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Agro-Industrial Waste Materials and their
Recycled Value-Added Applications: Review
Mohd Yusuf
Abstract
In the present scenario of the fast developing world, the wastes are increasing day
by day in large quantity which strongly influence the health of ecosystems and
ultimately the human community. Therefore, every agro-industrial sectors have
pressing demand toward the safe utilization of agro-materials through recycling
of wastes. Agro-industry among them releases a lot of waste materials to be
utilized in many of the fields such as energy production, composting, and also
textile industry. In recent times, energy consumption and economic pressure on
industries need sustainability in the utilization of resources and to get optimum
yield. Agro-industrial wastes can be a good option to meet the demands of the
present generation without compromising the future generations, so there is a
gravid need for more attention into the depth of agro-industrial waste utilization
and recycling methodologies. The present chapter focuses the several most
abundant agro-industrial waste materials and their diversified recyclable
applications.
Keywords
Agricultural waste • Organic waste • Value-added products • Recycling •
Fermentation
Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Agro-Industrial Waste Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recycled Value-Added Applications of Agro-Industrial Wastes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Biofuel Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enzyme Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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M. Yusuf (*)
Department of Chemistry, YMD College, M. D. University, Nuh, Haryana, India
e-mail: yusuf1020@gmail.com
# Springer International Publishing AG 2017
L.M.T. Martínez et al. (eds.), Handbook of Ecomaterials,
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-48281-1_48-1
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Citric Acid Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pigment Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extraction of Food Flavoring and Preservative Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extraction of Bioactive Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Production of Biodegradable Polymeric Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recycled Agricultural Composting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conclusion and Future Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Introduction
Since antiquity, people had been added biowaste products (i.e., post-used vegetables,
fruits, peels, seeds and manure, slurry, etc.) to the soil for agricultural proposes. They
have been recycled their surrounding waste matters for this propose. In fact, this
reuse of biowaste allowed the recycling of nutrients and improvement in the level of
organic matter in the crust of the earth. Of course, in the past, the amount of animal
waste available was smaller than the amount currently released, and the environmental impact of such waste application would be considered lower. Over the past
50 years, the intensification of agricultural, livestock breeding, and industrial activities has produced an immense increase in the number of and in the production and
accumulation of large amounts of waste matter. This increase, associated with the
use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides for fodder production, has weakened the
complementary relationship between livestock and agricultural production. For this
reason, the addition of organic waste to the soil has become one of the major
problems associated with environmental imbalance. Generally, agro-industrial
wastes are mainly composed of complex polysaccharide/proteins, carbohydrates,
polyphenolic constituents, etc. [1, 2]. To overcome the current environmental situation, scientific communities have been utilizing agricultural as well as industrial
wastes and effluents through recycling and clean technology by integrated waste
utilization or simply returned to the place of their origin, nature. Figure 1 depicts the
representation of recycled value-added applications of agro-industrial wastes. This
chapter reviews several kinds of agro-industrial wastes and their significant
recycling products which can be utilized in the real world.
Agro-Industrial Waste Materials
Today, organic wastes from agro-industries are one the major sources of pollution. In
general, the organic waste exists in the form of (a) agricultural and forestry, and (b)
industrial activities. Wastes originating from agricultural and forestry activities
include livestock slurry, manure, crop remains, and waste from pruning and from
the maintenance of woodlands. Industries generate organic wastes, which include the
by-products of the agrifood industry such as coffee dregs, bagasse, degummed fruits
and legumes, milk serum, sludge from wool, cellulose, etc. (Fig. 2). Such organic
wastes are increasing day by day and considered to have harmful effects on the
Agro-Industrial Waste Materials and their Recycled Value-Added Applications:. . .
