close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Литвинова Л.А. Английский язык (ПЗ 05.03.06)

код для вставкиСкачать
1
Министерство образования и науки РФ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное
образовательное учреждение высшего образования
«Воронежский государственный лесотехнический
университет имени Г.Ф. Морозова»
Иностранный язык. Английский язык
Методические указания к практическим занятиям
для студентов по направлению подготовки
05.03.06 - Экология и природопользование
Воронеж 2017
2
УДК
Методические указания для самостоятельной работы студентов по
направлению подготовки 05.03.06 «Экология и природопользование»/ Л.А.
Литвинова; М-во образования и науки РФ, ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ». – Воронеж,
2017. – 31 с.
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета ВГЛТУ
Рецензент: профессор, доктор филологических наук, директор Центра
коммуникативных исследований ВГУ И.А. Стернин
Настоящие методические указания представляют собой современный
подход к обучению бакалавров в системе высшего
образования.
Необходимость в появлении таких методических указаний диктуется
современным подходом для работы студентов на практических занятиях: в
них кратко и информативно представлен алгоритм освоения учебного
материала по модулям, позволяющий повысить качество самообразования и
стимулировать интерес пользователя к дисциплине «Английский язык».
Данные методические указания могут служить руководством для студентов 1
курса по направлению обучения «Экология и природопользование».
3
Text 1.
Forestry and Climatic Change
Scientists have discovered that significant climatic changes can occur abruptly and
over a fairly short period of time.
Climatic change can effect forestry. One degree Fahrenheit is significant in
growth of tree species.
Keen demonstrated growth loss of ponderosa pine in Easten Oregon from 1908
to the1930s coinciding with the warming and drying climatic trend of that period.
Marshall found similar decreases in western white pine during the same period.
However, when temperature increase was the greatest during the late 30s, tree
growth in timberline forests reached a peak. Occurance of the seed-ripening
conditions are more probable during climaticlly warming periods.
Forests managers may need to take climatic trends into account in silviculture
and use them in their projecting.
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the
written form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group
2) – adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one
passage?
4
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the
plan of the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard
phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 2.
Pollution at danger levels, say experts
Smog masks which filter toxic gases out of the air we breathe could soon be a
common sight on city streets, air pollution experts say. Space age masks are
already a frequent accessory for cyclists. But, with toxic ozone levels now rising at
an alarming rate, experts say pedestrians should be wearing them too.
The Clean Air Act of 1956 that followed the deaths of 4,000 people due to a
London pea-soup smog has almost wiped out emissions of deadly sulphur
dioxide. But concern is mounting over invisible “ozone smog”, a poisonous
cocktail created when car fumes such as nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide
are heated by sunlight.
Dr. Malcolm Green, British Lung Foundation chairman, said if the current
pollution levels continued, all city dwellers, who were outside for 20 minutes or
more, would have to wear masks. Traffic wardens, cyclists, messengers, transport
police should be wearing them already, he warns, particularly those prone to
chest infections, asthma or bronchitis.
The earth air pollution experts say wearing of masks is not a long – term solution.
“Nobody wants a world in which people have to wear masks in the street”, says
campaigner Fiona Weir. “There is a new generation of pollution. Numbers of
vehicles are constantly rising very, very rapidly – car usage has to be curbed.”
Tasks:
5
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the
written form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group
2) – adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one
passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the
plan of the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard
phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 3.
ENVIRONMENTALLY COOL
Turning down the thermostat is one of the least efficient, most environmentally
demanding ways to cool things off when it is as hot as a blast furnace outside.
As communities lower indoor temperatures in summer, power plants must
maximize their output, which leads to the burning of polluting fuels. There is a
6
better way. Instead of switching on air conditioner, try lowering the temperature
with some of these simpler, nonmechanical approaches.
Plant deciduous shade trees or trellis-climbing vines around your home to
block the sun without expending energy.
Building porches and garages on the sides of your house will also help turn
back an invasion of solar heat.
