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978-3-658-19224-2 3

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© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH 2017
J. Liebl, Der Antrieb von morgen 2017, Proceedings,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-658-19224-2_3
Vitali Davydov, Raimund Ellinger, Carsten Kaup, Wolfgang Schöffmann
Thomas Pels
11th International MTZ Conference on Future Powertrains, 2017
48V – WHERE TO PLACE THE E-MACHINE ?
Public
Public
WHY 48V?
…see AVL Publication “Efficient Powertrain Solutions
for 12 V up to 800 V”, Engine & Environment 2015
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
2
Public
P0
P2
P1
P3
P4
48V POWERTRAIN ARCHITECTURES
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
3
Public
eAWD
Engine stall protection
Engine shutdown assist
Electric drive
eCreep
Coasting
Sailing
Boost
Recuperation
Charging at driving
Charging at standstill
Advanced stop start
FEATURES AND FUNCTIONS
VS. ARCHITECTURES
Coasting:
The vehicle is decelerating
by its drag torque while the
engine is decoupled from
the drivetrain.
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
Sailing:
The electric motor ensures
constant speed while the
internal combustion engine
is switched off or in idle.
4
Public
1)
eAWD
Engine stall protection
Engine shutdown assist
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
MT with eClutch
1)
Coasting
1)
1)
Electric drive
1)
P4
1)
P3
1)
1)
P2
eCreep
1)
P1
1)
P0
1)
Sailing
Boost
Recuperation
Charging at driving
Charging at standstill
Advanced stop start
Function
FEATURES AND FUNCTIONS
VS. ARCHITECTURES
5
Public
1)
eAWD
Engine stall protection
Engine shutdown assist
2)
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
MT with eClutch
P2 with SSM
1)
Coasting
1)
1)
Electric drive
1)
P0/P4
1)
2)
P0/P3
1)
1)
P2
eCreep
1)
P1
1)
P0
1)
Sailing
Boost
Recuperation
Charging at driving
Charging at standstill
Advanced stop start
Function
FEATURES AND FUNCTIONS
VS. ARCHITECTURES
6
Public
+
0
0
+
+
+
0
0
Fuel Consumption
Performance
Emissions – Gasoline
Emissions – Diesel
NVH
Drivability
Ride Comfort
Handling
1)
Baseline vehicle with mechanical AWD
0 … similar to baseline vehicle
+ … better than baseline vehicle
- … worse than baseline vehicle
Legend:
P0
Attribute
0
0
+
+
+
0
+
+
P1
0
0
+
0
++
0
++
++
P2
0
0
+
+
++
0
+
++
P0/P3
VEHICLE ATTRIBUTES VS. ARCHITECTURES
1)
1)
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
+/-
0
+
+
++
0
+/0
++
P0/P4
7
Traction Force Diagram P3/P4
EM only, 20kW/150Nm
Public
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
ƒ The traction force at low vehicle velocities is significantly lower for P3/P4 configurations with
reduced vehicle launch performance accordingly.
ƒ P3/P4 architectures typically need a decoupling device for higher vehicle velocities.
If the E-Motor is permanently coupled for the full velocity range, the low velocity performance
is further reduced (dotted line).
Traction Force Diagram P2
EM only, 20kW/150Nm
PERFORMANCE VS. ARCHITECTURES
8
Public
C Segment
P0, P1
SUV (Diesel)
P2, P0/P3, P0/P4
E Segment
5%
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
ƒ Potentials increase with improved basis (high efficient PWT, low vehicle resistance)
ƒ Results are mean values for (P0, P1) and (P2, P0/P3, P0/P4) respectively
B Segment
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
CO2 VS. ARCHITECTURES
Fuel Consumption Reduction Potential
(WLTC)
9
Public
2
4
B Segment
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
6
10
12
14
C Segment
16
E Segment
E-Machine Size [kW]
8
18
COMPONENT RQ VS. ARCHITECTURES
Recuperation Energy [Wh]
SUV (Diesel)
20
P0,P1
P0,P1
P0,P1
P0,P1
P2
P3,P4
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
10
Public
2
4
B Segment
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
6
10
12
14
C Segment
16
E Segment
E-Machine Size [kW]
8
18
COMPONENT RQ VS. ARCHITECTURES
Recuperation Energy [Wh]
SUV (Diesel)
20
HIGHWAY
NEDC
WLTC
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
11
Public
Different component RQ from architectures
System specific BOM
ƒ Main reasons for different system and component cost:
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
ƒ No significant cost difference coaxial vs. side mounted for P1 and P2
ƒ P0/P4 cost only reasonable with AWD base vehicle
Volume >200k p.a.
Timeframe 2020+
48V System Cost
COST VS. ARCHITECTURES
12
C Segment
E Segment
SUV (Diesel)
20€/g
40€/g
Public
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
ƒ P0/P4 will be preferred for 4WD vehicles. P0 and P2 will be preferred for 2WD and thus
they will be mainstream solutions, depending on the required CO2 reductions.
ƒ P0 shows the best cost to benefit ratio with limited CO2 reductions
B Segment
P0/P4
P2
P0/P3
60€/g
CO2 Reduction (g/km)
P0
P1
95€/g 80€/g
COST TO BENEFIT VS. ARCHITECTURES
System Cost
13
Public
Gasoline PHEV
Diesel PHEV
Diesel
Gasoline
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
In 2015 the European PC fleet average was 120gCO2/km (target: 130gCO2/km)
CO2 EMISSIONS PASSENGER CARS EUROPE
STATUS QUO 2015 - NEDC
14
Public
CO2 Target Value Scenarios
Used: Average of
Aggressive and Moderate
Fleet Target Value based on
NEDC Target Formula with
Fleet Average Weight EU
Registrations 2015
CO2 EMISSIONS PASSENGER CARS EUROPE
IMPACT OF AGGRESSIVE BOUNDARIES
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
15
Public
Diesel Plug-In Hybrid
Gasoline Plug-In Hybrid
2015
55%
48%
45%
52%
2%
SOURCE:
ACEA– 04-2016
Gasoline
Diesel
Hybrid,
BEV
CO2 123g/km
2021
NEDC WLTP
Diesel Mild Hybrid
41%
7%
9%
27%
6%
%
1%
9%
16%
mHEV
Diesel (Conv. & Start Stop)
Gasoline Mild Hybrid
Gasoline (Conv. & Start Stop)
35%
mHEV
20%
19%
15%
14%
16%
2025
CO2 109g/km
7%
8%
95g/km
BEV
45%
mHEV
17%
24%
11%
8%
21%
7%
13%
42%
mHEV
4%
23%
16%
19%
2030
CO2 84g/km
10%
28%
WTW
2%
29%
17%
17%
11%
22%
46%
mHEV
CO2 EMISSIONS PASSENGER CARS EUROPE
IMPACT OF AGGRESSIVE BOUNDARIES
Share PC Sales Europe
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
16%
mHEV
13%
24%
CO2 59g/km
3%
25%
34%
WTW
16
Public
coaxial or side mounted?
module or integrated?
fixed to engine or transmission?
P2 or P2.5?
How to realize a P2 architecture?
Æ 2025 and beyond mandatory to meet severe CO2 legislation
with significant mild hybrid market share
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
ƒ P2 is appropriate, depending on individual demand (fleet CO2), even before 2020.
Æ2025 and beyond not sufficient to meet severe CO2 legislation
with significant mild hybrid market share
ƒ P0 as basic electrification. Especially for smaller, cost sensitive segments, competing
with 12+12 architectures.
RECOMMENDATIONS
17
Public
Æ ~40mm additional Å
FWD Solution
Æ ~80mm additional Å
RWD Solution
Source: www.schaeffler.com
P2 COAXIAL VS. SIDE MOUNTED
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
18
Public
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
ƒ Additional potential for FC reduction due to engine
optimization measures up to 7,5% (WLTC)
ƒ Flexibility to use various transmission technologies
P2 SIDE MOUNTED
EM INTEGRATED INTO ENGINE
19
Public
P2 SIDE MOUNTED
EM INTEGRATED INTO ENGINE
Removal of 12V starter
motor and alternator
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
20
Public
P2 SIDE MOUNTED
EM INTEGRATED INTO ENGINE
Separation clutch C0
Gear drive 1:3
48V 20kW E-machine
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
21
Public
P2 SIDE MOUNTED
EM INTEGRATED INTO ENGINE
Elimination of FEAD
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
22
Public
P2 SIDE MOUNTED
EM INTEGRATED INTO ENGINE
Repositioning of
AC compressor at
transmission side
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
23
Public
Source: www.getrag.com
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
ƒ P2.5 architecture and DHT with eCVT
modes possible
ƒ E-motor “downscaling” from PHEV
transmission possible
ƒ Efficient oil cooling using transmission oil
ƒ Flexibility to use different combustion
engines
ƒ Lowest increase in axial lengths compared
to separate P2 module and engine
integration
P2 SIDE MOUNTED
EM INTEGRATED INTO TRANSMISSION
24
Public
bli
2004
ƒ Emission reduction and CO2 savings >30%
ƒ Additional benefits by EM torque assist to improve AMT shift quality
ƒ AVL’s 48V mild hybrid concept ECO TARGET™ using a P2.5 architecture
already in 2004
P2 SIDE MOUNTED
EM INTEGRATED INTO TRANSMISSION
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
25
Public
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
ƒ Powershifting by electric braking with battery charge or
internal power dissipation
ƒ Gear preselection (central synchronizer)
ƒ Open-loop eCVT modes (with battery charge or deplete)
ƒ Torque split engine start in EV mode at low speeds
Special Functions:
ƒ Several EV gear ratios (non-powershifted)
ƒ Reduced number of mechanical components
(clutches, synchronizers)
ƒ Downsized electric system - powershifting even @ 12V)
Benefits:
AVL DYNOSHIFT – single drive input split DHT
with special hysteresis electric motor-brake
P2 SIDE MOUNTED
EM INTEGRATED INTO TRANSMISSION
26
Public
Source:
www.schaeffler.com
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
ƒ Torque transfer via belt, chain drive or helical gears
ƒ Easy assembly using pre-tested modules
ƒ Mechanical and functional integration of A/C
compressor
ƒ Maximum flexibility to use different engines and
transmissions
P2 SIDE MOUNTED
MODULE BETWEEN ENGINE & TRANSMISSION
27
Public
… AVL is ready to support.
Thomas Pels | 25 Januar 2017 |
ƒ Large scale integration into engine and transmission can be realized for P2
configurations …
ƒ P0 and P2 architectures will win recognition to meet future CO2 targets.
P0/P4 will be established for base vehicles with AWD.
ƒ All architectures are somehow meaningful, especially if CO2 is not the one
and only criterion.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
28
www.avl.com
THANK YOU
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