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of recycled value-added applications of agro-industrial wastes
Fig. 2 Representation of variable agro-industrial wastes
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environment, and therefore, several countries made legislation to prevent on account
of environmental concerns. In this regard, norm refers to the waste and contains the
main definitions and principles that govern waste management, emphasizing that
waste assessment and elimination must be performed without creating risks for
water, air, soil, or the flora and fauna to minimize such negative effects and regulate
the use of organic wastes as fertilizer in agriculture [3, 4]. To reduce the industrial
pollution, clean technology can be implemented to minimize organic waste through
recycling. Clean technology auditing is an effective procedure that includes five
steps given as under:
•
•
•
•
•
Planning and organization
Pre-assessment
Assessment
Feasibility study
Implementation
Recycled Value-Added Applications of Agro-Industrial Wastes
Biofuel Production
Current world’s economy is chiefly dependent on various fossil energy sources such
as coal, petroleum oil, natural gas, etc. which are being used for the production of
fuel, electricity, and other purposes. Excessive consumption of fossil fuels increased
the high levels of pollution during the last few decades. Therefore, the level of
greenhouse gasses in the earth’s atmosphere has drastically increased. With the
expansion of human population and increase of industrial prosperity, global energy
consumption also has increased gradually. Of course, import of transport fuel is
affected by limited reserves of fossil fuel. In fact, annual global oil production will
begin to decline within the near future. In this regard, renewable sources might serve
as an alternative option. For example, wind, water, sun, biomass, and geothermal
heat can be the renewable sources for the energy industry, whereas fuel production
and the chemical industry may depend on biomass as an alternative source in the
near future [5].
Bioethanol production is a suitable and renewable alternative to replace fossil
fuels from agro-industrial wastes. In a published report, Kim et al. estimated that 442
billion L of bioethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass and that total
crop residue and wasted crops can produce 491 billion L of bioethanol per year,
about 16 times higher than the actual world bioethanol production [6]. Bioethanol
from agricultural wastes can be achieved through various processes such as fermentation, pyrolysis, physical treatments, physic-chemical treatments, enzymatic degradation, ultrasound-assisted treatments, etc. In this regard, several challenges and
limitations occur including biomass transport and handling; efficient pretreatment
Agro-Industrial Waste Materials and their Recycled Value-Added Applications:. . .
5
methods for total delignification of biomass have been noticed. Proper pretreatment
methods can increase concentrations of fermentable sugars after enzymatic saccharification, thereby improving the efficiency of the whole process. Conversion of
glucose, as well as xylose, to ethanol needs some new fermentation technologies,
to make the whole process cost-effective [7]. Nevertheless, the production of
bioethanol requires in-depth studies so that cost-effective, cheap, and best complementary technologies could be made.
Enzyme Production
The phenomenon, enzymatic hydrolysis, is a valuable and significant technique for
the transformation of agricultural wastes into valuable products. Utilization of
agricultural wastes offers great potential for reducing the production cost and
increasing the use of enzymes for industrial purposes. Agro-industrial wastes such
as wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, rice bran, wheat bran, corncob, etc. are cheapest
and have plentifully available natural carbon sources which can be successfully
utilized recently for the production of industrially important enzymes [8]. Presently,
various agricultural waste substrates and by-products have been successfully
reported for the production of cellulases through a microbial culture-based solidstate fermentation [9]. Consequently, Salim et al. in a more recent study described
the production of enzymes by a newly isolated Bacillus sp. TMF-1 in solid-state
fermentation on agricultural by-products. In this investigation, they obtained proteases, α-amylases, cellulases, and pectinases [10].
Citric Acid Production
Every year, most of the organic wastes from agriculture as well as industrial
processing of raw materials have been generated. Such kind of wastes generally
has rich in sugar and carbohydrate contents. The presence of moisture, nutrients, and
large carbon sources can be fruitfully utilized for the production of a variety of valueadded compounds/products. In view of ever-growing demand of citric acid, there is
an urgent need to look for inexpensive and novel substitutes for the feasible
production of citric acid by using wastes. However, organic acids are widely being
prepared using agro-industrial wastes by solid-state fermentation processed through
several microbial isolates (Table 1).
