and are generally
charged from the national grid via standard three pin sockets.
Several different battery technologies exist including lead-acid (now quite
dated), nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium ion. The majority of
59
electric vehicles sold in the UK today are Peugeots or Citroens, which use nickelcadmium cells and achieves ranges of approximately 50 miles between charges, and
have their top speeds limited at 56 mph.
With their limited ranges, battery vehicles are not appropriate to replace
conventional vehicles for the majority of applications, but they are appropriate for
certain niche markets such as urban delivery vehicles. Operating costs for battery
electric vehicles are extremely low.
I. Make plural:
operating cost
three pin socket
charge
technology
nickel-cadmium cell
II.
1)
2)
3)
Answer the questions:
What is the main advantage of electric vehicles?
What is the most popular battery technology?
What is the average speed of electric Peugeots or Citroens?
Text 2
I. Read the text and answer the question: What does “hybrid” mean?
Hybrids
The term “hybrid” usually refers to a vehicle that has both an electric motor
and an internal combustion engine (ICE). These have traditionally been either “series
hybrids” in which the ICE acts as a generator producing electric current for the
motor, or “parallel hybrids” in which both the electric motor and the ICE can drive
the wheels.
Later this year, two hybrid vehicles will go on sale in the UK which more
advanced systems that combine aspects of the two: Both the Toyota Prius and the
Honda Insight make use of innovative new hybrid technology and produce
impressive fuel economy and emissions results.
II. Write all types of questions to the first sentences of each passage of the text.
60
Unit XIX
I. Read the text:
Fuel Cells
A fuel cell is a conversion device that combines hydrogen fuel and oxygen
from the air to produce electricity, heat and water.
While there are different types of fuel cells, proton exchange membrane or
“PEM” fuel cells are now used in most prototype fuel cell vehicles. Each PEM fuel
cell uses a thin catalyst – coated membrane that is enclosed between graphite or
ceramic plates. One side of the membrane acts as an anode, and is exposed to
hydrogen gas. The other side of the membrane serves as the cathode, and is bathed in
air to provide oxygen. At the anode side, a catalytic reaction occurs, causing the
hydrogen to be separated into protons and electrons. The protons diffuse through the
membrane and reach the cathode. The electrons, however, cannot pass through this
membrane and go round the membrane to reach the cathode thus causing an electric
current as they travel. Once the electrons reach the cathode, another catalytic reaction
takes place as the recombined hydrogen atoms join with oxygen to produce water.
Individual PEM fuels cells are assembled together to form fuel cell stacks
which produce enough electricity to run a car, minivans, sport utility vehicles and
transit buses.
Although, fuel cell vehicles emit only water, the source of the hydrogen as fuel
can be less pollution free.
There are several methods of supplying hydrogen: centrally located hydrogen
production plants could distribute the hydrogen in liquid form to local fuel stations
who could then dispense it to fuel cell vehicles capable of storing the hydrogen in
either liquid or gaseous form in tanks on the vehicle. (Liquid hydrogen must be stored
at extremely low temperature whereas gaseous hydrogen must be stored at very high
pressure).
Some companies are now working on alternatives to these specialized storage
tanks including a metal hydride storage device that absorbs hydrogen. This will
increase the amount of hydrogen that can be stored on the vehicles.
Fuels such as natural gas, methanol, ethanol, propane and petrol all have
hydrogen as part of their molecular structure. By using an on-board “reformer” it is
61
possible to remove the hydrogen from these fuels and use it to directly power the fuel
cell. This directly benefits motorist as it avoids the need to use large, heavy pressure
gas storage tanks and gives the vehicle a longer range. A liquid fuel like methanol
can be stored and distributed in much the same way as petrol is now.
From an emissions perspective if pure hydrogen is used as a fuel, the only
tailpipe emission is water but fuel cell vehicles that use reformers will emit small
amounts of regulated pollutants like carbon monoxide. However, these levels are
much lower than in the internal combustion engines because a fuel cell power unit
operates at much lower temperatures.
I.
1)
2)
3)
Answer the questions:
What does a PEM fuel cell consist of?
Describe the chemical reaction in a PEM fuel cell.
Why is it difficult to store hydrogen?
II. Find the derivatives:
emission
store
III. Guess the meaning of the following words:
to combine
graphite
to produce
ceramic
to diffuse
catalyst
to assemble
proton(s)
cathode
electron(s)
anode
transit buses
electricity
pressure
membrane
IV. Divide them into three groups
Verbs
Nouns
Adjectives
62
Unit XX
I. Find Russian equivalents of the English words in the right column:
1. mechanical engineers
a) долгий срок службы
2. to deal with
b) запустить в массовое производство
3. designing cars
c) подвергать испытаниям
4. to put into mass production
d) плавное сцепление
5. long service life
e) отвечать современным требованиям
6. driving safety
f) иметь дело (с кем-л., чем-л.)
