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Маклакова Е. А. Английский язык. Introductory Course for Economists and Accountanta

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Федеральное агентство по образованию
Государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Воронежская государственная лесотехническая академия»
Е. А. Маклакова
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
INTRODUCTORY COURSE FOR ECONOMISTS AND ACCOUNTANTS
Учебное пособие
Воронеж 2008
ББК 81.432.1-923
М15
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета
ГОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА»
Рецензенты: кафедра общего языкознания и стилистики ВГУ,
канд.филол. наук, доц. кафедры иностранных языков ВГПУ Т.А. Чубур
Маклакова, Е. А.
М15
Английский язык. Introductory Course for Economists and Accountants
[Текст] : учебное пособие / Е.А. Маклакова ; Фед. агентство по
образованию, ГОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА». – Воронеж, 2008. – 128 с.
ISBN 978-5-7994-0276-1 (в обл.)
Состоящее из трех частей учебное пособие включает грамматический
справочник, содержащий наряду с объяснением основных грамматических
понятий и правил, необходимых для студентов первого курса при изучении
дисциплины «Английский язык» в вузе, тестовые задания, а также учебные
тексты и материалы для внеаудиторного чтения, сопровождающиеся
комментариями и лексическими и грамматическими упражнениями, которые
могут быть использованы в процессе обучения иностранному языку как на
практических занятиях с преподавателем, так и в самостоятельной работе
студентов. В основу пособия положен современный аутентичный материал,
охватывающий основные направления специализации студентов экономического
факультета ВГЛТА, с учетом современных требований.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 1 курса экономического
факультета специальностей 060800 (080502) – Экономика и управление на
предприятии (лесной комплекс), 080102 – Мировая экономика и 080109 –
Бухгалтерский учет, анализ и аудит.
ББК 81.471.1-923
© Маклакова Е. А., 2008
ISBN 978-5-7994-0276-1
© ГОУ ВПО «Воронежская
государственная
лесотехническая академия», 2008
2
РАЗДЕЛ I
ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК
Множественное число существительных
Множественное число существительных, кроме тех, основа которых
оканчивается на -ch, -s, -ss, -sh, -x, а также существительных, имеющих окончание -о, образуется путем прибавления к основе окончания -s:
a book — books, a pen — pens, a girl — girls.
Множественное число существительных, основа которых оканчивается на ch, -s, -ss, -sh, -x, а также имеющих окончание -о, образуется путем прибавления
окончания -es:
a bench — benches, a bus — buses, a box — boxes, a potato — potatoes.
Существительные, оканчивающиеся на -у (после согласной) во
множественном числе имеют окончание -ies:
a baby— babies, a fly — flies, a lady — ladies.
Существительные, оканчивающиеся на -у (после гласной) во
множественном числе имеют окончание -s:
a boy — boys, a toy — toys.
Если слово оканчивается на f(-fe), то во множественном числе f меняется на
v и добавляется -(es):
a life — lives, a knife — knives, a shelf — shelves, a wife — wives
(исключение: roof крыша — roofs)
Как читаются окончания существительных во множественном числе?
• -s читается как [s] после глухих согласных: books, cats;
• -s читается как [z] после звонких согласных и гласных: pens, boys;
• -es читается как [iz] после s, ss, sh, ch, x, z: boxes.
Ряд существительных образует множественное число не по общим
правилам:
а) изменяется корневая гласная: a man — теп, a woman — women, a foot — feet,
a tooth — teeth, a goose — geese, a mouse — mice.
б) добавляется окончание -еп: an ох — oxen, a child — children.
в) заимствуются формы единственного и множественного числа из латинского
и греческого языков: a formula — formulae (formulas), a crisis — crises, a
criterion — criteria, an index — indices, a bacterium — bacteria.
В английском языке есть существительные, которые имеют одну (общую)
форму для единственного и множественного числа: a deer — deer, a sheep—
sheep, a fish — fish, a swine — swine.
Некоторые существительные могут употребляться в форме только
единственного либо множественного числа.
3
Употребляются только в единственном числе:
money — деньги
information — информация, сведения
progress — прогресс, успехи
news— новость, новости
business — дело
advice — советы
knowledge — знание, знания
love — любовь
peace — мир, спокойствие
furniture — мебель
luggage — багаж
sugar — сахар
fruit — фрукты
hair — волосы
Употребляются только во множественном числе:
clothes — одежда
goods — товары
riches — богатства
thanks — благодарности
manners — манеры
money — деньги
Неопределенный артикль
Неопределенный артикль а(аn) происходит от числительного one (один),
определенный — от указательного местоимения that (тот).
Артикль употребляется перед каждым нарицательным существительным.
Артикль не употребляется если перед существительным стоит:
• указательное или притяжательное местоимение — This is ту book.
• другое существительное в притяжательном падеже — It's teacher's book.
• количественное числительное — She has one pen.
• отрицание по — He has no book.
Упоминая предмет впервые, мы употребляем перед ним неопределенный
артикль а(ап). Упоминая этот же предмет вторично, мы ставим перед ним
определенный артикль the. Например:
This is a book. The book is interesting.
Неопределенный артикль a (an) употребляется перед единичным,
отдельным предметом, который мы не выделяем из класса ему подобных.
Неопределенный артикль an обычно стоит перед существительным, которое
начинается с гласного звука: an apple, an egg. Например:
I bought a book yesterday. Я купил вчера книгу.
(одну из многих ей подобных).
I have an apple. У меня есть яблоко (одно, какое-то).
Неопределенный артикль a (an) может употребляться только с
исчисляемыми
существительными
в
единственном
числе.
Перед
неисчисляемыми существительными или существительными во множественном
числе неопределенный артикль опускается.
Неопределенный артикль не употребляется:
1. С неисчисляемыми и «абстрактными» существительными:
I like coffee and tea. Friendship is very important in our life.
2. С существительными во множественном числе: The books are on the table.
3. С именами собственными:
I told Jane about that.
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4. С существительными, перед которыми стоят притяжательные или
указательные местоимения:
This car is better than that. That bike is old.
5. С существительными, за которыми следует количественное числительное,
обозначающее номер:
Read the text on page eight.
Неопределенный артикль а необходим в конструкциях:
I have a... This is a... I am a... What a fine day! I see a... There is a... He is a...
What a good boy!
Определенный артикль
Определенный артикль the выделяет предмет или предметы из класса им
подобных:
The book I bought yesterday was interesting.
Книга, которую я купил вчера, была интересной.
(книгу выделяют из класса ей подобных)
Определенный артикль the употребляется с исчисляемыми существительными в единственном и во множественном числе и с неисчисляемыми
существительными. Например:
This is a book. The book is interesting.
This is meat. The meat is fresh.
These are books. The books are good.
Определенный артикль употребляется:
1. Когда известно, о каком предмете идет речь: Open the door, please. I am going
to the college.
2. Когда речь идет о единственном в своем роде предмете или явлении: the
moon, the sun, the Earth, the Kremlin.
3. Когда существительное имеет ограничивающее определение, чаще всего с
предлогом of: I don't know the name of this man.
4. В словосочетаниях типа: in the north, to the west, at the cinema, the same, in
the country, the rest of the ...
5. Если перед существительным стоит прилагательное в превосходной степени:
This is the most interesting book. You can buy the best goods here.
Географические названия и артикль
С географическими названиями и с именами собственными, артикль, как
правило, не употребляется, кроме следующих случаев:
а) с названиями морей, рек, океанов, горных хребтов, групп островов
используется определенный артикль: the Pacific Ocean, the Black Sea, the
Thames, the British Isles;
б) определенный артикль используется с несколькими названиями стран,
областей и городов: the Ukraine, the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Netherlands, the
Hague, the Riviera, the Congo, the West Indies;
5
в) определенный артикль используется с названиями стран, состоящими из 2 и
более слов: the Russian Federation, the United States of America, the United
Kingdom;
г) перед собирательным именем семьи: The Petrovs — Петровы.
Запомните: артикль не употребляется в сочетаниях со словами next и last:
next week, next year, last month, last Tuesday.
SOME GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES
Continents
America Америка, North / South America Северная / Южная Америка, Asia Азия,
Australia Австралия, Europe Европа;
UK - the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Соединенное
Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии, England Англия, Scotland
Шотландия, Wales Уэльс;
Oceans
the Indian Ocean Индийский океан, the Pacific Ocean Тихий океан, the Atlantic
Ocean Атлантический океан, the Arctic Ocean Северный Ледовитый океан;
Seas
the Baltic Sea Балтийское море, the Black Sea Черное море, the Mediterranean Sea
Средиземное море;
Rivers
the Danube Дунай, the Dnieper Днепр, the Lena Лена, the Amur Амур, the
Mississippi Миссисипи, the Neva Нева, the Volga Волга;
Mountains
the Caucasus Кавказские горы, the Crimea Крым, the Urals Урал, the Alps Альпы;
Countries and their capitals
Austria Австрия - Vienna Вена, Bulgaria Болгария - Sofia София, Belgium
Бельгия - Brussels Брюссель, Canada Канада -Ottawa Оттава, China Китай Beijing Пекин, France Франция - Paris Париж, Germany Германия - Berlin
Берлин, Greece Греция - Athens Афины, Netherlands Голландия - the Hague
Гаага, Dutch голландский, Hungary Венгрия - Budapest Будапешт, India Индия Delhi Дели, Italy Италия - Rome Рим, Japan Япония - Tokyo Токио, Poland
Польша - Warsaw Варшава, Rumania Румыния - Bucharest Бухарест, Sweden
Швеция - Stockholm Стокгольм, Switzerland Швейцария - Bern Берн, The United
States of America Соединенные Штаты Америки - Washington Вашингтон.
ТЕСТ 1
1. Choose the alternative that best completes the sentence.
1) Remember to buy____ envelope for the air-mail.
a) an
b) 2) I like_______ tomato soup.
6
a) a
b) 3) Oh, no! Not for me. I never eat ____ meat. I'm a vegetarian.
a) a
b) 4) Do you eat______ fish?
a) a
b) 5) May I have_____ apple from the basket?
a) an
b) 6) I like_____ fruit. I simply can't live without it.
a) a
b) 7) Look! What a beautiful vase! It's made of______ malachite.
a) a
b) 8) I gave my daughter___ golden ring for her eighteenth birthday.
a) a
b) 9) ______glass of mineral water for me, please.
a) a
b) 10) In the morning I usually drink____ coffee.
a) a
b) 11) Would you like_____ cheese sandwich?
a) a
b) 2. Choose the alternative that best completes the sentence.
1) Ancient Greeks drank_______ wine with water.
a) b) a
2) Lend me________ iron, please. Mine has gone wrong.
a) b) an
3) This mountain is rich in______ iron.
a) b) an
4) I'd like___ strawberry ice-cream, please.
a) b) a
5) She isn't____ beauty of course. But she acts wonderfully. To my mind, she is a
promising actress.
a) b) a
6) Be careful! It's made of____ glass.
a) b) a
7) It's a real disaster! My son doesn't like____ milk. It's very wholesome, specially
for children.
a) b) the
8) I'll have______ steak, and you?
a) b) a
3. Choose the alternative that best completes the sentence.
7
1) How_________ cheese should I buy?
a) much
b) many
2) How__________ countries have you visited?
a) much
b) many
3) How_______ did your car cost?
a) much
b) many
4) How________ people are coming to the party?
a) much
b) many
5) How__________ sugar do I need to make jam of three kilograms of raspberry?
a) much
b) many
6) We didn't take _____food with us. We hoped to buy some on the way.
a) much
b) many
7) I didn't see__________ beauty in the film "American Beauty".
a) much
b) many
8) I can't give you_________ advice. I'm quite ignorant of the situation.
a) much
b) many
4. Choose the correct alternative.
1) The police_____ called immediately.
a) was
b) were
2) When I was at University I used to think that phonetics_____ a dull subject. But
now I'm of a different opinion.
a) is
b) are
3) The news_______ announced before lunch.
a) was
b) were
4) Sheep ______ grown in the northern areas of Great Britain because there is a lot of
green grass.
a) is
b) are
5) In my opinion, billiards_____ a very boring game. But my boyfriend says it's
foolish of me to think so.
a) is
b) are
6) Deer_____ reared in the northern parts of Russia.
a) is
b) are
7) My son says that physics_____ a very interesting subject.
a) is
b) are
8) In summer cattle________ fed on pasture lands.
a) is
b) are
9) Rich green foliage_______ hiding the house.
a) was
b) were
10) Where on earth____ the scissors?
a) is
b) are
11) The machinery_____ delivered in time.
8
a) was
b) were
5. Choose the correct alternative.
1) The_____ stole a picture by Rembrandt which costs thousands of dollars.
a) thieves
b) thiefs
2) My Granny lives on the farm. She has a lot of________.
a) goose
b) geese
3) 1 bought two nice_____. One for my sister and one for myself.
a) scarfs
b) scarves
4) The_______ of the houses need repairing.
a) roofs
b) rooves
5) The______ of the horses were heard in the distance.
a) hoofs
b) hooves
6) I bought a few ________ for my husband.
a) handkerchiefs
b) handkerchieves
7) I have two bad________. I must have them either filled or pulled out.
a) tooth
b) teeth
8) "There are_____ in my country house. Can you lend me your cat for a few days?" " Oh, No! I think you should have a cat of your own."
a) mouse
b) mice
Местоимения (Pronouns)
Местоимения
употребляются
в
предложении
вместо
имени
существительного или имени прилагательного. Местоимение называет людей,
предметы или признаки уже упомянутые ранее. Например:
Peter gave Kate a book. She took it.
Петя дал Кате книгу. Она взяла ее.
You have a good dictionary. I want to buy such a dictionary.
У вас хороший словарь. Я хочу купить такой словарь.
Слова, обозначающие мужчин (man, boy, son, husband, king), относятся к
мужскому роду и заменяются местоимением he (он):
Не is a boy. He is a son. He is a king.
Слова, обозначающие женщин (girl, woman, daughter, queen) относятся к
женскому роду и заменяются местоимением she (она):
She is a girl. She is a daughter. She is a queen.
Слова, обозначающие вещи (table, chair, book, clock) относятся к среднему
роду, и заменяются местоимением it:
It is a book. It is a picture. It is an apple.
Местоимение they (они) относится ко всем трем родам:
They are boys. They are engineers. They are apples.
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Личные местоимения (Personal pronouns)
Единственное число
1 лицо - I (я)
2 лицо - you (ты)
3 лицо - he (он), she (она), it (оно)
Множественное число
1 лицо - we (мы)
2 лицо - you (вы)
3 лицо - they (они)
Примечание: после местоимения you глагол-сказуемое всегда стоит во
множественном числе: You are a student. Ты студент.
Склонение личных местоимений
Личные местоимения в английском имеют два падежа:
1) именительный падеж (the nominative case);
2) объектный падеж (the objective case), заменяющий собой остальные падежи.
Число Лицо
ед.
1 лицо
2 лицо
3 лицо
мн.
1 лицо
2 лицо
3 лицо
Именительный падеж Объектный падеж
I (я)
mе (мне, меня)
you (ты)
you (тебе, тебя)
he (он)
him (ему, его)
she (она)
her (ей, ее)
it (оно)
it (ему) неодушевленное
we (мы)
us (нам, нас)
you (вы)
you (вам, вас)
they(они)
them (им, их)
Притяжательные местоимения (Possessive Pronouns)
Единственное число
1 лицо - mу (мой, моя, мое, мои)
Множественное число
1 лицо - our (наш, наша, наше,
наши)
2 лицо - your (твой, твоя, твое,
2 лицо - your (ваш, ваша, ваше,
твои,)
ваши)
3 лицо - his (его), her (ее), its (его)
3 лицо - their (их)
Притяжательные местоимения имеют две формы: основную и абсолютную.
Основная форма употребляется в тех случаях, когда за притяжательным
местоимением стоит существительное. Например:
This is ту book and that is your book. Это моя книга, а то твоя книга.
Абсолютная форма притяжательных местоимений употребляется в тех
случаях, когда за местоимением не стоит существительное. Например:
This is my book and that is yours. Это моя книга, а то твоя.
It is not mine. Она не моя.
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Абсолютные формы притяжательных местоимений
1 лицо
2 лицо
Единственное число
mine (мой, моя, yours (твой, твоя, твое,
мое, мои)
твои)
Множественное число
ours (наш, наша,
yours (ваш, ваша,
наше, наши)
ваше, ваши)
3 лицо
his (его), hers (ее), its
(его)
theirs (их)
Указательные местоимения (Demonstrative Pronouns)
Указательные местоимения this и that имеют единственное и
множественное число.
Единственное число
Множественное число
this (этот, эта, это)
these (эти)
that (тот, та, то)
those (те)
such (такой, такая, такое, такие)
Например:
This is my house and that is yours.
Это мой дом, а то — твой.
These are my books. Take those books.
Эти книги мои. Возьми те книги.
Указательное местоимение such имеет одну неизменяемую форму. Например:
I like such books. Мне нравятся такие книги.
Вопросительные местоимения
Эти местоимения употребляются в вопросительных предложениях.
What (что, какой, какая, какое, какие)
What is it? Что это такое? What book is it? Какая это книга?
Who (кто)
Who is this man? Кто этот человек?
Whose (чей)
Whose pencil is it? Чей это карандаш?
Which (который)
Which of these books is yours? Которая из этих книг твоя?
When (когда)
When does the lesson begin? Когда начинается урок?
Why (почему, зачем)
Why did you come here? Почему вы пришли сюда?
How (как)
How are you? Как поживаете?
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How many (much) (сколько)
Вопросительное местоимение what относится к cловам, обозначающим
вещи, предметы, явления. Вопросительное местоимение who относится к
cловам, обозначающим людей. Однако, обратите внимание:
Who is he? Кто он? (как его зовут) Не is Mr Johnson.
What is he? Кто он? (по профессии) Не is a broker.
Местоимение who имеет два падежа:
1. именительный падеж who
Who is here? Кто здесь?
2. объектный падеж whom (кому, кого).
Whom do you see there? Кого ты там видишь?
Whom did you give my book? Кому ты дал мою книгу?
Возвратные местоимения
Возвратные местоимения употребляются в предложении для того, чтобы
сказать, что предмет, названный подлежащим предложения,
(а) сам совершает действие или,
(б) сам совершает действие и испытывает его нa себе.
Как правило, они переводятся глаголом с частицей -сь (-ся), которая
присоединяется к глаголам. Например:
They washed and dressed themselves. Они умылись и оделись.
Do it yourself.
Сделайте это сами.
Do not cut yourself!
He порежьтесь!
Help yourself!
Угощайтесь!
В английском языке возвратные местоимения образуются от личных:
I — myself
we — ourselves
you — yourself
you — yourselves
he — himself
they — themselves
she — herself
one - oneself
it — itself
Неопределенные местоимения some, any, отрицательное
местоимение по и их производные
Употребление some и any, а также их производных определяется типом
предложения. В утвердительном предложении употребляются, как правило,
местоимение some и его производные:
Give me something to read, please.
Дайте мне что-нибудь почитать, пожалуйста.
I met him somewhere before. Я встречал его где-то раньше.
В вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях обычно используются
местоимение any и его производные:
Have you seen him anywhere? Вы видели его где-нибудь?
12
Is there anything I can do for you?
Могу ли я что-нибудь для вас сделать?
В отрицательных предложениях используется либо местоимение any и его
производные:
I cannot find this book anywhere. Я не могу нигде найти эту книгу.
либо отрицательное местоимение no:
There is nobody in that room. В той комнате никого нет.
There isn't anybody in that room. В той комнате никого нет.
Различия между местоимениями any и some — в степени
неопределенности, поэтому иногда местоимение any можно встретить и в
утвердительных предложениях:
You can find this book anywhere. Эту книгу вы можете найти где угодно.
Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий
Прилагательные обозначают признаки предметов и отвечают на вопрос
какой?:
а wide road – широкая дорога
а tall tree – высокое дерево
аn interesting book – интересная книга.
Наречия отвечают на вопрос как?:
He speaks English well. – Он говорит по-английски хорошо.
Прилагательные и наречия имеют три формы степеней сравнения:
положительную (positive degree)
сравнительную (comparative degree)
превосходную (superlative degree)
Формы сравнительной и превосходной степеней образуются двумя
способами:
2. Односложные прилагательные образуют форму сравнительной степени при
помощи суффикса –er, а форму превосходной степени – с определенным
артиклем the при помощи суффикса –est:
strong – stronger – the strongest
cold – colder – the coldest
Подобным образом образуют степени сравнения и некоторые двусложные
прилагательные:
easy – easier – the easiest
clever – cleverer – the cleverest.
3. Многосложные прилагательные образуют сравнительную степень при
помощи слова more, а превосходную степень – при помощи the most:
famous – more (less) famous – the most (least) famous
interesting - more interesting – the most interesting.
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Запомните исключения при образовании степеней сравнения
прилагательных и наречий
Положительная
степень
Сравнительная степень
Превосходная степень
good (хороший)
bad (плохой)
little (маленький)
much (many)(много)
far (далекий)
far (далеко)
better (лучше)
worse (хуже,)
less (меньше, меньший)
more (больше)
farther (более далекий)
further (дальше)
the best (самый хороший)
the worst (самый плохой)
the least (самый маленький)
most (больше всего)
the farthest (самый далекий)
the furthest (дальше всего)
Наиболее употребительные наречия
Наречия места и направления:
here — здесь, тут
there — там
inside — внутри
outside — снаружи
down — внизу
back — сзади, назад
away — вдали, вон, прочь downward — вниз
upward — вверх
Наречия времени:
now — сейчас, теперь
before — до, перед, прежде
ever — когда-либо
never — никогда
always — всегда
often — часто
usually — обычно
seldom — редко
still — все еще
already — уже
just — только что, только yet — еще, уже
sometimes — иногда
today — сегодня
tomorrow — завтра
yesterday — вчера
recently — недавно
lately — в последнее время
commonly — обычно
Наречия образа действия:
slowly — медленно
quickly — быстро
easily — легко
calmly — спокойно
brightly — ярко
hardly — с трудом, едва
Наречия меры и степени:
much — много, сильно
little — немного, мало
enough — достаточно
too — слишком
almost — уже, почти
very — очень
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ТЕСТ 2
1. Choose the word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
1) 'Would you like some more cake?' - 'Yes, just_________, please.'
a) a few
b) a bit
2) We've got ___________work to do by the end of the week.
a) many
b) a great deal of
3) There weren't___________ people in the street when the accident happened.
a) many
b) a lot of
4) The sitting of the Committee was postponed because________people arrived. The
number was not enough for the quorum.
a) a few
b) few
5) 'Can I have an apple from this basket?' - 'Yes, of course. Take ________you like.
a) some
b) any
6) Would you like_________ beer, sir?
a) some
b) any
7) We've got nothing in the fridge. 1 must go and get_____ food.
a) some
b) any
8) I wondered how _________Alice told him.
a) much
b) many
9) In conclusion I'd like to say ________words about our plans.
a) few
b) a few
2. Choose the word that best completes the sentence.
1) Where's that naughty dog? We can't find him___________.
a) somewhere
b) anywhere
c) nowhere
2) We've done___________ possible. But all in vain.
a) something
b) anything
c) everything
3) There was__________ in the room. It was empty.
a) nobody
b)anybody
c) somebody
4) I couldn't see_________ in the dark.
a) someone
b) anything
c) everyone
5) ____should be present at the meeting. A very serious question will be discussed.
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a) someone
b) any one
c) everyone
6) Where's my wallet? I put it_________ over here.
a) somewhere
b) anywhere
c) nowhere
7) Can I do___________ to improve the situation?
a) something
b) anything
c) everything
8) I've heard________ about this project but I don't know all the details.
a) something
b) anything
c) everything
9) ______ was noticed leaving the house that night apart from Mr. Blake himself.
Not a single person.
a) Someone
b) No one
c) Everyone
10)______who was present at the party was questioned by the Inspector. All of them
were suspected.
a) Everybody
b) Nobody
c) Someone
Числительные (Numerals)
Числительные hundred, thousand, million не имеют окончания -s, когда
перед ними стоит другое числительное. Когда числительные обозначают
неопределенное количество, они употребляются во множественном числе с
окончанием -s, за которым следует предлог of. Сравните:
hundreds of books
two hundred books
thousands of books
five thousand books
millions of people
2 million people
Номера страниц, домов, квартир, транспорта, деловой документации
обозначаются существительными без артикля и количественными: bus 72, page
15, house 40, flat 13, order 2154.
Даты читаются следующим образом:
1900 — nineteen hundred, in (the year) nineteen hundred,
2000 — two thousand, in (the year) two thousand.
April 12, 2010:
on the twelfth of April, two thousand ten или on April the twelfth, twenty ten.
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Как читаются дробные числительные?
Простые:
Десятичные:
1/2—a (one) half;
0.1 — 0[ou] point one
1/4 — a (one) quarter
2.45 — two point four five
2/3 — two thirds
1.5— one and a half
Предлоги
Предлоги, обозначающие место
above — над
There is a lamp above the table. — Над столом висит лампа.
across — через
I live across the street. — Я живу через дорогу.
around — вокруг
We are sitting around the table. — Мы сидим вокруг стола.
at — у, в, возле, рядом
I am sitting at the table. — Я сижу у стола. I study at school. — Я учусь в школе.
The pupils are at the lesson. — Ученики на уроке.
behind — за, позади, сзади
There is a sport ground behind our school. — 3a нашей школой спортплощадка.
between — между
Between the tables. — Между столами.
down — вниз
Down the river. — Вниз по реке.
in — в
Не is in the office. — Он в офисе. The books are in the bag. — Книги в портфеле.
on — на
The book is on the desk. — Книга на столе.
under — под
The book is under the table. — Книга под столом.
in front of — впереди, перед
There is a telephone in front of him. — Перед ним стоит телефон.
near — вблизи, около, рядом с, возле, за
She is sitting near the table: — Она сидит за столом.
over — над, черва, сверх
There is a bridge over the river. — Над рекой мост.
up — вверх
Up the river. — Вверх по реке.
Предлоги, обозначающие движение
to — к
Come to me. — Подойдите ко мне.
from — от, из, со
Take this book from the table. — Убери книгу со стола.
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I come from Russia. — Я из России.
into — в, внутрь
Put the book into the bag. — Положи книгу в портфель.
out of — из
Take the book out of the table. — Возьми книгу из стола.
on(to) /onto — на
Snow fell onto the ground. — Снег падал на землю.
through — через, сквозь
Не came in through the door. — Он вошел внутрь через дверь.
Порядок слов в английском предложении
В английском предложении каждый член предложения, как правило, имеет
свое определенное место. В простом распространенном повествовательном
предложении на первом месте стоит
1) подлежащее,
за ним следует
2) сказуемое,
далее идет
3) дополнение (косвенное, прямое)
и затем
4) обстоятельства (образа действия, места, времени).
Например: 1) I; 2) gave; 3) ту brother; 3) a book; 4) yesterday.
Безличные и неопределенно-личные предложения
Английские предложения отличаются от русских тем, что в них всегда есть
подлежащее и сказуемое. Поэтому в безличных предложениях в качестве
формального подлежащего используется местоимение it.