A roof or pergola covering a patio or section of driveway cuts down the
amount of heat reflected into a house.
Use only light-colored roofing materials because they will redirect heat than
absorb it.
Early maintenance.
For the first year or two, especially after a week or so of especially hot or dry
weather, watch your trees closely for signs of moisture stress. If you see leaf
wilting or hard, caked soil, water the trees well and slowly enough so the water
soaks in rather than runs off. This will encourage deep root growth. Keep the
area under the trees mulched and free of other plants. Until the trees are deeply
rooted grasses and other plants may take up moisture before the trees can get
their share.
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the
written form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group
2) – adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
7
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one
passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the
plan of the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard
phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 4.
NATIONAL PARKS, GOALS OF FOUNDATION
When Yellowstone National Park was established in 1872, its advocates wanted to
protect an unusual and interesting collection of geothermal wonders. Today,
people recognize that the world’s first national park protects much more than
geysers and other fascinating geothermal features. Yellowstone is recognized as
a great wildlife sanctuary, one of the last places in the nation where the full
complement of wildlife that occurred here during the time of Lewis and Clark’s
epic journey to the Pacific in 1804 – 1806 still roam free. Yellowstone is also
recognized as an important and unique area for scientific study because it has
remained, in large part, as it was more than 200 years ago while other such
landscapes in the rest of the world continue to disappear.
Scientists from all over the world come to Yellowstone to conduct research on
everything from water quality to animal movements and habitat preferences to
fire ecology to the unique lifeforms found in the park’s geothermal waters.
Before they are allowed to begin, however, they must submit a research proposal
to park management for review and approval. No research is allowed that would
threaten or diminish the resources of the park. Any specimen (for example,
plants or insects or even microbes) collected for research remain the property of
the National Park Service and must be properly cataloged and cared for.
8
Many different animals are radio collared in Yellowstone. Bisons are collared for
various research projects, including studies on seasonal movements. Bighorn
sheep have been collared in an effort to understand their behavior, movement
inside and outside the park, and the locations of specific migration corridor.
Wolves are collared so that researches can track their movements and their
progress toward recovery. Researchers collared grizzly bears in order to learn
more about home range sizes, food habits, habitat use, and behavior pattern.
The studies on pronghorn antelope are one of the newest.
As the earth’s human population continues to increase, the remaining wild places
take on an added importance in our lives. Yellowstone is the place where
personal encounters with nature – an early morning walk in a steamy geyser
basin or the haunting howl of a wolf on a moonlight night in the backcountry –
provide us with magical moments to recall during our busy lives. But another
intangible of this and other national parks is the value such places hold for science
to improve our lives, teach us about other lifeforms, and to help solve our
problems. Despite all that scientists have already learned from studying
Yellowstone and its inhabitants, it is a certainty that there are many more exiting
things yet to be discovered.
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the
written form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group
2) – adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
9
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one
passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the
plan of the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard
phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 5.
SAVING ENERGY WITH PLANTS
Research has proven that plants can cool the home in the summer and reduce
heat loss in the winter. Shade trees planted on the south and west of the home
will block heating sunlight in the summer, but allow the warm rays through
during cold winter months. Foundation plants protect the home from invading
winds. Deciduous vines are most effective on the southern and western walls
which receive the full heat of the sun in the summer. Evergreen vines such as
English Ivy are best on north surfaces where their foliage reflects winds and
creates an insulating effect.
Windbreaks provide the most protection at a distance of 4 to 6 times the height
of the break. Rapid – growing varieties that will reach at least the height of the
house are best to select. Evergreens are effective, but slow-growing trees for
windbreaks are Hybrid or Lombardy Poplar, Chinese Elm and Russian Olive.
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
10
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the
written form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group
2) – adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one
passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the
plan of the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard
phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 6.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF TODAY
We have been spent thousands of years fighting for our survival. Yet now we
have discovered that our planet is under threat, and to make the matters worse,
it is all our fault.
