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Литвинова Л.А. Английский язык (ПЗ 35.03.01)

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Министерство образования и науки РФ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное
образовательное учреждение высшего образования
«Воронежский государственный лесотехнический
университет имени Г.Ф. Морозова»
Иностранный язык. Английский язык
Методические указания к практическим занятиям
для студентов
по направлению подготовки 35.03.01
«Лесное дело»
Воронеж 2017
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УДК
Методические указания для самостоятельной работы обучающихся по
направлению подготовки 35.03.01 / Л.А. Литвинова; М-во образования и науки РФ,
ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ». – Воронеж, 2017. – 23 с.
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета ВГЛТУ
Рецензент: профессор, доктор филологических
коммуникативных исследований ВГУ И.А. Стернин
наук,
директор
Центра
Настоящие методические указания представляют собой современный подход к
обучению бакалавров в системе высшего образования. Необходимость в
появлении таких методических указаний диктуется современным подходом для
работы студентов на практических занятиях: в них кратко и информативно
представлен алгоритм освоения учебного материала по модулям, позволяющий
повысить качество самообразования и стимулировать интерес пользователя к
дисциплине «Английский язык». Данные методические указания могут служить
руководством для студентов 1 курса по направлению подготовки «Лесное дело».
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Text 1.
FORESTS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
(part 1)
Wood is unique among the world’s important raw materials. Most people on the
Earth live in wooden houses, sit on wooden chairs, eat on wooden tables, and up to
the pesent day, many people are warmed by wood-stocked fires.
The wood-posessing countries of the world are, perhaps, most wealthy, because,
under the conditions of wise management, wood is universal, abundant and
essentially inexehaustible source of national welfare. There are something like
eight billion acres of timber covering the earth as a whole. Among timber-producing
countries Russia is one of the greatest. It posseses enormous forest resources
amounting to approximately 2,670 million cubic feet, equal to 35 per cent of the
total world reserves.
The principal commercial softwoods include larch, pine, spruce; birch, aspen,
oak, beech, hornbeam and ash form the bulk of hardwood supply.
The main softwood reserves are concentrated in the Urals, Siberia, Far East, in the
Northern European regions of Arkhangelsk and Vologda and in the Komi and
Karelian republics. They can meet the demand for many a year.
The geographical distribution of our forests is, perhaps, not very favourable, as
the substantial proportion of the wood-stock is concentrated in the Asian part of
Russia while the predominant part of the population and industrial enterprises are
located in the European part of our country. With further development of industry,
however, and the relocation of mills to the eastern parts of Siberia will consume
wood resources, and there will be much less necessity to transport timber for long
distances.
The country produces 35 million cubic metres of sawn-goods annually and is one
of the leading producers and exporters of timber.
Mind the vocabulary:
Hornbeam - граб
cubic feet – кубические футы
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mills = enterprises – (лесоперерабатывающие) предприятия
softwoods/ hardwood – мягкодревесные/твердодревесные породы
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written
form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of
the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 2.
FORESTS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Russia is very rich in forests. They are concentrated in the Far East, Siberia and
in Northern European part of our country. Birch, oak, beech form hardwood
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species; pine, spruce, larch form softwood species. The main timber enterprises
are located in the Asian part of Russia while the main industrial enterprises of
wood takes place in the european part because the largest part of population and
industrial mills are situated here.
The Russian forests are divided into three groups: group 1 consisting of
various forest reserves such as shelter belts. This group occupies 67, 211 acres and
contains 5,5 per cent of the total standing timber in the country;
group 2 represents watershed protection forests, mainly, in the central and western
parts of European Russia, on area approximately 211,000,000 acres, and contains
about 5 per cent of the total timber volume. The forests of these two groups can be
only slightly for sanitary purposes;
group 3 represents the forest areas open for economic exploitation and is situated
principally in the North of European Russia, in Siberia and Far East. These forests
cover about 2, 224, 000,000 acres an contain approximately 21, 009, 000, 000 cords
or 89, 5 per cent of all timber.
All forms of cuttings, including large-scale cutting are allowed under the
necessary condition that the cut-over areas must be restocked, either naturally or
artificially within a short specified period.
The average wood volume per acre in about 15,8 cords.
Mind the vocabulary:
Softwoods/ hardwood –мягкодревесные/твердодревесные породы
mills = enterprises –(лесоперерабатывающие) предприятия
cords – корд (мера дров = 128 кубических футов = 3,63 куб.м)
acre – английская единица измерения площади – акр (0,4 га)
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written
form.