It is cold today. Сегодня холодно. It rains. Идет дождь
Как видим, безличные предложения такого типа состоят из местоимения it,
которое не переводится, глагола-связки в нужном по смыслу времени и
именной части сказуемого, выраженного именем прилагательным, именем
существительным или именем числительным.
It's nice to meet you. Приятно познакомиться.
It is nine o'clock now. Сейчас девять часов.
Очень часто безличные предложения описывают явление природы,
состояние погоды, обозначают время, расстояние.
Вопросительная и отрицательная формы безличных предложений
образуются по тем же правилам, что и вопросительные и отрицательные формы
предложений с именным составным сказуемым. Частица not ставится после
первого вспомогательного глагола. Например:
Is it cold? — Холодно?
18
Wasn't it interesting? — Разве это не было интересно?
Isn't it funny? — Разве это не смешно?
Оборот there is / there are
Оборот there is / there are служит для выражения наличия (отсутствия)
какого-либо предмета в определенном месте или в определенное время.
Present Indefinite
There is a picture on the wall. На стене картина.
Is there a picture on the wall? На стене есть картина?
There are pictures on the wall. На стене картины.
Are there pictures on the wall? На стене есть картины?
Past Indefinite
There was a picture on the wall. На стене была картина.
Was there a picture on the wall? На стене была картина?.
There were pictures on the wall. На стене были картины.
Were there pictures on the wall? На стене были картины?
Future Indefinite
There will be pictures on the wall. На стене будут картины.
Will there be pictures on the wall? На стене будут картины?
Выбор формы глагола to be зависит от числа существительного,
следующего сразу за ним:
There is a chair and two armchairs in the room.
There are two armchairs and a chair in the room.
Вопросительные предложения с оборотом there is / there are строятся
следующим образом:
Общий вопрос:
Is there anything in the bag? Will there be lessons tomorrow?
Специальный вопрос: What is there in the bag?
Разделительный вопрос. There are some pupils in the classroom, aren't there?
Основные типы вопросов в английском языке
1. Общий вопрос (General Question)
Общий вопрос относится ко всему предложению в целом, и ответом на
него будут слова yes или по:
Do you like ice-cream? — Yes, I do.
Can you speak English? — Yes, I can.
Are you a schoolboy? — No, I am not.
Have you bought a text book? — Yes, I have.
Порядок слов в общем вопросе
1) вспомогательный (модальный, глагол-связка) глагол;
2) подлежащее (существительное или местоимение);
3) смысловой глагол (или дополнение).
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2. Специальный вопрос
Специальный вопрос относится к какому-нибудь члену предложения или
их группе и требует конкретного ответа:
What is your name? — My name is Peter.
Where do you live? — I live in Rostov.
Специальный вопрос всегда начинается со специального вопросительного
слова:
who (кто)
where (где)
whom (кого)
why (почему)
what (что)
how long (как долго) which (который)
how many (сколько)
whose (чей) how much (сколько)
when (когда)
how (как)
Порядок слов в специальном вопросе
1) вопросительное слово (what, where, who, when, how и т. д.);
2) вспомогательный (модальный, глагол-связка) глагол;
3) подлежащее;
4) смысловой глагол;
5) дополнения;
6) обстоятельства (места, времени, образа действия и т.д.).
В специальных вопросах, обращенных к подлежащему, в формах Present и
Past Indefinite не употребляется вспомогательный глагол do (does, did) и сохраняется прямой порядок слов:
Who wants to go to the cinema? Whose pen is it? Who lives here?
Обратите внимание, что в специальных вопросах к подлежащему в форме
Present Indefinite сказуемое согласуется с вопросительными словами what и who
в 3-м лице ед. числа, если отсутствует упоминание о количестве действующих
лиц:
The problems are very important. – What is very important?
3. Альтернативный вопрос
Альтернативный вопрос начинается как общий вопрос, затем следует
разделительный союз or и вторая часть вопроса. Альтернативный вопрос
предполагает выбор из двух возможностей:
Do you like coffee or tea? — Вы любите кофе или чай?
4. Разделительный вопрос (Tail Question)
Разделительный вопрос состоит из двух частей. Первая часть — это
повествовательное предложение (утвердительное или отрицательное), вторая,
отделенная запятой от первой — краткий вопрос (tail — «хвост»), который на
русский переводится не правда ли? не так ли?:
You are a pupil, aren't you? — Вы ученик, не правда ли?
You aren't a pupil, are you? — Вы не ученик, не правда ли?
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В кратком вопросе повторяется вспомогательный, модальный или
связочный глагол предложения, содержащего заявление. Если сказуемое
предложения выражено глаголами to be или to have, то повторяются эти
глаголы:
Не is reading, isn't he? Он читает, не так ли?
Не can read, can't he? Он умеет читать, не так ли?
Не is a good pupil, isn't he? Он хороший ученик, не так ли?
Не has a book, doesn't he? У него есть книга, не так ли?
Если в повествовательной части разделительного вопроса содержится
утверждение, то во второй — отрицание.
Если в повествовательной части — отрицание, то во второй части, как
правило, — утверждение:
Не is there, isn't he? Он там, не так ли?
Не isn't there, is he? Он не там, не так ли?
Спряжение глагола to be
Утвердительная форма
Вопросительная форма
Отрицательная форма
Настоящее время (Рrеsепt Indefinite)
I am
Am I?
I аm not.
Не (she, it) is.
Is he (she, it)?
Не (she, it) is not.
Wе (уоu, they) arе.
Аrе we (уоu, they)? Wе (уоu, they) аrе not.
Прошедшее время (Рast Indefinite)
I (he, she, it) was.
Was I (he, she, it)? I (he, she, it) was not.
Wе (уоu, they) were.
Were we (уоu, they)? We (уоu, they) were not.
Будущее время (Futurе Indefinite)
I (we) shall bе.
Shall I (we) bе?
I (we) shall not bе.
Will he (she, it) be?
He (she, it) will bе.
He (she, it) will not bе.
М Yоu (they) will be.
Will уоu (they) bе?
Yоu (they) will not bе.
Н
Времена английского глагола
Время
Простое
Длительное
Завершенное
Indefinite
Continuous
Perfect
Настоящее
Я пишу (обычно)
Я пишу (сейчас)
Я (уже написал)
Present
I write
I am writing
I have written
Прошедшее
Я (на) писал (вчера)
Я писал (в тот момент)
Past
I wrote
I was writing
Будущее
Я напишу,
буду писать
Я буду писать (в тот
момент)
Я написал (уже к тому
моменту) I had written
Я напишу (уже к тому
моменту)
I shall/will write
I shall/will be writing
I shall/will have written
Future
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Формы глагола в Present Indefinite
Число
Утвердительная
форма
Вопросительная форма
eд.
I ask.
He (she, it) asks.
We (you, they) ask
Do I ask?
I do not ask.
Does he (she, it) ask?
He (she, it) does not ask.
Do we (you, they) ask? We (you, they) do not ask.
мн.
Отрицательная форма
Глаголы в формах Indefinite (Simple) описывают обычные, повторяющиеся
действия как факт — безотносительно к их длительности или к результату
действия:
I go to school every day. Я хожу в школу каждый день.
I went to school when I was a boy. Я ходил в школу, когда был мальчиком.
I shall go to school when I grow up. Я буду ходить в школу, когда вырасту.
Для указания на повторный характер действия часто употребляются слова
every day / week, month, year (каждый день / неделю, месяц, год), often (часто),
seldom (редко), always (всегда), usually (обычно), never (никогда).
Формы глагола в Past Indefinite
Число
ед. и мн.
Утвердительная форма
Вопросительная форма
Отрицательная форма
I (you, he, she, it, we, Did I (you, he, she, it, I (you, he, she, it, it, we,
they) asked
we, they) ask?
they) did not asked.
Отрицательная и вопросительная формы в Indefinite образуются при
помощи вспомогательных глаголов do, does, did с частицей not, краткая форма:
don't, doesn't, didn't.
Не is a student. — Is he a student?
We do not write much. — Do we write much?
You have a computer. — Have you a computer? — What do you have?
She does not live in Moscow. — Does she live in Moscow?
He didn't like the film. — Did he like the film? — What film he didn't like?
Правильные и неправильные глаголы
По способу образования прошедшего времени все глаголы в английском
языке можно разделить на две группы: правильные и неправильные (regular and
irregular verbs). У правильных глаголов вторая и третья формы (Past Indefinite
Tense и Past Participle — простое прошедшее время и причастие прошедшего
времени) совпадают между собой и образуются путем прибавления к основе
глагола окончания -ed (-d):
to ask — asked, to change — changed, to receive — received to work— worked.
При этом существует ряд особенностей:
22
а) если глагол оканчивается на -у с предшествующей согласной, то буква у
меняется на i и добавляется окончание –ed: to supply — supplied, to apply —
applied;
б) если глагол оканчивается на -у с предшествующей гласной, то буква у не
меняется и добавляется окончание —ed: to stay — stayed, to play — played;
в) если глагол оканчивается на согласную с предшествующим кратким
гласным звуком, то согласная на конце удваивается: to stop — stopped.
Неправильные глаголы образуют вторую и третью формы различными
способами, без четких правил. Это наиболее часто употребляемые глаголы. Для
описания регулярно повторявшихся действий, которые происходили в
прошлом, используются также глаголы used to или would:
I used to watch TV a lot. In summer we would get up early and go for a swim.
ТЕСТ 3
1. Choose the correct alternative.
1) He__________ a lot, but now he doesn't.
a) used to smoke b) was smoking
2) My son was terribly homesick while he _________abroad.
a) was living b) used to live
3) They_______ happy together, but now they are constantly quarrelling.
a) used to be b) were being
4) When I was a child we________ to the Black Sea every year.
a) were traveling b) would travel
5) My son hurt his knee while he_________ football.
a) was playing b) used to play
6) I remember that Nanny___________ us fascinating stories about past times.
a) was reading b) would read
7) When we came back the children ________in the garden with two unknown boys.
a) were playing b) would play
8) I________ swimming every morning when we lived near the Swimming-pool.
a) was going b) used to go
9) They walked on into the Zoo grounds. In the distance three camels __________
along side by side.
a) were strolling b) used to stroll
10) We______ supper when suddenly the light went off.
a) were having b) used to have
11) My aunt______ flowers, but now she has a beautiful rose garden.
a) wasn't growing b) didn't use to grow
12) My Dad______ mountains when he was a student.
g) was climbing
b) used to climb
13) I______ to the pictures a lot, but now I prefer watching video at home.
23
a) was going
b) used to go
2. Choose the correct alternative.
1) When Grandma was alive Aunt Polly __________for a cup of tee now and then.
a) was coming over b) would come over
2) Down in the kitchen Mrs. Brill_______ the paper with her spectacles perched on
her nose.
a) was reading
b) would read
3) I_________ a lot of newspapers, but now I don't. They've become so boring.
a) was reading
b) used to read
4) He was arrested when he___________ through passport control.
a) was going
b) used to go
5) We_________ the plane when suddenly we saw a police car rushing towards the
plane at a terrible speed.
a) were boarding
b) used to board
6) In her young years Mother_________ Beatles records.
a) was collecting
b) used to collect
7) They __________a lot when they were not married.
a)were going out
b) used to go out
8) The house_________ very quietly, dreaming its own dreams, or thinking perhaps.
a) was standing
b) used to stand
9) I_______________ Champaign. But now I think it is hideous.
a) was liking
b) used to like
10) She___________________ make up, but now she does a lot.
a) wasn't wearing
b) didn't use to wear
11) When a child 1______with my grandparents in a small village.
a) was living
b) used to live
12) In her young years my aunt________ in horse races.
a) was participating b) would participate
Формы глагола в Future Indefinite
Число
Утвердительная
форма
Вопросительная
. форма
Oтpицательная
форма
eд.
I shall ask.
He (she, it) will ask
We shall ask.
Shall I ask?
Will he(she, it) ask?
Shall we ask?
I shall not ask.
He (she, it) will not ask.
We shall not ask.
мн.
You (they) will ask.
Will you (they) ask?
You (they) will not ask.
24
Группа временных форм Continuous
Глаголы в формах Continuous описывают действие как процесс, как
длительность в определенный момент в прошлом, настоящем или будущем:
I am going to school (now). Я иду в школу в настоящий момент.
I was reading a book yesterday at 5 o'clock. Я читал книгу вчера в 5 часов.
I will be watching TV tomorrow at 7 o'clock. Я буду смотреть телевизор
завтра в семь часов.
Помимо этой функции, глаголы в Present Continuous выражают действие,
отнесенное в ближайшее будущее:
We are leaving for Moscow in July. Мы уезжаем в Москву в июле.
Формы глагола в Present Continuous
Число
ед.
мн.
Утвердительная
форма
Вопросительная
форма
Oтрицательная
форма
I am asking.
Am I asking?
I am not asking.
Не (she, it) is asking. Is he (she, it) asking? Не (she, it) is not asking.
We (you, they)
Are we (you, they)
We (you, they)
are asking.
asking?
are not asking.
Present Continuous употребляется для выражения действия, длящегося в
настоящий момент (now, at the moment).
С глаголами, которые обозначают не действие, а состояние (to feel, to be, to
live, to stay, to hear, to see, to know, to remember, to think, to want, to like, to love)
Present Continuous обычно не употребляется.
ТЕСТ 4
1. Choose the correct verb form.
1) He can't see you now. He____________ someone.
a) phones
b) is phoning
2) I_____________hard for my exams now.
a) am working
b) work
3) Don't forget to take your umbrella. It________ outside.
a) rains
b) is raining
4) I___________ for business trip tomorrow.
a) leave
b) am leaving
5) The pupil said at the lesson that water_______ at 1000 degrees Centigrade and got
a bad mark.
a) boils
b) is boiling
6) I_________ to you attentively.
a) listen
b) am listening
7) Look! The water __________. Let's make tea. I'm terribly thirsty!
25
a) boils
b) is boiling
8) Mr. Brieger and his son ____________business together.
a) run
b) are running
9) I_________ French. But I've just started to learn it.
a) don't speak
b) am not speaking
10) The plane___________in half an hour.
a) arrives
b) is arriving
2 . Choose the correct verb form.
1) He___________ for the travel agency "Holidays".
a) works
b) is working
2) Look! Someone_____________ to open your car.
a) tries
b) is trying
3) He__________ a lot about show business.
a) knows
b) is knowing
4) I_________ of starting my own business.
a) think
b) am thinking
5) We____________ for Spain in a few days.
a) leave
b) are leaving
6) What time_______ Nick and Rosa________ for dinner tonight?
a) do ... come
b) are ... coming
7) I_________ coffee at all.
a) don't drink
b) am not drinking
8) The children___________ quite well now. They don't quarrel any more.
a) get on
b) are getting on
9) I'm sure you___________ the right choice.
a) make
b) are making
10) Such a curious child! She______________ all sorts of questions.
a) constantly asks
b) is constantly asking
11) I______you are not right. His new book is much better than his previous one.
a) think
b) am thinking
3. Choose the correct verb form.
1) The sun ______ from East to West.
a) goes
b) is going
2) He_____________ his own shop.
a) runs
b) running
3) Our company___________ a great risk at the moment.
a) runs
b) is running
4) The film____________ at 7. Let's hurry.
a) begins
b) is beginning
5) It's eight o'clock. Kate,_______ you________ ready for school?
26
a) do ... get
b) are ... getting
6) "Where’s Tom?' - "He_____________ the dog out for a walk."
a) takes
b) is taking
7) I__________ music lessons twice a week.
a) have
b) am having
8) Why_________ you___________?
a) do ... laugh
b) are ... laughing
9) What________ you________ after school tomorrow?
a) do... do
b) are ... doing
10) I_________ French at Language School.
a) learn
b) am learning
4 . Choose the correct verb form.
1) What_________ you_________ next weekend?
a) do ... do
b) are ... doing
2)_________it often________ here in winter?
a) Does ... snow
b) Is ... snowing
3)_________you_________ to make sandwiches?
a) Do ... go
b) Are ... going
4) It________ long to get to work.
a) doesn't take
b) isn't taking
5)_________your mother_________ listening to classical music?
a) Does .... enjoy
b) Is ... enjoying
6) They_________ lunch now.
a) have
b) are having
7) 'Where are Jill and Tom?' - 'They_______ Dad to plant flowers in the garden.
a) help
b) are helping
8) 'Where's Cathy? I can't see her.' - 'She__________ on a hat over there'.
a) tries
b) is trying
9) He_________ on the phone. Don't disturb him. It's a very important call.
a) speaks
b) is speaking
5 . Choose the correct verb form.
1) It_______ heavily. Let's wait a little bit.
a) rains
b) is raining
2) Who______ she______ with? I don't know that boy.
a) does ... dance
b) is ... dancing
3) She_______ a nice dress today.
a) wears
b) is wearing
4) The plane_____ at 2 p.m.
a) takes off
b) is taking off at 2 p.m.
5) Look! She_________ for someone.
27
a) waits
b) is waiting
6) He often________ on business to Germany.
a) goes
b) is going
7) She usually______________ bright clothes.
a) wears
b) is wearing
8) He___________ annoying questions!
a) constantly asks
b) is constantly asking
9) Our firm_______ office equipment.
a) produces
b) is producing
10) I_________ a birthday party next Saturday. Would you like to come?
a) have
b) am having
6. Choose the correct verb form.
1) Tomorrow I________ a representative of a German engineering firm.
a) meet
b) am meeting
2) The exhibition________ at 11 a.m. as usual.
a) opens
b) is opening
3) They________ tomorrow at 7.
a) arrive
b) are arriving
4) I__________ you.
a) don't understand
b) am not understanding
5) I________ to the disco tomorrow night. What about you?
a) go
b) am going
6) Excuse me, but I____________ you. It can't be true.
a) don't believe
b) am not believing
7)_________this bus_________ down town?
a) Does ... go
b) Is ... going
8) ___________it____________ like rain?
a) Does ... look
b) Is ... looking
9)__________you________ him tomorrow? Tell him I'm waiting for his call.
a) Do ... see
b) Are ... seeing
10) We_____________ for coffee tonight.
a) meet
b) are meeting
7. Choose the correct verb form.
1) Where____________ from?
a) do ... come
b) are ... coming
2) I_______ the concert very much. And you?
a) enjoy
b) am enjoying
3) I_________ the weather will be fine tomorrow.
a) think
b) am thinking
4) I_________ the problem. I'll try to help you.
28
a) see
b) am seeing
5) Do you know when they___________ on a trip?
a) go
b) are going
6)____________you_________ with me?
a) Don't... agree
b) Aren't... agreeing
7)____you_____ how to settle the matter?
a) Do ... know
b) Are ... knowing
g) No, Liz isn't in. She______________ the dog out.
a) takes
b) is taking
9) What______ you________ to tell me?
a) do ... want
b) are ... wanting
10) I _________ this music! Let's go home.
a) hate
b) am hating
8. Choose the correct verb form.
1) Your words___________ encouraging.
a) sound
b) are sounding
2) At present she____________ marketing. She's going to look for a job of a
marketing manager.
a) studies
b) is studying
3) I don't like him. He___________ horrible stories.
a) always tells
b) is always telling
4) We__________ a new product at the moment.
a) launch
b) are launching
5)_______she often________ tennis?
a) Does ... play
b) Is ... playing
6) I_________ where to go for a holiday yet.
a) don't know
b) am not knowing
7) What a naughty boy! He___________ with somebody.
a) always fights
b) is always fighting
8) I__________ hard for my exams now.
a) work
b) am working
9) My sister _________in fashion design.
a) specializes
b) is specializing
10) At present they_______________ at a new project.
a) work
b) are working
9. Choose the correct verb form.
1) What_________ you____________ by saying this?
a) do ... mean
b) are ... meaning
2) I____________what he is talking about.
a) don't understand
b) am not understanding
29
3) I__________ the dentist at 4 p.m. I've arranged it already.
a) see
b) am seeing
4) My uncle is a jockey. He______ horses.
a) rides
b) is riding
5) Look! The fire brigade______ at a terrible speed. There must be a fire somewhere.
a) rush
b) is rushing
6) I_______ my dog out for long walks in the park on Sunday.
a) always take
b) am always taking
7) I________cakes. Only on special occasions.
a) rarely bake
b) am rarely baking
8) My Granny_______ delicious tarts.
a) makes
b) is making
9) We__________ your proposition. We'll give you an answer in a few I days.
a) think over
b) are thinking over
10) In summer I _______ a bike.
a) often ride
b) am often riding
11) When________ Sue? I want you to give her this photo.
a) do you see
b) are you seeing
Формы глагола в Past Continuous
Число
ед.
мн.
Утвердительная форма
Вопросительная форма
Oтpицательная форма
I (he, she, it)
Was I (he, she, it)
I (he, she, it)
was asking.
asking?
was not asking.
We (you, they)
Were we (you, they)
We (уоu, they)
were asking.
asking?
were not asking.
Past Continuous обычно употребляется для выражения конкретного
действия, длившегося в точно указанный момент или период в прошлом.
Формы глагола в Future Continuous
Число
Утвердительная форма
Вопросительная форма
Oтpицательная форма
ед.
I shall bе asking.
He (she, it)
Shall I bе asking?
Will he (she, it) bе
I shall not bе asking.
He (she, it) will not bе
мн.
will bе asking.
We shall bе asking.
Yоu (they)
asking?
Shall we bе asking?
Will уоu (they)
asking.
We shall not bе asking.
Yоu (they)
will bе asking.
bе asking?
will not bе asking.
30
Future Continuous употребляется для выражения действия, которое будет
длиться в точно указанный момент или период в будущем.
ТЕСТ 5
1. Choose the correct verb form from those in brackets.
l)When I (brought / was bringing) in the papers he (spoke / was speaking) on the
phone.
2) When I (entered / was entering) they (discussed / were discussing) something.
3) He (felt / was feeling) that somebody (watched / was watching ) him.
4) I (met / was meeting) him while I (made / was making) a tour of France.
5) I (paid / was paying) my check when I (heard / was hearing) someone call my
name.
6) I (turned / was turning) round and (saw / was seeing) Jenny.
7) Pardon, (I didn't hear / wasn't hearing) what you (said / were saying)!
8) I (finished / was finishing) shopping and (went / was going) home.
9) I (asked / was asking) her if she (knew / was knowing) any good Spanish
restaurant there.
10) When I (came / was coming) back home I (took / was taking) an aspirin and
(went / was going) to bed.
11) When Ruth (looked out / was looking out) of the window she (saw / was seeing)
that it (still snowed / was still snowing).
2. Choose the correct verb form from those in brackets.
1) Mike (fell / was falling) down and ( hurt / was hurting) his knees.
2) Last summer, when climbing a mountain in the Caucasus we (lost / were loosing)
our way.
3) The rescue team (found / was founding) us on the fourth day.
4) We (left / were leaving) the camp and (went / were going) towards the mountain.
5) When I (entered / was entering) the room Justin (showed / was showing)
photographs to the guests.
6) Police (stopped / was stopping) him while he (drove / was driving) at a high speed.
7) While I (spoke / was speaking) to Jill, I (learned / was learning) that her husband
was in hospital.
8) I (looked / was looking) after my niece while my sister (made / was making) a
tour of Italy.
9) She first (met / was meeting) her husband when she (attended / was attending) a
conference in Stockholm.
10) While I (listened / was listening) to him I suddenly (remembered / was
remembering) our first meeting.
31
3. Choose the correct verb form
1) After the meeting I___________ a terrible headache.
a) had
b) was having
2) We__________ tennis from 2 till 5 o'clock in the afternoon.
a) played
b) were playing
3) When I saw her that day she______________ a stylish yellow hat.
a) wore
b) was wearing
4) Where ________you_________ for your holidays last year?
a) did... go
b) were... going
5) Yesterday Nick___________ his eighteenth birthday.
a) celebrated
b) was celebrating
6) One hot, sunny day in July, at about 5 p.m. we____________ on the terrace
drinking tea.
a) sat
b) were sitting
7) A terrible wind_________ our mountain-tent to pieces.
a) tore
b) was tearing
8) We__________ with us any survival equipment.
a) didn't take
b) were not taking
9) They_______ the hotel early in the morning.
a) left
b) was leaving
10) How long__________ you________ there?
a) did ... stay
b) were ... staying
11) During the performance the lights on the stage suddenly_________.
a) went off
b) were going off
4. Choose the correct verb form.
l) We________a new market in South Asia last year.
a) opened
b) were opening
2) It was a warm autumn day. We ________ along the country road.
a) walk
b) were walking
3) All week long a severe wind__________ from the sea.
a) blew
b) was blowing
4) I________ to Spain for my holidays two years ago.
a) went
b) was going
5) During my holiday I_________ swimming every day.
a) went
b) was going
6) They________ this product during two years.
a) developed
b) were developing
7) What________ you__________ at the weekend?
a) did... do
b) were ... doing
8) Now, Mr. Briggs, what________ you___________ yesterday at 8 o'clock?
32
a) did ... do
b) were ... doing
9) A few minutes later we ________on the road in the direction of London.
a) rode
b) were riding
10) At about 4 o'clock in the morning I_________ some distant noise.
a) heard
b) was hearing
11) He______ me about his departure during the lunch.
a) told
b) was telling
5. Choose the correct verb form.
1) Looking through old newspapers I________ the article about my grandfather.
a) came across
b) was coming across
2) I could hear that somebody ________in the adjoining room.
a) whispered
b) was whispering
3) We________ to go for a swim, but the weather was awful.
a) wanted
b) was wanting
4) We_______ in Madrid for three days and then went to Paris.
a) stayed
b) were staying
5) The helicopter________ the children to hospital.
a) took
b) was taking
6) I________ in the garden all day. I am terribly tired.
a) dug
b) was digging
7) At University I________ economics and finance.
a) studied
b) was studying
8) Telling me his story he ______ nearly at each word. In the end I lost my patience.
a) stumbled
b) was stumbling
9) Listening to him I couldn't but feel that all he________ us was a lie.
a) told
b) was telling
10) Jack_________________ to see them the following day.
a) hoped
b) was hoping
11) It__________ heavily all week long.
a) rained
b) was raining
Группа временных форм Perfect
Глаголы в формах Perfect выражают действие завершенное, приведшее к
определенному результату (или к отсутствию результата).
Можно сказать, что с помощью форм Perfect мы подводим итоги
определенному периоду времени, определенных действий.
Время подведения итогов — либо настоящий момент (Present Perfect):
I have written the letter. Я (только что) написал письмо;
либо момент в прошлом (Past Perfect):
33
I had written the letter when he came. Я написал письмо, когда он пришел.
(Действие завершилось раньше другого в прошлом);
либо — в будущем (Future Perfect):
I will have written the letter by 10 o'clock tomorrow. Я напишу письмо к 10
часам завтра. (Действие завершится к определенному моменту в будущем).
Формы глагола в Present Perfect
Число
ед.
мн.
Утвердительная форма
Вопросительная форма
Oтpицательная форма
I have asked.
Have I asked?
I have not asked.
Не(she, it) has asked Наs he (she, it) asked? Не (she, it) has not asked.
We (уоu, they)
have asked.
Have we (уоu, they)
asked?
We (уоu, they)
have not asked.
Формы глагола в Past Perfect
Число
eд. и
мн.
