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Литвинова Л. А. Caring for natural resourses. Охрана природных ресурсов

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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Воронежская государственная лесотехническая академия»
Л.А. Литвинова
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК
CARING FOR NATURAL RESOURCES
ОХРАНА ПРИРОДНЫХ РЕСУРСОВ
Учебное пособие
Воронеж 2014
1
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Воронежская государственная лесотехническая академия»
Л.А. Литвинова
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК
CARING FOR NATURAL RESOURCES
ОХРАНА ПРИРОДНЫХ РЕСУРСОВ
Учебное пособие
Воронеж 2014
2
ББК 81.432.1-923
Л64
Печатается по решению учебно-методического совета
ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА» (протокол № 1 от 10 октября 2014 г.)
Рецензенты: кафедра иностранных языков и деловой международной
коммуникации ФГБОУ ВПО Воронежский ГАУ;
д-р филол. наук, проф. кафедры иностранных языков
ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГПУ» А.Э. Воротникова
Литвинова, Л. А.
Л64 Иностранный язык. Caring for natural resources. Охрана природных
ресурсов [Текст] : учебное пособие / Л. А. Литвинова ; М-во образования и
науки РФ, ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА». – Воронеж, 2014. – 71 с.
ISBN 978-5-7994-0668-4 (в обл.)
Учебное пособие состоит из трех частей, включающих в себя тексты для работы в
аудитории, тексты для самостоятельного чтения и грамматический материал. Тексты
посвящены защите лесов и содержат практические советы в области лесного хозяйства.
Каждая тема снабжена серией упражнений, направленных на закрепление изученного
материала.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 1-2 курсов лесного факультета
ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА».
ББК 81.432.1-923
ISBN 978-5-7994-0668-4
© Литвинова Л. А., 2014
© ФГБОУ ВПО «Воронежская государственная
лесотехническая академия», 2014
3
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Part 1. Texts for classroom working..........................................................................4
Unit 1.............................................................................................................................4
Unit 2.............................................................................................................................6
Unit 3.............................................................................................................................8
Unit 4...........................................................................................................................10
Unit 5...........................................................................................................................12
Unit 6...........................................................................................................................14
Unit 7...........................................................................................................................16
Unit 8...........................................................................................................................17
Unit 9...........................................................................................................................19
Unit 10.........................................................................................................................21
Unit 11.........................................................................................................................24
Part 2. Texts for individual reading.........................................................................27
Text 1...........................................................................................................................27
Text 2...........................................................................................................................28
Text 3...........................................................................................................................30
Text 4...........................................................................................................................31
Text 5...........................................................................................................................32
Text 6...........................................................................................................................34
Text 7...........................................................................................................................36
Text 8...........................................................................................................................38
Text 9...........................................................................................................................40
Grammar....................................................................................................................43
Библиографический список..................................................................................69
4
PART 1
Texts for classroom working
Unit 1
TREES THROUGH THE YEAR
Have you ever tried to climb the stem of a tree? Of course, you have. For a
tree’s stem is its trunk.
Trees are like other plants that grow from seeds. They have roots, stems, and
leaves. But they are different in that they may live for many years. No other plants
are as hardy as trees.
Each of main parts of a tree has some way of living through summer heat and
winter cold. The upper section of the root has a tough skin that keeps it from
freezing or drying out. The root tips reach deep into the ground. There the soil does
not freeze, and there they can find water all year.
The bark protects the trunk, branches and twigs. Between the bark and the
wood is a green layer. Small tubes run through it. These tubes carry down to the
root the food made by the leaves. The food that is not used by the root is stored.
Other small tubes run through the wood and carry water from the root to the leaves.
Evergreen trees, such as pine and spruce, have leaves shaped like needles.
They are covered with an oily skin which keeps them from freezing and drying.
Other kinds of trees prepare for winter by shedding leaves. Late in summer the
bottom of each leaf stem begins to harden. Less and less water passes from the twig
into the leaf. The leaf begins to lose its green color. They turn yellow, red, purple,
and brown. Soon winds tear the withered leaves from their twigs. Strong gusts blow
them away.
New leaves will be ready to take place of the old ones.. They are hidden in
buds covered with thick coats. The buds were made in summer. When spring comes,
sap rises from the roots. It goes into the buds. They swell and grow. Suddenly they
open. Out come the new leaves.
Flowers come from buds too. Soon seeds start to form. But they ripen slowly.
Many kinds fall onto the ground in autumn and lie there through the winter. When
spring comes they sprout. Some seeds do not get far from their parent trees. They
become seedlings that live for just a few years. They die because they can not get
enough sunlight. Other seedlings grow and live for many years and become great
beautiful trees.
5
1. Read the text. Pay attention to the black words before reading. Consult a dictionary
to pronounce them corectly and to understand their meanings.
2. What are the three main parts of a tree?
3. Complete the table:
Parts of a tree
Листья
Большие ветви
Ствол
Почки древесные
Хвоя
Маленькие ветки
Верхняя часть корня
Кончики корней
Way of protection
4. Guess the term:
1. it connects leaves and roots;
2. it helps to keep a tree in the ground;
3. they make food for a plant;
4. we can drink it in early spring;
5. a hardy plant;
6. they are deep in the ground;
7. they do not shed leaves in autumn;
8. it protects the trunk.
5. Find the information about new leaves in the text and show the process in the
boxes:
leaves
!
?
!
?
!
root
6
6. Match the key ideas of the passages to the letters:
a) The way of protecting the trunk, branches and twigs.
b) trees and other plants.
c) The way of protecting evergreen trees.
d) Shedding leaves before winter.
e) Seeds in winter
f) Seedlings’ sprouting.
g) Seedling and sunlight.
h) Stem and trunk.
i) Protecting the root from freezing or drying out.
Unit 2
PLANTS THAT MAKE SEEDS
The plants you know best have big, bright flowers. You know many plants
with small, dull flowers, too. Perhaps, you never noticed their blossoms. Grasses
have flowers. They are tiny and green. Most trees have flowers, too. You know apple
blossoms and the flowers of other fruit trees. Bknow the flower of an oak?They are
small and green. They bloom in spring.
Little flowers as well as small flowers make seeds. Grass seeds are as small as
dust specks. Oak seeds are much bigger. You have seen them many times – you call
them acorns. Apple seeds are not so big. Bite into the core of an apple and you will
find some. In each of these seeds there is a baby plant and some food for it.
Pine and fir-tree make seeds too. But they do niot bloom. They make their
seeds in cones. So they are called cone-bearing plants. The other kinds of plants that
make seeds are called flowering plants.
Both cone-bearing and flowering plants have roots, stems and leaves. The root
anchors the plant. It also takes in water and other needed things from the soil. The
stem connects the root and leaves. Leaves are like kitchens. Tiny pipes in the stem
bring the leaf water. Instead of windows, tiny holes let in air and sunlight. The air is
mixed with water and other materials. The green coloring in the leaves – chlorophyll
– acts as the cook. With the help of sunlight, it turns air and water into a sugary
mixture. This is the plant’s food. Leaves use some of the food they make. The rest
goes through veins into the stem. The stem uses some of the food. All that is left goes
to the roots. They use some and store the rest.
7
1. Read the text. Pay attention to the black words before reading. Consult a dictionary
to pronounce them corectly and to understand their meanings.
2. Find the answers to these questions:
1. What plants are mentioned in the text?
2. What are pine and fir trees seeds like?
3. What groups are plants that make seeds devided into?
4. What are the parts of sugary mixture?
3. Complete the table:
Parts of a plant
1.
2.
3.
Their function(s)
4. Give the types of seeds as well as 5 examples to each of them:
Seeds
--------------------------!
!
?
?
5. Find the two types of plants and illustrate the two of them with 5 examples:
Plants
--------------------------!
!
?
?
6. Find the two types of flowers and illustrate the two of them with 5 examples:
Flowers
--------------------------!
!
?
?
8
7. Translate the Russian sentences into English:
1. Яблони цветут весной. Их цветение очень красивое.
2. Дуб – очень большое дерево, но его цветки маленькие и невзрачные.
3. Листья готовят питательные вещества для растения.
4. Вода, воздух, солнечный свет и хлорофилл есть питательные вещества для
растения.
5. Каждая основная часть растения имеет свои функции.
Unit 3
PLANTS WITHOUT SEEDS
Have you ever seen some brown powder on the underside of a fern? Specks
of this powder can start new plants. Each speck is a spore. There is no food in it –
just the begining of a new plant.
Although ferns never make seeds, they are like flowering plants in many
ways. They have roots, stems and leaves. Some grow so tall they are called tree ferns.
Mosses grow from spores, too. But they have no roots. Instead they they have
tiny hairs which hold them in place. A litle stalk serves as the stem. From it grow
leaflets and tiny cases which hold the spores.
Seaweeds and pond scum belong to another group of plants that start from
spores. These plants are called algae. They have no roots, stems, or leaves. Yet they
can make food from air and water, for they have chlorophyll.
Some plants have no chlorophyll. So they can not make food. They live on
dead things – rotten wood, dried leaves, decaying friut. They are fungus plants. Each
plant starts from a little spore. A mushroom is a big fugus. Molds are fungus plants
too. They use up dead plants and other wastes.
1. Read the text. Pay attention to the black words before reading. Consult a dictionary
to pronounce them corectly and to understand their meanings
2. Finish the sentences:
1. Ferns are like ...
2. Mosses have no ...
9
3. seaweeds and pondscum are called ...
4. Fungus plants live on ...
5. There is no food in ...
6. Tree ferns grow ...
7. A little stalk serves as ...
8. Algae have no roots, stems or ...
9. A mushroom is a big ...
3. Find the English/Russian equivalents:
1. - speck(s)
- a spore
- (tree) fern
- flowering plant
- tiny hairs
- a big fungus plant
2. коричневая пыльца, образовывать семена, мох, закреплять на месте,
водоросли, грибковые растения, споровая коробочка.
4. Answer the questions:
1. What is the difference between “a spore” and “a seed”?
2. How do algae make food?
3. Does a spore have food for a new life?
4. Do ferns make seeds?
5. Do mosses have leaves?
6. Is there chlorophyll in fungus plant?
5. Complete the table:
leaves
Ferns
Algae
Fungus plants
molds
Pond scum
stem
roots
clorophyll
10
6. Choose the right summary on the text:
1. The text is about plants without seeds. First, we can read about spores and seeds
and the difference between them. The next passages give the examples of plants
without seeds and the characteristics basing upon the main parts of a plant.
2. The text is about plants that do not make seeds. The plants make spores. The next
passages describe the difference and the similarity between the plants that make seeds
and plants without seeds. These two types of plants are very different.
3. The text speaks about plants without seeds. These plants have the main parts
usually. The next passages give the characteristics of these plants according to the
main parts of any plant – leaves, a stem, roots.
Unit 4
FIRE: FOE OR FRIEND
A giant sequoia begins to produce seeds after only a few years of life. Mature
trees generate about 600 new cones every year, each cone containing a few hundred
seeds, as they produce more than 100,000 seeds annually. The mature sequoia holds
10,000 cones in its branches with about two million seeds inside, and a large sequoia
may bear as many as 40,000 cones.
Once the seeds reach the forest floor they must overcome many problems
before reproduction takes place. If the seeds come to rest on a thick duff of needles
and twigs reproduction fails.
Sunlight and nourishment in the forms of moisture and minerals of bare
soil, must be present. Fire, by clearing the forest floor, encourages such conditions.