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3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of
the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 3.
BRITAIN’S FORESTS
In prehistoric times, Britain was well-covered with trees. But as the population
changed and grew, as agriculture developed and the need for timber increased,
the forest areas gradually disappeared. The grazing cattle and sheep prevented
much natural regeneration of trees. However, some woodland areas enjoyed a
royal protection because of the facilities they offered for game, hunting. Similar
control was exercised by landowners. Some of these woodland areas as New
Forest, Forest of Dean and Epping Forest, still exist with many of the old customs
and laws still surviving.
Some landowners managed their estates well and responded to emergency calls,
such as that made by John Evelyn in the 17th century and it is thanks to them that
we have these trees we do posses, and were able to face up to some of the
demands for timber during the two great world wars.
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So much home-grown timber was used in the First World War, that it was quite
obvious that the growing of trees should no longer be left to individuals. There had
to be a national policy. Accordingly, The Forestry Commission was set up in 1919.
The Second World War once again made great demand for timber reserves
because the effective blockade of the ports made the import of this bulky item a
great problem.
But inspite of the two wars the Forestry commission has now planted 1,5 million
acres of trees in the 500 forests of the country. The annual programme in recent
years has been 100 million new trees planted each year. Of these, 90 per cent are
conifer trees because they are quick growing. The softwood they provide
represents practically 90 per cent of the country needs. The Forestry Commission,
with their scientific and financial resources advise and assist private landowners
who have between them 2,5 million acres of woodland.
There is a number of forest schools which train the specialists who look after the
Britain’s forests. A number of universities have specialist courses which provide a
steady flow of men who will occupy various positions both in State and private
woodlands.
Mind the vocabulary:
grazing cattle – крупнорогатый скот
landowners - землевладельцы
estate – поместье, имение
acres - английская единица измерения площади – акр (0,4 га)
softwood – мягкодревесный
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written
form.
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3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of
the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 4.
FORESTS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Two english - speaking countries across the ocean posses large forest resources.
They are Canada and the United States of America. The amount of timber resources of
the USA is second only to the Russian Federation. Forest land occupies one third part
of the United States area.
There are over one thousand species of trees in the United States. In Europe
(without Russia) there are less than one hundred. Britain has about thirty species and
France thirty five. Out of the one thousand kinds of trees in America only about one
hundred have much commercial value as lumber. Of these about sixty are hardwoods
and about forty are softwoods, but only fifteen hardwoods and fourteen softwoods are
extensively used for timber, plywood, pulpwood and construction timber.
The softwoods are the oldest family of trees in the United states. The commercial
softwoods of importance are:
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Southern yellow pine, Douglus fir, Hemlock, Sitka spruce, larch, and white fir.
Hardwoods which are broad – leaved and usually shed leaves in autumn furnish about
20 per cent of US commercial wood products. They are oak, maple, birch, beech, and
others.
Most parts of the forest land is privately owned and consists of small parks and
farms under 5, 000 acres. The care of these forests lies on the small owner. There are
146 national forests furnishing 159 million acres in the United States. The national
forests are administrated by The United States Forest Service (USFS).
Mind the vocabulary:
Softwood/hardwood - мягкодревесные/твердодревесные породы
Larch - лиственница
Hemlock – 1) тсуга (американское хвойное дерево)
2) болиголов (крапчатый)
Sitka spruce - ель ситхинская
white fir – пихта одноцветная
acre - английская единица измерения площади – акр (0,4 га)
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written
form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
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How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of
the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 5.
FORESTS OF CANADA
Two english - speaking countries across the ocean possess large forest resources.
They are Canada and the United States of America. The amount of timber resources of
the USA is second only to the Russian Federation. Forest land occupies one third part of
the United States area. The forest resources of Canada amount to 11,6 billion cubic
metres.
The most important forest trees in Canada are the spruces. About one third of
Canada’s timber is spruce. Its wood is used for pulpwood, lumber and plywood.
Second only to the spruces are two-needled pines. These pines furnish 11 per cent of
Canada’s standing timber volume. Third in importance are the true firs, of which the
most distributed is the balsam fir. Its wood is commonly cut as pulp wood and to a
lesser extent, as sawn goods. Next is a family of broad-leaved deciduous trees – aspen
and poplar.