Утвердительная форма
Вопросительная форма
Oтpицательная форма
I (he, she, it, уоu,
Had I (he, she, it, уоu,
I (he, she, it, уоu,
we, they) had asked.
we, they) asked?
we, they) had not asked.
Past Perfect употребляется:
5. для выражения действия, завершившегося до какого-либо момента или
другого действия в прошлом:
Не had read the book by 10 o'clock yesterday.
Он прочел книгу до десяти часов (к десяти часам) вечера.
When we came to the airport the plane had already landed.
Когда мы приехали в аэропорт, самолет уже приземлился.
6. для обозначения действия, которое завершилось до другого действия,
длящегося в прошлом:
Не had read the book and was watching TV when I came.
Когда я пришел, он уже прочитал книгу и смотрел телевизор.
Формы глагола в Future Perfect
Число
ед.
Утвердительная форма
Вопросительная форма
Oтpицательная форма
I shall have asked.
He (she, it) will
have asked.
Shall I have asked?
Will he (she, it)
have asked?
I shall not have asked.
He (she, it) will not
have asked.
34
Wе shall have asked. Shall we have asked?
I
мн.
Yоu (they) will
have asked.
Will уоu (they)
hаvе asked?
We shall not have asked.
Yоu (they) will not
have asked.
Future Perfect употребляется для выражения действия, которое будет
происходить до определенного момента или другого действия в будущем и
завершится или прекратится до него.
ТЕСТ 6
1. Choose the correct verb form.
1) They__________ the company two years ago.
a) started
b) have started
2) He__________ the Managing Director of the company since 1990.
a) was
b) has been
3) We________ the project yet.
a) didn't finish
b) haven't finished
4) Our company_______ a big profit last year.
a) made
b) have made
5) My car_________. I won't be able to drive to the countryside at the weekend.
a) broke down
b) has broken down
6) He___________ a new car two weeks ago.
a) bought
b) has bought
7) I_________ of petrol. I must have my car filled.
a) ran out
b) have run out
8) Last year we________ to manufacture new items of office equipment.
a) began
b) has begun
9) He and his wife, Helena,_________ for over 30 years.
a) were married
b) have been married
10) I_________ them since December.
a) didn't see
b) haven't seen
11) I_________such a strange dream last night, said Jane.
a) had
b) have had
2. Choose the correct verb form.
1) Since then I__________ my job several time.
a) changed
b) have changed
2) "You_________ your hair," he cried.
a) dyed
b) have dyed
3) Jane________ suddenly that there was a letter attached to the painting.
a) found
b) has found
4) I_________ that point yet.
35
a) didn't consider
b) haven't considered
5) Mary isn't at home. She_________ to work.
a) went
b) has gone
6) Last year they_________ their production greatly.
a) increased
b) have increased
7) They_________ in construction business for 5 years.
a) were
b) have been
8) We__________ a few contracts last month.
a) signed
b) have signed
9) _________you ever_________ the Queen of Great Britain?
a) Did ... see
b) have ... seen
10) He can't find a job. He_________ unemployed for half a year.
a) was
b) has been
3. Choose the correct verb form.
1) ___________ you ever_________ to Africa?
a) Did ... travel
b) Have...traveled
2) I______________ them that we would go down there immediately.
a) told
b) have told
3) Just out of curiosity I__________ Andover last night.
a) rang up
b) has rung up
4)_______you___________ about Miss Carol's marriage?
a) Did ... hear
b) Have ... heard
5) "It____________ foolish to take the matter so seriously,"- she said.
a) was
b) have been
6) What____ you____ to find the way out?
a) did... do
b) have ... done
7) He_____________ to answer the telephone.
a) rose
b) has risen
8) Nick and Sally_________ _each other since their school years.
a) knew
b) have known
9) "I_________ something fantastic," he said.
a) expected
b) have expected
10) His spirits ___________a little. He's all right now.
a) revived
b) has revived
4. Choose the correct verb form.
1) So far we__________ to find any one who saw that man.
a) weren't able
b) haven't been able
2) They___________ some years ago.
a) separated
b) have separated
3) "_________anything________ from the flat," asked the policeman.
36
a) Did ...disappear
b) Has ... disappeared
4) There__________ any sign of robbery. Nothing was stolen from the shop.
a) wasn't
b) hasn't been
5) "I ________ the letter you asked about, sir," said the butler.
a) brought
b) have brought
6) The doctor_______ us a careful description of the position of the victim.
a) gave
b) has given
7) She__________ he door of a small morning-room.
a) opened
b) has opened
8)_________you__________ dinner already?
a) Did ... have
b) Have ... had
9) When we came in the boy__________. He didn't seem to notice us at all.
a) didn't move
b) hasn't moved
10) The clock___________midnight. Holmes stood up and came up to the window.
a) struck
b) has struck
5. Choose the correct verb form.
1) I_______ back on Monday afternoon.
a) arrived
b) have arrived
2) I'm sure you'll be surprised when you get to know who______ the game yesterday.
a) won
b) has won
3) He_____ his driving test. He is so happy. He hasn't been able to pass it for three
years.
a) just passed
b) has just passed
4) I ____________my keys. I can't get in.
a) lost
b) have lost
5) The taxi___________ a few minutes ago.
a) arrived
b) has arrived
6) The taxi___________. Hurry up!
a) arrived
b) has arrived
7) We__________ lunch already.
a) had
b) have had
8) _____ you________ writing your book yet?
a) Did ... finish
b) Have ... finished
9) My aunt_______ me a nice puppy for my birthday. It's a fox-terrier.
a) gave
b) has given
10) I ________on holidays for the last two years.
a) wasn't
b) haven't been
37
Согласование времен в главном и придаточном предложениях
В английском сложноподчиненном предложении с придаточным
дополнительным (вопрос «что?», «кто?», «чего?» и т.д.) соблюдаются правила
согласования времен в главном и придаточном предложениях. Эти правила
сводятся к следующему:
1. Если глагол-сказуемое главного предложения стоит в настоящем или
будущем времени, то глагол-сказуемое придаточного дополнительного предложения может стоять в любой временной форме, требуемой смыслом,
например:
Не says you are right. Он говорит, что ты прав.
Не will tell why he was not at school yesterday. Он скажет, почему он не
был в школе вчера.
2. Если глагол-сказуемое главного предложения стоит в прошедшем
времени (обычно Past Indefinite), то и глагол дополнительного придаточного
предложения должен стоять в одном из прошедших времен:
He said he went to institute every day. Он сказал, что ходит в институт
каждый день.
Не told me he was preparing for his exam. Он сказал мне, что готовится к
экзамену.
I didn't know he had left for Moscow. Я не знал, что он уехал в Москву.
Не told me that he would meet me at the college. Он сказал мне, что
встретит меня в колледже.
Прямая и косвенная речь
Прямая речь может быть либо передана так, как она была произнесена,
либо описана с помощью сложноподчиненного предложения (косвенная речь):
прямая речь
косвенная речь
Не says, «We'll have to take a taxi».
He says (that) we'll have to take a taxi.
Прямая речь вводится словами ... say/says/said, за которыми ставится
запятая, и берется в кавычки. В косвенной речи запятая, как правило, не
ставится и союз that часто не употребляется.
Условные предложения
Условные предложения делятся на предложения реального условия и
предложения нереального условия. Употребление глагольных форм в этих
предложениях зависит от степени реальности и времени действия, выраженного
глаголом.
Придаточные предложения реального условия и времени, действие
которых
отнесено
к
будущему
В
придаточных
предложениях
условия и времени с союзами: if (если), when (когда), after (после),
before
(перед
тем,
как),
as
soon
as
(как
только),
unless
38
(если не), until (до тех пор, пока не) будущее время заменяется формой
настоящего времени, но на русский язык переводится будущим. Например:
If you help me, I shall do this work in time. Если ты поможешь мне, я
выполню эту работу вовремя.
As soon as I am free, I shall come to you. Как только я освобожусь, я
навещу тебя.
We shall not begin until you come. Мы не начнем, пока ты не
придешь.
ТЕСТ 7
1. Choose the correct verb form from those in brackets.
1) I (phone / will phone) you when I (come / will come) back.
2) When the Sales Manager (arrives / will arrive) tell him 1 (am / will be) back at 5
o'clock.
3) If I ( pass / will pass) my exams, I (enter / will enter) the University.
4) If there (is / will be) a good program on TV, I (watch / will watch) it.
5) I (tell / will tell) him the news when I (see / will see) him.
6) If it (rains / will rain), I (stay / will stay) at home.
7) I (try / will try) to speak to the Managing Director before he (leaves / will leave)
for New York.
8) I (buy / will buy) a car when I (save / will save) enough money.
9) If you (insist / will insist), I (accept / will accept) the invitation.
10) What (do / will) you do if you (miss / will miss) the train?
11)I (pay / will pay) for the coffee if you (don't / won't) mind.
12) In case you (arrive / will arrive) earlier, wait for me at the station.
2. Choose the correct verb form from those in brackets.
1) If you (are not able / will not be able) to do this yourself, I (help / will help) you.
2) I (go / will go) to stay with my grandparents as soon as the exams (are over / will
be over).
3) Can you look after my cat while I (am / will be) away?
4) If it (isn't /won't be) too expensive, I (buy / will buy) it.
5) You (fail / will fail) your exam if you (don't / won't) study hard.
6) Where (do / will) you stay when you (arrive / will arrive) in Paris?
7) As soon as I (get / will get) tickets 1 (phone / will phone) you.
8) The flowers (don't / won't) grow well if you (don't / won't) look after them
properly.
9) I (don't / won't) go to bed until I (finish / will finish) writing the paper.
10) If you (are / will be) out, I (leave / will leave) a message on the answer phone.
3. Choose the correct verb form from those in brackets.
39
1) I (show / will show) you round the factory as soon as the interview (is / will be)
over.
2) As soon as we (get / will get) money for the project we (start / will start)
constructing the building.
3) If we (get / will get) cold, we (make / will make) a fire somewhere on the way.
4) You (recover / will recover) soon, if you (follow / will follow) the doctor's advice.
5) We (go / will go) there straight away as soon we (get / will get) a message from
them.
6) I (have / will have) lunch as soon as I (finish / will finish) typing the report.
7) If he (calls / will call), tell him I (am / will be) at home after 8 o'clock.
8) Where (do / will) you stay if hotels (are / will be) full?
4. Choose the correct verb form.
1) If I__________ late, wait for me a little bit.
a) am
b) will be
2) Do you think they__________ our terms?
a) accept
b) will accept
3) I wonder if the weather________ fine tomorrow.
a) is
b) will be
4) Do you know when the Production Manager________ from business trip?
a) is back
b) will be back
5) If you_________ to the countryside tomorrow, let me know.
a) go
b) will go
6) Do you know when they _______the house?
a) move
b) will move
7) When you______ any information, phone me immediately.
a) get
b) will get
8) I don't know when they__________ the product on the market.
a) put
b) will put
9) Send me a fax when you_________ your mind.
a) make up
b) will make up
10) I don't know if I _________any spare time tomorrow.
a) have
b) will have
5. Choose the correct verb form.
1) Call the Director and ask him if he___________ us just now.
a) receives
b) will receive
2) Don't get off the bus before it________.
a) stops
b) will stop
3) I wonder if my parents_________ me a computer for my birthday.
a) buy
b) will buy
40
4) Please, wait till I_________ to her.
a) speak
b) will speak
5) I'm not sure if he___________ at the conference.
a) talks
b) will talk
6) Don't worry about it before you__________ with him.
a) speak
b) will speak
7) Do you know when the conference___________?
a) is over
b) will be over
8) In case you___________ the details, let me know.
a) find out
b) will find out
9) Don't forget to call Mother when you__________ from work.
a) come back
b) will come back
Страдательный залог (Passive Voice)
Формы страдательного залога английских глаголов образуются с помощью
вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени, лице и числе и
причастия II (Participle II) смыслового глагола:
Present Indefinite: The letter is written.
Past Indefinite:
The letter was written.
Future Indefinite: The letter will be written.
Present Continuous: The letter is being written.
Past Continuous:
The letter was being written.
Future Continuous: The letter will be being written.
Present Perfect:
The letter has been written.
Past Perfect:
The letter had been written.
Future Perfect:
The letter will have been written.
Глагол-сказуемое в страдательном залоге показывает, что подлежащее
предложения является объектом действия со стороны другого лица или
предмета. Сравните:
I bought a book. Я купил книгу.
The book was bought (by me). Книга была куплена (мной).
Глаголы в страдательном залоге на русский язык переводятся:
1. Глаголом быть + краткая форма причастия страдательного залога:
The letter was sent yesterday. Письмо было послано вчера.
2. Глаголом с частицей -ся (-сь):
This problem was discussed last week.
Эта проблема обсуждалась на прошлой неделе.
3. Неопределенно-личным оборотом, т.е. глаголом в действительном залоге 3
лица множественного числа, типа «говорят», «сказали»:
English is spoken in many countries.
На английском языке говорят во многих странах.
4. Глаголом в действительном залоге (при наличии исполнителя действия):
41
Pupils are taught at school by the teachers.
Учеников учат в школе учителя.
ТЕСТ 8
1. Choose the correct verb form.
1) Why______ he____ to the party?
a) didn't... invite
b) wasn't... invited
2) The painting by Rembrandt___________ from the museum yesterday.
a) stole
b) was stolen
3) The first sputnik__________ by the Soviet Union in 1956.
a) launched
b) was launched
4) When_______ Jury Gagarin______ into cosmos?
a) did ... fly
b) was ... flown
5) A new car design__________ at the plant.
a) developed
b) was developed
6) Somebody __________ the door from inside.
a) closed
b) was closed
7) Marilyn Monroe's dress _________at the auction at the price of $ 20 000.
a) sold
b) was sold
8) What______ Greece_______?
a) does ... export
b) is ... exported
9) Both the driver and the passenger ________in the car accident.
a) injured
b) were injured
10) ________ credit cards________ in your shop?
a)Do ... accept
b) Are ... accepted
2. Choose the correct verb form.
1)_________ his words__________ you?
a) Did ... hurt
b) were ... hurt
2) Nylon_________ in the 1930s by an American chemist, Julian Hill.
a) invented
b) was invented
3) In Japan marriages of young people__________ by their parents.
a) usually arrange
b) are usually arranged
4) We________ a telephone call from them a few days ago.
a) received
b) were received
5) The first Volkswagen cars_________ in Germany just before the World War II.
a) made
b) were made
6) I__________ them a fax yesterday.
a) sent
b) was sent
7) She_________ a well-paid job. I think she'll take it.
a) offered
b) was offered
42
8) Our parent company________ in Sweden.
a) located
b) is located
9) Mary Poppins_______ them steadily, looking from one to the other.
a) regarded
b) was regarded
10) Our factory________ last year.
a) reconstructed
b) was reconstructed
3. Choose the correct verb form.
1) I__________ my car last week.
a) sold
b) was sold
2) English________ all over the world.
a) speak
b) is spoken
3) We__________ a lot of money on advertising campaign.
a) spent
b) were spent
4) The storm________ on Monday afternoon.
a) began
b) was begun
5) During the storm a lot of trees _________
a) blew down
b) were blown down
6) The roofs of some houses ___________.
a) blew away
b) were blown away
7) Windows in some houses____________ .
a) broke
b) were broken
8)_____ the film________ Oscar?
a) Did ... won
b) Was ... won
9) His film___________ for Oscar.
a) nominated
b) was nominated
4. Choose the correct verb form from those in brackets.
1) The jumper (is / has been ) washed several times, and it ( wasn't / hasn't) shrunk.
2) Nylon (has / has been) produced since 1938 and today it (is / is being) found in
many things.
3) The Houses of Parliament (were / have been) built between 1840 and 1857.
4) Scientists hope that a cure for cancer will soon (be / have been) found.
5) Each Concord (was / had been ) built at a cost of 55 million pounds.
6) Boss says I will (be / have been) given a pay-rise next month.
7) By next year, everybody in the company will (be / have been) given a Pay-rise.
8) She will (be / have been) informed about the results of the research as soon as it (is
/ will be) finished.
9) Wait for a while. He (is / is being) interviewed now.
10) He (is being / has been) interviewed for 40 minutes already.
5. Choose the correct verb form.
43
1) The contract___________ at the board meeting now.
a) is discussed
b) was discussed
c) is being discussed
d) was being discussed
2) Wait a minute! The document_______ by the secretary at the moment.
a) is typed
b) has been typed
c) was typed
d) is being typed
3) The papers___________ by the Managing Director yet. He is on business trip.
a) weren't signed
b) aren't signed
c) haven't been signed
b) weren't being signed
4) She_________ the Head of the Information Systems Department two months ago.
a) is appointed
b) is being appointed
c) was appointed
d) has been appointed
5) Recently a new generation of TV sets_________ in Japan.
a) is being launched
b) has been launched
c) was being launched
d) had been launched
6) At present our company __________.
a) is reorganised
b) is being reorganised
c) has reorganised
d) has been reorganised
7) The mail________ yet.
a) isn't received
b) isn't being received
c) wasn't received
d) hasn't been received
8) From Monday English classes________ in the Training Centre.
a) are held
b) are being held
c) will be held
d) have been held.
9) We__________ to send the documents by Friday.
a) were asked
b) were being asked
c) have been asked
d) had been asked
10) At last a new government__________ after a long governmental crisis.
a) is formed
b) is being formed
c) was formed
d) has been formed
11) My car________ at the moment. Sorry, 1 can't give you a lift to the station.
a) is serviced
b) is being serviced
c) has been serviced
d) has being serviced
12) All the teaching material___________ after the classes start.
a) are provided
b) will be provided
c) provided have been
d) will have been provided
Речевой этикет / Speech Behaviour
Для успешного общения необходимо знать, что британцы говорят в разных
обстоятельствах. В английском языке, как и в любом другом, существуют
44
специальные речевые формулы для выражения несогласия, удивления, для
того, чтобы представить людей друг другу и т. д.
Бывают и такие ситуации, когда британцы, в отличие от большинства европейцев, ничего не скажут. Например, передавая что-нибудь кому-то за столом
или платя деньги в магазине, в большинстве европейских государств люди,
говоря на английском языке, стремятся сказать «please». Британцы же
используют слово «please» только когда просят о чем-то. Давая же что-либо
кому-то, можно сказать «Неrе you are», хотя обычно британцы не говорят
ничего, а просто улыбаются, чтобы быть вежливыми.
Британцы часто задают вопросы, которые фактически являются просьбами
или даже приказами: Could you type this letter, please? — Напечатайте это
письмо, пожалуйста.
Британцы избегают прямо высказывать свое мнение или оценку.
Единственное исключение - это профессиональный разговор или официальное
интервью. Объективность и прямота ценятся лишь в формальных ситуациях.
Помните, что говорить на английском языке означает не просто передавать
информацию, но и высказывать свое личное отношение к ней с помощью
принятых у англичан речевых формул, выражающих благодарность, сожаление,
удивление и т.д. Ниже приводятся некоторые из них.
Arresting someone's attention. (Чтобы привлечь чье-то внимание)
Excuse me...— Извините... (Простите...)
Pardon me...— Извините...
I say...— Послушайте...
Look here!— Послушайте! (Минутку!)
Reply. (Ответ) Yes?—Да? (Я вас слушаю.)
Thanks. (Выражение благодарности)
Thank you.— Спасибо
(если кто-то сделал что-нибудь мало значительное: придержали для вас дверь,
ответили на вопрос или оказали мелкую услугу).
Thank you very much.— Большое спасибо
(если кто-то сделал что-нибудь очень важное для вас).
Thanks. Thanks very much. — Спасибо
(в общении с друзьями или хорошо знакомыми людьми).
Thank you for doing it. — Спасибо, что вы это сделали.
Thank you for coming. — Спасибо, что вы пришли.
That is (was) very kind of you. — Это очень мило с вашей стороны. Вы очень
любезны.
Replies for thanks. (Ответы на благодарности)
You're welcome. — Пожалуйста. (Не стоит благодарности ).
Don't mention it.— He за что. (Не стоит благодарности.).
Not at all.— He за что.
No trouble at all.— Да что вы, какое это беспокойство.
That was a pleasure.— Мне было приятно (это сделать).
45
Greetings. (Приветствия)
Форма приветствия зависит от ситуации, в которой находятся говорящие,
от их отношений.
В официальных ситуациях (деловые встречи, официальные приемы,
конференции) используются такие приветствия, как:
How do you do!—Здравствуйте! Ответом будет: How do you do!
Good morning! —Доброе утро! (до обеда).
Good afternoon! —Добрый день! (до 5 — 6 часов вечера).
Good evening! —Добрый вечер! (до 10— 11 часов вечера ).
Приветствуя знакомых или близких людей, можно сказать:
Hello! (Hallo) — Привет! (полуофициальное приветствие).
Hallo, everybody! — Здравствуйте! (при обращении ко всем
присутствующим).
Morning!/Afternoon! / Evening! — Неофициальное приветствие.
Hello! I haven't seen you for ages. — Привет! Сто лет тебя не
видел.
Hi! [hai] — Привет! (американский вариант).
Обмен приветствиями может звучать следующим образом:
— I'm glad to see you! Рад вас видеть.
— So am I. Я тоже.
— How are you? Как вы поживаете?
— I am fine, thank you. Спасибо, прекрасно.
— How are you getting on? Как дела?
— Not so bad, thank you. Спасибо, неплохо.
— How is it going? Как дела?
— So — so. [sou sou] Так себе.
When parting. (При прощании)
Good-bye. — До свидания.
Bye! (или Bye-Bye!) — До свидания (в неформальной обстановке)
See you later. — Еще увидимся. (Я прощаюсь.)
See you soon. — До скорой встречи.
All the best! (неформальное) — Всего наилучшего!
I must be going. (I must be off.) — Я должен идти.
I really must (have to) go now. — Мне сейчас действительно
необходимо идти.
I have an appointment (a date) in a few minutes (in half an hour, in an
hour). — У меня назначена встреча (свидание) через несколько
минут (через полчаса, через час).
46
It has been nice meeting you. — Приятно было познакомиться с
Вами ( увидеть Вас).
Hope to see you again. — Надеюсь еще с Вами увидеться.
See you tomorrow (next year). — До завтра (следующего года).
Give my love to your parents. — Передайте от меня наилучшие
пожелания своим родителям.
Please, remember me to your mother. — Пожалуйста, передай от
меня привет своей маме.
Thank you for coming. — Спасибо, что пришли.
Thank you for enjoyable evening. — Спасибо за приятный вечер.
I'm sorry to part with you. — Мне жаль расставаться с вами.
So long. (разговорное) — Пока.
Good luck to you! — Желаю удачи!
Introducing people. (Представление и знакомство)
Британцы, в отличие от русских и американцев, редко жмут руку,
приветствуя друг друга. Обычно они это делают, когда встречаются с
человеком впервые или если человека долго не видели. Представление обычно
происходит следующим образом:
Host: Mr. Brown, let me introduce you to Mr. White. He is an expert in
finance. — Хозяин: М-р Браун, позвольте мне представить вас м-ру
Уайту. Он специалист по финансам.
Mr. Brown: How do you do? — Здравствуйте.
Mr. White: How do you do? — Здравствуйте.
Mr. Brown: Pleased (Glad) to meet you. — Рад познакомиться с вами.
Mr. White: So am I. (разг. Me too.) — Я тоже.
По правилам этикета, мужчин представляют женщинам, за исключением
случаев, когда мужчина намного старше женщины и выше по положению.
Молодых представляют людям старшего возраста.
Apologies. (Извинения)
Sorry! — Извините! (если вы причинили кому-либо
незначительное неудобство).
I'm (I am) terribly sorry. — Я очень сожалею.
Excuse me. — Извините (перед тем, как побеспокоить кого-л.)
I beg you pardon. — Извините! (немного старомодно.)
Sorry?/Pardon? (с вопросительной интонацией). — Простите?
(используется, чтобы попросить кого-либо повторить сказанное, так как вы не
расслышали, не поняли или не верите услышанному.
Answers to apologies. (Ответы на извинения)
Not at all! — Нисколько! (Совсем нет).
Don't mention it! — Ничего. (Пустяки).
It's all right. It's OK! — Пожалуйста. (Все в порядке).
That's nothing. — Ничего.
Don't worry! — He беспокойтесь.
47
Don't bother! — He беспокойтесь.
Never mind. — He беда. (Не обращайте внимания).
Forms of address. (Формы обращения)
В англоязычных странах наиболее часто используются обращения:
Mr— к мужчине.
Mrs— к замужней женщине.
Miss— к незамужней женщине.
Например: Mr Howard, Mrs Allen, Miss Turner (как правило, с фамилией).
Эти формы обращения используются британцами, когда они не очень хорошо
знают человека, с которым говорят. Сравнительно недавно появилась новая
форма обращения к женщинам, независимо от того, замужем она или нет: Ms.
Например: Ms Sue Smith.
Это обращение следует использовать только вместе с фамилией, иначе звучит
невежливо.
Другие обращения используются:
Sir!— обычно обслуживающим персоналом.
Madam! —сотрудниками магазинов, полицейскими, билетерами.
Ladies and Gentlemen! — формальное начало речи при выступлении.
Mr President! — к президенту.
Officer — к полицейскому любого ранга.
Father — к священнику.
Doctor — к врачу.
Dr Brown — к ученому со степенью доктора философии.
Professor (без фамилии) — к преподавателю университета высшей
квалификации.
Professor Brown — звучит менее формально.
Waiter / Waitress — к официанту / официантке.
Porter — к носильщику.
Nurse — к мед. сестре, няне.
Однако, обращения waiter, porter, nurse в последнее время становятся
малоупотребительными. Вместо этого британцы предпочитают говорить
«Excuse me, please?». Эта же фраза (в американском английском «Pardon»)
используется для того, чтобы привлечь внимание незнакомого человека.
Следующие обращения допустимы только с близко знакомыми людьми:
Daddy (Dad) — папа, папочка.
Mummy (Mum) — мама, мамочка.
Old man — старина, дружище.
Guys — ребята.
My dear — мой(-я) дорогой (-ая).
Darling — дорогой, любимый, голубчик.
Honey (Hon) — дорогая (обращение к жене).
48
РАЗДЕЛ II
УЧЕБНЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 1
Adam Smith
Adam Smith was a great scientist who made extraordinary contributions in
economics.
He was born in 1723 in Kirkcaldy, a small fishing town near Edinburgh,
Scotland. His father was a customs officer. He died before his son was born.
At the age of 28 Adam Smith became a Professor of Logics at the University of
Glasgow. It was his first academic appointment. Some time later he became a tutor to
a wealthy Scottish duke. Then he received a grant of £300 a year. It was a very big
sum, 10 times the average income at that time.
With the financial security of his grant, Smith devoted 10 years to writing his
work which founded economic science. Its full title was "An Inquiry into the Nature
and Causes of the Wealth of Nations". It was published with great success in 1776.
Adam Smith made economics a science. This Scottish economist is often
regarded as the founder of political economics too.