Of course, in a fire the seeds that already lie on the ground are burned up, too. So
nature provides yet one another way to ensure reproduction of the giant sequoia: heat
rises in the branches and dries the cones. In a day or so, after the fire has died out, the
cones open and release their seeds, which fall on the ashes below and germinate in a
few months.
Thus, summer and autumn fires are a part of the natural environment in
which the giant sequoia lives. In fact, the mature sugar and yellow pines that live
together with the giant sequoia in the mixed conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada all
rely on these fires for their existing. Without fire to clear out the limb canopy
overhead, the sunlight would not penetrate to the offsprings of these sun-loving trees
11
and their seedlings would languish in the shadow below. Forest managers have long
known that fire is requisite to certain kinds of plant life, however, it is only in recent
years that this natural law has begun to be understood by the public.
1. Read the text. Pay attention to the black words before reading. Consult a dictionary
to pronounce them corectly and to understand their meanings
2. Find the synonyms in the text:
- conifer - ?
- moisture - ?
- nourishment - ?
- to germinate - ?
- to produce (seeds) - ?
- seedlings - ?
3. Translate into English:
- проникать к проросткам
- естественное окружение
- смешанный хвойный лес
- влага и минеральные вещества
- особые условия для воспроизводства семян
- образовывать шишки
- взрослые деревья
- лесничий
4. Answer the questions:
1. Where does giant sequoia live?
2. What is the tree like?
3. Is it a prolific seed bearing tree?
4. how many seeds does a usual cone contain?
5. What is necessary for a seed to germinate?
6. How does a fire help in reproduction?
7. What natural law is understood by the public now?
12
Unit 5
FOREST FIRE AREAS IN YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK
The forest fires had a major impact on Yellowstone’s backcountry. Still there
are many places in the park that have not had recent fires. Even those that were
burned did so to varying degrees. Burning varies from places where entire trees were
completely burned to places where only the understory burned and the forest canopy
was untouched. This has left the park with patterns of different intensities of burns
throughout the forest. These patterns are called fire “mosaics’ and are especially
visible from overlooks and high peaks such as Mt. Washburn or Mt.Sheridan.
Forest fires are as much a part of Yellowstone’s ecology as are the grizzly
bears, the ospreys, or the pine trees. For thousands of years, lightning has started
fires here, and nature has eventually put them out. Fires usually burn themselves out
when they come to a stream or river, a wet meadow, a different type of age of tree,
or when a rainstorm or snowfall extinguishes them. The number of fires and the
extent of the burning depends largely on the weather and the age of the forest. The
extremely dry weather and strong winds drive the huge fires.
When a fire strikes a forest, it may burn away the forest canopy. This allows
more sunlight to reach the forest floor, and soon grasses, flowers, bushes, and new
trees spring up (up to 100 seedlings per square metre). It has been found that the
number of plant species increases after a fire and reaches a peak after about 25 years.
Then as the trees grow back up and the forest and the forest canopy again forms, the
plant diversity decreases drastically.
The number of mammals and birds also increases after a fire. Grazing animals
and root eating rodents are attracted by the sudden abundance of ground plants.
Some birds nest in the trees killed by the fires while others come to feed on the
insects these trees attract. As the forest grows back and its diversity decreases, the
diversity and number of birds, rodents, and grazing animals also decreases.
These burned areas have some good things and some bad things from a
hiker’s point of view. The bad is mainly the soot and the heat. The lack of forest
canopy lets the sun glare down and the black trees seem to absorb the heat.
On the plus side of the fires is the new undergrowth with the large patches of
purple fireweed, yellow arnica, and green grass that seem so much brighter when
contrasted with the black background.
13
1. Read the text.
2. Translate passages 3, 4 in the written form.
3. What is the Russian for:
- the forest canopy
-meadow
-to depend on the weather
- huge fires
-the forest floor
- plant diversity
4. Answer the questions:
a) Do fires always burn the forest canopy?
b) How does a forest fire die out?
c) What depends on the weather?
d) What helps to drive huge fires?
e) What helps sunlight to reach the forest floor?
f) How long does it take to reach plant species increase?
g) What is the dependence between fires and forest age?
5. Find the forest ihabitants from the text:
Birds Insects Animals Bacteria Plants 6. Find the word combinations with “fire”; “burn”
7. What are the advantages and diadvantages of forest fires?
- возрастает разнообразие растений
- возрастает количество животных и птиц
- жара
- сажа, копоть
14
Unit 6
FOREST (PART 1)
Do you know what a forest is? It is not just multitude of trees neither is it a
combination of several tree species. Let us watch its birth… Now imagine that winds
have brought multitude of winged pine seeds. About three million seeds have fallen
on an area of one hectare. Some are strong and germinate easily, others are weak and
can hardly spring up from the ground. Yet one third part comes to life.
So, one million offsprings have appeared. And again some are stronger, others
are weaker; the stems of these are thick and strong; the stems of those are thin. All
the roots have come to work now. Some offsprings prosper; others fail to get rooted.
The little ones that have survived come now to fight enemies. The winds
brought grass seeds; the grasses sprang up quickly and are now taller and stronger
than the baby pines. Field mice come to look for pine seeds, the maybug larvae live
on offsprings. Before pine trees are five years of age, they have suffered cold autumn
rains, heavy snowfalls, rapid spring flows and summer draughts. Lots of them could
not survive the fight and perished. Out of one million only five or may be ten
thousand are left on the hectare area.
Up to the age of ten each pine of these five thousand has been fighting all
along, all by itself. Now that the trees are meeting their eleventh spring, their crowns
have joined, their roots interlaced under the earth.; they can withstand now many
troubles. They are now influencing the environment, they dominate it because they
have become a forest. A new life, a forest life has begun. Under the canopy of a
young forest fight is still going on. Individual trees die, but the forest prospers.
Towards the age of maturity only five hundred trees are left on the one
hectare area which we have been watching. Under the canopy young trees are
growing as well as buses and grasses with mushrooms, flowers and berries among
them. All of them together make a forest: mature forest trees, the second forest
growth, the undergrowth and the grass. They make up “forest storeys”, their
coexistence make a forest. (to be continued)
1. Read the text. Pay attention to the black words before reading. Consult a dictionary
to pronounce them correctly and to understand their meanings.
15
2. Translate into Russian:
- tree species
- winged pine seeds
- to spring up
- to prosper
- to get rooted
- to withstand
3. Find the synonyms, first, and the three antonyms, second:
a) multitude = ?
b) offsprings = ?
c) to germinate = ?
d) to anchor = ?
e) to continue = ?
f) to survive/? /?
4. Translate into Russian:
1. There are many tree species in a forest.
2. Seedlings have a lot od enemies to fight.
3. Every plant fights the enemies all by itself.
4. A tree must be some years old to withstand problems.
5. The coexistence of forest storeys makes a forest.
5. Answer the questions:
1. What are the enemies of the offsprings?
2. What is a usual part of the survived trees?
3. What is a forest?
6. Draw a forest in a scheme.
7. Look for the terms related to “forest”:
!
--Forest -!
16
Unit 7
FOREST (PART 2)
The forest population is numerous and different. Birds are the most active
inhabitants. Insect-eating birds are often very useful to forest as they destroy
multitudes of harmful insects. There are also many animals in the forest. Some of
them live in the trees, others dig holes in the ground, still others dwell in the forest
litter. The forest dwellers make up what people call wildlife.
There are still other inhabitants of the forest – the invisible ones. These are
armies of bacteria and without them life in the forest is unthinkable. To all the
inhabitants forest gives food and shelter. The forest dwellers are most closely
connected with one another making a circle of causes and effects in forest life.
Let us have an example to illustrate this. When fir cones get mature, crossbills
start coming to dwell in the branches of fir-trees. These birds never eat out all the
seeds of each cone and drop it on the ground beneath. Then squirrels come to carry
away the dropped cones and the marten is after squirrels on which it lives. The close
links and the harmony in wildlife are marvelous.
Yet, there are forest inhabitants which are to be controlled because of their
most harmful activities. Lots of insects are very harmful. For example, the brown
pine weevil gnaws the lower part of the stems of small plants. The bark beetles
attack sound trees. The pith borer is quite common in the pine forests. It bores
tracks in young pine shoots.
Under reasonable management the woods are taken care of, so as to save
them from harmful inhabitants and to encourage everything which might be useful
for forest trees.
1. Read the text. Pay attention to the black words before reading. Consult a dictionary
to pronounce them correctly and to understand their meanings.
2. Find the word combinations with “insect” in the text.
3. What is the synonym of a “dweller” from the text?
4. Translate “circle of causes and effects” into Russian.
17
5. Answer the questions:
1. Where do the forest dweller have their homes?
2. What forest dwellers are to be controlled?
6. Translate into the English language:
Текст повествует о лесных обитателях. Это птицы, насекомые, бактерии,
животные, растения. Лесные обитатели тесно связаны между собой. Такие
связи называются причинно-следственными. В последней части мы можем
узнать о контроле некоторых лесных обитателей (хищные животные, вредные
насекомые). Иногда их деятельность становится вредной для леса.
Unit 8
NATIONAL PARKS, GOALS OF FOUNDATION
When Yellowstone National Park was established in 1872, its advocates
wanted to protect an unusual and interesting collection of geothermal wonders.
Today, people recognize that the world’s first national park protects much more than
geysers and other fascinating geothermal features. Yellowstone is recognized as a
great wildlife sanctuary, one of the last places in the nation where the full
complement of wildlife that occurred here during the time of Lewis and Clark’s epic
journey to the Pacific in 1804 – 1806 still roam free. Yellowstone is also recognized
as an important and unique area for scientific study because it has remained, in large
part, as it was more than 200 years ago while other such landscapes in the rest of the
world continue to disappear.
Scientists from all over the world come to Yellowstone to conduct research
on everything from water quality to animal movements and habitat preferences to
fire ecology to the unique lifeforms found in the park’s geothermal waters. Before
they are allowed to begin, however, they must submit a research proposal to park
management for review and approval. No research is allowed that would threaten or
diminish the resources of the park. Any specimen (for example, plants or insects or
even microbes) collected for research remain the property of the National Park
Service and must be properly cataloged and cared for.
Many different animals are radio collared in Yellowstone. Bison are collared
for various research projects, including studies on seasonal movements. Bighorn
sheep have been collared in an effort to understand their behavior, movement inside
and outside the park, and the locations of specific migration corridor. Wolves are
18
collared so that researches can track their movements and their progress toward
recovery. Researchers collared grizzly bears in order to learn more about home range
sizes, food habits, habitat use, and behavior pattern. The studies on pronghorn
antelope are one of the newest.
As the earth’s human population continues to increase, the remaining wild
places take on an added importance in our lives. Yellowstone is the place where
personal encounters with nature – an early morning walk in a steamy geyser basin or
the haunting howl of a wolf on a moonlight night in the backcountry – provide us
with magical moments to recall during our busy lives. But another intangible of this
and other national parks is the value such places hold for science to improve our
lives, teach us about other lifeforms, and to help solve our problems. Despite all that
scientists have already learned from studying Yellowstone and its inhabitants, it is a
certainty that there are many more exiting things yet to be discovered.
1. Read the text. Pay attention to the black words before reading. Consult a dictionary
to pronounce them correctly and to understand their meanings
2. What are the Russian/English equivalents:
- to protect
- habitat
- wildlife sanctuary
- to diminish the resources
- specimen
- to be radio collared
- inhabitant(s)
- первый в мире национальный парк
- проводить исследования
- качество воды
- администрация парка
- заботиться
- (по)следить ч-л
- сделать открытие
3. Try to guess the meaning of the words without consulting a dictionary:
Nature, magical, problem, collection, project, park, specific, migration corridor,
progress, personal, geysers, geothermal, geometrical, national, seasonal.