1. The rainforests are dying, rare plant and animal species are disappearing,
rivers and seas are being contaminated, crops are failing to grow, people are
dying of hunger and the air is being polluted. It’s time we woke up to these
problems and started repairing the damage.
11
2. One of the major problems is the destruction of the rainforests in South
America. They are home to half the world’s species and to millions of people.
Moreover, the rainforests clean the air by absorbing carbon dioxide and giving
out oxygen. The trees are being cut down for paper and other numerous needs.
As a result, birds and animals loss their homes and die. The destruction is also
bringing about changes in the climate, air pollution, flooding, draught, and
famine. If we continue to burn and cut down the rainforests as we are doing now,
the earth will never be the same.
3. Another problem is water pollution. Do you like swimming in the sea or
drinking a cool glass of water on a hot day? These simple pleasures may soon
become a thing of the past. Factories are polluting our rivers and lakes with
dangerous chemicals. Oil tankers are releasing thick, black oil into our oceans.
Tons and tons of industrial and domestic waste are poured into the seas.
Consequently, sea life is threatened with extinction.
4. Air pollution is another important issue. The cars and factories in and about
our cities are giving off dangerous fumes. In the past few years, more and more
people than ever before have developed allergies and breathing problems. If we
don’t do something now, our cities will become impossible to live in.
5. Fortunately, it is not too late to solve all these problems. We have the time, the
money and even the technology to prepare the way for a better, healthier and
safer future. We can plant trees and adopt animals. We can create parks to
endangered species. We can put pressure on those in power to take action.
Together we can save our planet. All we need to do is to open our eyes and to act
immediately.
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the
written form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group
2) – adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
12
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one
passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the
plan of the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard
phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 7.
COMPOSTING TURNS WASTES INTO VALUABLE FERTILIZER.
 All organic matter eventually decomposes. Composting speeds the process
by providing an ideal environment for bacteria & other decomposing
micro-organisms. The final product, humus or compost, looks & feels like
fertile garden soil. This dark, crumbly, earthy-smelling stuff works wonders
on all kinds of soil & provides vital nutrients to help plants grow & look
better.
 Decomposing micro-organisms need four key elements to thrive: nitrogen,
carbon, moisture, & oxygen. For best results, mix materials high in
nitrogen (such as clover & fresh grass clippings) & those high in carbon (
such as dried leaves & twigs). If there is not a good supply of nitrogen-rich
material, a handful of general lawn fertilizer will help the nitrogen-carbon
13
ratio. Moisture is provided by rain, but you may need to water or cover the
pile to keep it damp. Be careful not to saturate the pile. Oxygen is supplied
by turning or mixing the pile. More turning yields faster decomposition.
 Many materials can be added to a compost pile, including leaves, grass
clippings, straw, woody brush, vegetable & fruit scraps, coffee grounds,
livestock manure, sawdust, & shredded paper. Avoid using diseased
plants, meat scraps that may attract animals, & dog or cat manure which
can carry disease.
 Composting can be as simple or as involved as you would like, & depends
on how much yard waste you have, how fast you want results, & the effort
you are willing to invest.
 With cold composting, you can just pile grass clippings & dry leaves on the
ground or in a bin. This method requires no maintenance, but you will have
to wait several months to a year for the pile to decompose. Cold
composting works well if you are short on time or have little yard waste.
Keep weeds & diseased plants out of the mix. Add yard waste as it
accumulates.
 Move materials from the center to the outside & vice versa. Turn every day
or two & you should get compost in less than 4 weeks. Turning every other
week will give compost in 1 to 3 months. Finished compost will smell sweet
& be cool & crumbly to the touch.
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to translate/pronounce
them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
14
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of the
text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 8.
MULCHING COOLS, PROTECTS, & ENRICHES THE SOIL.
Mulching involves placing a layer of organic material around plants. As much
decomposes, it adds organic matter to the soil. This provides important nutrients
for plants & ideal environment for earthworms & other organisms that help
enrich the soil.