Do you know these words?
science
scientist
to make
contribution
extraordinary
to be born
fishing town
near
Edinburgh
Scotland
customs officer
to die (died, died)
to become (became, become)
Glasgow
academic
appointment
some time later
наука
ученый
делать
вклад
необыкновенный
родиться
рыбацкий поселок
около
Эдинбург
Шотландия
таможенник
умирать
становиться
Глазго
академический
1) назначение 2) деловая встреча
через некоторое время
49
tutor
wealth
wealthy
Scottish
duke
to receive
sum
average
income
financial
security
to devote
work
to found
founder
full
title
inquiry (=enquiry)
to inquire
cause
nation
to publish
to be published
success
to regard
to be regarded
often
наставник, репетитор
богатство, благосостояние
богатый
шотландский
герцог
получать
сумма
средний
доход
финансовый
обеспечение
посвящать
1) работа 2) произведение
основывать
основатель
полный
1) название 2) должность, звание
1) исследование 2) запрос
спрашивать, наводить справки
причина
народ, нация
опубликовывать
быть опубликованным
успех
считать
считаться
часто
1. Find English equivalents for the following Russian expressions:
1.великий ученый
2.шотландский герцог
3.экономическая наука
4.политическая экономика
5.финансовое обеспечение
2. Translate these noun combinations:
1. contributions in economics
2. customs officer
3. Professor of Logics
4. a tutor to a duke
5. wealth of nations
50
3. Say if the statements are true or false.
1. Adam Smith was born in 1723 in Scotland.
2. The father of Adam Smith was a Professor of Logics.
3. The average income was $ 300 at that time.
4. This Scottish economist is the founder of political economics.
5. Smith devoted many years to writing his work.
4. Read these words and make a few sentences of your own:
1.to be born
2.to be a great success
3.to receive a grant
4.to become an economist
5.to devote something to something
5. Make the sentences negative and interrogative:
1.She made extraordinary contributions in economics.
2. He died before his son was born.
3. It was a very big sum.
4. They founded economic science.
5. The work was published in 2005.
6. Fill the gaps in the sentences below with the words and expressions from the
text:
1. This small ___________ was near Edinburgh.
2. His first academic appointment was at____________.
3.The work was ____________ great success.
4. Adam Smith was ____________ economic science.
5. The average ________at that time was very low.
7. Answer the questions:
1.Who was a great scientist?
2.When was Adam Smith born?
3.What was his first academic appointment?
4.Who became a tutor to a wealthy Scottish duke?
5.What was published with great success in 1776?
8. Repeat what the text said about Adam Smith.
9. Say a few words about a Russian scientist. Write some sentences about
him/her.
51
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 2
Economics
Economics is a social science studying economy. Like the natural sciences and
other social sciences, economics attempts to find laws or principles.
Economics tries to find laws or principles by building models. The predictions of
the models form the basis of economic theories. Then the predictions of the models
are compared with the facts of the real world.
Economics is the study of the choices people make to satisfy their wants and
needs. It is the study of how society allocates scarce resources and goods.
Do you know these words?
figure
like
to attempt
to find (found, found)
law
to try
to build (built, built)
prediction
to form
basis (pl. bases)
theory
to compare
real
world
choice
to satisfy
society
to allocate
scarce
1) рисунок 2) цифра
как (при сравнении)
пытаться
находить
закон
стараться
строить
предсказание, прогноз
образовывать
база
теория
сравнивать
реальный
мир
выбор
удовлетворять
общество
распределять
ограниченный, скудный
1. Match the English and the Russian equivalents:
1. social science
2. economic theories
3. scarce resources
4. natural sciences
5. building models
а. естественные науки
б. ограниченные ресурсы
в. экономические теории
г. построение моделей
д. социальная наука
52
2. Translate these word combinations:
1. to find laws or principles
2. to form the basis
3. to compare with the facts
4. to satisfy the needs
0. to allocate the goods
1. to make a choice
2. to build models
3. Say if the statements are true or false.
1. Economics builds models.
2. Natural sciences study economy.
3. Economics studies people’s choices.
4. Society allocates economic theories.
5.Scientists compare the facts with the predictions of the models.
6. People try to satisfy their wants and needs.
7. Economics is the study of economy.
4. Read these words and make a few sentences of your own:
1. economics as a science
2. laws or principles
3. the basis of
4. the predictions of the models
1. the study of the choices
5. Say what parts of speech the words in italic are and make the sentences
interrogative:
1. Society allocates scarce resources.
2. The models form the basis of economic theories.
3. Economics tries to find laws or principles.
4. People satisfy their wants and needs.
5. Economics is a social science.
6. Answer the questions:
1. What is a social science studying economy?
2. What attempts to find laws or principles?
3. What forms the basis of economic theories?
4. What is compared with the facts of the real world?
1. What allocates scarce resources and goods?
53
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 3
Microeconomics and macroeconomics
Economics as a science consists of two disciplines that is of microeconomics and
macroeconomics.
Microeconomics is the branch of economics that studies individual producers,
consumers, or markets. Microeconomics also studies how government activities such
as regulations and taxes affect individual markets. Besides microeconomics tries to
understand what factors affect the prices, wages and earnings.
Macroeconomics is the branch of economics that studies the economy as a
whole. It tries to understand the picture as a whole rather than small parts of it. In
particular, it studies the overall values of output, of unemployment and of inflation.
Do you know these words?
microeconomics
macroeconomics
to consist of something
discipline
that is = i. e. (лат.)
branch
producer
consumer
market
government
activities
such as
regulation
tax
to affect somebody / something
price
wages
to earn
earnings
as a whole
rather than
part
in particular
overall
value
output
микроэкономика
макроэкономика
состоять из чего- либо
дисциплина
то есть
отрасль, ветвь, отделение
производитель, изготовитель
потребитель
рынок
правительство
деятельность
такой, как
1) правило 2) регулирование
налог
действовать на кого- /что-либо,
цена
заработная плата
зарабатывать, получать
заработок, прибыль
в целом
скорее чем
часть
в частности, в особенности
общий, полный
ценность, стоимость
1) выпуск, продукция
54
2) производительность
инфляция
inflation
1. Find English equivalents for the following Russian expressions:
1. отдельные производители
2. деятельность правительства
3. картина в целом
4. безработица и инфляция
5. отрасль экономической науки
2. Translate the sentences into Russian:
1. Economics as a science is divided into two branches.
2. Microeconomics studies individual producers and consumers.
3. Many factors are influencing prices and wages.
4. Economics tries to understand the picture as a whole as well as small parts of it.
5. Government regulations and taxes affect individual markets.
3. Say if the statements are true or false.
1. Economics is the branch of microeconomics.
2. Macroeconomics consists of two disciplines.
3. Macroeconomics is the branch of economics.
4. Government activities affect individual markets.
5. Macroeconomics studies the economy as a whole.
4. Read these words and make a few sentences of your own:
1. microeconomics and macroeconomics
2. the overall values of output
3. regulations and taxes
4. wages and earnings
5. the branch of economics
5. Answer the questions:
1. What consists of microeconomics and macroeconomics?
2. What studies individual producers, consumers, or markets?
3. What affects individual markets?
4. What tries to understand the picture as a whole?
5. What studies the overall values of output, of unemployment and of inflation?
55
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 4
Retailers and wholesalers
All the firms can be grouped into "wholesalers" and "retailers".
A retailer is а tradesman who sells by retail. He sells goods direct to the public.
The price at which a retailer sells to the final customer is called a retail price.
The wholesaler buys goods in bulk from producers at a wholesale discount. Then
he sells them in small quantities to retailers. In doing so he helps production. He also
relieves manufacturers and retailers of the risk of a fall in demand, e. g. fashion
changes.
Stock is a quantity of goods for sale. The holding of stocks is in itself a valuable
economic function. This function evens out prices resulting from temporary changes
in demand and supply.
The main purpose of any trade is to meet a demand or to supply what is needed.
Do you know these words?
retailer
wholesaler
production
to buy (bought, bought)
in bulk
wholesale discount
to sell (sold, sold)
quantity
to relieve somebody of something
fall in something
demand
to meet a demand
supply
to supply
to hold (held, held)
stock
in itself
valuable
function
to even out
to result from some thing
temporary
to change
change
розничный торговец
оптовый торговец
производство
покупать
гуртом, навалом, в массе
оптовая скидка
продавать
количество
освобождать кого-либо от чего-либо
сокращение, падение чего-либо
спрос
удовлетворить спрос
предложение
поставлять, снабжать
держать
товарно-материальный запас
сам по себе
ценный
функция
выравнивать
быть результатом чего-либо
временный
изменять, переменять, обменивать
изменение
56
1. Match the English and the Russian equivalents:
1. to sell by retail
оптовая скидка
2. in bulk
товары на продажу
3. a fall in demand
временные изменения
4. a wholesale discount
в большом количестве
5. in small quantities
падение спроса
6. goods for sale
продавать в розницу
7. temporary changes
удовлетворять спрос
8. to meet a demand
в малых количествах
2. Name the parts of sentences in italic are and put general questions:
1. All the firms can be grouped into "wholesalers" and "retailers".
2. The holding of stocks is in itself a valuable economic function.
3. The main purpose of any trade is to meet a demand
4. Stock is a quantity of goods for sale.
5. The price at which a retailer sells to the final customer is called a retail price.
3. Say if the statements are true or false.
1. A retailer is а tradesman who sells by wholesale.
2. The wholesaler buys goods in bulk.
3. Manufacturers and retailers are producers.
4. There are no temporary changes in demand and supply.
5. The main purpose of any trade is to supply what is needed.
4. Read these word combinations and make a few sentences of your own:
1. to sell at the price of
2. to buy goods at a wholesale discount
3. to result from temporary changes
4. to supply what is needed
5. to be a valuable economic function
5. Answer the questions:
1. Can all the firms be grouped into "wholesalers" and "retailers"?
2. Who sells by retail?
3. What is called a retail price?
4. Who sells goods direct to the public?
5. Who sells goods in small quantities to retailers?
6. How does a wholesaler help production?
7. What results from temporary changes in demand and supply?
57
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 5
The Economy
We hear or read the word «economy» almost every day. For example, we may
be told that «the European economy is making little progress out of recession», or
«the UK economy is beginning to recover», or «the Scottish economy has held up
relatively well during the recent recession».
But what is meant by the economy? The economy is a financial state of a
country. It is the way in which a country makes and uses its money, goods and other
resources. There are several economic systems in the world.
Capitalist economy is a system where each person has the right to invest money,
to work in business, to buy and sell with no restrictions from the state.
Controlled economy means a system where business activity is controlled by
orders from the government.
In a free market economy the government does not interfere in business activity
in any way.
Planned economy is a system where the government plans all business activity.
Mixed economy contains both nationalized industries and private enterprise.
Do you know these words?
recession
to begin (began, begun)
beginning
to recover
to hold up well
relatively
to mean (meant, meant)
state
financial state
way
use
ресурсы
to have the right
to invest
control
government
to interfere
nationalized industries
спад
начинать (ся)
начало
оживляться, выздоравливать
показать себя с хорошей стороны
сравнительно
иметь в виду, означать
государство, штат
финансовое состояние
путь, способ
использование
resources
обладать правом
инвестировать
управление, контроль
государство
вмешиваться, влиять
нацинализированные отрасли
промышленности
частное предприятие
private enterprise
58
1. Find English equivalents for the following Russian expressions:
1. свободная рыночная экономика
2. использовать товары и ресурсы
3. иметь право
4. распоряжения правительства
5. инвестировать деньги
6. экономическая система
7. заниматься бизнесом
2. Translate these noun combinations:
1. progress out of recession
2. the UK economy
3. business activity
4. restrictions from the state
5. state of a country
3. Say if the statements are true or false.
1. The economy is a financial state of a country.
2. In a free market economy the government plans all business activity.
3. There is one economic system in the world.
4. In a planned economy the government does not interfere in business activity.
5. Mixed economy contains both nationalized industries and private enterprise.
4. Find the terms in the text which correspond to these definitions:
1. __________ is a system where each person has the right to work in business with
no restrictions from the state.
2. __________contains both nationalized industries and private enterprise.
3. __________ means a system where business activity is controlled by orders from
the government.
4. __________ is a system where the government plans all business activity.
5. ____________is a system where the government does not interfere in business
activity in any way.
5. Answer the questions:
1. What is making little progress out of recession?
2. What is meant by the economy?
3. What has held up relatively well during the recent recession?
4. How many economic systems are there in the world?
5. How can a country make and use its money, goods and other resources?
59
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 6
Presentation of a new product
Here is Mr. Brown's presentation of a new product to his colleagues in Citrus
Inc. This firm is considered to be a multi-national soft-drink manufacturer. It is
known all over the world.
“Good morning, ladies and gentlemen.
I'm going to be talking this morning about a new product which we are planning
to launch in two months' time. It's called KOOL-OUT. It's a lemon-flavored drink.
As you remember we stopped producing lemonade two years ago. Now we are
offering a similar drink with an improved flavor, packaging and design.
I would like to draw you attention to the fact that we have completely changed
the label and the slogan. Besides the drink will come both in bottle and can. You will
see all that in the video which will follow later.
Now let me say a few words about the selling price. It will be slightly higher
than the price of the lemonade in the past. In spite of the higher selling price it will
compete well with existing brands. It should be noted that the design is more modern,
the flavor is more natural and it's low calorie, too.
Well, that's all I have to say for the moment. Thank you for listening. Let's see
the video now and if you have any questions then, I'll be happy to answer them”.
Do you know these words?
product
soft-drink
colleague
to launch
to call
flavor
similar
to improve
packaging
label
slogan
can
in spite of something
to compete
to exist
brand
natural
calorie
продукт, товар
безалкогольный напиток
коллега
начинать выпускать
называть
вкус, аромат
подобный
улучшать
упаковка
этикетка
девиз
жестяная банка
несмотря на что-либо
конкурировать
существовать
сорт, качество
естественный
калория
60
1. Find English equivalents for the following Russian expressions:
1. презентация нового продукта
2. начать выпуск через два месяца
3. прекратить производство
4. улучшенный вкус
5. обладать малой калорийностью
2. Translate these noun combinations and use them in your own sentences:
1. soft-drink manufacturer
2. in bottle and can
3. the label and the slogan
4. the price of the lemonade
5. all over the world
3. Say if the statements are true or false.
1. This firm is considered to be a beginner in the soft-drink manufacturing.
2. The selling price of the new drink is very high.
3. KOOL-OUT has more natural flavor and low calorie.
4. The new product is called Coca-Cola.
5. The firm has changed the label and the slogan.
4.Choose the correct form of the verb:
1. This firm (is / was) known all over the world.
2. He (will go / is going) to be talking this morning about a new product.
3. They (stopped / have stopped) producing lemonade two years ago.
4. Its price (is going to be / will be) slightly higher than the price of the lemonade in
the past.
5. You will see all that in the video which (follows / will follow) later.
5. Answer the questions:
1. What firm is considered to be a multi-national soft-drink manufacturer?
2. What drink are they offering to the public?
3. What did they stop producing two years ago?
4. What are the qualities of the new product?
5. What can you say about the selling price?
6. Who will be happy to answer the questions?
2. Make your presentation of a new product using expressions and word
combinations from the text.
61
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 7
Allocation of products and resources
The pure market economy allocates products and resources without any
government control whatsoever. As to the command economy, practically speaking,
it allows the government to act as a dictator.
Fortunately a community or a country does not have to make a complete choice
between the two extremes: the market economy and the command economy. Instead
it can compromise and have a mixed economy.
In a mixed economy three quarters of production is carried out by the private
sector through the market. Though it is subject to varying degrees of government
control. For the other quarter the government is directly responsible through the
public sector. Thus the government influences the allocation of the goods and
services produced.
Even in the USA, a stronghold of free enterprise, it has been found necessary to
control or regulate national income conditions. As to Britain, today it has a mixed
economy. In the public sector of British economic life are the nationalized industries
like coal and steel, British Rail and BOAC. In the private sector are the majority of
the nation's industries, both large and small, from giants like ICI and BP to small
family businesses.
Do you know these words?
to allocate
allocation
pure
fortunately
to allow
to act
choice
extreme
instead
to compromise
quarter
to carry out
private
though
to be subject to something
to vary
degree
to be responsible for something
выделять, распределять
распределение
чистый
к счастью
разрешать, позволять
выступать, действовать
выбор
крайний, чрезвычайный
вместо
пойти на компромисс
1) четверть 2) квартал
проводить, выполнять
частный
хотя
быть подверженным чему-либо
изменять (ся)
степень
отвечать за что-либо
62
thus
to influence something
goods and services
stronghold
free
таким образом, итак
оказывать влияние на что-либо
товары и услуги
оплот
свободный
1. Translate these word combinations:
1. to act as a dictator
2. to make a choice
3. to be controlled by the government
4. the produced goods and services
5. public and private sectors of the economy
2. Choose the correct word:
1. The pure market (economics / economy) allocates products and resources without
any government control.
2. In a mixed economy 3/4 of (produce / production) is carried out by the private
sector.
3. The government influences the (allocation / allocate) of the goods and services.
4. In the public sector of British ( economy / economic) life are the nationalized
industries.
3. Agree or disagree:
1. As to the UK, today it has a mixed economy.
2. The government is always responsible for one quarter of production.
3. The market economy and the command economy are two economic extremes.
4. There is some control over national income conditions in the USA.
5. A country has to make a complete choice between the market economy and the
command economy.
4. Read these word combinations and use them in the sentences of your own:
1. to allocate products and resources
3. small family business
2. to compromise and have a mixed economy
4. nationalized industries
5. Give full possible answers to the questions:
1. What is the difference between the market economy and the command economy?
2. Does a community or a country have to make a complete choice between the two
extremes?
3. What are the examples of mixed economies?
63
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 8
Business success stories of all time
In 1976, Anita Roddick took out a GBP 4,000 loan and opened the first Body
Shop. She believed that action was the key to all success. Twelve years later she
opened the 322nd Body Shop and was launching into the United States.
By then she had stores in many countries and ran an empire with an annual
turnover of £28.5 million. Her chain of natural cosmetics stores has created over
3,000 jobs in the United Kingdom and many more overseas.
Another spectacular growth story is that of Apple Computer. Apple began its life
with Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak, two students at Stanford University in the
United States, who worked in a garage.
They bought a few components and produced the world's first commercially
successful personal computer, the Apple. From that modest start, Apple Computer
has grown into a giant. Really, in case you love what you are doing, you will be
successful.
Such private firms as Body Shop and Apple Computer once were operated by
their owners. Nowadays they form the private sector of economy.
All companies in this sector are owned by private shareholders, not by the state.
They account for about 90 per cent of all business sales in the countries with market
economy.
Do you know these words?
loan
body
by then
to launch
to run an empire
turnover
chain
overseas
spectacular
garage
personal computer
modest
owner
to account for
to operate
shareholder
заем, ссуда, кредит
1)тело 2) организация
к тому времени
запускать, начинать (бизнес)
владеть империей, руководить
товарооборот
цепь, сеть (магазинов)
за морем, за границей
яркий, захватывающий
1) бензоколонка 2) гараж
персональный компьютер (р. с.)
скромный
владелец
составлять
управлять
совладелец, акционер
64
1. Find English equivalents for the following Russian expressions:
1. кредит в 1000 английских фунтов
2. ежегодный товарооборот
3. сеть магазинов
4. персональный компьютер
5. частный акционер
2. Translate these word combinations into Russian:
1. to take out a loan
2. to create 500 jobs
3. private firm
4. to run an empire
5. the key to all success
3. Say if the statements are true or false.
1. Small private firms are operated by their owners.
2. All companies in the private sector are owned by the state.
3. Private firms form the private sector of economy.
4. They bought a garage and the first commercially successful personal computer, the
Apple in 1976.
5. The government accounts for all business sales in the countries with market
economy.
4. Use these expressions in your own sentences. Translate them into Russian:
1. to open the first Body Shop
2. to have stores in many countries
3. to launch into France
4. to have a turnover of
5. to grow into a giant
5. Put questions to the words in italic:
1. Anita Roddick took out a GBP 4,000 loan.
2. Twelve years later she opened the 322nd Body Shop.
3. She had stores in many countries.
4. Her chain of natural cosmetics stores has created over 3,000 jobs.
5. Apple began its life with Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak.
6. They bought a few components.
7. They worked in a garage.
8. Apple Computer has grown into a giant.
65
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 9
The sources of economic health
In 1776, new technologies were being invented and applied to the manufacture
of cotton and wool, iron, transportation and agriculture. It was called the «Industrial
Revolution».
Adam Smith was keenly interested in these events. He wanted to understand the
sources of economic wealth. He brought his acute powers of observation and
abstraction to bear on this question.
He pointed out two main reasons: the division of labor and free domestic and
international markets.
Smith identified the division of labor as the source of «the greatest improvement
in the productive powers of labor». The division of labor became even more
productive when applied to creating new technologies.
Scientists and engineers, trained in extremely narrow fields, became specialists
at inventing. Their powerful skills speeded the advance of technology. Machines
started performing repetitive operations faster, and more accurately than people.
But, according to Smith, the fruits of the division of labor are limited by the
extent of the market. To make the market as large as possible, there must be no
impediments to free trade both within a country and among countries.
Smith argued that when each person makes the best possible economic choice
based on self-interest, that choice leads to the best outcome for society as a whole.
Do you know these words?
to invent
wealth
technology
to apply
manufacture
cotton
wool
iron
agriculture
keen
event
to bring to bear
acute
to identify
to creatе
division of labor
изобретать
богатство, изобилие
техника, технология
применять
производство, изготовление
хлопок
шерсть
черный металл
сельское хозяйство
острый, большой
событие
употреблять, применять
острый, проницательный
узнавать, устанавливать
создавать
разделение труда
66
source
domestic
improvement
productive
powerful
skills
to speed
to perform
to repeat
fast
accurately
extent
impediment
to argue
outcome
to lead
первопричина, источник
внутренний
улучшение, усовершенствование
производительный, продуктивный
значительный, мощный
квалификация, знания
ускорять
выполнять
повторять
быстрый
точно
размер, пространство
препятствие, помеха
спорить, доказывать, убеждать
выход, исход, результат
вести, приводить
1. Translate these word combinations into Russian:
1. sources of economic wealth
2. powers of observation and abstraction
3. two main reasons
4. the productive powers of labor
5. powerful skills
3. to become more productive
4. to speed the advance of technology
5. the best outcome for society
2. Find English equivalents for the following Russian expressions:
1. применять в производстве
2. плоды разделения труда
3. внутри страны
4. размер рынка
5. источник улучшения
6. основанный на собственном интересе
7. без конца повторяющиеся операции 8. как можно больше
9. проходить узкоспециализированную подготовку
3. Say if the statements are true or false.
1. Machines started performing repetitive operations slower.
2. Adam Smith was keenly interested in these events.
3. There must be impediments to free trade both within a country and among
countries.
4. The fruits of the division of labor are not limited by the extent of the market.
67
5. Scientists and engineers became specialists at inventing.
6. The division of labor became less productive when applied to creating new
technologies.
7. Adam Smith pointed out two main reasons.
4. Complete the sentences paying attention to the text:
1. The invention and applying new technologies to the manufacture of cotton and
wool, iron, transportation and agriculture was …
2. According to Smith the division of labor is …
3. When applied to creating new technologies the division of labor …
4. Scientists and engineers were trained …
5. The choice based on self-interest leads to …
6. There must be no impediments to …
7. Each person makes …
5. Make two simple sentences out of one, translate them into Russian:
1. Adam Smith was keenly interested in these events trying to understand the sources
of economic wealth.
2. Scientists and engineers, trained in extremely narrow fields, became specialists at
inventing.
3. When each person makes the best possible economic choice based on self-interest,
that choice leads to the best outcome for society as a whole.
4. To make the market as large as possible, there must be no impediments to free
trade.
5. The division of labor became even more productive when applied to creating new
technologies.
6. Answer the questions:
1. What was called the «Industrial Revolution»?
2. Who wanted to understand the sources of economic wealth?
3. What main reasons did he point out?
4. What speeded the advance of technology?
5. What started performing repetitive operations faster, and more accurately than
people?
6. What are the fruits of the division of labor limited by?
7. How can people make the market as large as possible?
8. What leads to the best outcome for society as a whole?
7. Write out all the sentences defining the term “division of labor”. Translate
them into Russian.
8. Enact the dialogue of the two friends using exercise 6.
68
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 10
The discoverers of the laws of demand and supply
The law of demand was discovered by A. Cournot (1801—1877), a professor of
mathematics at the University of Lyon, France. It was he who drew the first demand
curve in the 1830s.
The first practical application of demand theory was done by J. Dupuit (1804—
1866), a French engineer and economist. He calculated the benefits from building a
bridge and the correct toll to charge for its use.
The laws of demand and supply and the connection between the costs of
production and supply were first worked out by D. Lardner (1793—1859), an Irish
professor of philosophy at the University of London.
D. Lardner showed railway companies how they could increase their profits by
cutting rates on long-distance business, where competition was fiercest. At the same
time according to D. Lardner those companies could raise rates on short-haul
business, where they had less to fear from other suppliers.
The principles first worked out by D. Lardner in the 1850s are widely used by
economists working for the major airline companies today. Assuming those
principles as a basis modern companies work out their freight rates and passenger
fares. And the rates that result have a lot in common with those of the nineteenth
century in principle.
The law of supply and demand reads as follows: the amount of a product which
is available is related to the needs of the possible customer. The scientific approach to
the business can bring the producers and suppliers of goods the largest possible
profits.
Do you know these words?
demand
discoverer
to draw (drew, drawn)
curve
application
benefit
bridge
toll
to charge
connection
to cut
competition
fierce
спрос
первооткрыватель
рисовать, чертить
кривая
применение
прибыль, польза
мост
плата за проезд по дороге
взимать
соединение, связь
резать, сокращать
конкуренция
сильный, жесткий
69
short-haul business
to fear
freight rates
passenger fares
to have a lot in common
to be available
to be related
approach
перевозки на короткие расстояния
бояться
тарифы на перевозку грузов
пассажирские тарифы
иметь много общего
быть в наличии, в распоряжении
быть связанным, иметь отношение
подход
1. Match the English and the Russian equivalents:
1. law of demand
2. practical application
3. demand curve
4. the benefits from building a bridge
5. the costs of production
6. railway companies
7. a lot in common
8. airline companies
а. железнодорожные компании
б. много общего
в. закон спроса
г. авиакомпании
д. практическое применение
е. кривая спроса
ж. выгода от строительства моста
з. производственные расходы
2. Translate these word combinations:
1. to discover a law
2. to draw a demand curve
3. to do the application of demand theory
4. to work out the laws
5. to increase the profits
6. to be widely used
7. to bring the largest possible profits
3. Agree or disagree:
1. The law of demand was discovered by Adam Smith.
2. J. Dupuit was a French engineer and economist.
3. D. Lardner worked as a professor of philosophy at the University of London.
4. The competition in the long-distance business was fiercest.
5. The amount of a product which is available is not related to the needs of the
possible customer.
4. Complete the sentences from the text and translate then into Russian:
1. The law of demand was …
2. The first practical application of demand theory was …
3. The connection between the costs of production and supply was ...
4. The principles first worked out by D. Lardner are …
5. The law of supply and demand reads …
70
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 11
Monopolies in the UK and USA
In a perfectly competitive market, there are many firms, none of them which is
large in size. Perfect competition has many sellers of the same product and exists
when there are many buyers and sellers, none of whom control prices. In contrast, in
a monopolistic market there is only one firm. This one provides all of the market
supply and prevents any other firm from entering the market.