4. What are word combinations?
-geometrical features
-seasonal movements
-migration corridor
-scientific study
-scientific researches
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5. Answer the questions:
1) What are specimen?
2) What animals are radio collared in Yellowstone Park?
3) When was Yellowstone Park established?
4) What for are animals collared?
5) What is the advantage of Yellowstone National Park foundation?
6) Why do scientists come to Yellowstone?
6. Finish up the sentences:
a) Yellowstone national Park was established …
b) The park protects not only geysers and geothermal features but…
c) The world scientists come to Yellowstone to …
d) Any specimen collected for research must be properly…
e) Bisons are collared to study…
f) Researchers collared wolves to…
7. Find the 3 variants of the Russian word combination “геотермальные источники”
(video supported)
Unit 9
GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK
“The place of blue smoke” is what the Cherokee Indians call the great Smoky
Mountains region, at the end of the Appalachian Highlands in the southeastern United
States. Long before European settlers arrived on the continent, the mountains were
the part of the great Cherokee Nation.
About 8,500 Cherokee now live in communities on a reservation on the
eastern side of the mountains, where they maintain the traditions of their people.
Unfortunately, only a few older people still remember how to speak the ancient
language.
The Great Smoky Mountains are dotted with small towns that were settled by
Europeans. There are a number of interesting things to listen to and to look at. But
most tourists who visit the area go to the Smokies because of the beautiful mountains
and valleys, the changing seasons and the wildlife. The Smokies are home to more
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than fifty species of mammals, including the legendary black bear. To preserve the
beauty of the region, The U.S. government established The Great Smoky Mountains
National Park. It is the most visited national Park in the country, with more than 8
million tourists each year.
But how long can a place with so many visitors remain unspoiled? Because
the water in the clouds which give the region its name can hold as much as ten times
the amount of pollution and one hundred times the acid rainfall, the trees at the tops
of the mountains are dying. Perhaps the Great Smoky Mountains will become just
another lost wilderness.
1. Read the text. Pay attention to the black words before reading. Consult a dictionary
to pronounce them correctly and to understand their meanings
2. What are the English/Russian equivalents:
- ancient language
- посетитель
- European settler(s)
- маленький город
- species
- загрязнение
- rainfall
- млекопитающие
- wildlife
- долина
3. Try to guess the meaning of the words without a dictionary:
Region, continent, reservation, tradition, tourist, to visit, season, legendary, national,
park, million.
4. What are the word combinations:
-part of the National Park
-the Cherokee Indians
-an Indian reservation
-a Scottish celebration
-unspoiled wilderness
5. Answer the questions:
1) Why are the Cherokee important for the Great Smoky Mountains?
2) What festivals take place in the region?
3) Why do tourists visit the Smokies?
4) What is a big problem in the Smokies?
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6. Finish up the sentences:
a) Indian Greek Trail is a place where people can hike to…
b) A man who invented a writing system for his language was…
c) Cherokee is a language which only a few old people …
d) The black bear is an animal which lives in …
e) The Highland Games are held by people who are descendants of…
f) The great Smoky National Park is an area where there are fifty species of …
(video supported)
Unit 10
MAN AND ANIMALS
When we hear of burned rainforests, disappearing rhinos, threatened pandas
or damaged coral reefs, most of us feel that something is wrong. Many of us donate
money to support international or (and) national conservation organizations. We
feel that we help to protect these threatened habitats and rare species, and we like to
think that we are doing a good job. But is this the full picture? Have we, in the name
of conservation, been missing out something important?
Conservation is uniquely tied to the idea of protected areas, in particular
national parks. The first of these were set up more than a century ago in Europe and
North America. From 2000 protected areas 20 years ago, there are now 8600. They
are to be found in 169 countries, covering 792 million hectares – nearly 6 per cent of
the world’s land area.
But the global expansion of national parks has been accompanied by a
powerful ideology that people are bad for nature, and so the wider public good is best
served by keeping them out. As a result, million have been resettled or prevented
from using what were once their resources. In Africa, for example, two-thirds of all
protected areas (equal to five times the size of Great Britain) exclude people,
allowing no use of wild plants or animals. However, these people value to flora and
fauna, which are crucial to their survival, a part of their culture and their way of
life. And so they look after them.
Those who set up national parks seldom recognize the importance of wild
animals and plants to local people. It is often forgotten or not appreciated that the
very ecosystems deemed worthy of protection from people have been shaped as
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much by human action as by any other factor. Some “pristine” rainforests, assumed
to be untouched by human hands, are now found to have once supported thriving
agricultural communities. This concept of the wilderness is an urban myth that
exists only in our imagination.
The problem is that when people are excluded from conservation activities,
then the very goals of conservation are threatened. In some places, the restrictions
placed on local communities have led to biodiversity loss. After the exclusion of the
Masai from their lands in Kenya, game parks have increasingly been taken over by
shrub and woodland (and tourism for rich westerners), leaving less grazing for
antelopes. These rich grassland ecosystems were in part maintained by the Masai
and their grazing cattle. Open protest and rallies against protected areas, attacks on
guards, poisoning on animals deliberate burning of forests have now become
common. When Namibia became independent in 1990, Ovambo tribesmen living on
the boundary of Etosha National Park celebrated their freedom by cutting the game
fence and driving into the park to hunt game for their families to eat. In south India,
some 20 square kilometers of Nagarhole National Park were recently burned as a
protest. As a result, the cost of enforcing park regulations has spiraled. In many
countries, the bulk of budget for protected areas is spent on aircraft, radios, machine
guns, vehicle, armed guards and antipoaching equipment.
Emerging slowly from this mess, however, is a strengthening alternative
vision that is putting people at the centre of conservation; it recognizes that humans
and animals can live in symbiotic relationships. It recognizes that societies have
developed many processes that have enabled them to conserve and enhance species
diversity. When people are fully involved in conservation, the change can be
remarkable. Community wildlife schemes in Africa and India are having a positive
impact on flora and fauna, on the well-being of local people, and on the attitudes
and approaches of conservation professionals.
Not all is rosy in the garden of Eden, however. An alarming double backlash
has now begun. The first come from the reaction-are conservationists who call
themselves «deep ecologists». They say that only they have the competence to decide
the future of tropical landscapes. For some deep ecologists, nature has an intrinsic
worth and should be preserved irrespective of people needs. Some have even argued
that a large proportion of the world must be immediately cordoned off from people.
The second backlash comes from those conservation professionals who say
that they have always sought to involve people. And we are told that people are now
participating in conservation activities. The problem lies in the interpretation of this
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word “participation”, which means different things to different people. To many
conservation professionals, it still means “you participate in doing what I want”. In
this type of passive or manipulative participation, people may provide their labour but
not their skills, ideas or knowledge. We should have learnt our lesson by now.
1. Read the text. Pay attention to the black words before reading. Consult a dictionary
to pronounce them correctly and to understand their meanings
2. Do the test:
1.”But is this the full picture”. What do the writers express with this question ?
a) Doubt whether the approach of conservation organization to nature is altogether
right;
b) Surprise at people giving such generous financial aid to conservation
organizations;
c) concern about the public’s lack of interest in the activities of conservation
organizations.
2. What is the example of Africa meant to illustrate?
a) National parks creation has robbed a great many people of their land and their
livelihood;
b) Most national parks are set up in thinly populated area;
c) national parks usually cover very large stretches of land.
3. What is the example of “Masai” meant to illustrate?
a) It is difficult to restore cultivated land to its former natural state;
b) The absence of native people may make parks less attractive to tourists;
c) Wildlife often increases in areas that people have been forced to leave.
4. What distinguishes the “alternative vision”? According to the vision,
a) man is not free to adjust his natural surroundings to his needs;
b) the presence of people can be beneficial to both man and nature;
c) modern methods of cultivating the land can be environmentally friendly.
5. How do paragraphs 8 and 9 relate to paragraph 7?
a) They tone down the optimism expressed in paragraph 7;
b) They shed new light on the point made in paragraph 7;
c) They prove the plan proposed in paragraph 7 to be impractical.
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6. Which of the following is true of the ”conservation professionals” discussed in the
last paragraph?
a) They disagree on what constitutes the best approach to conservation;
b) They act as if they know better than the local people;
c) They concentrate on the specific needs of the local people.
Unit 11
ECOLOGICAL TOURISM – A NEW TYPE OF TOURISM
Today the modern tourism is one of the largest industry of the world that
employs 127 million people: each fifteenth of all the working people in the world.
Second, it is a leading tax-payer. And, at last, it is the most quickly-developed world
industry. These are the advantages and positive moments of the world tourism. But
developing so intensively it is harmful towards the environment. However, it is often
considered that economical problems must be paid attention after ecological ones. If
we do not change the situation tourism can disappear.
Tourism is the business of providing things for people to do, places for them to
stay when they are on holidays. There are different types of tourism nowadays:
medical, recreational, religious, business, ecological etc. Ecological tourism is what
we are interested in. This is a new type of tourism; it is opposite to the old, traditional
one. What is the difference between traditional tourism and ecotourism? Tourists can
enjoy the nature but save the earth at the same time. Or so goes the theory of
“ecotourism”. Ecotourism was based on the realization that some people (usually
poor Africans, Asians, and Latin Americans) live in places surrounded by precious
living things. And other people – well-off and rich Americans and Europeans – want
to see them and preserve.
The idea was to enable people in the developing world to earn money by
preserving nature rather than using nature up: it is simple – people put down their
guns and harpoons and take up laundry and food trays.
Where does ecotourism work? Is the idea successful? It is really successful in
the whale-watching waters of Baja, California, and Argentina’s Peninsula Valdes.
Hundreds of gray whales migrate into the warm lagoons even in winter to breed.
Before the 1980s fishermen and whale-hunters turned the waters into dead zones.
Local environmentalists proclaimed the idea of ecotourism. And now we can
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compare: in the mid 1980s whale watching was modest business with 5 mln, today it
is a 500 million tourist industry with the tourists from 65 countries. Costa Rica
embraced ecotourism early and created an ecotourism institute and a faculty of
ecotourism at its Latin American University of Science and Technology. The industry
brings in almost 500 million dollars a year, second after banana export.
Sometimes ecotourism is beset by ecotroubles. For example, tourists come to
Mexico’s Pacific coast to watch green sea turtles on moonlit beaches. But the
beachfront hotels cast such bright light that turtles become disoriented. Whalewatching frighten the whales and they dive underwater. As you understand, it is
dangerous for the people in the boats. In Australia they organize dolphin expeditions.
Very often feeding reduces the ability of young dolphins to find their own food.
Of course, the above-mentioned facts can be considered as disadvantages of
ecotourism. For these goals a visiting management is used, it controls time of trip,
types of the visit as well as the maximum number of visitors to a region.
Even if whales are frightened by tourist boats and turtles can not eat in peace,
the living creatures are now better than when people hunted them to kill. Of two
evils choose the least.
1. Read the text. Pay attention to the black words before reading. Consult a dictionary
to pronounce them correctly and to understand their meanings
2. Are the sentences true or false?
1) Tourism is a slowly-developed industry.
2) Tourism gives many jobs for people.
3) There are different types of tourism today.
4) Traditional tourism means an ecological one.
5) Developing countries can earn money and preserve their nature.