Citric acid production from agro-industrial waste materials by fermentation is the
most economical and widely used way. More than 90% of the citric acid produced in
the world is obtained by fermentation, which has its own advantages such as easy to
handle, stable, lower energy consumption and convenient. Scientific communities
demonstrated that pineapple wastes are better options for biomass-assisted citric acid
production than apple pomace [14]. From the extraction of citrus juice in industrial
plants, the citrus processing industry yearly generates tons of organic waste residues,
including peels and segment membranes. This produced odor and soil pollution
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Table 1 Production of various organic acids from agro-industrial wastes by solid-state fermentation process [11–13]
Agro-industrial wastes
Kitchen wastes
Microbial isolates
Self-inoculated
Media/isolates
Outer cover of gallo seeds
Tea wastes with sugarcane molasses
Wheat kernels
Carrot-processing waste
Sweet sorghum
Rhizopus oryzae
Aspergillus niger
Aspergillus oryzae
Rhizopus oryzae
Lactobacillus
paracasei
Rhizopus oryzae
Lactobacillus
delbrueckii
Aspergillus foetidus
Arthrobacter
paraffinens, Bacillus
licheniformis
Corynebacterium sp.
Aspergillus niger
A. aculeatus
A. carbonarius
A. awamori
A. foetidus
A. fonsecaeus
A. phoenicis
Penicillium
janthinellum
Candida tropicalis
C. oleophila
C. guilliermondii
C. citroformans
Hansenula anomala
Yarrowia lipolytica
Sugarcane bagasse
Cassava bagasse and sugarcane bagasse
Pineapple wastes
Apple pomace, potato starch residues,
coffee husk, orange peel, corncob,
sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, rice bran,
pineapple waste, mixed fruit waste, beet
molasses, date syrup, wood
hemicellulose, rice hulls, cassava fibrous
residue, palm and olive oil residues, etc.
Products obtained
Short-chain organic acids
(lactic, acetic acid,
propionic, and butyric
acids)
Gallic acid
Gluconic acid
Oxalic acid
Lactic acid
Lactic acid
Lactic acid
Lactic acid
Citric acid
Citric acid
refers to environmental problems. To manage these wastes, recycling is urgently
needed. For example, orange peels contain total sugar content that varies between
29% and 44%, soluble and insoluble carbohydrate contents being the most abundant
and economical. These wastes were successfully subjected to citric acid production
by solid-state fermentation by Torrado et al. [15].
Pigment Production
In the present scenario, researchers have shown a great interest in the processing of
agro-industrial wastes for fermentation processes in the development of value-added
Agro-Industrial Waste Materials and their Recycled Value-Added Applications:. . .
7
products like microbial pigments. Ever since, natural colors from spices and herbs,
fruits, and vegetables have been part of the everyday diet of humans. Fruit byproducts have become an important source of those pigments and colors, mainly
because they present high color stability and purity. Bio-based pigments have several
advantages such as biodegradability, zero or less toxicity, and eco-friendliness with
their synthetic counterparts [16–19]. Therefore, in regard, a lot of attention is now
being undertaken for the synthesis of biocolorants from wastes using the microorganisms. Monascus purpureus is found to have good ability to ferment the agroindustrial waste to produce yellow pigments. Microorganisms like bacteria, mold,
and fungi produce different types of pigments depending on their sources. Some
well-studied microbial strains that have potential of bio-pigment production from
wastes are belonging to genera Monascus, Rhodotorula, Aspergillus, and Penicillium. For example, the following species are chiefly reported for bio-pigment
production: Alteromonas rubra, Rugamonas rubra, Streptoverticillium rubrireticuli,
Streptomyces longisporus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas magneslorubra, Vibrio psychroerythrous, S. rubidaea, Vibrio gazogenes, etc. [20–22].
Extraction of Food Flavoring and Preservative Compounds
Agro-industrial wastes are a low-cost and sustainable resource for the production of
renewable methods for value-added products. Many natural flavoring agents can be
produced from wastes via microbial conversions. Vanillin is one of the most
important flavoring compounds in the food industry. Researches in previous years
regarding its biotechnological production from ferulic acid recovered from agrofood industry by-products and wastes have gained great opportunity. Several byproducts from the cereal industry, i.e., maize, rice, wheat, and sugar beet pulp, have
been examined as a source of ferulic acid that has been extracted at high yield from
wastes. The production of vanillin from agro-food industry by-products represents
an opportunity to produce this flavor in a new, economically, and environmentally
sustainable way, which also allows for the valorization of waste matrixes. Ascorbic
acid or vitamin C, a natural compound obtained from several plant tissues, is the best
example of the potential use in the food industry and recognized for centuries, being
mainly used as natural medicine as well as food preservatives in current trends [23].