When it is important not to destroy the advantages of a monopoly, the problem
may best be solved by the state's taking it over completely. The public then appears to
be effectively protected. Moreover, if the monopoly is detrimental to customers it can
be prohibited by legislation.
Monopolies in the United Kingdom are strictly regulated by the state. Very often
the decision as to whether a monopoly is useful or anti-social depends on
circumstances and therefore varies from one period to another.
The state could reduce the period for which patents are granted or make their
renewal more difficult. Alternatively the state could outlaw attempts to eliminate
competition, whether by unfair practices, the formation of cartels or restrictive
agreements.
The United States government has determined that four types of monopolies are
beneficial to the entire economy, and thus, are legal enterprises. These monopolies
include natural, technological, government, and geographical monopolies.
Perfect competition and pure monopoly represent two extreme possibilities for a
market structure. The structure of almost all markets, however, falls somewhere
between these two extremes.
Do you know these words?
strict
to regulate
state
circumstances
therefore
to provide
to propose
unfair
to define
rigid
legal
detrimental
to prohibit
строгий
регулировать
государство
условия
поэтому
обеспечивать
предлагать
несправедливый
определять
жесткий
юридический
вредный, приносящий убытки
запрещать
71
legislation
to destroy
to solve a problem
to take over
complete
the public
to appear
to protect
patent
to grant
renewal
alternatively
to outlaw
to eliminate
beneficial
practice
restrictive
agreement
possibilitу
to fall
законодательство
разрушать
разрешать проблему
присоединять, поглощать
полный
общественность
казаться, производить впечатление
защищать
патент
предоставлять, выдавать
возобновление
в противном случае
объявлять вне закона
отменять, устранять
выгодный, полезный
практика
ограничительный
соглашение, согласие
возможность
приходиться, падать
1. Find English equivalents in the text:
1. конкурентный рынок
2. монополистический рынок
3. препятствовать вступлению в рынок
4. преимущества монополии
5. запретить законодательством
6. зависеть от обстоятельств
7. объявить вне закона
2. Choose the correct word:
1. There are many firms in a perfectly (compete / competitive) market.
2. Perfect competition has many sellers of the same (produce / product).
3. There is only one firm in a (monopolistic / monopoly) market.
4. Very often the (decide / decision) depends on circumstances.
5. The state could (reduce / reduction) the period for which patents are granted.
6. The state could outlaw attempts to (eliminate / elimination) competition.
1. The government has (determined / determination) that monopolies are beneficial
to the economy.
2. Perfect competition and pure monopoly represent two extreme (possible /
possibilities).
72
3. Say if the statements are true or false.
1. In a perfectly competitive market, there are many large firms.
2. Perfect competition has few sellers of the same product.
3. Monopoly prevents any other firm from entering the market.
4. The public is never effectively protected.
5. A monopoly can be prohibited by legislation.
6. There are no monopolies in the United Kingdom.
7.The state could control the monopolies.
8.Pure monopoly represents the only possibility for a market structure.
4. Read these words and make the sentences of your own:
1. large in size
2. the same product
3. many buyers and sellers
4. the market supply
5. the problem may best be solved by
6. useful or anti-social
7.from one period to another
8. four types of monopolies
5. Fill the gaps in the sentences below with the words or expressions from the
text:
1. The problem may best be solved by the state's ____________ completely.
2. There are many buyers and sellers, none of whom ___________ prices.
3. The state could make the renewal of patents ____________.
4. Very often the decision varies from __________ to another.
5. These four types of monopolies are __________ enterprises.
6. Answer the questions:
1. How many firms are there in a perfectly competitive market?
2. How many sellers of the same product do perfect competition have?
3. What provides all of the market supply in a monopolistic market?
4. Is it important to destroy the advantages of a monopoly?
5. When does the public appear to be effectively protected?
6. When can a monopoly be prohibited by legislation?
7.Where are monopolies strictly regulated by the state?
8.What could a state do to protect its customers?
9.What types of monopolies are beneficial to the US economy?
7. Explain the meanings of the following economic terms:
1. perfect competition
2. pure monopoly
73
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 12
Profits and costs, values and prices
It is essential to distinguish a few different concepts of «profit». Profit in
everyday life means advantage or good obtained from something. Besides it can
mean money gained in business which is more than money spent. A major goal of
any business company is making a profit.
Profit for an accountant means simply the difference between total receipts and
total costs. Profit and loss account is the statement of a company’s expenditure and
income over a period of time, almost always calendar year. It shows whether the
company has made a profit or loss.
For an economist profit has a much wider meaning. It is the revenue derived
from the use of resources minus the opportunity cost of using those resources.
Cost means the amount of money which has to be paid for something. The
economist attaches a cost to the use of retained earnings, since they could have
yielded revenues if used outside the business. Retained earnings are understood to be
profits which are not paid out to shareholders as dividend.
Besides the economist would value the time of owner-managers in accordance
with what they could have earned outside the business. Value in itself is the amount
of money something is worth.
Price is the most changeable element of marketing mix. Its definition is
exchange of something of value for something else. A number of factors will affect
the price a firm sets for its product. They include such things as the cost of producing
the product, the rival firms’ prices, the type of a product. Price is one of many factors
that determine the demand for a product.
Do you know these words?
essential
to distinguish
concept
to obtain
accountant
receipts
costs
statement
expenditure
wide
to derive
opportunity cost
to attach
необходимый, важный
различать, выделять, отличать
понятие, значение, концепция
получать
бухгалтер
денежные поступления, выручка
расходы, стоимость,
отчет
затраты
широкий
получать, извлекать
оптимальные издержки
прилагать, относить
74
revenue
retained earnings
since
to yield
in accordance with
marketing mix
exchange
definition
to include
to determine
выручка
нераспределенная прибыль
так как
производить, давать, собирать
в соответствии с чем-либо
содержание маркетинга
обмен
определение, дефиниция
включать
определять
1. Find English equivalents for the following Russian expressions:
1. несколько различных значений
2. получать прибыль
3. тратить деньги
4. более широкое значение
5. использование ресурсов
2. Translate the word combinations, read the sentences in the text with them:
1. total receipts and total costs
2. expenditure and income
3. profit and loss
4. retained earnings
5. marketing mix
3. Say if the statements are true or false.
1. A major goal of any business company is using resources.
2. Profit and loss account is a statement.
3. For an economist profit has no meaning.
4. Value is the amount of money something is worth.
4. Put the questions to the words in italic:
1. It is essential to distinguish a few different concepts of «profit».
2. Profit in everyday life means money gained in business.
3. A major goal of any business company is making a profit.
4. Profit for an accountant means the difference between total receipts and total costs.
5.Profit and loss account shows whether the company has made a profit or loss.
6. For an economist profit has a much wider meaning.
7.Price is the most changeable element of marketing mix.
8. Price determines the demand for a product.
5. Enact the dialogue of the two friends using exercise 4.
75
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 13
Public and private sectors in the UK
At the beginning of the 1980s there were many public corporations in the United
Kingdom. They included British Coal, British Steel, the Post Office, British Telecom,
the British Airports Authorities, British Rail and some others.
The government became closely involved in industry after World War II when
the Labor Party nationalized major industries. They were transferred to state
ownership mostly for political reasons. Thus a desire to control and plan the economy
in detail was reflected. The government and political leaders believed in the
«tightness» of public ownership as an ideal.
Sometimes government intervention was found necessary to ensure that
economic opportunities were fair and to stimulate the growth of the main industries.
Several corporations became public to be rescued from bankruptcy. The governments
saved thousands of jobs in those firms and the taxpayer was saved from paying out
large sums to unemployed people.
Very many public corporations later became private again. But some others are
still publicly owned. Now it is a well-known public opinion, that the British
government should control the working conditions at the industrial enterprises in the
country. Besides, there should be more checks on a company’s activities in order to
allow free competition.
A special mention should be made of British Rail. Railway tracks make a natural
monopoly of the state. At the same time different companies are allowed to operate
competing on the same tracks. Thus there is a natural monopoly in track ownership
but not in operating trains.
You should know that the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) is the
government department dealing with industry. The Confederation of British Industry
is the employers’ organization in Britain. It aims to keep the government and the
public informed about the needs and the problems of industry.
Do you know these words?
authorities
to transfer
state ownership
public ownership
desire
fair
to rescue
to save
taxpayer
власти
передавать (имущество)
государственная собственность
общественная собственность
желание
справедливый, законный
спасать, освобождать
избавлять, экономить, откладывать
налогоплательщик
76
working conditions
public corporation
activities
in order to
free competition
railway track
to compete
to deal with
employer
to aim
условия труда
государственная компания
деятельность
для того, чтобы
свободная конкуренция
железнодорожный путь
конкурировать
вести дело, ведать
работодатель, наниматель
стремиться
1. Translate these sentences into Russian:
1. There were many public corporations in the United Kingdom.
2. The government became closely involved in industry.
3. The Labor Party nationalized major industries.
4. They desired to control and plan the economy in detail.
5. The government intervention stimulated the growth of the industries.
6. Several corporations became public to be rescued from bankruptcy.
7. The government saved thousands of jobs in those firms.
2. Say if the statements are true or false.
1. Many public corporations later became private again.
2. The taxpayer paid out large sums to unemployed people.
3. There are no publicly owned corporations in the United Kingdom.
4. The British government controls the working conditions at the enterprises.
5. There is a natural monopoly in track ownership but not in operating trains.
3. Make sentences using the following words and word combinations:
1. public corporations
6. natural monopoly
2. for political reasons
7. unemployed people
3. political leaders
8. a well-known public opinion
4. economic opportunities
9. free competition
5. company’s activities
10. government department
4. Answer the questions:
1. What public corporations in the United Kingdom do you know?
2. When did the government become closely involved in industry?
3. What was transferred to state ownership mostly for political reasons?
4. What did the government and political leaders believe in?
5. Why did several corporations become public?
6. What should the British government control?
7. What does the Department of Trade and Industry deal with?
77
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 14
Financing a company
Finance is central to the operation of any business. Finance is needed to rent or
buy premises, to purchase capital equipment, to hire labor and obtain raw materials.
Therefore, without finance a new business could not be set up and an existing
business could not continue to function. The money needed to start and continue
operating a business is known as capital. This is usually divided into working capital
and fixed capital.
Working capital is for purchasing single-use factors or «variable factors». They
are labor, raw materials, petrol, stationery, fertilizers, etc. Finance for working capital
can be obtained from a variety of sources: banks, trade, credit, finance companies,
factor houses, advance deposits from customers and the government.
Fixed capital covers factors which are used many times, such as factories,
machines, land, lorries, etc. Some finance for fixed capital is therefore required
initially for advance payments on factory buildings, machinery and so on before the
firm is earning revenue. It is possible to convert fixed capital into working capital by
renting buildings, hiring plant and vehicles or by leasing through a finance company.
Many companies, especially new ones, raise capital, both working and fixed, by
borrowing or by selling their shares.
When a company obtains capital from external sources, the financing can be
either on a short-term or a long-term arrangement. In financing business operations
and expansion, a business uses both short-term and long-term capital.
A company utilizes short-term capital to pay for salaries and office expenses that
last a relatively short period of time. On the other hand, a company seeks long-term
financing to pay for new assets that are expected to last many years. Generally, shortterm financing must be repaid in less than one year, while long-term financing can be
repaid over a longer period of time.
The sale of business’s goods or services generates finance which is used to
purchase more materials, pay wages and so on in order to generate more production,
more sales and hence more income. If the business is successful then the amount
received from sales will be greater than the costs of production and therefore a profit
will be made.
Do you know these words?
finance
premises
capital equipment
raw materials
to set up in business
финансы, доходы
помещение, владение
средства производства
сырье
начать новое дело
78
working capital
fixed capital
single
variable
petrol
stationery
fertilizers
to purchasе
factor house
deposit
to secure
funds
land
loггу
initially
advance payment
to convert
to rent
to hire
vehicle
leasing
to raise capital
share
short-term
long-term
arrangement
assets
to repaу
salarу
wage
рабочий капитал
фиксированный, основной капитал
один, единственный
переменный
бензин, топливо
канцелярские принадлежности
удобрения
закупать, приобретать
факторинговая компания
депозит
обеспечивать
фонды, средства
земля
грузовик
первоначально
внесение аванса
превращать, конвертировать
сдавать в наем
брать в наем
автодорожное средство
лизинг, долгосрочная аренда
собирать капитал/средства
акция
краткосрочный
долгосрочный
соглашение
имущество, собственность
возвращать, погашать
оклад, твердая ставка зар. платы
заработная плата
1. Translate these word combinations into Russian:
1. to purchase capital equipment
6. advance payments
2. working capital and fixed capital
7. factory buildings
3. to hire labor
8. a finance company
4. single-use factors
9. external sources
5. a variety of sources
10. long-term financing
2. Say if the statements are true or false.
1. Finance is needed to rent or buy premises.
2. An existing business could continue to function without finance.
3. Capital is the money needed to start and continue operating a business.
4. Finance is usually divided into working and fixed.
79
5. Single-use factors are labor, raw materials, petrol, stationery, fertilizers.
3. Read these words and make a few sentences of your own:
1. to be used many times
2. to sell shares
3. to convert fixed capital into working capital
4. to use short-term and long-term capital
5. to pay for salaries and office expenses
6. to last a relatively short period of time
7.to pay for new assets
8. to last many years
9. to generate finance
10. the costs of production
4. Explain the meanings of the following economic terms by completing the
sentences:
1. Finance is …
2. Capital is …
3. Working capital is …
4. Fixed capital covers …
5. Short-term capital is utilized to …
6. Long-term financing is used to …
7. The sale of goods or services generates …
5. Put the questions to the words in italic:
1. Finance is needed to purchase capital equipment, to hire labor and obtain raw
materials.
2. A new business could not be set up without finance.
3. Finance for working capital can be obtained from a variety of sources.
4. Some finance for fixed capital is required before the firm is earning revenue.
5. It is possible to convert fixed capital into working capital.
6. Many companies raise capital, both working and fixed, by borrowing.
7. Short-term financing must be repaid in less than one year.
6. Answer the questions:
1. What is central to the operation of any business?
2. What is finance needed for?
3. What is usually divided into working capital and fixed capital?
4. What are the two types of capital used for?
5. What can be either on a short-term or a long-term arrangement?
7. Make a summary of the text.
80
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 15
The Banking business
The basis of the banking business is borrowing from individuals, firms, and
occasionally governments. With these resources and also with the bank own capital,
the banker makes loans or extends credit and also invests in securities. The banker
makes profit by borrowing at one rate of interest and lending at a higher rate and by
charging commissions for services rendered.
The bank must always have cash on hand in order to pay its depositors upon
demand. It must also keep a proportion of its assets in forms that can readily be
converted into cash. Only in this way can confidence the banking system be
maintained.
The principal types of banking in the modern world are commercial banking and
central banking. A commercial banker is a dealer in money and in substitutes for
money such as checks or bills of exchange. The banker also provides a variety of
financial services.
Another type of banking is carried on by central banks, bankers to governments
and "lenders of last resort" to commercial banks and other financial institution. They
are often responsible for formulating and implementing monetary policy, usually in
cooperation with the government.
Some institutions such as finance companies, saving banks, investment banks,
trust companies are often called banks. Nevertheless, they do not perform the banking
functions described above and are the best classified as financial intermediaries.
Their economic function is that of channeling savings from private individuals
into the hands of those who will use them. This may be done in the form of loans for
business purposes or for the purchase of capital assets. These financial intermediaries
can not, however, create money as the commercial banks do, they can lend no more
than clients place with them.
Do you know these words?
own
to make а loan
securities
rate of interest
to lend
to chargе commissions
cash
depositor
to keep
confidence
собственный
предоставлять кредит, ссуду
ценные бумаги
ставка процента, ссудный процент
давать взаймы
начислять комиссионные
наличные
вкладчик
иметь (для продажи)
доверие
81
substitute
bills of exchange
lender of last resort
to be responsible for
to implement
monetary policy
nevertheless
intermediary
to channel savings
to create money
замена, заменитель
вексель, тратта
кредитор последней инстанции
быть ответственным за
осуществлять
денежно-кредитная политика
тем не менее
посредник
направлять сбережения
создавать платежные средства
1. Find English equivalents for the following Russian expressions:
1. основа банковского дела
2. инвестировать в ценные бумаги
3. обладать наличными
4. разнообразные финансовые услуги
5. в сотрудничестве с правительством
2. Translate these noun combinations:
1. bank capital
2. rate of interest
3. a proportion of assets
4. types of banking
5. a dealer in money
6. осуществлять банковские функции
7. финансовые посредники
8. сбережения частных лиц
9. покупка основного капитала
10. коммерческие (деловые) цели
6. finance companies
7. investment banks
8. private individuals
9. forms of loans
10. trust companies
3. Say if the statements are true or false.
1. The basis of the banking business is borrowing from banks.
2. The banker makes loans or extends credit.
3. The bank must not have cash on hand.
4. There are two principal types of banking in the modern world.
5. A commercial banker is a dealer in checks or bills of exchange.
4. Complete the sentences:
1. The banker makes profit by …
2. The bank must keep a proportion of …
3. The banker also provides …
4. Another type of banking is …
5. Central banks are often responsible for …
6. Financial intermediaries do not perform …
7. They can lend no more than …
5. Put 10 questions to the text and answer them in written form.
82
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 16
The Banking system of the UK
In the beginning of the twentieth century banking system of the UK had two
levels and comprises:
• the first level: Bank of England, the central bank;
• the second level: deposit banks, credit and merchant banks, credit
intermediaries, clearing houses.
The Bank of England had a number of special privileges, particularly with
regard to issue of notes, which helped to establish and strengthen its position in its
association with the Government.
The Bank assumed responsibility for the integrity of the banking system in the
later years of the nineteenth century. In other words the Bank undertook to ensure
good practice and public confidence in the banks. There was a real need for this
undertaking, because there had been losses of confidence in several large banks.
A major collapse in the banking system was averted by the Bank of England
lending money to banks which were having difficulty meeting their commitments to
lenders and depositors. It is this function which helped to establish the Bank of
England's role as the central bank.
In our century the British banking system has changed a little.
Nowadays nearly every country with market-oriented economy has two-level
banking system, where the central bank functions at the first level, and commercial
banks - at the second level.
Today there are following types of commercial banks in UK.
Deposit banks. The group includes the largest present day banks, so called
clearing banks, prevailing in acceptance of deposits and provision of credit Barclay's Bank, Lloyd's Bank, Midland Bank and National Westminster Bank. They
are the basis of the banking system of the UK. They are often called retail banks.
Merchant banks. They are wide-spread over the country and have old traditions.
They are essentially smaller in size than clearing banks. The merchant banks provide
a range of specialist services for customers, mainly in the industrial and commercial
sector, perform in the sphere of foreign trade and international financial-credit
operations.
Foreign Banks. Foreign Banks refer to large bank groups according to figures in
their balance sheets. There are about 450 foreign banks.
Consortia Banks. Banks of, at least, two countries have their share in capital of
consortia bank and no one possesses controlling stake of shares.
These banks become to develop rapidly with the expansion of euromarket. They
are represented mainly by specialized banks of transnational and multinational
industrial concerns.
83
Do you know these words?
level
to comprise
deposit bank
credit bank
merchant bank
clearing house
privilege
with regard to
to issue
(bank) notes
to establish
association
integrity
to undertake
to ensure
loss
collapse
to avert
to meet commitments
clearing bank
to prevail
acceptance
provision
retail bank
wide-spread
to perform
foreign trade
balance sheet
consortium bank
controlling stake of shares
expansion
to be represented
concern
уровень
включать, составлять
депозитный банк
коммерческий банк
торговый банк
расчетная палата
преимущественное право
по отношению к
выпускать
банкноты, бумажные деньги
учреждать, создавать
ассоциация, связь
целостность
предпринимать, брать на себя
гарантировать, обеспечивать
потеря, убыток
крах, разорение
предотвращать
выполнять обязательства
клиринговый банк
преобладать, быть распространенным
принятие
обеспечение, предоставление
(розничный) банк мелкой клиентуры
широко распространенный
действовать, выполнять
внешняя торговля
балансовый отчет
консорциальный банк
контрольный пакет акций
экспансия, расширение
быть представленным
концерн
1. Find English equivalents for the following Russian expressions:
1. в начале двадцатого века
7. другими словами
2. банковская система
8. особые привилегии
3. первый уровень
9.крупнейшие современные банки
4. некоторое количество
10.древние традиции
5. в конце девятнадцатого века
11.сфера внешней торговли
6. экономика, ориентированная на рынок
84
2. Translate these noun combinations and use them in your own sentences:
1. public confidence
6. two-level banking system
2. bank groups
7. acceptance of deposits
3. the integrity of the system
8. provision of credit
4. loss of confidence
9. the basis of the banking system
5. commitments to lenders and depositors
10. a range of specialist services
3. Say if the statements are true or false.
1. Nowadays the banking system of the UK has two levels.
2. The Bank of England had no special privileges.
3. The Bank undertook to ensure good practice.
4. There had been losses of confidence in several large banks.
5. Merchant banks are often called retail banks.
6. There are no foreign banks in the world.
7. Consortia Banks become to develop rapidly with the expansion of euromarket.
4. Find the terms in the text which correspond to these definitions:
1.______________ had two levels.
2.______________ had a number of special privileges with regard to issue of notes.
3.______________ include the largest present day banks, so called clearing banks.
4.______________ provide a range of specialist services for customers.
5.______________ perform in the sphere of international financial-credit operations.
6.______________ are essentially smaller in size than clearing banks.
7.______________ refer to large bank groups.
8.______________is a bank of, at least, two countries.
9. No one possesses controlling stake of shares in ________________ .
5. Answer the questions:
1.What does the banking system of the UK comprise?
2. What helped to establish and strengthen the position of the Bank of England?
3. Was there a real need for good practice and public confidence in the banks?
4. What did several large banks lose?
5. What was averted by the Bank of England lending money to banks?
6. What difficulties did the banks have at that time?
7. What helped to establish the Bank of England's role as the central bank?
8. How has the British banking system changed in our century?
9. What banking system does a country with market-oriented economy have?
10. What are the types of commercial banks in UK?
11. What British largest present day banks do you know?
Enact the dialogue of two friends using exercise 5.
85
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 17
UK and US share markets
Share markets are institutions where shares are bought and sold according to
fixed rules but at prices controlled by supply and demand.
The principle of the stock-market is well-known: companies issue shares
(British) or stocks (American) and market them to raise additional funds called equity
(or share) capital. Shares of the most successful and powerful companies, paying the
highest dividends, are called blue chips.
In share-markets deals are concluded by brokers who receive the broker
commission for their services. The two tactics of market-makers are known as those
of "bears" (lowering the prices) and "bulls" (pushing the prices up).
The condition of share markets as a whole is reflected by many indices, the most
widely known of them being the Dow Jones in the USA and Nikkei in Japan.
As for the share capital itself it is subdivided into two main categories:
privileged shares (American: preferred stock) and ordinary shares (American:
common stock).
Holders of privileged shares get their dividend payments at a fixed rate,
regardless of the market performance of the company's shares, e.g. 5% annually of
the per nominal value of the share.
This is not always good, for if the company performs exceptionally well, holders
of the ordinary shares get the corresponding dividends (say, 50%), whereas the
holders of privileged shares still have to be content with the same 5%. Owners of
preference shares are sometimes excluded from the management of the company and
have no voting rights.
Decisive control over the company's policy is most often exercised by the
controlling shareholders (also called majority shareholders), i.e. the owner of more
than 50% of all shares.
There are a great many other subdivisions of shares: convertible, redeemable,
term shares, subscription. All these subdivisions reflect the great complexity of this
business.
The markets on which securities are dealt in are:
• the Stock Exchange, the main market;
• the Unlisted Securities Market (USM), a market for smaller companies;
• the Over-the-counter Market (OTC) which is independent.
The first two are part of the Stock Exchange. The Stock Exchange issues
guidelines to members and ensures that these rules are adhered to.
There is the Stock Exchange Automated Quotation system (SEAQ) which is the
electronic market-place of the London stock market. Information from the sixty-four
market-makers on prices and deals made is fed into SEAQ and displayed on screens.
This enables the market-maker to quote a selling price and a lower buying price.
86
Do you know these words?
share / stock market
according to
fixed rule
equity / share capital
successful
powerful
to pay dividends
blue chips
deal
to conclude
broker commission
market-maker
"bears"
"bulls"
at a fixed rate
regardless of
market performance
to exclude
decisive control
controlling shareholders
subdivision
convertible shares
redeemable shares
term shares
subscription shares
stock exchange
unlisted
to seek
to seek after something
moderate
outside finance
over-the-counter market
eventually
guidelines
to adhere to something
dealing
automated
to quote
quotation
to feed (fed, fed)
to display
фондовый рынок
согласно
установленное правило
акционерный капитал
процветающий, успешный
могущественный, сильный
платить дивиденды
голубые фишки
сделка
заключать
комиссионное вознаграждение брокерa
активный участник рынка
“медведь”
“бык”
по фиксированной ставке
невзирая на, независимо от
характеристика поведения рынка
исключать
принимающее решения управление
держатели контрольного пакета акций
подразделение, дробление, подгруппа
конвертируемые ценные бумаги
подлежащие выкупу акции
срочные акции
подписные акции
фондовая биржа
некотируемый на бирже
стремиться, искать, пытаться
добиваться чего-либо
умеренный
другие источники финансирования
внебиржевой рынок ценных бумаг
в конце концов
основные направления
придерживаться чего-либо
совершение сделок, сделка
автоматизированный
называть цену
котировка, цена
питать, передавать
показывать на экране
87
difference
разница
1. Find English equivalents for the following Russian expressions:
1. предложение и спрос
6. повышение цен
2. дополнительные фонды
7. индексы фондового рынка
3. самые высокие дивиденды
8. две основные категории
4. сделки на фондовых рынках
9. держатели акций
5. понижение цен
10.ежегодно
2. Translate these word combinations and make your own sentences with them:
1. to buy and sell shares
2. to raise additional funds called equity (or share) capital
3. shares of the most successful and powerful companies
4. to be subdivided into two main categories
5. to get the corresponding dividends
6. to be excluded from the management of the company
7. to have no voting rights
8. decisive control over the company's policy
3. Say if the statements are true or false.
1. Brokers receive the broker commission for their services.
2. The condition of share markets as a whole is reflected by two indices.
3. Companies issue shares (British) or stocks (American) and market them.
4. Holders of privileged shares get corresponding dividends.
5.The owner of more than 50% of all shares is called majority shareholders.
6. There are only three subdivisions of shares.
7. The Over-the-counter Market (OTC) issues guidelines to its members.
4. Choose the correct form of the verb and put general questions to the
sentences:
1. Shares are bought and sold at prices (controlled / controlling) by supply and
demand.
2. Shares of the most successful and powerful companies are (called / calling) blue
chips.
3. Holders of the ordinary shares get the (corresponded / corresponding) dividends.
4. In share-markets deals are (concluding / concluded) by brokers.
5. The share capital is (subdividing / subdivided) into privileged shares and ordinary
shares.