6) The idea of ecotourism is successful in every part of our planet.
7) Ecological tourism brings about a million $ a year in South America.
8) There are advantages and disadvantages in ecotourism.
3. Find the missed words in the word combinations:
p. 1 –… tourism
- leading …
- to change …
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p. 2 - different … of tourism
- … money
- to put down …
p. 3 - whale-watching …
- … lagoons
- …environmentalists
- dead …
- tourist …
p. 4 - …turtles
- …expeditions
- a … management
- to eat …
- … creatures
4. Find the key idea of every passage.
5. Answer the questions:
a) What are the characteristics of modern tourism?
b) What problems are more important?
c) What tourism types can you name?
d) What is tourism?
e) What is ecological tourism?
f) Where is ecotourism successful?
g) What are the disadvantages of ecotourism?
h) Is ecotourism a good idea, up to you?
6. Translate into English:
1) Много людей работает в сфере современного туризма.
2) Существуют различные виды туризма.
3) Богатые люди складывают оружие, а бедные зарабатывают деньги.
4) Киты заплывают в теплые лагуны, чтобы найти пищу.
5) Защитники окр. среды организовали акватории для наблюдения за китами.
6) Зеленые морские черепахи, киты, дельфины – живые существа.
7) Схема посещений организует число туристов.
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PART 2
Texts for individual reading
Text 1
SILVICULTURE AS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF CARING FOR NATURAL
RESOURCES
The future productivity of our forests depends on careful selection of tree seed
sources to match the local soil and climatic conditions off each forest. The objective
is to select species and seed sources which will yield high volumes of timber and
superior tree form while maintaining wood properties and disease resistance.
Forestry makes an important contribution to a productive and flourishing
countryside and rural welfare. Forest and woodland have the special capacity to
provide recreation benefits and absorb the pressures of large numbers of visitors.
Public recreation must be a part of forest management.
Silviculture is the art of reproducing and tending forest growth, it includes the
technique of starting new forests and caring for them through all stages to maturity.
Regeneration of woods may be accomplished by creating conditions for establishing
new stands either by natural seeding or by a new crop of tree sprouts; again, new
woodlands may be established by planting small trees grown in forest nurseries. As
stands develop, numerous types of cultural measures are desirables, cutting made in
immature stands are termed intermediate cutting; these made in the mature woods are
called final cuttings.
The treatment of a wood that is managed for the production of useful wood
products varies considerably from the treatment where the aim is one of encouraging
of wildlife or of protecting human habitations from climatic extremes. But it is easily
possible in any woods to meet all objectives by a well-coordinated plan of
silvicultural treatment.
The application of silvicultural treatment demands a knowledge of the many
environmental factors that influence the growth of species, an understanding of the
ways in which trees live and grow in association of the worth of the individual
species that are adaptable to local conditions.
1. Read the text.
2. Translate passages 3, 4 in the written form.
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3. What is the Russian for:
- forest growth;
- superior tree form;
- tree sprouts;
- to establish new stands;
- forest nursery;
- intermediate (final) cutting.
4. Answer the questions:
a) What is silviculture?
b) What trees must be selected to yield high volume of timber?
c) What are tree sprouts used for?
d) How are new stands established?
e) Where are baby plants grown in?
f) What cultural measures are used as stands develop?
Text 2
TREES ADD BEAUTY AND SO MUCH MORE
Trees and shrubs are a valuable addition to most property. Properly planted,
well maintained trees add beauty, wind protection, shade, beautiful habitat, visual
screening, and other benefits to the landscape. Unfortunately, many landscape trees
are not properly planted or cared-for. In some cases this is simply a matter of neglect,
but in other cases the person planting or caring for a tree is not properly trained.
Farmers and ranchers, and many homeowners, are making progress in natural
resource protection. There are nearly 2 billion acres of land in the United States.
About 70 percent of that land is privately owned, and care of that land is in the hands
f those who live and work on it. Most of that land is managed by farmers and
ranchers. They use conservation plans to protect soil, water, air, plant, and animal
resources..
Trees can be home to many different types of wildlife. Trees also can reduce
your heating and cooling costs. Help clean the air, add beauty and color, provide
shelter from the wind and the sun, and add value to your home.
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Choosing a tree
Choose a tree that will provide enjoyment for you and that fits your landscape.
Take advantage of the abundant references on gardening in local libraries, at
universities, arboretums, and parks where trees are identified, and from native plant
and gardening clubs, and nurseries. Before you buy, you can find out if a tree is
appropriate for your area, how big it will get, how long it will live, its leaf color in
the fall, any nuts or fruit it may bear, and the proper planting instructions and care for
that species. Make a conscious effort to select trees native to your area. They will live
longer, be more tolerant of the local weather and soil conditions, enhance natural
biodiversity and be more beneficial to wildlife than non-native trees. Avoid exotic
trees that can invade other areas, crowd our native plants, and harm natural
ecosystems. Plant a variety of tree species. For wildlife choose trees and shrubs that
bloom and bear fruits or nuts at different times of the year. Shrubs that produce
berries can provide food throughout the year. Trees with nuts and fruit can also
provide seasonal foods. Flowers and fruits of some plants attract hummingbirds and
butterflies.
1. Read the text.
2. Find the Russian\English equivalents:
- wild life
- очищать воздух
- heating cost
- различный тип
- gardening
- подходить под ландшафт
- arboretum
- питомник
- to bear fruit
- захватить другие площади
- diversity
- высаживать
- to bloom
- кустарник
3. Answer these questions:
1) What are the advantages of planting trees?
2) Where can you get information on the gardening?
3) Why is it important to select native trees?
4) Why should you avoid exotic trees?
5) How many species should you plant?
6) Whom do flowers of plants attract?
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4. What are the prepositions:
-to provide shelter
-to add value
-to take advantage
-to be appropriate
-to care
5. Form adjectives from the given below verbs and nouns: nature, exotica, season, to
differ, abundance, location.
Text 3
PLANTING A TREE
A properly planted and maintained tree will grow much faster and live much
longer than one that is incorrectly planted. Trees can be planted almost any time of
the year as long as the soil is not frozen. However, early autumn is the optimum time
to plant trees. The roots grow some during the first fall and winter and when sprig
comes the tree is ready to grow. Your second choice for planting is early spring. Hot
summer weather is hard on newly planted trees.
General planting instructions:
1. Dig a hole twice as wide as, and slightly shallower than, the root ball. Roughen
the sides and bottom of the hole with a pick or shovel so that roots can
penetrate the soil.
2. With a potted tree, gently remove the tree from the container. Lay the tree on
its side with the container end near the planting hole. Hit the bottom and sides
of the container until the root ball is loosened. With trees wrapped in plastic or
burlap, remove the string or wire that holds the wrapping to the root crown.
Remove the wrapping if in plastic; burlap may be left in place.
3. Gently separate circling roots on the root ball. Shorten exceptionally long
roots, and guide the shortened roots downward and outward. Root tips die
quickly when exposed to light and air, so don’t waste time.
4. Place the root ball in the hole. Leave the top of the root ball (where the roots
end and the trunk begins) ½ to 1 inch above the surrounding soil, making sure
not to cover it unless roots are exposed. As you ad soil to fill in around the tree,
lightly tamp the soil to collapse air pockets, or add water to help settle the soil.
31
5. Form a temporary water basin around the base of the tree to encourage water
penetration, and water thoroughly after planting. A tree with a dry root ball can
not absorb water; if the root ball is extremely dry, allow water to trickle into
the soil by placing the hose at the trunk of the tree.
6. Mulch around the tree.
Text 4
ENVIRONMENTALLY COOL
Turning down the thermostat is one of the least efficient, most environmentally
demanding ways to cool things off when it is as hot as a blast furnace outside.
As communities lower indoor temperatures in summer, power plants must
maximize their output, which leads to the burning of polluting fuels. There is a better
way. Instead of switching on air conditioner, try lowering the temperature with some
of these simpler, nonmechanical approaches.
Plant deciduous shade trees or trellis-climbing vines around your home to
block the sun without expending energy.
Building porches and garages on the sides of your house will also help turn
back an invasion of solar heat.
A roof or pergola covering a patio or section of driveway cuts down the
amount of heat reflected into a house.
Use only light-colored roofing materials because they will redirect heat than
absorb it.
Early maintenance
For the first year or two, especially after a week or so of especially hot or dry
weather, watch your trees closely for signs of moisture stress. If you see leaf wilting
or hard, caked soil, water the trees well and slowly enough so the water soaks in
rather than runs off. This will encourage deep root growth. Keep the area under the
trees mulched and free of other plants. Until the trees are deeply rooted grasses and
other plants may take up moisture before the trees can get their share.
1. Read the text and translate it in the written form
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Text 5
TREE SELECTION
Species – a particular type of tree
Cultivar – a cultivated variety of a species selected for certain characteristics.
In selecting a tree species or cultivar our goal should be to have a tree that is
well matched to the planting site so that it survives and thrives. The tree must also
achieve the goals for size, shape, function, and appearance and must be affordable.
Unfortunately, people usually only pay attention to visually obvious characteristics
like flower color, presence or lack of fruit, and crown shape and size. Such
characteristics may be important, but usually they have little to do with whether the
tree will do well on its planting site. Lack of knowledge of a tree’s site-related needs
results in disappointed tree owners and a lack of well adapted trees in our landscapes.
A tree’s site-related needs and its ability to withstand environmental extremes
are rooted in its native origins. All landscape tree species and cultivars were once
native to a certain climatic or geographic region or have been bred from native trees.
These native trees were well-adapted to their surroundings and these adaptations
usually have carried over into the cultivated trees we see (with the exception of some
species like fruit trees that have undergone intensive breeding). For example, though
a white fir at a nursery may have grown in a nursery bed in bright sunlight, it still has
its native characteristic of shade tolerance that allows it to seed-in under the shade of
a forest canopy. Cottonwoods are native to bare river fluid plains which helps explain
their preference for moist soils and high light conditions. So, it is important to
remember that trees have specific site requirements that vary between species and
cultivars. Matching your site conditions to a tree that you like is the key to tree
selection. These are the factors that should be paid special attention – soil conditions,
cold, heat and shade tolerance, water requirements, pest resistance, growth rate,
crown size, form, rooting area or volume, longevity, ornamental characteristics,
utility locations.
1. Read the text.
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2. Find the Russian/English equivalents:
-moist soil(s)
место высаживания
- environmental extreme(s)
ландшафт, местность
- to carry over
белая ель
- nursary
лесной полог
- heat/shade tolerance
скорость, темп роста
3. Answer the questions:
1) What are the usual characteristics of a cultivar?
2) What are flower color, presence or lack of fruit, crown shape and size?
3) What is/are the native characteristic(s)?
4) What species are mentioned in the text?
5) How to select a right species?
6) What factors should be paid special attention?
7) What types of characteristics do you know?
4. What are the prepositions:
- to result…
-to match…
-to be rooted …
- to be adapted…
-to vary…
-to pay attention…
5. Form adjectives from the given below verbs and nouns:
Climate, geography, environment, to afford, intensity, ornament, specification.
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Text 6
TREE SELECTION (PART 2)
SOIL CONDITIONS
Soil provides trees with special support, water, mineral elements (nutrients),
and oxygen for the roots. Certain properties, such as sol pH (alkalinity or acidity),
drainage, density or compaction, texture, salinity, and structure affect a soil’s ability
to provide these benefits to trees.