Mulching can recycle yard wastes & improve your soil. Mulch protects soil from
erosion, prevents weed growth, conserves soil moisture, stabilizes soil
temperature, reduces compaction, & keeps clean & dry any fruit or vegetable
that touches the ground.
Grass clippings & leaves work well for mulching if they are dry & weed free. Avoid
adding clippings of a vegetable garden from lawns that have been treated with
weed killer within the last two mowings. You may also hay from a farmer or feed
store.
15
Compost makes an excellent organic mulch material. It adds nutrients to the soil
& has a natural appearance. Wood chips & bark work well around trees & shrubs
& make attractive walkways through gardens.
Apply mulch when plants are established & soil is warm. First, water a garden
well. Then place a layer of mulch around the plants. Thickness of the mulch layer
varies for each material:
Dry grass clippings
2 inches
Shredded hardwood mulch, straw, or wood chips
2 to 4 inches
Compost
3 to 4 inches
Dry leaves
6 inches
You will help insulate the root zone & lower evaporation rates if you liberally
apply mulch. Be careful not to smother the plants. As the mulch breaks down,
add more material to the top throughout the growing season. After harvest, work
the mulch into the soil to integrate the organic matter, or leave it on the surface
to decay naturally & be carried into the soil by earthworms.
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to translate/pronounce
them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
16
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of the
text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 9.
GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK
“The place of blue smoke” is what the Cherokee Indians call the great Smoky
Mountains region, at the end of the Appalachian Highlands in the southeastern
United States. Long before European settlers arrived on the continent, the
mountains were the part of the great Cherokee Nation.
About 8,500 Cherokee now live in communities on a reservation on the eastern
side of the mountains, where they maintain the traditions of their people.
Unfortunately, only a few older people still remember how to speak the ancient
language.
The Great Smoky Mountains are dotted with small towns that were settled by
Europeans. There are a number of interesting things to listen to and to look at.
But most tourists who visit the area go to the Smokies because of the beautiful
mountains and valleys, the changing seasons and the wildlife. The Smokies are
home to more than fifty species of mammals, including the legendary black bear.
To preserve the beauty of the region, The U.S. government established The Great
Smoky Mountains National Park. It is the most visited national Park in the
country, with more than 8 million tourists each year.
But how long can a place with so many visitors remain unspoiled? Because the
water in the clouds which give the region its name can hold as much as ten times
the amount of pollution and one hundred times the acid rainfall, the trees at the
tops of the mountains are dying. Perhaps the Great Smoky Mountains will
become just another lost wilderness.
17
Mind the proper names:
the Cherokee Indians – индейцы племени чероки
The Smokies = The Great Smoky Mountains National Park
the Appalachian Highlands – высокогорье Аппалачи
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to translate/pronounce
them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of the
text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
18
Text 10
SILVICULTURE AS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
OF CARING FOR NATURAL RESOURCES
The future productivity of our forests depends on careful selection of tree seed
sources to match the local soil and climatic conditions of each forest. The
objective is to select species and seed sources which will yield high volumes of
timber and superior tree form while maintaining wood properties and disease
resistance.
Forestry makes an important contribution to a productive and flourishing
countryside and rural welfare. Forest and woodland have the special capacity to
provide recreation benefits and absorb the pressures of large numbers of visitors.
Public recreation must be a part of forest management.
Silviculture is the art of reproducing and tending forest growth, it includes the
technique of starting new forests and caring for them through all stages to
maturity. Regeneration of woods may be accomplished by creating conditions for
establishing new stands either by natural seeding or by a new crop of tree
sprouts; again, new woodlands may be established by planting small trees grown
in forest nurseries. As stands develop, numerous types of cultural measures are
desirables, cutting made in immature stands are termed intermediate cutting;
these made in the mature woods are called final cuttings.
The treatment of a wood that is managed for the production of useful wood
products varies considerably from the treatment where the aim is one of
encouraging of wildlife or of protecting human habitations from climatic
extremes. But it is easily possible in any woods to meet all objectives by a wellcoordinated plan of silvicultural treatment.