6. Holders of privileged shares get their dividend payments at a (fixing / fixed) rate.
7. Decisive control is exercised by the (controlled / controlling) shareholders.
8. Information on prices and deals (making / made) is fed into SEAQ.
5. Write a summary or the text.
88
Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 18
Foreign exchange rates
The foreign exchange market is the market in which the currencies of different
countries are exchanged for one another. The foreign exchange market is made up of
thousands of people all over the world - importers and exporters, banks and
specialists in the buying and selling of foreign exchange. They are called foreign
exchange brokers.
The foreign exchange market opens on Monday morning in Tokyo, when it is
still midnight on Sunday in London. As the day advances, the foreign exchange
market also opens in Zurich, Frankfurt, London, New York and finally in Vancouver
and Los Angeles. Before these last two markets have closed, Tokyo is open again for
the next day of business.
The price at which one currency exchanges for another is called a foreign
exchange rate.
In the UK there are three possible foreign exchange rate regimes. They are:
• fixed exchange rate;
• flexible - (or floating) exchange rate;
• managed exchange rate.
Under a fixed exchange rate regime, the value of the pound would be pegged by
the Bank of England. Under a flexible exchange rate regime, the value of the pound
would be determined by market forces with no intervention by the Bank of England.
Under a managed exchange rate regime, the Bank of England would intervene in
the foreign exchange market to smooth out fluctuations in the value of the pound. But
it would not seek to maintain the pound at an absolutely constant value for a long
period of time.
Besides the subdivision of markets into money markets, stock-markets and
commodity markets, there also exist a sub-classification of them according to the
character of deals concluded - into spot markets and futures markets.
Spot markets are the ones for buying and selling goods, currency or securities
available for immediate delivery, futures markets - for delivery at a future date for a
price fixed in advance. Futures currency markets are often called forward exchange
contracts markets.
Foreign exchange deals (i.e. currency markets) establish the relative price of one
convertible currency against another.
The currencies are subdivided into hard (free, convertible) and non-convertible.
The price of the latter is established more or less artificially, by governments. In
practice, however, very few currencies are completely free.
Do you know these words?
89
foreign exchange rates
foreign exchange market
currency
to exchange
fixed rate
flexible rate
managed rate
regime
value
to peg
to determine
intervention
to intervene
to smooth out fluctuations
constant
to seek
money market
commodity market
spot market
futures market
обменный курс валюты
валютный рынок
валюта
обменивать
фиксированный курс
гибкий курс
управляемый курс
режим, система
ценность, стоимость
поддерживать
определять
интервенция, вмешательство
осуществлять интервенцию
выравнивать колебания
постоянный
искать, пытаться, стараться
рынок краткосрочного капитала
товарный рынок, товарная биржа
рынок реального товара
рынок с длительным сроком
поставок, фьючерсный рынок
поставка
форвардный валютный рынок
искусственно, намеренно
конвертируемая валюта
delivery
forward exchange contracts market
artificially
hard (free, convertible) currency
1. Translate these noun combinations into Russian:
1. thousands of people
5.for a long period of time
2. the next day of business
6. market forces
3. rate regime
7. people all over the world
4. the value of the pound
8. currency exchange
2. Find English sentences for the following Russian ones:
1. Валютный рынок открывается в понедельник утром в Токио, когда в Лондоне
ещё полночь.
2. Цена, по которой одна валюта обменивается на другую, называется
обменным курсом.
3. В Объединенном Королевстве возможны три режима обменного курса валют.
4. Фьючерсные валютные рынки часто называют форвардными рынками валют.
5. Однако в реальности, очень малое количество валют можно считать
полностью конвертируемыми.
3. Agree or disagree:
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1. The foreign exchange market is made up of foreign exchange brokers.
2. The foreign exchange market opens in all countries at the same time.
3. The price of a currency is called a foreign exchange rate.
4. There is only one possible foreign exchange rate regime.
5. Spot markets are often called forward exchange contracts markets.
6. Futures markets are the ones for delivery at a future date for a price fixed in
advance.
7. The currencies are subdivided into free and convertible.
8. All the markets are subdivided into money markets, stock-markets and commodity
markets.
9. Very few currencies are completely free.
4. Fill the gaps in the sentences below with the words from the text:
1. _____________ of different countries are exchanged for one another.
2. ______________ is made up of thousands of people all over the world.
3. The foreign exchange market also opens in _____________________ .
4. The value of the pound would be pegged by the Bank of England under ________.
5. Under a flexible exchange rate regime, the value of the pound would be ________.
6. There also exist a sub-classification of markets according to ____________.
7. Foreign exchange deals establish the ____________.
8. The price of the non-convertible currency is ________________.
5. Say what parts of speech the words in italic are:
1. They are called foreign exchange brokers.
2. The Bank of England would intervene in the foreign exchange market
3. It is still midnight on Sunday in London.
4. It would not seek to maintain the pound for a long period of time.
5. Currency or securities are available for immediate delivery.
6. They are specialists in the buying and selling of foreign exchange.
7. Before these last two markets have closed, Tokyo is open again.
6. Answer the questions:
1. What is the foreign exchange market?
2. Who is called foreign exchange broker?
3. Where does the foreign exchange market open?
4. What are the possible foreign exchange rate regimes?
5. What is the subdivision of markets?
6. What is the sub-classification of markets?
7. What is the difference between spot and futures markets?
8. What are the currencies subdivided into?
7. Enact the dialogue between two students of economics using the text.
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Read and translate the text. Learn the unknown words.
Text 18
Accounting
Accounting is sometimes called the “language of business”. It is able to
communicate financial information about the organization.
An effective accounting system must include accurate collecting, recording,
classifying, interpreting, and reporting of information on the financial status of an
organization.
The accounting process follows some certain principles and rules. Incoming
money and outgoing money are carefully monitored. All the transactions are
summarized in financial statements, which reflect the major financial activities of an
organization.
The work of accountants is rather sophisticated. People who specialize in the
field of accounting are known as bookkeepers and accountants. Bookkeepers deal in
taxes and different business transactions of the company. The accountant’s
responsibility is to analyze and interpret the financial data and make it understandable
for users.
In the United States, accountants are usually classified as private, government,
and public. Private accountants work solely for private companies or corporations to
maintain financial records. Governmental accountants work for government agencies.
Public accountants work independently and provide accounting services such as
auditing and tax computation to companies and individuals.
Both private and governmental accountants are paid on a salary basis, whereas
public accountants receive fees for their services.
Many accountants have special certificates after they pass examinations in
Institute of Accountants. Certified accountants in England are called chartered
accountants. In the USA the certified accountants are called certified public
accountants (CPA).
Accountants provide accurate and timely information that is necessary for
decision-making. No expansion or reorganization is planned without them. New
products and advertising campaigns are also prepared with the help of the accountant.
Do you know these words?
аccounting
to communicate
to collect
to record
records
to interpret
to report
бухгалтерский учет
сообщать, передавать
собирать
записывать
документация
интерпретировать, объяснять
докладывать, сообщать
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to follow
to monitor
transaction
sophisticated
bookkeeper
accountant
data
auditing
tax computation
fee
chartered / certified accountant
decision-making
advertising
to prepare
следовать, придерживаться
контролировать
сделка, операция
опытный, сложный
бухгалтер-счетовод
бухгалтер-аналитик
данные
аудит
исчисление налогов
гонорар
дипломированный аудитор
принятие решения
реклама
подготавливать
1. Find English equivalents for the following Russian expressions:
1. финансовая информация об организации
2. эффективная система бухгалтерского учета
3. определенные правила и принципы
4. финансовый отчет
5. финансовые данные
6. различные коммерческие операции
7. частные компании и корпорации
8. аудит и исчисление налогов
3. сдавать экзамены
4. расширение или реорганизация
2. Translate the word combinations and use them in the sentences of your own:
1. to be able to communicate
2. to reflect the major financial activities
3. to specialize in the field of
4. to deal in taxes
5. to analyze and interpret the financial data
6. to work solely for private companies
7. to maintain financial records
8. to provide accounting services
2. to be paid on a salary basis
3. to receive fees for their services
3. Explain the following terms according to information from the text:
1. Accounting is …
2. Bookkeepers are those who deal …
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3. The accountant’s responsibility is …
4. Accountants are classified as …
5. Private accountants work …
6. Governmental accountants work …
7. Public accountants work …
3. Certified accountants in England are …
4. In the USA the certified accountants are …
5. Accountants provide …
4. Use the verbs in brackets in the Passive Voice:
1. Accounting (to call) the “language of business”.
2. Incoming money and outgoing money (to monitor).
3. All the transactions (to summarize) in financial statements.
4. They (to know) as bookkeepers and accountants.
5. Accountants (to classify) as private, government, and public.
6. Accountants (to pay) on a salary basis.
7. Any expansion or reorganization (to plan) with them.
8. Advertising campaigns (to prepare) with the help of the accountant.
5. Put questions to the words in italic:
1. The system must include accurate collecting and recording of information.
2. The work of accountants is rather sophisticated.
3. Accountants make the financial data understandable for users.
4. Governmental accountants work for government agencies.
5. Many accountants have special certificates.
6. The information is necessary for decision-making.
7. New products are prepared with the help of the accountant.
6. Answer the questions:
1. What is accounting able to do?
2. What do you know about effective accounting system?
3. What does the accounting process follow?
4. What reflects the major financial activities of an organization?
5. What do bookkeepers and accountants do?
6. How are accountants usually classified?
7. Where do they pass examinations?
8. What information do accountants provide?
7. Make a report on accounting.
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РАЗДЕЛ III
ВНЕАУДИТОРНОЕ ЧТЕНИЕ
Read and translate the following units. Pick out unfamiliar terms and learn
them.
Unit 1
What is Business? Business is not an easy thing. It's rather a difficult kind of
human activity. It has many important elements such as money, taxes, customers,
transport, banks and others. There are two general types of business: small business
and big business.
Why do people do business? People do business by producing goods or
providing services. They buy and sell goods. They do business for a profit. There is
no business without a profit. Production of goods is very profitable, provision of
different services is profitable too. Communications are a good business too, for
example, telephone, telegraph and mail services. Financial services, for example,
banking and insurance, work very well, too.
Doing business has become very popular everywhere. At present it is very
popular to be a businessman or a businesswoman. It should be noted that women, like
men, successfully run a firm or a company, they prove to be good bank managers or
shop keepers. Briefly speaking, doing business is a comparatively new and
perspective tendency in modern life.
Setting up a Small Business. Not long ago I decided to set up a small business.
As I had no experience in business activities it was difficult for me to choose an
appropriate business. So I went to the lawyer's for consultation.
After clarifying all the details of my project and my financial possibilities he
recommended me to set up a small business in the field of services. According to the
lawyer anyone who wants to set up a small business is to make sure that he/she is
choosing one which will work and yield big profit. This requires a thorough
investigation into the customers' needs. So, the first step I had to take was to study
my future customers' needs and wants.
One of the difficulties I was faced with was lack of money, and I had to borrow
it from the bank. The next day I made a loan of 2 m. pounds, and was "on the seventh
heaven" because now I could put my project into practice.
Now, at the prime of my business life I still remember my lawyer's words: when
choosing a business weigh all pros and cons and ask yourself the questions: what
kind of customers am I going to serve upon? How many potential customers are there
in my district? How shall I attract customers? What products or services shall I offer?
Briefly speaking, plan every step of the way before you start your business.
Never make haste while making a decision. Remember: haste makes waste.
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How I Started Business. It's common knowledge that doing business has
become very popular everywhere. At present it is a comparatively new and
perspective tendency in modern life.
So, not long ago I made up my mind to go into business. Following my lawyer's
advice I chose small business in the field of services. It goes without saying that I
weighed all pros and cons before making a decision. I understand that production of
goods is very profitable, but provision of services is profitable too. After all, people
do business for a profit.
At first I wanted to be a sole trader, but then I changed my mind and organized a
partnership. I went into business with my friend Jean. She has a solid background in
accounting, she is good at keeping the books and ordering stock. As for me, I enjoy
selling and like talking to customers.
So far our business is going pretty well, and the shop is beginning to attract more
customers. I won't be boasting if I say that we begin to make a good profit. By the
way, we have a certain arrangement for distribution of profits and losses. They are
equally shared. I hope to be in business for a long time. I've really become very
knowledgeable about business.
Reasons of Failure. There are several reasons why many new businesses fail.
First of all there has been general recession. Then there's the question of labour
relations. What is officially called "industrial action", which actually means strikes
contributed to the rapid disappearance of many little enterprises. But it is more than
likely that what really accounts for most of the failures is simply bad management.
Let's look at some of the ways in which a business may be badly managed.
First, many new businesses are undercapitalized, that is there isn't enough money
available to them to give them a real chance to succeed. Those enterprises which are
undercapitalized are sure to be in trouble. Therefore, never attempt to start a new
venture if you haven't got enough capital.
Second, many new businesses fail because they are in the wrong place or their
premises are unsuitable; they operate inefficiently, because they haven't got enough
room or appropriate facilities. So, don't hurry to settle on premises which turn out to
be unsuitable.
Third, some ambitious new businesses spend too much of their capital on
presenting a glossy image, expensive office furniture and fittings which do not
contribute anything to meeting the expenses.
Fourth, far too many businesses fail because their managers do not carry out the
necessary research of the market to make sure that their product is in demand and
needed by the people. Therefore, always research the market before you decide to
enter it.
There are a lot of other factors to be taken into account: installing the right
equipment, hiring a suitable workforce, ensuring a supply of raw materials on term
you can afford; controlling production, keeping a close check on prices and customer
credit.
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Unit 2
Starting a New Business. When you start a new business, you are often in the
red at least for the first few months, sometimes even years. If you are lucky and work
hard, after a couple of years your company may break even, or even be in the black.
To turn a profit in a new venture, you often need someone to float you a loan,
such as a rich uncle. Of course, if you have a credit card with a high credit limit, you
can always use plastic to help you overcome difficult times. But watch out: interest
rates on credit card loans are typically very high.
When you set up a business, it may so happen that you are short of money. In
this case you will need some help in financing your business. You should know how
to calculate the amount of money you need to borrow. It is usually done by drawing
up a plan - a cash flow chart.
What is cash flow? Money does two things in a business: it comes in and it frees
out, like water in a bath. This is called cash flow. If money comes in faster than it
goes out, the business is said to be effective, and money is available for expansion or
investment. But if money goes out faster than it comes in, the business can dry up.
Achieving wealth in some form, usually money, in addition to financials, some
businesses need to collect that money after providing a service or selling a product.
Sometimes collecting is easy, as in a store, when the buyer pays at the time of
purchase. In many businesses, however, collecting money is the hardest part of doing
business because clients are given credit and are expected to pay later. Even if your
customer has strong financials and strong credit, it is not a guarantee of payment.
Costs and Profit. Once you have decided on a business scheme which your
market research suggests will be successful, you can find out whether you will make
a profit. To do this, you need to estimate your costs (how much it'll take you to run
the business) and your pricing (how much you can sell your goods or services for).
What are your costs? Your business costs can be broken down into four areas:
material costs, labour costs, overheads and your own wages. Decide on a time period
(say, three months) and work out each of your costs. Material costs. If you are
making a product, you will need to buy the materials. Estimate how much money you
will spend to buy the necessary things for making your product.
Labour costs. If there is more demand for your work than you can do yourself,
you will have to take on an assistant. When estimating, you must take into
consideration how long it will take to have coffee breaks, giving or receiving
instructions, travelling time and dealing with customers; all this may come to 15 or
25 per cent, on top of the time required to perform the main job.
Overheads. They are charges incurred in the general running of the business.
They include: rent, rates, telephone bills, postage, fuel, advertising, insurance, travel,
interests on borrowed money and money spent on the upkeep of equipment. Own
wages. This is the minimum amount of money you feel you can live on.
What price? Base your prices on what people have said they would pay for your
service or product as compared with the price (service) in other shops.
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Book-keeping. It is necessary to keep records of the financial affairs of even the
smallest business. There are three main reasons for this.
Firstly, they will remind you to pay your bills and collect your debts from
customers on time. Secondly, you can see how much money you are making or
losing. Finally, they will enable you to work out how much tax you should pay.
Keep accurate, clear accounts using the documents shown below. Accounting
reminders: PURCHASE / ORDERS / DELIVERY NOTES / INVOICES. Check
book stubs. When you open a bank account, you are given a paying-in book and a
check book for taking money out. These often have stubs or forms attached on which
you can make a note on the amount you are paying in or out.
Borrowing from a bank. This involves preparing a campaign to convince the
bank manager that your business is a good investment. The bank manager may ask
you to provide with security (a promise that you will sell a valuable possession to pay
off your debts if your business goes bust), or a guarantor (a friend or relative who
agrees to repay the loan if you cannot). Usually, you borrow money from a bank in
the form of a loan.
A Short History of one’s Business. In 1960 Brian Baker, Managing Director of
Lindon & Son, borrowed a large sum of money from Bridges and Company Bank to
finance the business.
It's in place here to mention that Mr. Baker's business has been in full swing
since that time, and seems to be prospering in future. Suffice it to say that within a
short period of time the parent company "gave birth" to many subsidiaries, and now
has got 50,000 employees, as well as many manufacturing assembly plants and
factories. They have their branches in 25 cities and towns all over the world.
It's no exaggeration to say that they produce high quality products. They use the
most advanced technologies, and are in close contact with the market. They produce a
great variety of products ranging from spare parts of domestic appliances to small
tractors and grass-cutters.
To keep abreast with the time and to have the production on a high technological
level they try and invest a lot of money in research and development. The company
has sales reps all over the world, and our prices are said to be very competitive.
As regards their future they plan to increase the production, profits and turnover,
to export to more countries, and expand their international links. In the latter case,
they have made considerable progress by concluding economic, scientific, and hightech agreements as well as through exchanging specialists.
Now back to Mr. Baker and a short history of his business. Mr. Baker has had an
enormous input in his business, and proved to be a talented and gifted manager. 18
years ago Mr. Baker earned a good salary at Frankfurt, but he wanted to have his own
company. He could not afford to start a company immediately, because he needed
money. During his years in Frankfurt he saved as much money as he could, and some
years later he invested his money of $500,000 in total in his new company. His
profits rose by 25% per year and reached $45,6 m. in 1990. Now he owns 80% of the
company, and his shares in the company are now worth $899 m.
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Company Strategy. A business company is an institution established for the
purpose of making profit. It's a big organization which is operated by individuals.
Their share of ownership is represented by shares.
In order to operate successfully a business or a company has to have its strategy.
The company strategy must be flexible enough and take into account the changing
market conditions.
The main objective here is to gain a market share, and in order to achieve it, it's
necessary to reduce prices. But if you reduce prices, your margins will be lower, and
that will cut profits.
If you can slowly increase production, you will be able to cut unit costs though it
seems to be a long-term prospect. Unit costs can come down if you invest in new
plants and machines. Let's try to define the company strategy from the point of view
of the market and manufacturing.
If you think that increased market share is the main objective in the company
strategy, you are highly mistaken. First of all you should go in for a higher
profitability. If you can upgrade the product, you are sure to get better prices and
therefore higher profits.
You should bear in mind that the market is very competitive now. If you
increase prices, whatever the quality, sales may drop rapidly. Let's look at the
problems from the manufacturing view-point. If you can reduce costs in
manufacturing, it'll put you in a strong position and enable you to adapt to the market.
The only way you can become flexible enough is to subcontract more of the
production. It means job losses if you do that, but the jobs which remain will be more
secure.
Liquidation. If a limited or public company builds up large debts which it
cannot pay, it goes into liquidation.
The latter may be voluntary or compulsory. If it is voluntary, the directors
promise to pay all debts within a certain period of time (12 months in the U.K.).
Compulsory liquidation occurs when an unpaid creditor applies to the courts.
In both cases, the directors must prepare a full statement of the company's
affairs, listing its assets and liabilities, and why it is in debt. The company must also
stop trading. Directors of large companies sometimes give press conferences to
explain the situation to the shareholders. They can also give a televised talk on the
matter.
How to avoid bankruptcy or liquidation. If you have a temporary cash flow
problem, there are a number of ways you may follow without going bankrupt or into
liquidation:
- raise some money from the bank. If the company that owes you money is
secure (for example, a large prosperous company), a bank may be prepared to tide
you over with a short term loan;
- sell some assets, for example, stock, or sell your premises and rent them back;
- you may be able to sell the business at a low price.
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Unit 3
Company Organisation in Britain. This is a typical organization of a British
company. The highest managerial organ of a Stock Company is the Assembly of
shareholders which elects the Board of Directors, and the latter elect their supreme
governor. The Board of Directors performs three main functions: it appoints the
administration, considers general policy questions, makes corporate decision and
exercises control over the activities of the administration. It also sees to it that the
enterprise (business) can yield profits, that shareholders can get high income on their
stocks, and it must also analyze its own activities.
The absolute head of the company is the Chairman of the Board, and his job is to
take the chair at meetings of the shareholders, and the Board of Directors, and to
represent the company's interests at outside functions. He does not take much part in
the running of the business.
There are two kinds of directors: so to say non-executive directors (not full time
employees). They are the sort of people who have some standing in various parts of
the business world and are in a position to help the company to succeed. They only
appear when there are meetings of the Board. But the second lot of directors - the
executive directors - are full time employees of the company. Most of them are
managers of the departments. First comes the Managing Director whose job is to
coordinate the policies decided by the directors, and see that they are implemented. It
is carried out through various departmental managers.
The first one is the Production Manager, who is responsible for seeing that our
products are made properly and on time. The Marketing Manager's main job is to sell
the product. Then there's the Purchasing Manager, who makes sure we have the raw
materials for the Production Manager to make the product. Then comes the Chief
Accountant, who is in charge of the financial picture of the company and keeps
books. Then there's the Company Secretary, whose job is to organize the work of the
Board of Directors. And the Personnel Manager recruits people to work in the
company, and looks after their welfare.
The Managing Director is responsible for running the whole company, and is
accountable to the Board. He is assisted by four executive departments. These are:
Human Resources (Personnel) department, Management Services department,
Finance department, Research & Development department (R&D). Human Resources
Dpt. is responsible for personnel, training and management development. Finance
Dpt. takes care of corporate finance and accounting. Management Services Dpt. is in
charge of rationalization throughout the company. R&D Dpt. is responsible for new
product development. Under the Managing Director there are five Regional
Managers; each of them is responsible for the day-to-day management of a territory.
The five regions are supported by two sections - Marketing and Technical Services.
In addition to the parent there are several subsidiaries. The subsidiaries report to
the Export Sales department, which in turn is accountable to the Board. Export and
Sales Dpt. is responsible for selling the company's product. Technological Dpt. is
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responsible for the mode of production and elaborating new technologies. Marketing
Dpt. is in charge of marketing activities of the company. Production Dpt. is
responsible for all the aspects of production. Promotion Dpt. is in charge of
advertising activities. Commercial Dpt. is responsible for trading activities of the
company.
Public relations. To complete the picture of portraying the company it should be
noted that the company’s managers not only perform their office duties, but also
participate in the communal work. At the Headquarters public relations officers are
engaged in their day-to-day activities aimed at working with clients, mass-media, and
members of the staff. They are in close touch with the press. Therefore, from time to
time they have the pleasure of seeing our "image" in some leading papers.
Forms of Business. Business is based on common sense. People concentrate on
doing certain things that they are good at. Then they exchange their work for money
which can in its turn be exchanged for the goods and services which they require.
This is much more efficient than if each person worked purely to satisfy his or her
own needs. There are many different types of business in the modern world. They
range from very small ones to enormous multinational companies.
Areas of business. Every business either provides a service, produces goods or
buys and sells goods and services for a profit (this is called trading). Many are
involved in all these activities. The following are the main areas of business going on
around you every day. Which of the business activities each business entails?
Financial services: banking and insurance. Retail trade business-shops which sell
goods. The hotel and catering businesses. Communication business: telephone, mail
and courier services. Transportation businesses which move materials, products and
people from place to place by road, rail, sea and air. Public services: police, fire
brigades, armed forces and local and central governments.
Lines of business. About 90 per cent of all businesses are small, that is they
employ less than 200 people if they are in manufacturing, or less than 10 people in
any other business. About 3,000 small businesses are set up every week in the U.K.
Anyone who thinks about setting up a business is to make sure that he or she is
choosing one which will work. This involves a thorough investigation into the
customers' needs. For example, however good you are at car mechanics, your car
service will not succeed if very few people in your area actually own cars or if there
is a good local garage which people already use. There are construction businesses
which build houses and roads, food producing activities such as farming and fishing,
various services including those provided by lawyers, accountants, architects, estate
agents, hairdressers and entertainers. When choosing a business weigh all PROS and
CONS!
Types of business. Before starting your business there are a number of decisions
you will have to make. For example, who should you buy your supplies from? What
premises will you work from? How much control do you want to keep in the
business? This last question depends on whether you decide to work as a sole trader,
a partnership or a limited company.
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Suppose you decided to work as a sole trader. It means that you alone have
responsibility for the business; you also take all profits after paying income tax on
them. What advantages do you have if you work as a sole trader? They are as
follows: you do not have to disclose details of your financial affairs except to the tax
authorities; you have the final say in any decisions that affect the company. The only
disadvantage is that you alone are personally responsible for any business debts; if
necessary, your personal possessions could be taken to pay them.
Partnership. It is a group of between two and twenty people trading as one firm.
They share responsibility for debts, decision making and the profits. Partnership can
be useful, and effective when partners have skills in different areas. What are the
disadvantages of a partnership? All partners are personally liable for any business
debts, even if they are caused by mismanagement by another partner. So it is essential
to know your partners well and trust them.
A limited company (Ltd.). A company formed by two or more shareholders who
put money into the business in return for a share of the profits. They appoint directors
who control the company. A limited company must be registered. (You can get help
from a solicitor to do this.) The advantages of a limited company are: the financial
liability of the shareholders is limited. If the business goes bust the personal
belongings of the shareholders cannot be taken to pay the debts. You each lose only
the value of the shares you own. The disadvantages are as follows: you may find it
difficult to get credit from suppliers or loans from banks unless you give personal
guarantees that you will pay your debts to them. In addition to sending details of your
financial affairs to the taxman, you must send a copy of your annual accounts to the
Register of Companies. These accounts must be checked by an outside accountant to
prove that they present a true picture of the company's finances.
Monopoly. Monopoly is a market structure with only a single seller of a
commodity or service dealing with a large number of buyers. When a single seller
faces a single buyer, that situation is known as bilateral monopoly. The most
important features of market structure are those which influence the nature of
competition and price determination. The key element in this segment of market
organization is the degree of seller concentration, or the number and size distributions
of the sellers. There is monopoly when there is only one seller in an industry, and
there is competition when mere are many sellers in an industry.
Today the term monopoly is usually extended to include any group of firms
which act together to fix prices or levels of production. Complete control of all output
is not necessary to exercise monopoly power. Any combination of firms, which
controls at least 80 percent of an industry's production, can dictate the prices of the
remaining 20 percent. Aside from private monopolies, there are public monopolies.
Although the precise definition of monopoly cannot be applied directly to a labor
union because a union is not a seller of services, labor unions have monopolistic
characteristics. For example, when a union concludes a wage settlement, which sets
wage rates at a level higher than that acceptable to unorganized workers, the union
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clearly contributes to monopolistic wage results. In effect, the price of labor (wages)
is set without regard to the available supply of labor.