Fifth among Canada’s forest trees is the hemlock. Western hemlock is a valuable
pulpwood species; eastern hemlock is a main commercial source of tannin, while the
wood is used for railroad ties, lumber and pulp.
The tree, responsible, more than any other, for British Columbia’s world-wide
reputation for timber is the coastal form of Douglas fir. Douglas fir is used extensively
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for lumber, plywood and construction timber. Next in order are the cedars. Their wood
is light and resistant to decay. In vergin forests they reach heights of 150 – 200 feet
and diameters of 8 to 10 feet. Their wood is used for lumber, poles and posts.
Finally there are the birches. Most distributed is the white birch which grows
widely throughout Canada. The most important hardwood tree in eastern Canada is the
yellow birch. Its wood is much in demand for flooring, furniture veneer and railroad
ties.
Canada is indeed fortunate to possess such a variety of useful tree species. The
pine and spruce in the east, and Douglas fir, cedar and hemlock in British Columbia
have won for Canada its position as the world’s leading nation in forest products trade.
Mind the vocabulary:
Pulpwood – бумажно-целлюлозная древесина
Plywood - (клееная) фанера
balsam fir – пихта бальзамическая
cedar - кедр
yellow birch – береза желтая
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written
form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
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Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of
the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 6.
SILVICULTURE AS THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
OF CARING FOR NATURAL RESOURCES
The future productivity of our forests depends on careful selection of tree seed
sources to match the local soil and climatic conditions of each forest. The objective is
to select species and seed sources which will yield high volumes of timber and superior
tree form while maintaining wood properties and disease resistance.
Forestry makes an important contribution to a productive and flourishing countryside
and rural welfare. Forest and woodland have the special capacity to provide
recreation benefits and absorb the pressures of large numbers of visitors. Public
recreation must be a part of forest management.
Silviculture is the art of reproducing and tending forest growth, it includes the
technique of starting new forests and caring for them through all stages to maturity.
Regeneration of woods may be accomplished by creating conditions for establishing
new stands either by natural seeding or by a new crop of tree sprouts; again, new
woodlands may be established by planting small trees grown in forest nurseries. As
stands develop, numerous types of cultural measures are desirables, cutting made in
immature stands are termed intermediate cutting; these made in the mature woods
are called final cuttings.
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The treatment of a wood that is managed for the production of useful wood products
varies considerably from the treatment where the aim is one of encouraging of wildlife
or of protecting human habitations from climatic extremes. But it is easily possible in
any woods to meet all objectives by a well-coordinated plan of silvicultural treatment.
The application of silvicultural treatment demands a knowledge of the many
environmental factors that influence the growth of species, an understanding of the
ways in which trees live and grow in association of the worth of the individual species
that are adaptable to local conditions.
Mind the vocabulary:
Recreation - отдых
Silviculture – профессиональное лесоводство
forest nurseries - лесопитомники
intermediate cutting – промежуточная рубка
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written
form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of
the text.
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7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 7.
EXOTIC PLANTS OF FIVE CONTINENTS
The Director of the Kolomna forest farm Alexei Popov has grown on the Moscow
Region soil over 90 species from all corners of the globe.
If trees could speak the capricious in forest growing Weymouth pine would be the first
to say “thanks” to Alexei Popov. It would probably be followed by Amur cork tree,
cembra pine, English oak, horse chestnut – all those were cherished by the Director of
the Kolomna Forest farm.
Four hectares of former pasture land have accomodated about 90 hardy-shrub species
from all over the world. They started with common pine but it proved to be the most
unlucky species in the park. All because of moose. For decades these animals were
number one danger for coniferous plants, eating green pine outgrowth to the root.
But forest farmers managed to vindicate pine from moose.
Much greater menace for this unique natural corner was posed by “black lumbermen”,
reckless hikers, mushroom collecters or just ... thieves.
The arboretum was once inhabited by a native Canadian fir, or dwarf spruce. A grace
itself, it had an extremely tight, strictly pyramidal shape. But the green beauty ... was
stolen on a New Year Eve.
Today the arboretum is the home of a few species of larch, spruce, maple, and oak,
hornbeam, thuja, ever-green cypress. Weymouth pine, the pride of the arboretum,
was very hard to naturalize in the Moscoe area.
The initial plan was to plant about 100 species from all continents. Today this plan is
accomplished by 90 percent – some plants failed to naturalize.