COLD AND HEAT TOLERANCE
Some trees are very cold hardy and withstand extremely cold temperatures,
while others are killed by a mild frost. In some cases a tree may be fairly cold hardy
while dormant but may become active too early in the spring and suffer damage by a
late frost. Other species may be able to tolerate very high temperatures and some
withstand both extreme cod and heat quite well. Plant hardiness zones have been
developed and must be taken in account.
SHADE TOLERANCE
A tree’s shade tolerance can vary from very intolerant to very tolerant and is
important if you have a very shaded or very open planting site. Shade intolerant trees
rarely do well in shaded areas. Though shade tolerant trees do best in at least partial
shade, some also do well in sunny locations.
WATER REQUIREMENTS
Some tree species are very drought tolerant and can grow in near-desert
conditions while others need access to abundant water at all times. Many heat tolerant
species are also drought tolerant. If climatic conditions do not provide enough water
irrigation is necessary. However, trees also can be weakened or killed by
overwatering.
PEST RESISTANCE
Some tree species or cultivars are highly susceptible to insect or disease pests
while others are nearly pest-free. For example, stressed Lombardy poplars are very
susceptible to a stem canker and are almost certain to die within 5 to 15 years.
Ginkgo has few known pests and is also very pollution tolerant. Serious, lifethreatening pests like borers and cancers deserve much more attention and concern
than late-season leaf feeding insects or other non-life-threatening pests. Stressed trees
often are much more susceptible to pest attack and damage.
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GROWTH RATE
Fast growth rate is one of the main interests people have when selecting a tree.
Cottonwoods and silver maples can grow many feet in height a year and quickly
become large trees. Such fast-growing trees are often short-lived, weak wooded, or
quickly outgrow their site. Though planting of some fast-growing trees to quickly
establish a landscape may be fine, some slower-growing but longer-lived and more
desirable trees also should be planted.
CROWN SIZE
Choose a tree with a mature size that matches the space you have available.
Only short trees should be planted near overhead obstructions like power lines.
Strong-wooded tree crowns can be allowed to overhang a roof but weaker trees
should be planted about one-half of their mature crown width away from a building.
Trees in groups can be planted close enough that their crowns overlap when they are
older, but avoid over-crowding that will lad to poor growing conditions and
unhealthy trees.
FORM
Tree species and cultivars vary widely in form or crown shape, depending on
their branching pattern. Crowns can be tall and narrow (columnar), short an wide,
weeping, round, conical, or vase-shaped. Some trees keep their lower branches and
foliage as the crown grows while others readily lose their lower branches as they are
shaded from above. Preferred crown form is a matter of personal taste, but crown
form also may be an important factor in matching a tree to a site or to the function it
will serve. For example, columnar trees are useful in narrow areas, trees used in
windbreaks and visual screens need to retain their lower branches and foliage, and
sidewalks and driveways should not be obstructed by low or weeping branches.
ROOTING AREA OR VOLUME
Below-ground space for roots is as important as above-ground space for
crowns, though roots can grow along cracks or in voids. Though no firm formula
exists for calculating the soil area or volume needed for a certain sized tree. This area
can be of any shape and long narrow areas can be used to connect larger open areas to
achieve adequate rooting space. Soil conditions under paved areas often are
unfavorable for root growthunder pavements and can do quite well under paving
bricks or blocks.
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LONGEVITY
The typical life span of a good tree in a suburban neighborhood is 30 to 50
years, while downtown trees may only last 5 to 10 years. As mentioned previously,
people tend to plant fast-growing trees that often have fairly short lives. While some
of this is all right, homeowners and communities should also plant trees that might
grow slower (though some grow quite fast) but that are longer-lived.
ORNAMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS
Ornamental characteristics are important factors in tree selection even though
they usually have little to do with whether a tree can survive and thrive on its site.
Ornamental factors to consider include flower and fruit presence and appearance,
foliage color and texture, bark characteristics, shade density, fall color, and winter
appearance. Some trees have thorns or spines, objectionable odors, a tendency to
have basal or root sprouts, or maintenance-related needs that also should be
considered.
1. Read the text.
2. Find the key idea of each abstract.
Text 7
TREE PLANTING
Tree planting consists of preparing a planting site, placing the tree, and
backfilling. Soil conditions are very important in the planting process. Important soil
conditions for tree health are texture, drainage, compaction, pH, salinity, and
structure.
All of these conditions can be modified to some extent. When soil conditions
cannot be adequately modified, or modification is too expensive, tree species and
cultivars often can be selected that are tolerant of extremes.
Soil texture – soil texture is the proportion of sand, silt, and clay particles in a
soil. Sand particles are large and coarse, silt is smaller, and clay particles are very
small. Ideal soils for root growth tend to have a mixture of all three particle size and
are called loams. Such soil have good water and mineral nutrient (element) holding
capacity because of the silt and clay, and good drainage, porosity, and air movement
37
because of the sand. Very clayey soils tend to waterlog and hard for roots to grow
through. Sandy soils may be droughty and low in mineral content. Soil texture is not
easy to change but it is good to be aware of.
Soil drainage – drainage refers to how quickly a soil drains after water is
applied and is affected by texture, structure, porosity, precipitation or irrigation
levels, and the slope and landscape position of a site. Soils can be excessively
drained, well drained or poorly drained. Excessively drained soils tend to be coarse
textured (sandy) and drain too rapidly to be able to supply much water for plants.
Poorly drained soils usually are fine textured (clayey) and hold water too long which
limits soil oxygen. Excessively drained soils can be improved by addition of organic
matter or bringing in new soil. Poor drainage can be improved with drain tiles or
other artificial drainage systems. Special planting methods can also be used to deal
with poor drainage.
Soil compaction – good soil for root growth are made up of about one – half
soil particles and one – half pore space. Soil compaction occurs when a soil is
compressed enough to reduce pore space, decreasing root growth and soil oxygen
levels. Vehicle and pedestrian traffic, construction activities, and working of wet soils
all increase compaction, especially in fine soils. Severely compacted sites like old
parking lots, construction sites, or workways may need to be deeply tilled over the
entire site before trees are planted. Local compaction can be reduced or prevented
with mulch beds and traffic control. Augering 2-3 inch diameter holes 8-16 inches
deep in a grid around a tree reduces compaction. Holes should be left empty and
allowed to collapse, or can be tilled with compost or other coarse organic material
(called vertical mulching).
Soil pH – or reaction is the acidity or alkalinity of a soil and is a good indicator
of the availability of many mineral nutrients (elements). Seven is a neutral pH with
lower number being acidic and higher numbers alkaline or basic. Trees generally do
best in a slightly acidic soil with a pH of 5 to 6,5. Below and above this range certain
minerals become less available. Regular additions of granular sulfur can lower soil
pH.
Soil salinity – refers to the relative amount of salts in the soil. Saline soils have
high accumulations of sodium, chloride, and certain other ions. These ions interfere
with nutrient and water uptake, reduce growth and alter plant metabolism, and can
cause increased soil compaction.
38
Soil structure – structure refers to the arrangement of soil particles into
granules, clods, or other forms with space in between. Loose, granular soils are good
for trees because air, water , and roots easily penetrate the many spaces in the soil.
Hard, dense, cloddy soils have little room for roots to grow or oxygen and water to
penetrate. Good soil structure may be ruined by working or distributing the soil while
it is wet. Though poor structure may improve over time through the action of soil
microbes and freezing and thawing, deep tillage is the only way to quickly improve
soil structure, but should be avoided in all but the worst cases since roots must
eventually grow into the surrounding native soil. If soil conditions are that bad,
changes should be made or trees should not be planted.
Text 8
PREPARING THE PLANTING SITE
Dig the planting hole much wider than the root ball with sloping sides; a hole
at least 3 times the root ball width is best. The hole should be just deep enough so the
bottom of the root ball will be placed on undisturbed soil and the root collar will be at
or above the level of the surrounding soil. The root collar is a flared or swollen area
on the trunk where the root system and trunk meet and where the soil contacted the
trunk in the nursery. Loosening the soil in the bottom of the hole has been
recommended in the past but this lets the heavy root ball settle and sink causing the
tree to be too deep. The sides of the hole may become glazed and smooth during
digging if the soil is clayey and moist, making root penetration difficult. If this occurs
roughen the glazed surfaces and open up the soil’s spores and cracks by picking at the
soil with the tip of the spade or a trowel.
PLACING THE TREE
Place the tree in the bottom of the hole onto undisturbed soil with its stem
vertical. Handle the tree by its root ball or container to avoid trunk damage. Never
drop the tree or you will loosen the root ball and break roots. Make sure that the root
collar is at or above surrounding soil grade.
Now start to remove packing materials from the root ball. Ropes and wires that
surround the trunk or root collar should always be removed or they will eventually
girdle the tree. Roots must quickly grow from the root ball into the surrounding
native soil for the tree to survive. Though untreated burlap breaks down fairly quickly
39
in the soil, treated burlap and some types of pots beak down too slowly to assure
good, quick growth out of the root ball. Therefore, if the root ball or potted root
system is strong and firm all packing materials should be removed, including pots,
wire baskets and burlap. If the root ball is broken and loose remove this material
carefully and only to the extant that you can keep the root ball together. Backfilling
as you remove this material helps keep the root ball intact. Any burlap or potting
material that must be left on should be slit in several placed to allow roots to grow
through. It is less important but still desirable to remove packing materials left
underneath the root ball. Cleanly cut any circling or damaged roots that are exposed
at this point to promote good root growth.
Bare root trees should be placed with their root collar positioned as mentioned
above and with their root system spread out in the flat- bottomed hole or over a
shallow mound constructed in the bottom of the hole. Do not bend or kink roots to
make them fit. If roots are too long for the hole either dig the hole wider and deeper
or, as a last resort, cut off some root length with sharp hand pruners. Also cleanly cut
any crushed, torn, or otherwise damaged roots.
BACKFILLING
Fill the hole with the original native soil – this the soil the tree must ultimately
move its roots into in order to survive. Large rocks can be removed when backfilling.
Up to 25 % by volume of composed organic matter ca be mixed in with the backfill
soil if it has a very high clay content and is difficult to work, but in such cases till the
soil just outside the root ball 8 to 12 inches deep and several feet wide after planting
to ensure good root growth. Otherwise use no other soil amendments.
Break up large clods as you backfill and pack the soil occasionally to remove
air pockets. Pack the soil with your hand or highly with your foot to avoid overcompaction.
Straighten the tree and keep its root collar at the right level as you backfill.
Add and pack the soil until it is even with the surrounding soil level and the root
collar. If you are purposely planting the tree shallow, mound the soil up to the root
collar (bare-root) or to cover the sides of the root ball. No roots should be exposed
when backfilling is complete and no soil and remove air pockets. Place additional soil
where settling occurs but no packing should be done after the soil is wet.
40
SEASON TO PLANT
Trees are best planted when they are still dormant with tight, unopened buds in
the early to mid-spring after the soil has thawed. Moderate temperatures and good
soil moisture in the spring help trees get established. Fall planting also works well for
many species, though watering will be critical if the fall is dry. Summer planting and
container plants can be done successfully, though hot temperatures dry conditions,
and non-dormant trees make good care especially important and survival less sure.
Bare root trees should only be planted in spring while still dormant.
Text 9
FOLLOW-UP MAINTENANCE
Up to 95 % of a tree’s roots are cut off during transplanting, greatly decreasing
its ability to take up water. But water is a tree’s greatest need at planting time and for
a year or two after transplanting until a good root system is established. Thoroughly
water newly planted trees, applying the water with a hose or bucket to the entire
planting area and letting it soak it well.