The monopolist establishes market position by ability to control absolutely the
supply of a product or service offered for sale and the related ability to set price.
Theoretically profit maximization is the primary objective, and it is often possible to
achieve this by restricting output and the quantity of goods offered for sale. Levels of
output are held below the quantity that would be produced in a competitive situation.
Hence, monopoly is of interest to economic policy makers because it may impede the
most efficient possible allocation of nation's economic resources.
Monopolies held by individuals or organizations may begin by the granting of a
patent or a copyright, by the possession of a superior skill or talent or by the
ownership of strategic capital. The huge capital investment necessary to organize a
firm in some industries, raises an almost insurmountable barrier to entry in these
monopolistic fields and, thus provides established corporations in these industries
with potential monopoly power. The use of such monopoly power may lead to the
development of substitute products, to an attempt at entry into monopolistic fields by
new firms, or to public prosecution or regulation. The antitrust policy of the federal
government has prevented the domination of an industry by one firm. Thus, the trend
during the last years has been away from monopolies.
Companies in the UK. The company is a corporate body, whose regulation is
governed by one of the various Companies Acts. The liability of members may be
limited by shares, or by guarantees, or may be unlimited. The commonest type of
company in existence in the UK is a company limited by shares. The principle
characteristics of a company limited by shares are that each is a separate legal person
and that the liability of the company is limited to the nominal value of the shares.
Companies may also be public or private. About 97 percent of the limited
companies registered in Great Britain are private companies. A private company is
one which restricts 4 the right to transfer its shares, limits its members to fifty (but
has a minimum of two), and cannot invite the public subscribe for shares. It has
certain legal privileges, but these are not of great consequence.
A company may have any name provided that the Board of Trade does not think
it undesirable. Undesirable names are those too much like those of other companies.
At one time words like "royal" and "imperial" were prohibited. They may still be
disallowed by the Board of the Trade. The last word must be "Limited" except in the
case of certain non-profit-making companies formed to promote the arts, science, etc.
The name must be fixed or painted outside every office or place of business. It must
also appear on all business letter, notices, of checks, advertisements, bills, etc. If the
word "Limited" is omitted the consequences could be serious. Where the word
"Limited" does not appear, the organization is not a company in the legal sense.
The objects of a company must be stated in its memorandum of association. If
the main object of the company disappears, the company may be wound up. Objects
must not be illegal. Objects or powers may be changed by altering the memorandum
by special resolution.
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Unit 4
Ways of Selling. One of the most exciting parts of building up a business is
when you begin to receive orders for your goods or services. The selling process is
hard to work, but also extremely satisfying. There are several ways of selling.
Direct selling. This is when you sell a product direct to the public, for I example,
in your shop, market stall or by mail order. Its great advantage is that by listening to
comments made by customers you can judge the market more accurately. Mail order.
You can advertise in newspapers or magazines, inviting customers to order goods
from you by post. This is called mail order. Customers send in money with their
orders. Direct mail is another way of selling by post. You send sales leaflets with
order forms to potential customers. Working to order. If you provide a service or
make personalized goods, you need to encourage orders from customers. Although
many orders may come as a result of recommendations from satisfied customers, you
must place yourself firmly in the public eye by promoting yourself.
You can promote yourself by printing leaflets and giving information about
yourself and your work in the advertising sections of newspapers and magazines.
Design and draw up an advertisement for your business!
Selling through agents and sales reps. While expanding sales you may need to
employ sales representatives or agents. Agents are people who have a number of
contacts and a special knowledge in a particular field. They work freelance for
several clients at once. They make their money by taking a percentage (say 10%) on
everything they sell. It is possible to employ sales reps who work for you alone. They
can provide you with weekly sales reports giving comments, assessments, and desires
expressed by customers about each product.
Taxation. Many governments collect taxes from both private individuals and
businesses to pay for schools, prisons and so on. Businesses have to pay various types
of tax, some related to sales, some related to wages, and some related to local
governments (these are called "rates").
Types of taxes. VAT (Value added tax). In many countries a tax is added to the
price of goods and services. In Britain it is called VAT. All businesses which have a
high turnover (e.g. 20,000 pounds) must register for VAT. This means that you must
add the tax on to the price of your goods and services, and pay this to the GVT
(government) about every three months.
Sales tax. In some countries (the U.S.) there is a sales tax instead of VAT. The
sales tax is only put on at the final stage, when the shop sells goods to the general
public. It is not usually added to services.
Income tax. In many countries people are charged income tax on the money they
earn. They pay a percentage of their annual income. Often it is the responsibility of
the employer to deduct this from their pay and pass it to the GVT. The employer must
always keep a record of the amounts earned by each employee and the amount of tax
that has been deducted.
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Business tax. All businesses have to pay tax on their profits. How much tax you
have to pay will be calculated according to your total income from sales minus your
business expenses. That is why it so important to keep accurate records of your
expenditure.
National insurance. This is a kind of tax which employees in many countries
have to pay as well as income tax. It goes partly towards financing state pensions and
social security and partly into general taxation funds.
Overheads and Their Recovery. The costs of a business are of two types direct and indirect. The direct costs vary directly with production. If one additional
unit of production is made, there will be a measurable increase in direct cost. When
one unit less is made, there will be similar measurable decrease in direct cost. Direct
or raw - material is normally the largest component of direct cost. It includes all items
of material that are of sufficient size to warrant the effort of charging directly to the
job. Small items, such as glue, paint and small quantities of nails, do not merit the
clerical effort involved in charging directly to the job, and would be an overhead.
Direct wages will vary directly with production where remuneration is based
upon piecework only. This means that a specific amount is paid when a production
operation is successfully finished. If it is not finished, no payment is made. Many
organizations remunerate labor on the basis of a large basic wage, topped up with a
productivity bonus. The basic element is paid regardless of the level of production. In
such cases wages will not vary directly with production, and fall into the category of
an indirect cost or overhead.
Overhead is a general term applied to all the costs of involved in running a
business other than direct costs. It covers the costs of running the works of
organization: product research and development; the administration of the business;
selling and distributing the product. Overheads are diverse, covering the whole of the
business organization.
The management accountant has the problem of allocating these costs to the
individual product lines being manufactured. The management accountant's task is to
allocate the many, diverse overheads, onto the cost of each product manufactured. It
is a major task requiring the use of main different bases of allocation.
The allocation of direct cost to a product can be precise, in the case of overhead
allocation an element of logical guesstimate enters. There is a two-fold process,
firstly to collect all overhead costs onto the product or profit centres and secondly to
load the overheads onto each product passing through the centre.
The Auditing Framework. Auditing, is the analytical process of gathering
sufficient evidential matter on a test or sampling basis to enable a competent
professional to express an opinion as to whether a given set of financial statements
meets established standards of financial reporting.
Now we can enumerate the major steps of the auditing process:
- become acquainted with the firm - its environment and its accounting,
personnel, production, marketing, and other systems;
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- review and evaluate the management and the accounting control system in
operation;
- gather evidential matter on the integrity, of the system;
- formulate a judgement opinion on the basis of the evidence available.
Auditing is an analytical process applied to everyday business situations. Hence
it is closely related to existing business practices. Therefore a getting-acquainted
phase (which usually includes a visit to a client's facilities) initiates the typical audit
process.
The auditor's evaluation of the control systems operating within the enterprise
has a direct influence on the scope of the examination he undertakes and the nature of
the tests he conducts.
Evidential matter supporting financial statements consists of the accounting data
and all information available to the auditor. The auditor tests underlying accounting
data by analysis and review.
One key justification for independent audits is the economy that results from
producing expert opinion-based judgements from limited but reliable evidential
matter.
Setting the Price. How are prices set? Through most of history, prices were set
by buyers and seller negotiating with each other. Sellers would ask for a higher price
than they expected to receive, and buyers would offer less than they expected to pay.
Through bargaining, they arrive at an acceptable price.
Setting one price for all buyers is a relatively modern idea. It was given impetus
by the development of large-scale retailing at the end of the nineteenth century.
Through most of history, price has operated as the major determinant of buyer
choice. This is still true in poorer nations and among poorer groups.
However, non-price factors have become relatively more important in buyerchoice behavior in recent decades. Yet price still remains one of the most important
elements determining company market share and profitability.
Price is the only element in the marketing mix that produces revenue, the other
elements represent costs. Yet many companies do not handle pricing well.
The most common mistakes are: pricing is too cost oriented, price is not revised
often enough; price is set independently of the rest of the marketing mix; and price is
not varied enough for different product items.
Companies handle pricing in a variety of ways. In small companies, prices are
often set by top management rather than by the marketing or sales department.
In large companies pricing is typically handled by divisional or product-line
managers. Even here, top management sets the general pricing objectives and policies
and often approves the prices proposed by lower levels of management.
In the industries where pricing is a key factor companies will often establish a
pricing department to set prices or assist others in determining appropriate prices.
This department reports either to the marketing department or top management.
Others who exert an influence on pricing include sales managers, production
managers, finance managers, and accountants.
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Unit 5
What is Marketing. What does the term marketing really mean? Many people
mistakenly think of it as advertising and selling. However, advertising and selling are
only two of several marketing functions, and not necessarily the most important ones.
The most basic concept underlying marketing is that of human needs. We have
needs including ones such as affection, knowledge and a sense of belonging as well
as the physical need for food, warmth and shelter. Marketing can thus be defined as
any business activity, which is directed at satisfying needs and wants by creating and
exchanging goods value with others. Marketing has become a key factor in the
success of western businesses. Today's companies face stiff competition and the
companies which can best satisfy customer needs those which will survive and make
the largest profits.
Marketing consists of individual and organizational activities to satisfy exchange
relationships in a dynamic environment through the creation, distribution, promotion
and pricing of goods, services, and ideas. The four variables, creation, distribution,
promotion, pricing are called the marketing mix. For an exchange to take place, four
conditions must exist. First, an exchange require participation by two or more
individuals, groups, or organizations. Second, each party must possess something of
value that the other party desires. Third, each must be willing to give up its
'something of value' to receive the 'something of value' held by the other. Fourth, me
parties to the exchange must be able to communicate with each other to make their
'something of value' available. Note, though, that an exchange will not necessarily
take place just because these fi conditions exist. However, even if there is no
exchange marketing activities still have occurred. The 'something of value' held by
the two parties are most often products and/or financial resources such as money or
credit. When an exchange occurs, products are traded for either other products or
financial resources.
Product-market Strategy. “Product-market strategy” is the term used to
describe all the decisions, which the organization makes about its target markets and
the products it offers to those markets. The use of the word “strategy” is important,
for it implies a chosen route to a defined goal and suggests long-term planning. This
is quite different from “tactical activities”, which are used to achieve short-term
objectives by gaining immediate results. “Product-market strategy” represents a
decision about the current and future direction of the organization. “Product-market
strategy” must be developed in the most cost-effective manner, paying attention to
cash flow and profitability requirements. To minimize costs at the outset, a sound
marketing approach will usually attempt to increase profits and cash flow from
existing markets. The following examples can help illustrate the total strategy at
work.
Market penetration. Heinz revamped its marketing strategy to increase
consumption of its tinned soups. This product was traditionally a winter purchase, but
Heinz successfully promoted the idea of celery soup, drank hot or cold, as a suitable
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summer purchase. The product attributes of celery were linked with concepts of
slimming and refreshment on summer days. Market development: A British hotel
chain opened up a new market by offering “Leisure Learning” weekends in its
hotels. Product range extension: A European breakfast cereal manufacturer brought
out a new “variety” pack to appeal to young children who liked the freedom of
choosing a new cereal each morning. Product development: Manufacturers of digital
watches soon combined the watch function with an alarm component. This not only
attracted customers who liked the novelty of the idea, but seriously threatened the
traditional watch market.
The Promotion Mix. Advertising. Because of the many forms and uses of
advertising it is hard to generalize about its unique qualities as a part of the promotion
mix. Yet several qualities can be noted. Advertising’s public nature suggests that the
advertised product is standard and legitimate. Because many people see ads for the
product, buyers know that purchasing the product will be publicly understood and
accepted. Advertising lets the seller repeat a message many times and compare the
message of various competitors. Large-scale advertising, by a seller, says something
positive about the seller's size, popularity, and success. Advertising is also very
expressive, letting the company dramatize its products through the artful use of print,
sound, and color. On the one hand, advertising can be used to build up a long-term
image for a product and, on the other, to trigger quick sales. Advertising can reach
masses of geographically spread-out buyers at a low cost per exposure. Advertising
has some shortcomings. Although it reaches many people quickly, advertising is
impersonal. It is able to carry on only a one-way communication with the audience,
and the audience does not feel that it has to pay attention or respond. In addition,
advertising can be very costly. Although some forms, such as newspaper and radio
advertising, can be done on small budgets, other forms, such as network TV
advertising, require very large budgets.
Personal selling. Personal selling is the most effective tool at certain stages of
the buying process. As compared with advertising, personal selling has several
unique qualities. It involves personal interaction between two or more people. The
effective salesperson keeps the customer's interests at heart in order to build a longrun relationship. Personal selling is the company's most expensive promotion tool.
American firms spend up to three times as much on personal selling as they do on
advertising. Sales promotion. Sales promotion includes a wide assortment of tools coupons, contests, premiums, and others. They attract consumer attention and provide
information that may lead the consumer to buy the product. They offer strong
incentives to purchase by providing contributions that give additional value to
consumers. And sales promotions invite and reward quick response. While
advertising says 'buy our product', sales promotion says "buy it now'. Public
Relations. Public relations offers several unique qualities. It is very believable news
stories, features, and event seem more real to readers than do ads. The message gets
to the buyers as 'news' rather than sales-directed communication.
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Unit 6
The Manager: Role and Responsibilities. Managers are coordinators of
economic activities in business organizations. Coordination of group efforts is an
essential function in a company, and whoever acts as a coordinator is a manager.
Managers do not perform physical tasks which are necessary to produce and sell
the goods and services that are the output of the company. All this is done by workers
and employees. On the other hand, the latter would be unable to achieve the goal of
the organization without the guiding hand of management.
There are literally thousands of decisions in a company about what is to be done,
who is to do it and how it is to be done. It is managers who make these decisions and
see that they are implemented.
The duties of a manager include:
- the determination of the best form of organization,
- development of a control system,
- budgeting and forecasting,
- marketing and sales policies,
- effective performance of the sales staff,
- development of improved methods for the planning and control of ordering,
- handling and sorting out of the materials and supplies,
- determination of wages and salaries,
- the establishment of incentives for good performance.
The work of managers is, by no means, confined to manufacturing industries. It
is indispensable in offices, banks, mercantile establishments, insurance agencies and
other similar activities. Management is the team of managers who are in charge of the
organization at different levels. Regardless of the specific job, most managers
perform five basic functions: planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling.
Planning involves determining overall company objectives and deciding how
these goals can best be achieved. Organizing is putting the plan into action. In
directing, managers guide, teach, and motivate people so that they reach their
potential abilities. At last managers control and evaluate how well overall company
objectives are being met.
Speaking about personal qualities of a manager it should be noted that he / she
needs energy, good judgement, a sense of reality and a sense of social responsibility.
Не / she must be persistent in getting at the root of a matter, quick in grasping things
and in reaction, and operationally efficient. A manager must be professionally well
educated and be knowledgeable in the field of psychology, sociology, management,
economics and modern type of business running policy.
How to Meet the Requirements. In light of the rapidly changing business
world a businessman if he wants to conduct his business successfully, must meet
certain requirements. First of all, he must be flexible of mind and adaptable to
change. He needs not so much the specialized knowledge of today's business practice
as the qualities of mind and the basic knowledge that will make it possible for him to
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understand the new business situation and adapt himself to the new business world in
which he will live and work in future.
The educational requirements of businessmen are not radically different from
those of administrators of other types. Organizational skill, problem-solving ability,
imagination, a rational approach to the use of resources, wideness of perspective, and
a sense of social responsibility - these are the qualities which are needed for all types
of leaders including managers.
It's very important for a manager to have a skill in human relations which has
become an important part of effective management. This is to be understood in a
broad sense. In other words, the knowledge and skills in the field of human relations
should be included in the range of a manager's activities.
Only through such knowledge and skills can a manager ensure the regulation of
relations between the members of the organization. In addition, the manager who
actually deals with people every day must be quite knowledgeable in the field of
psychology. He must be also competent in the area of human behavior.
Managers are problem-solvers. They achieve results through persistence,
tolerance, and good will - these are useful traits in large conservative organizations.
They achieve their goals through a cautious process of trial and error. Managers
strive to protect the existing order of affairs. They identify with status quo.
Strengthening existing institutions heightens their self-worth.
Managers fear uncertainty. They prefer to manipulate co-workers and to use
established policies to reach organizational goals. Managers are more concerned with
processes that achieve results than with the results themselves. Managers focus on the
organization's goals. They are driven by a need to conform rather than a desire to
change existing systems. They are passive individuals whose goals are shaped by
their organization's history and culture.
Managers relate to people according to their job titles and social status. They are
more concerned with people's roles in a process than with their needs. Managers'
authority stems from their positions. Managers are supervisors, department heads,
and administrators.
Choosing a Manager. Choosing a manager is a decisive step in determining the
successful functioning of a business organization. Among the requirements which a
manager is supposed to meet is a good knowledge of modern information and
computing systems, new types of equipment and advanced technologies.
The second major requirement lies in the field of human relations. It's a wellknown fact that management is of social nature. Indeed it is carried out through
people. Therefore, it's absolutely necessary that a manager should get along well with
people, both his superiors and subordinates.
He must try to create a working atmosphere. Applying effective methods of
management makes his subordinates realize his plans and intentions, and works to the
best of their abilities in order to achieve, in the final analysis, the organizational
goals. In addition, as regards young employees working under him the manager
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should not only direct them, but also educate them, exercising a continuous supervision over their professional activities within the framework of the organization.
The application by the manager of the appropriate principles of management is
sure to have a considerable impact on the relationships between the manager and his
subordinates. It's a well-known fact that managers have to make decisions practically
every day. It's also true that decisions are made at various levels of an organization all
the time. In other words, decision-making is an important and integral part of
managerial work.
Decision-making is considered to be a rational process in which a choice is made
on the basis of the known facts. But it is not limited to this. Decision-making is a
social process, and it requires that managers should not only solve problems, but also
find and formulate them.
To make effective decisions, managers must be able to understand the various
components of the problem which faces them. This not easy because a great amount
of work often prevents managers from planning a course of actions.
How Managers Use their Time. Time is a very important factor in managerial
performance. Managers can control their activities through planning their time. How
the manager spends his time while in office, has a great impact on the performance of
his duties. Moreover, the time-plan can show which decisions the manager will make
by himself and which decisions will be made by other people and presented to him
for approval. The time-plan can help the manager to determine the time-limit for each
item of his day's business activities.
Increasing managerial effectiveness requires not only time-planning by the
manager, but also his ability to make operative corrections in the time-plan in a
constantly changing situation. Moreover, the manager should not deviate from his
day's business plan and should ensure its fulfillment. How managers use their time
can tell much about them and their work. It also can throw light on managerial
behavior as a whole. One fact seems to characterize almost all managers: they work
long hours.
According to the information suggested by the survey of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, managers spend more time at the office than any other occupational
groups. Research indicates that the manager spends about 43 hours per week at the
office. On top of that, however, must be added seven hours per week at home doing
paper work and business reading. Another five hours on business entertaining:
receptions, banquets and so on, the total amount of time coming to 60 hours a week.
Some organizations believe that managers must not only perform their company
duties, but also participate in community, (social) activities. Indeed, such participation sometimes is the best way for an ambitious young man to demonstrate his
abilities and bring himself to the attention of higher management.
It should be noted that these external activities of a manager are expanding too
rapidly. It is becoming clear, that they cannot be something that a manager performs
exclusively on his own time. In the future, such activities will have to be incorporated
into the manager's organizational position and his office schedule.
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Unit 7
The Principles of Management. The principles of management are considered
to be a group of concepts generated by experience and research and expressed in
terms of administrative rules and operating techniques. They lay down guidelines for
the basic activities of planning, organizing, coordinating, controlling and appraising.
Competence in these areas constitutes additional skills so necessary for effective
managerial performance.
Many companies are interested in a rapid growth of their management
manpower. They have made training in the field of management principles
obligatory. This factor is essential for the achievement of future organizational goals.
However, experience shows that training cannot stand alone. To get these
principles translated into practice requires a favourable working climate and a high
degree of motivation in managerial work. Despite the universal recognition of the
existing management principles many young people coming on the business scene
find them hard to follow probably because of their poor knowledge of managerial
psychology and philosophy. The data obtained from the recent research throws some
light on the reasons why some individuals make ineffective managers. The answer is
simple: they violate the basic principles of management saying nothing of some
general requirements which a manager should meet.
While management is a process of getting things done through other people, its
principles can be regarded as a kind of philosophy. If, in the daily conduct of his
business, the manager wants to be effective, he should put the management principles
into practice. He must also have a profound knowledge of modern information and
computing systems and advanced technologies, and be quite knowledgeable in the
field of human behavior so that he could establish good relations both with his
superiors and subordinates.
Management Objectives. Speaking about managerial objectives one should
take the following into consideration.
The main objective has always been maximizing profits and minimizing losses.
Managers should keep in mind that they run the business at a profit. Management
objectives depend on the legal forms under which the company usually operates.
They may be individual proprietorship, partnership - general and limited - or
corporations.
Good managers draw up objectives that are clear and understandable to all
concerned. In determining the objectives the manager must consider the personal
objectives of his subordinates. Objectives must be consistant. They must promote
cooperation among various departments of the company, and must be socially
reasonable. Ordinary objectives of business have to be in keeping with the manpower
and resources at hand. It's necessary to have proper policies to guide people in
reaching their objectives.
The policies which are generally established by the Board of Directors must not
violate the trust and confidence that the stockholders have placed in the company.
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They should offer a kind of balance between the objectives of the cooperation and its
actual operations. They should consider the operating staffs interests and not be far
from what the company's personnel are prepared to accomplish.
The objectives of the business depend, to a great extent, on the organizational
structure of the business. Before setting any objective to the organization the manager
should ask himself these questions: What are the functions that must be performed?
What are the people like who are to perform them? How are these tasks to be carried
out?
In order to reach the goal we need procedures. (A procedure is a series of steps
that are taken in order to accomplish an objective.) In carrying out management we
also require rules (No smoking rule, for example). It goes without saying that rules
should be drawn up as required for each organization. While policies may have to be
interpreted, a rule must be exact and clear as regards its meaning.
Managing People. Managing people requires a high level of knowledge of
human behavior and psychology. Of particular importance for a manager in
managing people is the relationship between the manager and his/her subordinates. If
a manager wants to be effective, he must try and develop the skills for managing
people. Here are a few recommendations to this end.
To manage well you need to work in a climate of mutual trust and respect. The
manager has to create an atmosphere of trust and mutual respect. Keep calm when
confronted with employees who oppose any new plan or suggestion.
To motivate performance use the Productivity Formula: "Talent times
Relationship, plus Expectations, equals Productivity". Make sure people's
expectations of what they are to contribute to the business are clearly understood by
all.
Project your positive personal attributes; be spontaneous, open and show
patience and a desire to attentively listen to and understand a person. Be consistent
and show people that they can entirely rely upon you. Increase your positive
feedback, guidance and constructive criticism. Maintain a high level of input; actively
teach what people need to know.
Use the One Minute Reprimand to get rid of the subordinate's behavior you
dislike. Be very specific about what the person did wrong; take 30 seconds (and no
more) to say how you feel: disappointed? angry? frustrated? Keep the attention
focused on what he/she did wrong and not on how you are obliged to treat them
personally.
Clear goals are the basis for all good performance. Set goals in the beginning.
Remember: goals must be attainable (achievable), and everyone has to know them.
Respect your subordinates and authorize them to think. Take pride in their talents and
accomplishments. Recognize and celebrate their victories. Encourage people for their
contribution (input) to the victory.
Think of innovation as a better way to get the work done. Banish unnecessary
paper, rules and bureaucracy.
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Unit 8
Economics is the study of how society allocates scarce resources and goods.
Resources are the inputs that society uses to produce output, called goods. Resources
include inputs such as labor, capital, and land.
Goods include products such as food, clothing, and housing as well as services
such as those provided by doctors, repairmen, and public offices. These resources and
goods are considered scarce because of society’s tendency to demand more resources
and goods than are available.
Most resources are scarce, but some are not – for example, the air we breathe. Its
price is zero. It is called a free resource or good.
Economics, however, is mainly concerned with scarce resources and goods, as
scarcity motivated the study of how society allocates resources and goods.
The term market refers to any arrangement that allow people to trade with each
other. The term market system refers to the collection of all markets, also to the
relationships among these markets.
The study of the market system, which is the subject of economics, is divided
into two main theories; they are macroeconomics and microeconomics.
Macroeconomics. The word macroeconomics means economics in large. The
macroeconomist's concerns are connected with such global questions as total
production, total employment, the rate of change of overall prices, the rate of change
of economic growth, and so on.
Macroeconomists measure overall economic activity and analyze the
determinants of each activity by the use of macroeconomic theory. They forecast
future economic activity and attempt to formulate policy responses to production,
employment, and prices.
An important task of macroeconomics is to develop ways of aggregating the
values of all economic activities of individuals and firms into meaningful totals. To
this end such concepts as gross domestic product, national income, personal income,
and personal disposable income have been developed.
Macroeconomic analysis attempts to explain how the principal macroeconomic
variables are determined and how they interact. Macroeconomics helps to explain the
dynamics of economic development.
Macroeconomics is concerned with such major policy issues as the attainment
aimed at maintenance of mild employment and price stability. Experience teaches
that it would not be possible to eliminate inflation without unemployment. Similarly,
an over-ambitious employment target would produce labor shortages and wage
inflation.
The principal tools of macroeconomic policy are monetary policy and fiscal
policy. As a rule, they are under the control of the government. To stimulate the
economy government expenditures may be raised directly or taxes may be reduced,
thereby enabling individuals and firms to increase their spending.
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Microeconomics. The word "micro" means small, and microeconomics means
economics in small individual units such as households and firms that provide the
foundation for microeconomics. Microeconomics may investigate individual markets
or even the economy as a whole but their analyses are derived from the aggregation
of the behavior of individual.
Microeconomic theory is used extensively in many areas of applied economics.
For example, it is used in industrial organization, labor economics, international
trade, benefit analyses, and many other economic sub-fields. The tools and analyses
of microeconomics provide a common ground, or even a language, for economists
interested in a wide range of problems.
At one time there was a sharp distinction in both methodology and subject
matter between microeconomics and macroeconomics. Nowadays, major distinctions
still remain. But more and more macroeconomic analyses are built upon
microeconomic foundations.
Optimization plays a key role in microeconomics. The consumer is assumed to
maximize utility or satisfaction subject to the income constraints. The producer is to
maximize profit or minimize cost subject to the technological constraints under which
the firm operates. Optimization of social welfare sometimes is the criterion for the
determination of public policy.
Opportunity cost is an important concept in microeconomics. For example,
opportunity cost of a public project is the value of the additional goods that the
private sector would have produced with the resources used for public project.