Mind the vocabulary:
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Amur cork tree – Амурское пробковое дерево
cembra pine English oak – дуб черешчатый
horse chestnut – каштан конский обыкновенный
moose- американский лось
hornbeam - граб
to naturalize – акклиматизироваться
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written
form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of
the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
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The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 7.
FORESTS OF EUROPE
NORWAY
In Europe without the Russian territory today timber exporters are : Norway,
Finland and Sweden.
In Norway forests cover one quarter of the total surface of the country. Once the
country exported its forest wealth in the form of logs, later on – as sawn goods and
planed timbers, now – mainly as pulp and paper.
The principal tree tree species in Norway are spruce, pine and birch. In the
southern parts of Norway we also find, in small quantities, several valuable species,
demanding a certain minimum of average temperature, such as oak, beech, ash –
(tree), alder, maple, lime and yew. Over the whole forest area, in mixed stands, a
number of other species, such as willow and aspen, willow and juniper are to be
found.
More than 70 per cent of the Norwegian productive area belong to private
owners, and a major part of this area is utilized in combination with farming.
At the beginning of the century, and especially during World War 2 the condition
of Norwegian forests began to alarm most farsighted foresters, as the long periods of
harvesting policies with little or none reforestation practices had led to a condition of
serious unbalance. So, in1919 a survey of Norwegian forests was done, in which the
volume of the forest was calculated. Modern forestry has set itself a task of great
afforestation works, especially in the western and northern parts of the country.
Mind the vocabulary:
Yew - тис
Juniper – можжевельник
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to translate/pronounce
them correctly.
17
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written
form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of
the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 8.
FORESTS OF ASIA
CHINA
Asia excluding Russia, should be discussed in two sections, one covering the
region of East Asia, including China, Korea and Japan, the other covering South Asia and
including the Philippines, Indonesia and India.
The forest of East Asia, though the subregions vary widely in type, are mainly
situated in temperate or cool zones and hence do not differ in principle from the
American or European forests. The forests of Southern Asia, on the other hand, are
mainly of tropical type, more similar to those of Africa and South America.
18
China, once well – covered with forests, has now five or six thousand years of
destructive action of man, a forested area covering only 9 per cent of the country.
There still constitutes a considerable forest area, of which three quarters is productive
forest land. Half of this is covered by coniferous forests, mainly concentrated in the
north-eastern part of the country. The South, South – West and central region contain
a considerable part of hardwood forests.
There are three main forest zones in China, namely the subtropical, the warm –
temperate and cool – temperate. In the subtropical zone evergreen broadleaf trees,
such as several species of oak, occur together with palms, tree ferns and bamboos.
The warm – temperate zone includes the rest of china south provinces along the
Yagtz river. Its forests contain deciduous broadleaf species such as oak, maple,
poplar, and even some conifers, such as pine.
Mind the vocabulary:
Hardwood - твердодревесный
Bamboos - бамбук
Palm – пальма, пальмовое дерево
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written
form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
19
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of
the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 9.
FORESTS OF EUROPE
FINLAND, SWEDEN, DENMARK
In Europe without the Russian territory today timber exporters are: Norway,
Finland and Sweden.
In Finland pine is the dominant tree species. Birch grows extensively, but from the
point of view of industry it is of less value because at present only special grades of
paper are made from. It is used, however, as raw material for plywood and veneer
industry and as fuelwood.
Today about 70 per cent of the whole area of Finland is covered with forests. The
greater part of te forests is privately owned, mainly by farmers. Some 30 per cent is
state owned, the rest is divided between companies.
In Sweden the treе species are very much the same as in Finland and Norway.
The threе countries: Sweden, Norway and Finland make an important wood producing
part on the european continent, with advanced lumber and pulp industries.
Southern Sweden and Denmark have a milder climate and form a transition to the
Western region of Europe, which is poorly forested with valuable softwood species.
Mind the vocabulary:
Plywood - (клееная) фанера
veneer industry - шпон, однослойная фанера
20
softwood – мягкодревесный
Tasks:
1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written
form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of
the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
Text 10.
PLANTING A TREE.
Trees in your backyard can be home to many different types of wildlife. Trees also can
reduce your heating & cooling costs, help clean the air, add beauty & color, provide
shelter from the wind & the sun, & add value to your home.