The application of silvicultural treatment demands a knowledge of the many
environmental factors that influence the growth of species, an understanding of
the ways in which trees live and grow in associatio
Mind the vocabulary:
Recreation - отдых
19
Silviculture – профессиональное лесоводство
forest nurseries - лесопитомники
intermediate cutting – промежуточная рубка
Recreation - отдых
Silviculture – профессиональное лесоводство
forest nurseries - лесопитомники
intermediate cutting – промежуточная рубка
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to translate/pronounce
them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of the
text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
20
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 11
ECOLOGICAL TOURISM - A NEW TYPE OF TOURISM
Today the modern tourism is one of the largest industry of the world that
employs 127 million people: each fifteenth of all the working people in the world.
Tourism is the business of providing things for people to do, places for them to
stay when they are on holidays. There are different types of tourism nowadays:
medical, recreational, religious, business, ecological etc. Ecological tourism is
what we are interested in. This is a new type of tourism; it is opposite to the old,
traditional one. What is the difference between traditional tourism and
ecotourism? Tourists can enjoy the nature but save the earth at the same time.
Or so goes the theory of “ecotourism”. Ecotourism was based on the realization
that some people (usually poor Africans, Asians, and Latin Americans) live in
places surrounded by precious living things. And other people – well-off and rich
Americans and Europeans – want to see them and preserve.
The idea was to enable people in the developing world to earn money by
preserving nature rather than using nature up: it is simple – people put down
their guns and harpoons and take up laundry and food trays.
Where does ecotourism work? Is the idea successful? It is really successful in the
whale-watching waters of Baja, California, and Argentina’s Peninsula Valdes.
Hundreds of gray whales migrate into the warm lagoons even in winter to breed.
Before the 1980s fishermen and whale-hunters turned the waters into dead
zones. Local environmentalists proclaimed the idea of ecotourism.
Sometimes ecotourism is beset by ecotroubles. For example, tourists come to
Mexico’s Pacific coast to watch green sea turtles on moonlit beaches. But the
beachfront hotels cast such bright light that turtles become disoriented. Whalewatching frighten the whales and they dive underwater. As you understand, it is
dangerous for the people in the boats. In Australia they organize dolphin
expeditions. Very often feeding reduces the ability of young dolphins to find their
own food.
Of course, the above-mentioned facts can be considered as disadvantages of
ecotourism. For these goals a visiting management is used, it controls time of
trip, types of the visit as well as the maximum number of visitors to a region.
21
Even if whales are frightened by tourist boats and turtles can not eat in peace, the
living creatures are now better than when people hunted them to kill. Of two evils
choose the least.
Mind the vocabulary:
well-off and rich – богатый и процветающий
to breed – вы(раз)водить
(dis)advantage – недостаток/преимущество
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to translate/pronounce
them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of the
text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
22
Text 12
Gardening in Space
In a small advance toward self-sufficiency in space, researchers have nurtured a
soybean crop through an entire cycle, from seed to seed, aboard the
International Space Station.
Before the space station, experiments growing plants in zero gravity lasted a
few days and induced only a small number of plants.The new space greenhouse,
created by a team led by Wisconsin Centre for Space Automation and Robotics in
Madison, can run for months at a time. Light levels, temperature, humidity,
nutrients, and atmospheric gases can be set automatically to match the needs of
different plants. “Soybeans are difficult to grow in space. They demonstrate that
this technology can be used to develop any tall, edible plant”, the specialists say.
The results will help guide future NASA projects aimed at growing plants to
absorb carbon dioxide and to provide food on long space missions. The plants
may also provide a mood lift. “There’s an overwhelming demand by austronauts
for fresh produce. The moment cosmonaut Sergei Treschev saw the soybeans, he
wanted to eat them,” the specialist of the Wisconsin centre says.