7. to meet up-to-date demands g) надѐжные тормоза и рулевое управление
8. smooth-acting clutch
h) безопасность езды (вождения)
9. silent gearbox
i) бесшумная коробка передач
10. dependable breaks
j) инженер-механик
11. to subject to tests
k) конструирование автомобилей
I. Translate into Russian the following international words: mechanical,
mechanism, specialist, industry, phase, technology, process, laboratory test, fact,
automobile, engineer, method, principle, corrosion, type, material, comfortable.
II. Read and translate the text:
AUTOMOBILE PRODUCTION
Specialists in automobile industry deal with designing and manufacturing cars,
so they should know that the production of the automobile comprises the following
phases:
1)
Designing;
2)
Working out the technology of manufacturing process;
3)
Laboratory tests;
4)
Road tests;
5)
Mass production (manufacturing).
Why is it necessary to know all these facts?
It is important to know them as before the automobile (car or truck) is put into
mass production, it should be properly designed and the automobile must meet up-todate requirements.
63
What are these requirements?
The automobile must have high efficiency, long service life, driving safety,
ease of maintenance and pleasant appearance.
In order to obtain all these qualities engineers should develop up-to-date
methods of designing cars, using new types of resistant to corrosion light materials.
Also it is important to know computer science because it is intended to shorten the
time between designing and manufacturing. Computers offer quick and optimal
solutions of problems.
But before the car is put into mass production all its units and mechanisms are
subjected to tests, first in the plant‟s laboratory, then the car undergoes a rigid quality
control in road tests. Only then the car is put into mass production. Why are these
tests required? What qualities are required of the automobile? The modern
automobile must be rapid in acceleration, must have smooth acting clutch, silent
gearbox, dependable breaks and steering system, as well as pleasant appearance. Also
it must be comfortable and have all conveniences.
III. Find appropriate answers to the following questions and write them
down in the right order:
1. What phases does the production of the automobile comprise?
2. What requirements must the automobile meet?
3. Why are cars subjected to road tests?
4. What qualities are required of the automobile?
5. Why is it important for the specialists in automobile industry to know
computing methods?
Answers:
a) It must have high efficiency, long service life, driving safety, ease of
maintenance and pleasant appearance.
b) They should be able to develop up-to-date methods of designing cars and
shorten the time between designing and manufacturing.
c) Because they must meet up-to-date requirements.
d) Designing, working out technological processes, laboratory and road tests,
mass production.
e) It must be rapid in acceleration, must have smooth acting clutch, silent
gearbox, dependable brakes and steering system.
64
IV. Finish the sentences, choosing the right variant of the ending:
1.The cars are subjected to road test in order…
a) to shorten the time between designing and manufacturing;
b) to meet up-to-date requirements;
c) to work out new technological processes.
2. The car must have the following units:
a) non-durable components, steam engine, a furnace and fuel.
b) smooth acting clutch, silent gearbox, dependable breaks and steering system.
3. The car must have the following qualities:
a) high efficiency, long service life, driving safety and pleasant appearance.
b) high decorative qualities, fashionable style and modern entertainment
devices.
65
Библиографический список
Основная литература
1. Кузьменкова, Ю. Б. Английский язык [Текст] : учеб. /
Ю. Б. Кузьменкова. – М. : Юрайт, 2014. – 441 с. + CD-диск. – Электронная
версия в ЭБС «Юрайт».
Дополнительная литература
2. Базарская, Н. И. Иностранный язык. Getting ready for the MOT.
Готовимся к техосмотру [Текст] : учеб. пособие / Н. И. Базарская,
И. Б. Минаева. – Воронеж, 2013. – 84 с. – Электронная версия в ЭБС «ВГЛТУ».
3. Дубровина, Ю. Ю. Английский язык [Электронный ресурс] :
методические указания для самостоятельной работы бакалавров /
Ю. Ю. Дубровина, Е. В. Боева, А. А. Илунина. – Воронеж, 2015. – ЭБС
«ВГЛТУ».
4. Кравец, В. Е. Грамматика английского языка. Морфология
[Текст] : грамм. справ. / В. Е. Кравец. – Воронеж, 2010. – 124 с. – Электронная
версия в ЭБС «ВГЛТУ».
5. Кравец, В. Е. Грамматика английского языка. Синтаксис [Текст] :
грамм. справ. / В. Е. Кравец. – Воронеж, 2010. – 80 с. – Электронная версия в
ЭБС «ВГЛТУ».
6. Минаева, И. Б. Иностранный язык. Traffic and driving safety rules
[Текст] : учеб. пособие / И. Б. Минаева, Ю. Ю. Дубровина. – Воронеж, 2014. –
107 с. – Электронная версия в ЭБС «ВГЛТУ».
7. Мюллер, В. К. Англо-русский словарь [Текст] / В. К. Мюллер. – М. :
Локид-Пресс, 2003. – 687 с.
66
Ирина Вячеславовна Милованова
Юлия Юрьевна Киселева
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Методические указания к практическим занятиям
для студентов по направлениям подготовки
23.03.01 – Технология транспортных процессов,
23.03.03 – Эксплуатация транспортно-технологических машин и комплексов
67
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