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A properly planted & maintained tree will grow much faster & live much longer than
one that is incorrectly planted. Trees can be planted almost any time of the year as long
as the soil is not frozen. However, early fall is the optimum time to plant trees. The
roots grow some during the first fall & winter & then spring arrives the tree is ready to
grow. Your second choice for planting is late winter or early spring. Hot summer
weather is hard on newly planted trees & planting in frozen soil during the winter is
difficult & tough on tree roots.
Here there are some planting instructions:
- dig the hole twice as wide as, & slightly shallower than, the root ball. Roughen
the sides & bottom of the hole with a pick or shovel so that roots can penetrate
the soil.
- with a potted tree, gently remove the tree from the container. Lay the tree on its
side with the container end near the planting hole. Hit the bottom & sides of the
container until the root ball is loosened. With trees wrapped in plastic or burlap,
remove the string or wire that holds the wrapping to the root crown. Remove
the wrapping if it is plastic, burlap may be left in place.
- gently separate circling roots on the root ball. Shorten exceptionally long roots,
guide the shortened roots downward & outward. Root tips die quickly when
exposed to light & air.
- place the root ball in the hole. Leave the top of the root ball (where the roots
end & the trunk begins) ½ to 1 inch above the surrounding soil, making sure not
to cover it unless roots are exposed. As you add soil to fill in around the tree,
lightly tamp the soil to collapse air pockets, or add water to help settle the soil.
- form a temporary water basin around a base of the tree to encourage water
penetration, & water thoroughly after planting. A tree with a dry root ball
cannot absorb water, if the root ball is extremely dry, allow water to trickle into
the soil by placing the hose at the trunk of the tree.
- mulch around the tree.
For the first year or two, especially after a week or so of especially hot or dry weather,
watch your trees closely for signs of moisture stress. If you see leaf wilting or hard,
caked soil, water the trees well & slowly enough so water soaks in rather than run off.
This will encourage deep root growth. Keep the area under the trees mulched & free of
other plants. Until the trees are deeply rooted, grasses & other plants may take up
moisture before the trees can get their share.
Tasks:
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1. Mind the black words in the text, consult a dictionary to
translate/pronounce them correctly.
2. Now read the text and translate it. Translate passages 1, 3 in the written
form.
3. Divide the black words into 3 groups – nouns (group 1) – verb (group 2) –
adjective (group 3).
4. Make 4 word combinations with the black words from the text.
5. What are the answers to these questions:
What is the text about?
What does passage 1 speak about?
How will you define the key idea of passage 2?
Does the last passage give the same information as the last but one passage?
6. Find the key idea of every passage, put them in order to make the plan of
the text.
7. Make the summary of the text paying attention to these standard phrases:
The text is about/the text speaks about …
First, we can read/learn about …
The next part/passage describes …
The last part/passage informs us about …
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Библиографический список
1. Англо-русский словарь *Текст+: словарь/ В.К. Мюллер. – Санкт-Петербург:
Гуманитарное агентство «Академический проект», 1997. – 912 с.
2. Англо-русский и русско-английский лесотехнический словарь *Текст+: словарь/
под общ. Ред. Д.В. Можаева. – РУССО, 1998. – 864 с.
3. Тынкова А.М. Методические указания по обучению рациональному чтению и
профессионально-направленной речи для студентов 1 курса факультета ЛиСПХ
*Текст+: метод. Указания/ А.М. Тынкова, А.Ю. Климова, Н.И. Крохотина. – Воронеж:
ВГЛТА, 1994. – 38 с.
4. Journal of Forestry [Text] /Washington DC, 2009. - № 1-11
5. Дроздова, Т.Ю. Read and speak English / Т.Ю .Дроздова. – СПб.: Каро,1999. –336с.
6. Карачарова, Н.М. Английский язык. /Н.М. Карачарова, А. В.Масленникова. –
СПб. : Академ, 2001.-384с.
7. Орловская, И.В..Учебник английского языка
для технических университетов и
ВУЗов / И.В.Орловская , Л.С. Самсонова., А.И.Скубриева .-М.,2001.-265с.
8. Cedric, H The Management of Farm Woodlands [Теxt]: моногр./.Н.Cedric .,
В.S.Guise . - New York and London: Mс Graw Hill Book Company, Inc.,1969. -352c.
9. Forest Products [Теxt].- Madison, 2001.-№1-12.
10. Hornby, A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English
[Теxt]/А.S.Hornby . - Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1974.- 914p.
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