Watering needs after planting depend on weather, drainage, planting season,
and the species you have planted. Though water should be applied to the original
planting area out. Apply water often enough so the soil near the tree 2 inches below
the surface is moist and will form a ball when squeezed. If it is crumbles it is too dry.
A soil probe or rod with a rounded tip can be used to indicate soil moisture. The rod
will penetrate the soil with more resistance as the soil drys. It is possible to overwater a tree especially in poorly drained soils. Do not water so often or so deeply that
the tree’s root system becomes waterlogged. Older, established trees can withstand
some soil drying around their root systems, but all landscape trees should be watered
regularly during the periods of severe drought.
Fertilizing. No fertilizers of any kind should be used at planting time since they
decrease root growth and may cause the crown to outgrow the roots. No hormones,
extracts, vitamins or other such formulas have been shown to stimulate root growth
or help tree establishment. Fertilizing should be done after the tree has recovered
from transplanting. This recovery can take 2 or 3 years; longer with larger trees.
41
Mulching. A bed of wood chips or coarse organic mulch around a tree’s base
greatly increases root and tree health. Maintain a mulch bed around all newly planted
and existing trees that extends several feet from the trunk; wider is better. Mulch
should be 3 to 4 inches deep and should be renewed as it breaks down. Keep a mulch
a couple of inches away from the base of the trunk to avoid root or trunk decay. Air
tight plastic sheeting and rock beds should not be used around the trees. Porous weed
barriers of woven or matted plastic provide effective weed control but can be difficult
to install and maintain and are not much more effective than an adequate organic
mulch layer.
Stalking. Stalk newly planted trees only where wind is a problem. Guy loosely
to allow some stem movement, using canvas strapping or similar materials around the
tree to prevent trunk damage. Remove all stalking materials after one or two years.
Trunk protection. Thin bark on lower trunks of young trees sometimes is
damaged by “sunscald”. This damage appears as small cracks or wounds on the bark,
especially on the southwest side of the tree. Though the underlying cause is uncertain,
sunscald appears to be caused by bark being warmed by the winter sun, becoming
less cold-hardy, and then being damaged by freezing when the sun sets. Tree wrap
made from corrugated paper or a similar material is often used to help prevent this.
But research has shown few if any benefits to wrapping most trees. In fact, tree wrap
may improve conditions for insects and diseases that damage tree trunks, it decreases
the young bark’s ability to make food through photosynthesis, and it has been shown
to increase rather than decrease bark temperature fluctuations.
If you choose to wrap your new tree, wrap from the trunk base to one-half of
the way up the trunk, overlapping as you go and using masking tape to hold the wrap
at the top. Apply wrap in the fall after leaf drop and remove each spring, repeating for
no more than two or three years after planting. Do not wrap trees with trunks that will
be shaded I the winter. Damage from feeding or rabbits and mice ca be prevented by
wrapping wire mesh around lower stems of young trees. Remember to remove or
reposition the mesh before it girdles the tree. There are plastic tree shelter tubes, They
can be of some benefit to growth and survival of young trees, but further research is
needed to prove their worth.
Pruning. Little pruning should be done at planting time because the young tree
needs all the stored food (in the wood) making ability (in the leaves) it can get. Trees
should not be “headed back” at planting time to “balance” the roots and crown. The
42
tree will naturally loose branches and twigs if balance is needed. These branches will
die, at which time they can be removed. Dead, diseased, damaged, or rubbing
branches should be removed at planting time. Once the tree is established it becomes
important to begin pruning to ensure good form later in life.
Weed control. Weeds use water and mineral nutrients that would otherwise be
available for your newly planted tree. Grassers are especially heavy water users and
should not be allowed to grow near young trees. Control weed competition by using a
wide mulch bed several inches deep and by pulling weeds or using directed sprays or
herbicides as needed. Herbicides or weed killers that are taken up by roots should not
be used since they can harm the tree. Glyphosate is an effective weed killer that can
be sprayed on leaves of weedy plants without affecting tree growing nearby. Keep all
weed killers off of tree leaves, young bark, and sprouts coming from the tree base.
1. Read the text.
2. Answer the questions:
p. 1, 2 – What is a tree’s greatest need?
- How can you understand that the soil is well-watered?
p. 3 - What kinds of fertilizers can you name?
- When is fertilizing good for a tree?
p. 4 - How deep should mulch be?
-What does mulching provide a plant with?
p. 5 - When is stalking necessary?
p. 6 - What is “sunscald”?
- How do you understand – “a cold –hardy tree”?
- What should you do to avoid sunscalds?
p. 7 - Why does a tree naturally loose branches and twigs?
- What branches must be pruned?
p. 8 - What type of weed control is preferable?
3. Draw a tree, point its main sections with the corresponding maintenance for each
of them.
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GRAMMAR
PREPOSITIONS
Предлог – это служебная часть речи, которая выражает зависимость
существительных, числительных и местоимений от других слов в
словосочетании и предложении.
1. Все глаголы движения употребляются с предлогом “to”:
to go
!
to run
!
to lead
!
TO
to march !
to swim
!
to crawl
!
2. Следующие слова используются только с предлогом “at”:
school
institute
AT
university
academy
home
3. Запомните несовпадения предлогов при переводе всех значений со словом
“street”:
up the street
down the street
along the street
in the street
4. Co cловами “last, next, this” в англ.языке предлоги не употребляются:
Last
week, day, year, month, hour…
next
44
5. Даты и дни недели в англ.языке употребляются только с предлогом “on”
On Monday,
I was born on the 1-st of September.
1. Follow the instructions:
Draw a box. Put the letter A in the left bottom corner. Draw the letter B 2 sm above
the letter A. Put the letter C in the centre of the picture and the letter D between B
and C. Draw the letter E to the right of the letter C. Put F in the right top corner.
2. Draw the picture:
In the centre of the picture you can see a house. To the right of the house there is a
tree. The tree is among the flowers. In front of the tree there are 2 big mushrooms and
between them you can see a small one. To the left of the house there is a pillar. In
front of the house there is a ball. On the roof a small bird is sitting. The sun is
shining above the house.
3. Put the prepositions in the gaps:
1) Jane was born … May ,12, 1978.
2) He is studying … college to be a doctor.
3) She is interested … books.
4) I have breakfast …8 usually.
5) We had lunch … a restaurant … of my house.
6) She lives … a small village … the coast.
7) Shall I see you … this morning?
8) The English Channel is … France and Great Britain.
9) I liked new models … this catalogue.
10) Come …me and help …me to sort the papers.
11) The roses are …the vase which is … the table.
12) … of the Institute you can see a park.
13) Take the pencil … the pencil-box.
14) It is a pleasure in a hot summer day to have a rest … the tree, …its shadow.
15) … school pupils are responsible for their rooms.
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4. Use “in, on, at, to” instead of gaps:
1. March, April and May are the spring months … Great Britain.
2. The weather is pleasant there …spring.
3. I often go …the South …seaside.
4. I like swimming …the sea.
5. I go…the beach early…the morning.
6. …the first …September I go…the Institute.
7. I do not stay…home …my day-off.
8. It is still warm…September and I often go…the forest.
9. Mozart was born …Salzburg…1756.
10. I do not work …Sunday.
5. Form the sentences:
1. There is a cat…
2. There is a TV set …
3. There are green curtains…
4. There is a round table…
5. There are some pictures…
6. The children are playing…
7. There are four chairs…
8. The children like to run…
6. Finish up the sentences:
1. The bus-stop is…
2. There is a lamp…
3. The dog is…
4. Cars and buses…
5. There is a comfortable arm-chair…
6. There is a beautiful lake…
1.on a small table.
2. on the wall.
3.in the garden
4. in the room
5. in the street.
6. around the writing desk.
7. on the window.
8. along the street.
46
ARTICLES
В английском языке существуют 3 артикля – неопределенный,
определенный и значимое отсутствие артикля. Артикль – это служебное слово,
которое ставится перед существительным, характеризуя его и ситуацию в
целом: a table, a brown table.
A/AN
a desk
an evening
Случаи употребления неопределенного артикля:
- только перед существительными в единственном числе: a boy, a building,
a computer
- перед существительным. выделяя его из ряда подобных: I can see a sofa
and a beautiful picture above it.
- после языковых оборотов: there is, it is, this is
THE
Случаи употребления определенного артикля:
- при указании на предмет: Take the pen.
- перед прилагательным в превосходной степени: the greenest,
the most valuable
- перед порядковыми числительными: the first day, the fifth year
- перед географическими названиями рек, морей, озер, океанов:
the Usmanka, the White Sea, the Atlantic Ocean
- перед уникальными, единственными в своем роде предметами: the sun,
the moon, the Universe
- перед аббревиатурами: the U.S.A., the U.K.
--Случаи значимого отсутствия артикля:
- перед именами собственными: Nick, Moscow
- перед неисчисляемыми существительными: air, water, sugar
- перед отвлеченными существительными:English, freedom, friendship
- перед существительными с последующим числительным: We are in Room 22.
- в устоявшихся выражениях: from month to month, step by step, day after day
Gossiping and lying always go hand in hand.
47
Выражения для запоминания: to go for a walk, to have breakfast ( lunch, dinner,
supper), to go home, to go to school,
1. Explain the articles in the sentences:
1. Everest is the highest mountain in the world.
2. There is a wonderful toy on the shelf.
3. The Sun is the nearest star to the Earth.
4. Charles Darwin is a great scientist.
5. Freedom is the dearest dream for a slave.
6. London is the capital of the U.K.
7. Pictured on page 102.
2. Choose the correct answer:
1. a)What a lovely dress!
1. b) What the lovely dress!
2. a) I always have breakfast at 8.
2. b) I always have a breakfast at 8.
3. a)What do you usually have for supper?
3. b) What do you usually have for the supper?
4. a) My friend is from the United States.
4. b) My friend is from United States.
5. a) She looks as an actress.
5. b) She looks as actress.
3. Put the articles if necessary into the gaps:
What is … most important chemical process in … world? It is …making of …starch
by …plants. …green plant is Nature’s chemical laboratory. It is able to take carbon
dioxide from …air and …water from … soil and build them into … starch and
…sugar. … process is made possible by … action of … sunlight on … green
colouring material of …plant.
4. What are the articles?
1. These are…tables. …tables are brown
2. There is…table,…chair and …sofa in…room.
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3. Take …first copy-book, it is …greenest.
4. …Great Britain is separated from…continent of…Europe by…English Channel.
5. …U.K. produces …sugar, …medicine, …oil.
6. For …slave…freedom is …dearest dream.
7. …Washington is …capital of …U.S.A.
5. Put the articles if necessary:
1. Is…sugar …poison?
2. Take …notebook, it is on …table.
3. David Backingam,…famous football-player, was born in …England.
4. He is 31 today, that is ..31-st birthday in his life.
5. If you want to read all…book read …page…day.
6. It is never normal to feel unhappy … day after …day.
7. Pictured on …page 102.
8. …East or …West, home is …best.
9. 92 per cent of all metal food containers sold in…United States are made of …steel
- …most recycled material in …America.
NUMERALS
Числительное – это самостоятельная част речи, которая обозначает число,
количество предметов, порядок их при счете и отвечает на вопросы «
сколько?», «который?», «какой?».
1. ORDINAL
CARDINAL
1. Порядковые
2. Количественные
(порядок предметов или лиц при счете)
(количество предметов или лиц)
The first
The second
The third
The fourth
one
two
three
four
2. Числительные «сто», «тысяча», «миллион» – “a hundred”, “a thousand”,
“a million”.
49
При указании точного количества вышеуказанных числительных они не
имеют окончания множественного числа: 500 - five hundred
Если точного количества этих числительных не указано, то окончание
множественного числа – правило: thousands of people.
3. Даты читаются как двузначные числа:
1812 – eighteen twelve
1909 – nineteen o nine
2000 – two thousand
2005 – two thousand and five
4. Десятичные числа читаются: 3,14 – three point one four
Дроби 5/6 - five sixth
1/2 - one second
5. Размеры: a photo 9*12 – a photo nine by twelve
The room is 7 m long, 4 m wide and 2,5 m high.
6. Варианты произношения «0»
- in mathematics – nought [no:t], 0,7 – nought point seven
- in science - zero [zi:rou], -15 C – fifteen degrees below zero
- in phone numbers – o, 30-52-72 – three o five two seven two
- score in sport: nil [nil], 2:0 – two:nil
1. Listen and write:
5000001, 1000201, 5013, 999, 9,75, 226, 333, 9*12, 1608.
2. Translate the sentences into English:
1) Мой дом – третий справа.
2) Упражнение 10 – на тринадцатой странице.
3) Предложение 6 неверно, а вот седьмое правильно.
4) Мне не понравилась первая серия фильма, вторая – гораздо лучше.
5) День рождения моего папы – 8 марта.
6) «4» - это хорошая оценка.
7) Третий лишний.
50
8) Комната 30 находится на восьмом этаже.
9) Встреча состоится в 2 часа, на втором этаже в комнате № 3.
3. Write the numbers in words:
We drove about 100 miles.
He wants &1,450 for the car.
What is he population of the village? – 1,000, I suppose.
36,144
1, 85
(on a cheque): Pay G.S.Hallam 1,000 only.
4. Are the words in brackets singular or plural?
1. He signed his name five…times. (million).
2. We export 40 … tons a year. (million)
3. I just need to borrow a few …pounds. (hundred)
4. I have told you … of times.(million)
5. Refugees are flooding into the country. (thousand)
5. Change 1-3 with 4-6:
1. the tenth of April, nineteen ninety-six
2. September the seventeenth, nineteen eleven
3. the sixteenth of June, nineteen seventy-nine
4. 16 May 1970
5. 12 March1993
6. 14 January 1916
ADJECTIVES
Прилагательное – самостоятельная часть речи, которая обозначает
признак предмета и отвечает на вопрос «какой? Чей?»
Прилагательные бывают относительными и качественными, последние
образуют степени сравнения. Степень сравнения бывает сравнительной и
превосходной. Все прилагательные в английском языке можно разделить на
односложные, двусложные и многосложные.
51
Нулевая
Сравнительная
Превосходная
Односложные
прилагательные
GREEN
GREENER
THE GREENEST
Двусложные
Прилагательные
CLEVER
CLEVERER
THE CLEVEREST
Многосложные
Прилагательные
BEAUTIFUL
MORE
BEAUTIFUL
THE MOST
BEAUTIFUL
1. Если прилагательное оканчивается на немое “e”, то оно опускается при
образовании степени сравнения: simple – simpler – the simplest.
2. Если прилагательное оканчивается на согласную с предшествующим
кратким гласным звуком, то конечная согласная удваивается: big – bigger – the
biggest.
3. Если прилагательное оканчивается на “y”, то в сравнительной и
превосходной степенях сравнения “y” меняется на “i”: early – earlier – the
earliest.
Исключения:
GOOD
BETTER
THE BEST
BAD
WORSE
THE WORST
LITTLE
LESS
THE LEAST
Прилагательные, которые образуют степень сравнения двояко:
Able, angry, clever, common, cruel, frequent, friendly, gentle, handsome,
narrow, pleasant, polite, quiet, serious, simple, sour.
1. What are the comparative and the superlative degree?
Красивый, хороший, добрый, сильный, умный, странный, плохой, слабый, злой.
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2. Complete the table:
Adjective
comparative degree
superlative degree
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------cheap
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nice
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------quick
the quickest
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Fine
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Expensive
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Relaxing
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Better
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the worst
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. What are the adjectives?
Slowly, quickly, quietly, confidently, patiently, tidily, honestly, noisily, politely,
seriously, selfishly, formally, efficiently
4. Put the adjectives or their degrees into the gaps.
Small, important, hardwooded, delicious, hardy, big, tall, light, bright, ornamental,
beautiful, heavy, hard
1. The flowers of oak are … than the flowers of an apple-tree.
2. The seeds of oak are not … than the seeds of chestnut-tree.
3. Trees are the … plants.
4. A mushroom is the … fungus plant.
5. Tree ferns are … than usual ferns.
6. Trees shed their leaves in autumn. Their leaves in autumn are the … .
7. Oak is one of … species.
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8. Locust wood is … than pine wood.
9. Chestnut-tree is very … when it blooms.
10. Willow, birch, poplar are … species.
11. The seeds of pine are … than chestnut-tree seeds.
12. Spruce is a very … tree.
13. Maple sap is … than birch sap.
14. Every section of a tree has its own functions. They are very … for a plant.
5. Give the best Russian equivalent of these English proverbs:
1. The poorest truth is richer than the richest lie.
2. Actions speak louder than words.
3. One’s bark is worse than one’s bite.
4. The cheapest is the dearest.
5. A new broom sweeps cleaner.
6. Joy and sorrow are as near as today and tomorrow.
7. Two heads are better than one.
8. Better do well than say well.
9. True love never grows older.
10. A good name is better than riches.
11. Experience is the best teacher.
12. Health is the best wealth.
13. Honesty is the best policy.
14. He laughs best, who laughs last.
15. Better late than never, but better never to be late.
16. Better face a danger than be always in a fear.
17. Truth is stranger, than fiction.
18. Better short of pence, than short of sense.
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PRONOUNS
Местоимение – это самостоятельная часть речи, которая указывает на
предметы, признак и количество, но не называет их.
Личные
I
He
She
It
They
We
You
Притяжательные
my
his
her
its
their
our
yours
Абсолютные
mine
his
hers
its
theirs
ours
yours
Объектные
me
him
her
it
them
us
you
1. В английском языке не существует категории рода, точнее род
ограничивается на местоимениях “he”, “she” .
2. Местоимение “you” переводится на русский язык как «ты» и «вы» в
зависимости от контекста и (или) ситуации.
3. Запомните отличия при одинаковом произношении it’s [its]/ its [its].
4. Абсолютные местоимения не требуют после себя существительное в отличии
от притяжательных местоимений.
This is my book.
This book is mine.
5. В английском языке артикли и местоимения взаимозаменяемы.
It is my pen.
It is a pen.
1.What is a possessive pronoun?
1) the portrait of my father;
2) the transport of Voronezh;
3) the telephone of the sisters;
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4) the copy-book of the student;
5) the house of my grandparents;
6) the car of my parents;
7) the bag of Ann;
8) the photo of me and my friends.
2. Put in a pronoun:
What is …name? - …name is Brigitte.
Hello, …surname is Bond. - … name is James.
Is …name Ann? - Yes, that is right. …name is Ann. What is …surname?
… name is Robert, isn’t it? – No, … is Mike.
… name is Lee. Is that … first name or …surname?
3. Change the sentences putting “it, them, him, her”:
1. I like bananas. I like them.
2. I hate whisky.
3. Alice loves children.
4. Children love Alice.
5. I don’t like rock music.
6. Can I speak to Bill, please?
7. Do you like work?
8. She loves fast cars.
9. I do not like Mrs.Harris very much.
10. I hate rain.
11. You can not speak to John. He isn’t here.
12. Do you like big dogs?
4. Finish up the sentences:
1. This pen is bad, give me …
2. These pictures are not …
3. My clock is not so good as …
4. My profession is not so interesting as …
5. Which flat is …?
6. Your English is better than …
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7. My office is not so far as …
8. Your car moves faster than …
9. Her house is bigger than …
5. Choose the right pronoun:
1. I want to know (he, him, his) name.
2. What is (you, your, yours) favourite subject?
3. She help (me, my) in (mine, my, me) work.
4. This house is (our,ours).
5. Where is (your, you, yours) institute?
6. This man teaches (us, our, ours) French.
7. My father and (I, me, my, mine) go home together.
8. (she, her, hers) room is smaller than (me, my, mine).
9. The choice of (you, your, yours),
ADVERB
Наречие – самостоятельная часть речи, которая обозначает признаки
действий или признаки признаков и отвечает на вопросы «как?», «каким
образом?». Наречие уточняет. определяет глагол, прилагательное или другое
наречие.
1. Отличительный признак английских наречий суффикс -ly: slow - slowly
brave – bravely
correct – correctly
2. Нестандартные по форме наречия:
now теперь, сейчас
yet
often часто
still
again вновь. опять, снова
since
ever
когда-либо
once
never никогда
soon
also
тоже. также
quite
seldom редко
only
еще, уже
все еще, до сих пор
с тех пор
однажды. единожды
вскоре, скоро
вполне, совсем. совершенно
только, лишь
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3. Отличия при переводе следующих пар “hard – hardly”, “near – nearly”
обуславливаются местоположением в предложении:
1) Это тяжелая работа. It is hard work.
2) Тебе надо упорно заниматься. You should study hard.
3) Он едва мог поверить своим глазам. He could hardly believe his eyes.
1) Это недалеко, рядом с моим домом. It is not far, it is near my house.
2) В школе примерно (около) 500 учащихся. There are nearly 500 pupils at
school.
4.Наречия, оканчивающиеся на суффикс
аналитическим путем:
bravely – more bravely – the most bravely
-ly, образуют степени сравнения
1. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to “hard, hardly, near,
nearly”:
1. The ground was too hard to dig.
2. For nearly an hour they were talking quietly in the other room.
3. We had hardly any rain last summer.
4. He must work hard now.
5. I work hard at my English, but he hardly works at it.
6. Is steel a hard metal?
7. I live near my technical school.
8. There are nearly 3000 students there.
9. It is nearly 5o’clock. We must finish our work.
2. What are comparative and superlative degrees of these adjectives and adverbs:
Big, bad, dark, good, late, patient, primitive, high, low, small, near, far, well, badly,
much, little, bravely, lovely.
3. Write the missing adverbs or adjectives:
Interesting - …
practical - …
Nice - …
… - naturally
… - safely
special - …
… - noisily
happy - …
… - prettily
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Sad - …
… -cheaply
Expensive - …
beautiful - …
… - usually
… - usefully
easy - …
… - busily
untidy - …
ГЛАГОЛ
Глагол – это самостоятельная часть речи, которая обозначает действие
предмета и отвечает на вопросы «что делать?», «что сделать?».
В английском языке существует 4 формы глагола (в сочетании со
вспомогательными глаголами они служат для образования всех
грамматических времен):
1
2
3
4
Инфинитив
Простая прошедшая
Причастие 2
Причастие 1
INFINITIVE
PAST SIMPLE
PARTICIPLE 2
PARTICIPLE 1
To take
took
taken
taking
To like
liked
liked
liking
1. Итак, показателем английской неопределенной формы глагола является
частица перед глаголом, что соответствует русскому глаголу-инфинитиву
и отвечает на вопросы «что делать? что сделать?» Например, «брать,
взять», «любить, нравиться».