Economic Policy. An economic policy is a course of action that is intended to
influence or control the behavior of the economy. Economic policies are normally
implemented and administered by the government. The goals of economic policy
consist of value judgements about what economic policy should strive to achieve.
While there is some disagreement about the appropriate goals of economic
policy, there are three widely accepted goals including:
1. Economic growth. It means that the incomes of all consumers and firms are
increasing over time.
2. Full employment. It means that every member of the labor force who wants
to work is able to find work.
3. Price stability. It means to prevent increases in the general price level known
as inflation, as well as decreases in the general price level known as deflation.
Discussing Trends - Charts and Graphs. Many businesses use charts and
graphs in their research to analyze the marketplace and observe developing trends.
Businesses depend on this information to buy, sell and promote their products; they
must be prepared for changes in the marketplace that may impact sales.
Business professionals also like to use charts and graphs to lend credibility to
their ideas. They say 'a picture is worth a thousand words'. You can show others what
might take a lot of time to explain. A chart or graph can be used to support one's point
of view, by documenting the direction of a trend in the market from someone's
research.
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When working internationally, you may be called upon to discuss this type of
data or research. You may also wish to add a chart to a presentation, to enhance your
sales pitch or presentation.
Finally, you will come across graphs and charts in business journals and
magazines, that illustrate research done by others, in the area of investment research
and analysis, particularly in the technical analysis of stocks, charts are the foundation
for decision making about when to buy, hold, and sell.
A graph shows movement over a period of time. The vertical axis traditionally
shows the amount or volume: volume of sales, profitability, productivity, percentage
change, amount a product is used and bought, and so forth. The vertical axis shows
what you are analyzing. The horizontal axis is your time line, the period of time over
which you are comparing the data. Verbs of move are what you need to describe the
direction or trend.
Notice that the language for a rapid change is very colorful: for a decreaseplunge, plummet, collapse; for an increase - skyrocket or shoot up. The rapid
increases and decreases have the most descriptive possibilities. When the movement
of the trend is neither up nor down, we say it is flat. When it varies, going up and
down, but within a range, we say it fluctuates. We use the word peak for the high
points, trough — for low points. When you have a chart with many changes, you
describe each change of movement in a narrative. A pie chart is a visual aid you
might consider using to illustrate how large the market is, and who the competitors
are.
The Web as a Sales Tool. There is discussion today about how beneficial the
Web is as a sales tool. Many companies, even those with a tremendous presence on
the Web, are not making a lot of money. They are positioning themselves for the
future, with hopes that buying on-line will; become an everyday event.
The question that must be answered is whether the World Wide Web will remain
a place of information, or evolve into a profitable marketplace for businesses. In the
last decade, the number of personal computers (PC) has multiplied to the point that
potential vendors of products and services now see tens of millions of customers to
whom they can market their products. As customers become more relaxed and secure
about buying on-line, market potential will rise.
The most successful vendors are those that mainly transact business by phone,
selling a product that does not have to be present physically. If you know the title or
author of f book you want to buy, it is easier ordering it by computer than going to
the bookstore. Besides, you may get a discount from a Web vendor.
A major problem vendors have is that banner ads are not seen unless they are
selected (clicked on) by the consumer. The fact that "surfers" can bypass an
advertisement means that there is no assurance it will be read. Another problem is
that people fear giving personal information on-line, such as credit card numbers or a
personal address. Thus, a company can spend a good deal of money, with no
assurance of the size of its market. If this aspect of Web advertising changes and new
approaches are implemented, then commercialization may overtake the Web.
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Unit 9
Investment Needs. Once we have collected money due, paid our business
expenses, our taxes, and necessities of life, what we have left over, we can save or
invest. We can go to a financial advisor or consultant and have a financial plan made
to assess our situation.
A financial plan analyzes the different areas of our financial life: risk
management, estate planning, investment needs, tax planning and retirement planning
or a pension plan.
In the United States, Wall Street, located in New York City, is the center of the
financial world. Although investments are not limited to the New York Stock
Exchange, not to any one stock market, we often refer to financial matters as what
happens on Wall Street, which houses the largest exchanges.
There are, of course, many different types of investments that are not centered
around Wall Street: real estate, hard assets such as gold or precious gems, business
ventures, insurance products such as annuities, or new business products and
inventions. In fact one can invest money in almost anything.
Having a business you may refer to a tax shelter, an investment in which the
taxes are either postponed or not levied at all. These tax benefits are created in many
countries to encourage investment in particular areas of the economy.
Today, there are many discount brokerage houses, and competition among them
is great. They discount the commissions one pays when one buys or sells securities.
Investors who do not need access to information and recommendations, who do their
own research, are able to get discounts from firms that cater to this type of investor.
You may be interested to know that...
- paper money was first used in China in about 650 AD, but was not introduced
in Europe until XVII-th century. It was popular because it was easier to carry than
large amounts of heavy coins;
- nowadays many commercial transactions are done through the banking system
without money. Financial information is spreading all over the world via satellites;
- at one time the Romans used cattle as money;
- people started to exchange goods and services for tokens that could be stored
and exchanged later. The first tokens were shells, shark's teeth and large stones;
- in ancient times, business was done by exchanging, a farmer could exchange
corn for goats, or sheep for cattle. This is called bartering.
Bank Cards. There are a few types of bank cards. The most popular are credit
cards and cash cards which look very much alike.
Cash dispenser, automatic teller machine or cash-point are some of the names
given to machines from which customers can withdraw money from their bank
accounts, using their cash cards.
If customers want to pay for goods or services by check, they can use their cards
to guarantee their checks. In a shop the salesperson will write down the number of the
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customer's bank card on the back of the check. The salesperson also makes sure that
the customer's signature of the check is the same as the signature on me; bank card.
Credit cards are also very convenient because it is possible to buy things in
shops, pay with for different services and so on. When a customer pays for his
purchases in a shop for example, he presents his credit card to the seller. The seller
takes the details of the card: the number, the credit limit and the expiry date. The
customer signs the seller's voucher (making two copies) which the seller uses to
collect payment from the credit card company or the bank later.
For this service the retailer pays a fee, about 4 percent of the value of the
transaction. Each month the credit company or the bank sends the cardholder a
statement which lists that months transactions and interest charges.
When the company or the bank receives the vouchers it pays the bank of the
payees through the clearing system the value of each retailer's total sales minus the
commission. At the same time it debits the cardholders' accounts.
Payments in International Trade. With any form of international trade it is
essential to ensure that payment will be received in accordance with the terms of the
underlying commercial contract. The secure and established methods of setting
international trade transactions are:
- by documentary letters of credit,
- by documentary collection bills.
Documentary letters of credit are opened by the importer's bank with a bank in
the exporter's country, usually the importing bank's correspondent in the exporting
country. Exporters submit to the bank in their country all the shipping, insurance and
documents specified in the letter of credit issued by the importer's bank.
If the documents are in order the bank in the exporting country will credit the
exporters with the proceeds. The proceeds are reimbursed by the importer's bank in
due course. Documentary collection bills are presented to the importer's bank, or its
correspondent by the exporters together with all the shipping, insurance, and other
documents, specified in the contract. If the documents are in order the importers
instruct their bank to pay and they collect the shipping documents then.
There are few ways of transferring money from bank to bank. In the recent past
these ways were: mail transfers and telegraphic transfers. Now these two types of
messages are practically replaced by SWIFT messages. SWIFT stands for the Society
for Worldwide Inter-bank Financial Telecommunication.
It is a network serving now more than 3000 banks in about 100 countries. It
speeds up payment messages between banks immensely. If sending and receiving
banks are both "logged-in" a message can be delivered in under 20 seconds. Over 1
million messages are sent even day via the computers of SWIFT and its member
banks.
The role of correspondent banks is permanently growing. They facilitate and
expedite international payments. A correspondent bank is one which carries deposit
balance for another bank located in another city or country and engages in an
exchange of services with that bank.
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Unit 10
International Trade. The basic idea of international trade and investment is
simple: each country produces goods and services that can be either consumed at
home or exported to other countries. The main difference between domestic trade and
international trade is the use of foreign currencies to pay for goods and services
crossing international borders. The world trading itself involves a lot of currencies.
Trading in goods may be done between countries, states, and individuals for
their mutual benefit. If a country has exports in excess of its imports, that country will
be magnifying its income. In trade, two fundamental concepts are absolute advantage
and comparative advantage.
Absolute advantage is when one nation can produce a product more efficiently
than the other. Thus, the basis of trade is created. Comparative advantage allows even
a nation that can produce two goods more efficiently to establish a basis for trade.
The law of comparative advantage is the fundamental reason for trading. It is
when two entities, each one producing the same two types of goods, specialize in one
good that it can produce at a lower opportunity cost. Therefore, both entities derive
more goods by trading because each entity can offer the best produced goods at the
best possible price.
Any two entities can engage in trade, i.e. two nations, two states, or two persons.
Through specialization and free trade, nations can achieve a more efficient allocation
of scarce world resources, thereby raising standards of living.
The Rules of World Trade. In an inter-linked global economy, consumers are
given the opportunity to buy the best products at the best price. We know that, in
economic terms, each producer gains by specializing in what he or she can do best.
A skilled lawyer, for example, should not waste valuable time in typing his or
her own legal briefs - even if the lawyer can type better than a secretary. Similarly,
when every country is allowed to do what it does best, - letting the French excel in
fashion, the Japanese in electronics, and the American in aircraft the world economy
prospers.
Free trade is based on the notion of open markets. Whenever a country exports
or imports goods or services, there is a resulting flow of funds, money returns to the
exporting nation, and money flows out of the importing nation. Trade and investment
is a two-way street, and with a minimum of trade barriers, international trade and
investment usually makes everyone better off.
By encouraging foreign trade, countries expose their own producers to foreign
competition. Foreign competition usually forces companies to be more efficient and
more competitive. When a country wants to encourage its own exports, it can provide
loans or grants to foreign buyers through state-supported export-import banks.
These Ex-Im banks provide low-cost loans called export credits, that help
stimulate exporter. When a government wants to encourage a new trading partner, it
removes restrictions and barriers to its internal market. Countries may also encourage
trade by allowing importers and exporters to barter goods.
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Some trade barriers will always exist as long as any two countries have different
sets of laws. However, when a country decides to protect its economy by erecting
artificial trade barriers, the result is often damaging to everyone, including those
people the barriers were meant to protect.
In the long run imports and exports must equal each other. It is exports that pay
for imports, and vice versa. The greater exports we have the greater imports we must
have, if we ever expect to get paid. Without imports we can have no exports, for
foreigners will have no funds with which to buy our goods. When we decide to cut
down our imports, we are in effect deciding also to cut down our exports and vice
versa.
The Rise and Fall of Exchange Rates. Foreign exchange is an instrument used
for international payment. Instruments of foreign currency consist not only of
currency, but also of checks, drafts, and bills of exchange. A foreign exchange rate is
the price of one currency in terms of another.
Currencies like other commodities such as tea or oil, have a certain value, the
only difference is that each currency's value is stated in terms of other currencies.
French francs have a value in US dollars, which have a value in British pounds,
which have a value in Japanese yen.
These exchange rates change every day and are constantly updated in banks and
foreign exchange offices around the world. The world's foreign exchange markets use
all linked electronically. Like other markets they are subject to the laws of demand
and supply. If enough traders want to buy US dollars, its value will go up.
A consumer in a given country will not notice a change in the exchange rate as
long as he or she buys only goods produced domestically. But the prices of the same
country's goods for a foreign buyer very definitely are affected by changes in the rate
at which the currencies of the buying and selling countries can be exchanged. So
ending economic isolation requires a currency that is convertible.
As anyone may notice, the exchange rate is slightly different if the customer is
buying or selling any one particular currency. This spread between the "buy” and
“sell” rates ensures that banks make a small profit every time one currency is
changed into another. Foreign exchange prices are influenced by economic and
political events and sometimes by the speculation of individual traders.
A currency that is overvalued or too costly will stimulate purchase of foreignmade goods (imports) and discourage the sale abroad of domestic-made goods
(exports). This will likely lead to reduced production and unemployment in some
sectors of the economy.
In contrast, when an exchange rate is too low, it provides an incentive for
foreigners to buy the country's 'cheap' exports, sending a flood of new money into the
exporting country. This creates inflationary pressures and higher prices at home.
During periods of economic turmoil, the world often turns to a particular
currency as a refuge. When political or social unrest threatens other currencies around
the world, traders and investors rush to buy hard currencies as US dollar and German
mark, which are expected to preserve their value in times of trouble.
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Unit 11
General Characteristics of a Product. Of all controllable factors (four Ps:
production, price, plan, promotion) product is predominant. All products have a
"product life cycle". The stages of the cycle are: introduction, growth, maturity and
decline. The length of a product life cycle depends on the intensity of the
competition, extent to which the new product is an innovation, a modification of an
existing product, introducing timing of technologically superior products, and
marketing techniques.
Visual acquaintance with the product can be effected through dealers' show
rooms, directly from the factory, catalogues, direct mail coupons, telemarketing with
telephone sales people, computer shopping services.
Describing the product one should give the main qualitative characteristics of the
merchandize, the advantages of its design, and even its packing peculiarities. In the
product description section of a business plan one should also describe the
organization of services.
Technical data of the Product. Imagine, you are the Production and Technical
Manager. Look at the sales leaflet and act out a conversation. Use the questions:
What does your product look like?
What features does your product possess?
What features distinguish your product from similar products?
Use the terms: Features: Safe. Reliable. Easy in use (maintenance). Attractive
looking. Modern design. Cheaper than other fruit drinks. Natural taste. Excellent
flavor. Exquisite ingredients. Sophisticated technology. Technical Data: Output 6,000
cartons per hour. Length 8.0 cm. Width 3.5 cm. Height 12.5 cm.
How a New Product is Made. Every year new products coming into the
western market are going in numbers. The greater part of them are hardly new. To be
more exact, they represent existing items that have been slightly changed. Only few
products have undergone a real modification, and can be regarded as innovations.
For example, TV set, the refrigerator - each was an innovation but not an
adaptation. A great number of innovations and adaptations are designed, produced
and marketed by small businesses. Very often a new product is formed on the basis of
the new business. Sometimes there is a patent to make the business more successful.
But it happens very often that market research has not been done very carefully.
Even if major producers pay more attention to doing research and testing, there
is little hope for success. A promising new product can appear unsuccessful because
of unreasonable prices, inadequate promotion, and poor selling methods. Thus, all
technologies applied for the purpose of improving the product turn out to be vane,
and its producer can hardly make a profit. Phases of Product's Life:
Phase 1 - launch; it's characterized by moderate sales and low profits.
Phase 2 - sales rise; it's characterized by high profitability.
Phase 3 - sales rise peak; it's characterized by the fact that profits start to fall.
Phase 4 - market saturated; it's characterized by sales and profits fall.
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Unit 12
Problems of Marketing of Woodland Products. The marketing of woodland
products is the final step in the cycle producing and utilizing tree growth. Without
profitable disposal of products there can be little incentive to grow timber.
Naturally an owner wishes to realize to the fullest extent upon the material that
he has for sale. To do this he must have complete knowledge of the technical phases
of the problems peculiar to the disposition of woodland products. At the same time he
must have the innate ability to plan and carry to completion a profitable business
transaction.
The disposal of some products like railroad ties, poles, pulpwood, and even sawn
logs to the larger organizations with well-established purchasing regulations and
policies is relatively simple. The seller produces his material at some central point in
accordance with previously agreed to specifications, accepts the rulings of the
inspectors and is paid accordingly.
On the other hand, much of the material from the smaller woodlands is sold
locally to mills, wood-using industries, or to buyers of stumpage. In transactions of
this type, it is difficult to determine with exactness the costs and basic values because
of the variation in costs of harvesting and transporting the product. When logs are to
be sold at a mill or free on board (f.o.b.) railroad cars, their prices delivered are
known and agreed upon in advance.
Frequently an owner has valuable material for sale, but in such limited quantities
that its true worth is difficult to realize upon. Certainly it is uneconomical to cut
sound merchantable trees into small products and sell them in general mixture with
less valuable woods. In this connection the advent of truck transport has made
possible a better opportunity for long-distance shipment than that which existed when
material had to be shipped in carload lots.
There are many examples of sales, whereby the owner has disposed of his
standing timber for a single sum without knowledge of the volumes involved. If
material is to be sold as stumpage, the seller should make an estimate of his standing
timber and thus be in position to know the amounts of each species available for sale.
Utilization Practice. The field of utilization deals with the uses of wood, the
wood-using industries, and the procedures of logging, milling, grading, and
seasoning. If an operator carries his work through the stages of manufacturing and
selling sawed lumber, he will be confronted with a need for information in each of
these fields.
A knowledge of the uses of wood of the various species is of value for two
reasons: first, it enables the seller to get in contact with the industries using the kinds
of wood that he has for sale; second, it enables him to dispose of his wood to the
markets to which it is most profitably adapted. Many woods are particularly valuable
for special purposes; yet others, because of lack of outstanding mechanical or
physical properties, must be sold without regard to special uses. The possibilities of
the most profitable uses should be investigated carefully prior to sale.
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The wood-using industries are many and varied. Railroads, mining companies,
light and power companies, and many manufacturing concerns of a general nature are
in the market for special kinds and sizes of wood products.
The sale to local markets eliminates the expense and distance of long-range
shipment by either rail or truck. For material of average grade it will always be more
satisfactory if local markets are available. But it may be profitable to sell products of
higher quality to specialized industries that want the better grades of selected species.
The cost of shipment must be weighed against the prices that are offered.
Products to be sold on the basis of specifications should be cut to conform to
them. The material should be skidded and otherwise transported with a minimum of
both expense and damage. Accurate records of expense should be kept. As a general
rule, the woodland owner is advised to dispose of his logs before they are sawed into
lumber. Otherwise he may find himself with a large amount of sawed boards or
planks on hand and be unable to sell them to advantage.
Operating Costs. Operating costs include those of logging, milling, and the
intermediate steps in handling. Labor costs, team hire, tractor costs, distances of
skidding and hauling, type and location of land on which the timber stands, and
expense of milling vary widely, yet every single item enters into the final
determination of value.
Costs vary with the sizes of trees and logs handled and with species of timber:
Transportation costs are particularly important elements in appraising the value of
stumpage. There are certain steps in a complete woods operation, namely: the felling
of trees, sawing into logs, skidding of logs to central loading points, hauling of logs
to a mill, sawing of logs into lumber, piling of lumber for seasoning, transportation of
lumber to railroads or sales centres, piling in lumberyards.
Obviously, some of these steps may not be necessary. These are local
considerations and only the elements actually involving expense must enter into a
specific appraisal. Average figures are of little significance. Transportation costs are
the items subject to greatest variation. In milling operations, the largest single item of
cost is that of sawing.
Costs for piling, transporting, and loading will depend on whether or not lumber
is piled for seasoning, hauled to a railroad, and loaded on cars. If trucked directly to a
mill, the total cost should include the last expense incurred by the operator. In every
case his costs will end when he disposes of the lumber either on cars or at the yard of
a plant where it is unloaded.
If the main products of an operator are other than lumber, the average costs
should be determined for the product in the form in which it is disposed of.
Regardless of the form of ultimate use, the principle of cost determination is the
same.
Sale of Standing Timber. Standing timber is sold in various ways. An owner
may sell all his merchantable timber or only a few designated trees. Between these
extremes the sales might include all trees over specified diameter limits, or trees
specially marked by the owner for cutting, without regard for diameter classes.
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When a sale is made on an area basis, the owner commonly sells all the
merchantable material in his woods for a specified sum. A common procedure is for a
mill operator to purchase the standing timber, move his mill to the woods, and then
cut all trees that can be used by him, skid the logs, and saw them into lumber.
Sales of this type were extremely common in the past, and in the majority of
cases the owner received considerably less than the true value of his timber. If an
owner contracts to sell, under definite restrictions of species, size, manner of cutting,
and other factors protecting his own interests, only those trees which he feels are
mature and ready for removal, he then knows exactly what income he will receive
and is free from all further details of logging or merchandising. Previous agreement
can be made as to species and volumes that will be sold, and all details covered in
advance by a written and signed contract.
By another method he contracts for sale all trees of certain species, above
specified diameter limits. This method is far better than selling all timber in a wood
but less satisfactory than that which permits the removal only of the trees marked in
advance by the owner.
If the owner's interests are properly safeguarded, and if the forest's growing
stock is maintained at a satisfactory level, then the direct sale of selected stumpage
for even an entire wood may be a satisfactory method to use.
Sales of Logs, Piece Products and Sawed Lumber. Sometimes the owner cuts
his own logs and sells them at a mill or some other central point. Logs of different
sizes are usually graded, and proportionately higher prices are paid for the better
grades of logs. Consequently, the seller should know in advance the specifications of
the purchaser. The grade of a log is determined by its size (length and diameter) and
the number and type of its defects.
The principal products from farm woodlands sold by the individual piece are
railroad ties, poles, and piling. Piece products are bought upon the basis of
specifications established by the purchaser. Therefore, prior to cutting, the
specifications should be obtained, and the products manufactured in accordance with
them.
Specifications for poles and piling are naturally entirely different from those for
railroad ties. Nevertheless, they state the kinds and quality of wood, dimensions and
grades of product acceptable, and methods of manufacture required. If a wood can
supply the better grades of piece products, the manufacturing of them is simple and
the sale problems are not difficult.
The sale of this products will frequently yield an excellent financial return.
Basically the farmer is a producer and seldom a manufacturer. Besides, the selling of
lumber requires a knowledge of markets, prices, and an ability to compete with
agents experienced in the sales field.
It is advised that this method of sale be disregarded and every effort made to
dispose of the products prior to their manufacture into lumber. It is possible for a
seller to receive payment on the basis of the sawed contents of the delivered logs, but
this is usually an unsatisfactory procedure.
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Unit 13
Timber-Sale Contracts. Contracts covering the terms and conditions of sale,
signed by both the buyer and seller, are essential if the transactions are to be carried
out in accordance with good business policy. The main items to be covered in a
contract follow:
1. Description and location of timber;
2. Prices and manner of payment;
3. Conditions of cutting and removal;
4. Titles and methods of settling disputes.
The drawing of a contract is a matter of law, and therefore the papers should be
prepared by a lawyer. To illustrate the general way in which the items may be stated
the following contract is presented.
Contract for Sale Standing Timber
Agreement between______ called the seller, and_____ called the purchaser.
I.The seller agrees to sell to the purchaser upon the terms and conditions
hereinafter stated, all the living timber marked by the seller, estimated.
II.The purchaser agrees to pay the seller the sum of for____________________.
III. The purchaser further agrees to cut and remove said timber in strict
accordance with the following conditions___________________________________.
IV. In case of dispute over the terms of this contract, final decision shall rest
with________________________________________________________________.
The sale of timber is a business transaction, and the owner should, through
frequent inspections, see that his interests and property are protected. A complete
understanding of all terms by both parties prior to the signing of the contract and
starting of the work will prevent later misunderstanding and difficulties.
Naturally the financial rating and the reputation for good practice on the part of
the buyer count for as much in a sale of woodland products as in any other kind of
sales transaction.
Cooperative Marketing. In theory the marketing of woodland products through
cooperative effort seems to provide a solution to the sales problems of small owners.
There is no reason why it should not work out equally well in practice. Forest
cooperatives are common in Europe, but in spite of the recognized need for them,
only limited progress has been made in developing them. The success of existing
organizations will stimulate the formation of them in all woodland regions.
The problems in developing cooperatives are many. The exact form of
organization, the program of financing, the relation of sales to control of woodland
property, and the details of controlling and operating the cooperative are all involved.
Yet the fact that special problems exist in dealing with woodland products must not
prevent the establishment and successful operation of forest cooperatives.
Two basic principles are used in woodland cooperatives, namely, the one of
engaging primarily in sales work only, and the second that of combining with the
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merchandising a control over the woods of each association member. Conceivably
the cooperative can be a merchandising organization and nothing more and render
great service to its members. But if there is no control of cutting policies, there is
distinct danger of heavy over cutting and an interruption of a continuous supply of
raw materials. Permanent operation of a cooperative requires that a steady and
constant supply of raw products be furnished.
Whether the cooperative should sell raw products or process the material in its
own plants is a moot point. Moreover, the type and extent of managing personnel, the
volume of business, and the current plans of business procedure indicate the complex
situation that the organizers of a cooperative association must face.
Forest cooperatives were organized with the principal objectives of increasing
the annual income to members and marketing forest products. At the start these
organizations handled pulpwood for pulp mills and had little investment in
equipment. As they expanded into the marketing of lumber, processing equipment
was added. To cover marketing and bookkeeping costs, 3 per cent of the sale price of
all products at the final point of delivery were deducted.
Financial Principles of Woodland Management. The basis of handling any
forest property in which continuous operations are taking place should be similar to
that by which any current business is run. The gross income, less the costs of
operating, yields the annual net income. This net income should be correlated with
the property as a whole and not regarded as the income from a specific unit.
In dealing with the growing of timber, the elements of compound interest have
frequently been introduced. Such a conception may be applied under certain
conditions of forestry, but where sustained production takes place, the element of
compound interest should be disregarded.
The principle of determining the net annual income and applying it to the
property as a whole is in forestry called forest rent. Forest rent may be defined as the
net income from a forest organized for sustained yield without interest charges on the
forest capital.
The gross incomes include the items of stumpage values, costs, and profits.
Since the owner did his own harvesting it probably would be impossible to separate
with accuracy these three individual values.
It is recognized that an additional factor of values is not taken into account,
namely, that factor which includes the value of the posts, fuel wood, and timber cut
for the owner's use. An accurate determination of all costs and all incomes is essential
for an accurate determination of capital value of property.
In terms of production of materials for use or sale, it is possible to determine the
values in money and to make financial comparisons of the various methods of future
management.
However, economic values exist where woodlands prevent soil from eroding;
protect buildings and stock from excessive winds, intense heat, and cold; and provide
cover and food for wild life, though such values would be difficult to appraise in
dollars and cents.
126
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– 848 с.; Т.2 – 840 с.
2.
Воронцова, И.И. Английский язык для студентов экономических
факультетов [Teкст]: учебное пособие / И.И. Воронцова, А.К. Ильина,
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Шевелева, С.А. Деловая переписка на английском языке. 1000 фраз
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[Text]. - St. Petersburg.: The School of Economics Press, 1993. - 612 p.
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University Press, 2005. – 1007 p.
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Education Ltd., 2000. - 1570 p.
13. Oxford Guide to British & American Culture [Text]/ J. Crowther, K.
Kavanagh (Eds.). - Oxford University Press, 2003.- 599 p.
14. Forest Products [Text]. - Madison, 2001. - № 8. С 17.
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Hornby, A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English
[Text]. - Oxford University Press, 1974. - 914 p.
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16. Mc. Carthy M., ODell F. English Vocabulary in Use[Text] : Elementary,
1999. - 296 p.
17. Mc. Carthy M., O'Dell F. English Vocabulary in Use[Text] :
Intermediate, 1999.-278 p.
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127
Учебное издание
Маклакова Елена Альбертовна
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
INTRODUCTORY COURSE FOR ECONOMISTS AND ACCOUNTANTS
Учебное пособие
Редактор Е. Н. Зяблова
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