Mind the vocabulary:
zero gravity – в отсутствие гравитации (земного притяжения)
soybean – соя, соевый боб
nurture – выращивать
edible plant – съедобное растение
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to translate/pronounce
them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
23
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of the
text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 13
Wyoming state
Wyoming today is a recreational paradise. Its high mountains, beautiful rocks,
clear lakes and streams attract many people who come here to relax and enjoy
the wilderness. There are still cowboys in Wyoming, and they ride millions of
acres of grassland used for cattle and sheep grazing (so one of the nicknames of
Wyoming is “The Cowboy State”). Not so long ago Wyoming was nicknamed “The
Wonderland of America” because of its scenic beauty.
Yellowstone National Park and Grand Teton National Park are the main
attractions in Wyoming. Yellowstone is known for its geysers, the most famous of
them being Old Faithful. It erupts thousand of gallons of water into the air many
times each day, and gathers crowds of tourists. Yellowstone is also known for its
brown bears, which like to come down to the roadside and beg for handouts from
the visitors. But the Park authorities warn the tourists that the bears can injure
them, and advise them to stay in their cars.
Just south of Yellowstone is another of Wyoming attractions – Grand Teton
National Park. Its peaks resemble those of Switzerland and draw mounatain
24
climbers and sightseers from all over America. The highest peak, called Grand
Teton, is the most impressive.
Mind the vocabulary:
Recreational – созданный для отдыха
Acre – акр, английская мера площади
Nickname - прозвище
erupts thousand of gallons of water – выталкивает, выбрасывает огромное
количество воды
mounatain climbers – скалолазы, альпинисты
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to translate/pronounce
them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of the
text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
25
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 14
THE LAKE ERIE PROBLEMS
One of the symbols of the environmental movements in the early 1970s was Lake
Erie. Concern about water quality and health led to closed beaches. Commercial
fishing and angling in the lake virtually stopped. Drinking water from the lake
often had a bad taste and odor. Cleveland and Detroit, two of the largest cities on
the lake, were ordered to reduce pollution dramatically.
International cooperation between The United States of America and Canada led
to an ambotious plan to reduce phosphorus, one of the culprits in the lake’s
pollution. The plan worked. Between 1975 and 1981, industrial loading from
major American plants was reduced from 6,719 to 2,654 metric tons. Canadian
efforts were similar.
Today the beaches of Lake Erie are open, commercial fishing is making a
comeback, and anglers are catching a record number of trophies.
Mind the vocabulary:
Phosphorus - фосфор
Culprit - виновник
Odor –неприятный запах
metric – метрический (десятичный)
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to translate/pronounce
them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
26
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of the
text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
Text 15
EXOTIC PLANTS OF FIVE CONTINENTS
The Director of the Kolomna forest farm Alexei Popov has grown on the Moscow
Region soil over 90 species from all corners of the globe.
If trees could speak the capricious in forest growing Weymouth pine would be
the first to say “thanks” to Alexei Popov. It would probably be followed by Amur
cork tree, cembra pine, English oak, horse chestnut – all those were cherished by
the Director of the Kolomna Forest farm.
Four hectares of former pasture land have accomodated about 90 hardy-shrub
species from all over the world. They started with common pine but it proved to
be the most unlucky species in the park. All because of moose. For decades these
animals were number one danger for coniferous plants, eating green pine
outgrowth to the root. But forest farmers managed to vindicate pine from
moose.
Much greater menace for this unique natural corner was posed by “black
lumbermen”, reckless hikers, mushroom collecters or just ... thieves.
The arboretum was once inhabited by a native Canadian fir, or dwarf spruce. A
grace itself, it had an extremely tight, strictly pyramidal shape. But the green
beauty ... was stolen on a New Year Eve.
27
Today the arboretum is the home of a few species of larch, spruce, maple, and
oak, hornbeam, thuja, ever-green cypress. Weymouth pine, the pride of the
arboretum, was very hard to naturalize in the Moscoe area.
The initial plan was to plant about 100 species from all continents. Today this plan
is accomplished by 90 percent – some plants failed to naturalize.