2. Простая прошедшая форма соответствует русскому глаголу в прошедшем
времени и переводится с привычным суффиксом -л у глаголов в
прошедшем времени в русском языке. Например, «взял, брал»,
«понравился, нравился». Надо запомнить застывшие простые прошедшие
формы у неправильных глаголов (образующих прошедшее время не по
правилам)
3. Английское причастие прошедшего времени переводится, как правило,
русским причастием прошедшего времени с суффиксами – вш, -анн, -енн.
К примеру, глаголы, приведенные в таблице, переводятся «взятый,
взявший», «понравившийся».
4. Окончание у причастий настоящего времени соответствует русским
суффиксам -ущ, -ющ, -ащ, -ящ таких же причастий. Например, причастие
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настоящего времени глаголов из таблицы соответствует русским
«берущий», «любящий», «нравящийся».
Play
Study
played
studied
played
studied
playing
studying
СИСТЕМА АНГЛИЙСКИХ ВРЕМЕН
Present Simple
----------- -------!--------------------------------------------!-------------------------------Past Simple
Present Continuous
Future Simple
Present Perfect
Give the 4 verbal forms:
be
begin
cost
drive
leave
read
swim
teach
win
write
bring
fall
rise
think
get
build
fly
say
wake
shout
choose
have
speak
wear
tell
1. What are the forms of the verb?
1. Margaret Mitchell wrote “Gone with the Wind”.
2. Rivers flow towards the sea.
3. Every weekend she gets into her car, drives to her country house, and works in
her garden.
4. Seeing is believing.
5. I like to go to the café, to sit at a table, to take an ice-cream and to have a rest.
6. A good beginning makes a good ending.
7. A broken cup can’t be repaired.
2. What are the grammar tenses?
1. Информация правит миром.
2. Когда у вас обычно каникулы?
3. Через 4 года я закончу вуз и буду работать по своей специальности
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4. Зимой в России идет снег.
5. Она пишет сейчас курсовую работу и очень старается найти интересный
материал.
6. Приближается зима. Птицы улетают в теплые страны, природа готовится к
долгому сну.
7. Я вижу, что вы передумали. Что-нибудь случилось?
8. Летом я поеду на море
9. Крыши домов покрыты снегом. Всю ночь шел снег.
10. Любовь творит чудеса
11. У вас вчера были занятия? – Hет, вчера был выходной.
12. Как только встало солнце, стало тепло.
13. Вашингтон – красивый город.
14. Растения хорошо растут в теплом климате.
15.Мне нравится смотреть на людей, когда я езжу рано утром в метро.
Некоторые спят, другие читают. Наши люди вообще много читают.
16. Она никогда не видела моря.
PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE
Настоящее простое время (Present Simple Tense) употребляется для
выражения действия, которое совершается постоянно, обычно, регулярно, а
также в определениях, формулировках, правилах, пословицах.
Слова-определители always, usually, as a rule, often, sometimes, never, from
time to time, every day (month, year…).
Утвердительная форма:
I
They
like
We
You
Ice-cream
He
She
It
likes
very much.
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Вопросительная форма (общий вопрос):
I
DO
They
like
We
You
DOES
He
She
It
like
ice-cream
very much?
ice-cream
very much?
Вопросительная форма (специальный вопрос):
I
They
DO
We
You
WHAT
like
DOES
ice-cream
very much?
He
She
It
Отрицательная форма:
I
They
We
You
DO NOT
DON’T
like
He
She
It
DOES NOT
DOESN’T
ice-cream
very much.
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1. Translate into English, put 2 questions to each of the sentences and form a
negative form:
Солнце встает на востоке.
Вступительные экзамены начинаются в июне.
Календарный год состоит из 12 месяцев.
Студенты начинают учиться в сентябре.
Предложения с глаголом to be в качестве сказуемого не требуют
вспомогательного глагола при образовании вопросительной и отрицательной
форм.
Past
I
He
She was
It
We
They were
You
TO BE
Present
am
is
is
is
are
are
are
Future
will be
I am a student. Am I a student? I am not a student.
Washington is a beautiful city. Is Washington a beautiful city? Washington is not
a beautiful city.
The books are interesting. Are the books interesting? The books are not
interesting.
3. Put in AM/IS/ARE/DO/DO NOT/DOES/DOES NOT:
1) Excuse me, … you speak English?
2) – Have a cigarette. – No, thank you, I … … smoke.
3) …they teachers?
4) What … she do? - She … a dentist.
5) Where … you come from? – I … from Canada.
6) How much … it cost to send a letter to Canada?
7) George … a good tennis player but he … … play very often
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TEST ON PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE
1. Выпишите те предложения, которые переводятся простым настоящим
временем:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Чем ты занимаешься? – Я учусь в вузе.
Чем ты занимаешься сейчас? – Читаю книгу.
Ты смотрел фильм в кинотеатре? – Нет, я не люблю туда ходить.
Моя семья никогда не была в Крыму.
1. Крым – это полуостров на юге Украины.
2. Великая Отечественная война началась в 1941 г.
3. Мне всегда нравились детективы, а сейчас нравятся исторические
романы.
4. Ты представляешь себе игру в гольф?
2. Переведите предложения на английский язык и задайте по 2 вопроса
к каждому:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Осень начинается с сентября.
По утрам она обычно слушает музыку.
Этот спортсмен хорошо бегает.
Мои сестры отлично готовят.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Иногда она ходит в музеи.
Индийцы предпочитают светлую одежду.
Англичане любят чай.
По выходным люди обычно отдыхают.
3. Опровергните:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Russian winter begins in November.
St.-Petersburg is the capital of Russia.
Usually students study for 6 years.
We see snowdrops in late spring.
64
1.
2.
3.
4.
Summer in Russia begins in July.
She speaks English fluently.
Wait a minute for me.
Three quarters make whole.
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS) TENSE
Грамматическое время Present Progressive Tense обозначает действия,
которые происходят в момент речи; мы можем видеть или наблюдать их.
Слова-определители: now/ right now/ just now/( right) at the moment
To be + Participle 1(to write)
Утвердительная форма
I
am
He
She
It
is
writing
They
We
You
a letter
now.
are
Вопросительная форма (общий вопрос)
Am
I
Is
He
She
It
writing
Are
They
We
You
a letter
now?
65
Вопросительная форма (специальный вопрос)
Am
I
What
he
she
it
is
writing
now?
they
we
you
are
Отрицательная форма
I
am not
He
She
It
is not
isn’t
They
We
You
are not
aren’t
writing
a letter now.
TEST ON PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE
1. Make the sentences negative:
1. My family is working in the garden now.
2. She is watering the flowers in the flower bed
3. They are enjoying the holidays.
1. Ann is cooking the dinner in the kitchen at the moment.
2. Mary is sitting at her desk in the classroom now and is listening to the teacher.
3. We are learning new words and asking each other the new vocabulary.
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2. Translate the sentences into English and put the general/special questions
to each of them:
1. Сейчас она смотрит телевизор.
2. Студенты готовятся к семинару в читальном зале.
3. Мы сдаем экзамен сейчас.
4. Марк читает газету.
1. М-р Фрэнк разговаривает по телефону.
2. Она свободна и пишет письмо.
3. – Где он? – Он работает в саду.
4. Сегодня мы уезжаем в Киев.
3. Correct the mistakes if any:
1. My family is working in the garden in spring.
2. I am not watch TV in the evening.
3. What are you asking about?
4. They are preparing for the exam in the library.
1. He is always writing in the morning.
2. What is he doing usually.
3. Is you preparing for the lesson now?
4. They are not doing the exercise at the moment.
PAST SIMPLE TENSE
Грамматическое время Past Simple Tense употребляется для обозначения
действия, которое совершилось в прошлом не имеет связи с настоящим.
Длительность этого действия или его завершенность не имеет значения, важен
лишь факт его совершенности в прошлом.
Слова-определители: Yesterday/ the day before yesterday/ Last day, year,
month/
67
Утвердительная форма (to like, to take)
I
He
She
It
They
We
You
liked
ice-cream
in a café
yesterday.
took
Вопросительная форма (общий вопрос)
I
he
she
it
they
we
you
Did
like
ice-cream
in a café
yesterday?
take
Вопросительная форма (специальный вопрос)
What
did
I
he
she
it
they
we
you
like
in a café
yesterday?
take
Отрицательная форма
I
He
She
It
They
We
You
like
did not
didn’t
ice-cream
take
in a café
yesterday.
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TEST ON PAST SIMPLE TENSE
1. Mark the sentences in Past Simple Tense with a tick:
1. Он хорошо умел плавать в 12 лет.
2. Вы виделись на прошлой неделе?
3. Тебе нравится книга, которую ты купил недавно?
4. Осенью деревья всегда становятся разноцветными.
1. Эту кассету купили в прошлом году.
2. Москва была основана в 1147 году.
3. От второй мировой войны нас отделяет более 60 лет.
4. Петр великий был одним из выдающихся российских монархов.
2. Translate the sentences into English and put the general/special questions
to each of them:
1. Им понравился исторический фильм.
2. Гость из Америки побывал в нашем городе.
3. Попов изобрел радио.
4. Воронеж был крепостью ( a fortress)в 14 веке.
1. В 12 веке Москва была маленьким городом.
2. Петр Великий сделал Петербург второй столицей России.
3. Она смотрела этот фильм 5 лет назад.
4. Вчера шел сильный дождь.(to rain heavily)
3. Put the sentences in the negative form:
1. Foreign students liked winter in Russia.
2. Yesterday it was rainy.
3. Margaret Mitchel wrote “War and Peace”
4. Kurt Kobein was killed some years ago.
1. Leo Tolstoy wrote “Gone with the Wind”.
2. “Beatles” were very popular in the 1980s.
3. The day before yesterday it snowed very much.
4. “Nirvana” was the music for relaxation
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Библиографический список
1. Англо-русский и русско-английский лесотехнический словарь [Текст] /
под общ. ред. Д. В. Можаева. – М. : РУССО, 1998. – 864 с.
2. Голицынский, Ю. Б. Грамматика [Текст] : сб. упражнений /
Ю. Б. Голицынский. – СПб. : Каро, 1999. – 476 с.
3. Дюканова, Н. М. Английский язык [Электронный ресурс] :
учеб. пособие / Н. М. Дюканова. – 2-е изд., перераб. и доп. – М. : НИЦ
ИНФРА-М, 2013. – 319 с. – ЭБС «Знаниум».
4. Мыльцева, Н. А. Универсальный справочник по грамматике
английского языка [Текст] : справ. / Н. А. Мыльцева, Т. М. Жималенкова. – Изд.
10-е, испр. – М. : Глосса-Пресс ; Ростов н/Д. : Феникс, 2009. – 280 с.
5. Мюллер, В. К. Англо-русский словарь [Текст] / В. К. Мюллер. – СПб. :
Гуманитарное агентство «Академический проект», 1997. – 912 с.
6. Тынкова, А. М. Методические указания по обучению рациональному
чтению и профессионально-направленной речи для студентов 1 курса
факультета ЛиСПХ [Текст] / А. М. Тынкова, А. Ю. Климова, Н. И. Крохотина. –
Воронеж : ВГЛТА, 1994. – 38 с.
7. Journal of Forestry [Text] / Washington DC. – 2009. – № 1-11.
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Учебное издание
Литвинова Людмила Алексеевна
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК
CARING FOR NATURAL RESOURCES
ОХРАНА ПРИРОДНЫХ РЕСУРСОВ
Учебное пособие
71
Редактор Е.А. Богданова
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литвинов, natural, caring, resourses, охране, природных, ресурсов
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