Different antimicrobial food packaging systems including extracts of citrus species
wastes may exert an inhibitory effect on the microorganisms responsible for spoilage
phenomena without affecting the functional properties and have been used to
preserve cheese and other food products.
Extraction of Bioactive Compounds
Due to the infections from antimicrobial-resistant pathogenic microbes, the scientists
are moving forward to search for new and effective bioactive agents. Natural
bioactive compounds are being investigated for the treatment and prevention of
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M. Yusuf
various human diseases/disorders. These compounds efficiently interact mainly with
proteins, DNA, and other biological molecules to produce desired results, which can
then be used for designing natural therapeutic agents [24]. Recently, wastes from
fruits and vegetables are the potential source of bioactive compound production,
which are mainly phenolic compounds. Bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenes,
terpenes, sterols, tocopherols, and polyphenols extracted from tomato waste
exhibited excellent antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Therefore, these valueadded residues isolated from such type of wastes can be utilized as natural bioactive
triggers to the formulation of functional foods or can serve as additives in food
products to extend their shelf life [25]. Consequently, Pujol et al. reported the
chemical composition of exhausted coffee waste generated in a soluble coffee
industry and found that total polyphenols and tannins represent <6 and <4% of
the exhausted coffee wastes, respectively [26]. In a recent study, Lemes et al.
described bioactive peptides as the new generation of biologically active regulators
that can prevent oxidation and microbial degradation in foods and might be helpful
in the treatment of various diseases [27].
Production of Biodegradable Polymeric Systems
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bioplastics (biodegradable polymeric systems)
with similar characteristics to polypropylene produced by prokaryotic strains from
renewable resources such as carbohydrates under unfavorable conditions: the surplus of carbon source and limitation of an essential compound, for example, carbon/
nitrogen/phosphorus/oxygen. Over the last three decades, the production of PHAs
by submerged fermentation processes has been intensively studied. Although the
high cost of production makes PHAs substantially more expensive than synthetic
plastics, exploring its production from locally available and renewable carbon source
such as agricultural wastes would be economically as well as environmentally
imperative [28, 29]. Koller et al. described PHA production from whey by Pseudomonas hydrogenovora [30]. In a published report, the production of PHAs from
waste materials and by-products by submerged and solid-state fermentation is
revealed. Chemically, PHAs are polymers of hydroxyalkanoic acids that are accumulated intracellularly as granule inclusions by prokaryotic microorganisms
(eubacteria and archaea) as carbon and energy reserves or reducing power storage
materials. PHAs are synthesized in the presence of excess carbon, especially when
another essential nutrient, such as nitrogen or phosphorus, is limiting [31].
Recycled Agricultural Composting
In recent years, composting methods have been reexamined in many countries
around the world and integrated into the 4-R strategy, including countries of Asia,
Europe, America, and Africa. The advances made in composting in India during the
early part of the previous century have led to the composting operations.
Agro-Industrial Waste Materials and their Recycled Value-Added Applications:. . .
9
Composting is a managed process which utilizes natural microorganisms available in
organic matter and soil to decompose organic wastes. These microorganisms require
sufficient basic nutrients, oxygen, and water in order for decomposition to occur at
an accelerated pace. The raw materials going into the compost are often referred to as
feedstock [32]. The end product, compost, is a dark brown, humus-like material
which can be easily and safely stored, handled, and applied to land as a valuable soil
conditioner [33].
Conclusion and Future Outlook
Undoubtedly, utilization of wastes not only eliminates the disposal problems but also
solves the pollution-associated problems. Global perception about agro-industrial
waste is changing rapidly in response to the need for environmental sustainability
and conservation. In the present era, wastes from agro-industrial residues have been
utilized in a number of ways, for instance, in the production of various value-added
products. The main applications of recycled wastes are included: biofuel production,
enzyme production, organic acid isolation, pigment extraction, food flavoring and
preservative extraction, bioactive compound production, biodegradable PHA production, agricultural composting, etc. Therefore, more regulatory approval and
capital investments are required to bring these value-added products in the commercial market. The conversion of agro-industrial residues to important substances may
not only provide future dimension to researchers but also reduce the current environmental hazards.
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