Mind the vocabulary:
Amur cork tree – Амурское пробковое дерево
cembra pine English oak – дуб черешчатый
horse chestnut – каштан конский обыкновенный
moose- американский лось
hornbeam - граб
to naturalize – акклиматизироваться
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the
written form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group
2) – adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one
passage?
28
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the
plan of the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard
phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 16
State of the Planet
Pollution can be local or widespread. Substances dumped into a river will often
end up in the sea. The biggest pollution problem is global warming. This happens
when greenhouse gases, such as CO2 are released into the atmosphere, trapping
heat and causing the planet to warm up. Since species are adapted to particular
climates, when the Earth warms up they have to move to keep comfortable. This
can be difficult if natural habitats are isolated by human settlements and
agriculture.
Chemical pollutants have been responsible for affecting the reproductive organs
of fish, alligators and polar bear, preventing them from producing babies.
Chemical pollution in the environment also affects humans – 46 US states have
issued warnings against eating local fish because of dioxin contamination, and in
Europe, human breast milk passes on more dioxin to our babies than is legally
allowed for cow’s milk. Despite this, the amount of pesticide sprayed on our
crops around the world has increased 26 times in the last 50 years.
Species living in water are often most strongly affected because water spreads
pollution easier than land, and because we often dump our pollution into water.
Global warming will affect every species on Earth to some extent, and although
some species will thrive in warmer climates, many will not. Coral reefs have
already been very hard hit by climate change, and polar bears have received the
double-whammy of climate and chemical pollution.
29
Most human activities produce some waste products, but it is important to make
sure that we have as little pollution as possible. Many people are switching to
“clean technology”. That means having the same benefits from our modern lifestyle without the pollution. Electric cars, environmentally sensitive washing
powders and solar-powered energy are examples. Less pollution is not only good
for wildlife and nature – human health benefits from less pollution as well. That
means lower medical bills, and a better quality of life.
Mind the vocabulary:
Warnings – запрет на употребление в пищу
breast milk – грудное молоко
has increased 26 times – увеличилось в 26 раз
Wham - удар, ударять
washing powder – стиральный порошок
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the
written form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group
2) – adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one
passage?
30
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the
plan of the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard
phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
31
Библиографический список
1. Англо-русский словарь *Текст+: словарь/ В.К. Мюллер. – Санкт-Петербург:
Гуманитарное агентство «Академический проект», 1997. – 912 с.
2. Англо-русский и русско-английский лесотехнический словарь *Текст+:
словарь/ под общ. Ред. Д.В. Можаева. – РУССО, 1998. – 864 с.
3. Тынкова А.М. Методические указания по обучению рациональному
чтению и профессионально-направленной речи для студентов 1 курса
факультета ЛиСПХ *Текст+: метод. Указания/ А.М. Тынкова, А.Ю. Климова,
Н.И. Крохотина. – Воронеж: ВГЛТА, 1994. – 38 с.
4. Journal of Forestry [Text] /Washington DC, 2009. - № 1-11
5. Дроздова, Т.Ю. Read and speak English / Т.Ю .Дроздова. – СПб.: Каро,1999. –
336с.
6. Карачарова, Н.М. Английский язык. /Н.М. Карачарова, А. В.Масленникова.
– СПб. : Академ, 2001.-384с.
7. Орловская, И.В..Учебник английского языка
для технических
университетов и ВУЗов / И.В.Орловская , Л.С. Самсонова., А.И.Скубриева .М.,2001.-265с.
8. Cedric, H The Management of Farm Woodlands [Теxt]: моногр./.Н.Cedric .,
В.S.Guise . - New York and London: Mс Graw Hill Book Company, Inc.,1969. -352c.
9. Forest Products [Теxt].- Madison, 2001.-№1-12.
10. Hornby, A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English
[Теxt]/А.S.Hornby . - Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1974.- 914p.
32
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
1
Размер файла
618 Кб
Теги
литвинов, язык, английский
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа