CHAPTER 4 The Pedagogical Contributions of the Peripheral Spaces of Walks: Fort Canning and Tiong Bahru Adrian Kwek Introduction Spaces are peripheral by virtue of the fact that they exist alongside spaces with main functions. The standing spaces of vantage and walking spaces of galleries are spaces from which one is intended to experience the contents of another space. They are peripheral, yet have a main function. They are peripheral because the contents in the space that is presented from a vantage point or in a gallery take center stage in one’s experience, while one is located at the vantage point or in the gallery. Yet, the spaces of vantage and the galleries have the main function of presenting the contents of the other space to the viewer. Paying attention to the spaces of vantage and the galleries reveals features that can enhance or detract from one’s experience of the contents of the presented spaces. The content of a space can be presented for the purpose of teaching about it. The spatial layout of such spaces, determined by the peripheral spaces of vantage or galleries that present their contents, can contribute to learning about the contents. Spatial layout can contribute to learning by mirroring the conceptual relations between contents, controlling access to the material and by presenting the object that the information is about, giving the learner first-hand experience of the object. We bring these considerations to bear on the spaces of vantage and galleries offered by two walks in Singapore that were designed, at least partially, with pedagogical intention: the fourteenth century Walk at Fort Canning and the Tiong Bahru Heritage Trail. Analyzing the layout of pedagogical © The Author(s) 2017 T.W. Lim, Cultural Heritage and Peripheral Spaces in Singapore, DOI 10.1007/978-981-10-4747-3_4 97 98 A. KWEK content in these walks by considering how museum planners use spatial configurations to implement pedagogical intentions, we assess the walks for pedagogical value. Types of Museum Spatial Layout In this section, we discuss the implications of three types of museum spatial layout on pedagogy: sequential layout, gridded layout and hierarchical layout. The primary pedagogical benefit of a museum layout is that visitors come into immediate perceptual contact with the object about which information is conveyed. Being able to see the object from different angles and, in some cases, being able to feel the object lends concreteness to the otherwise abstract information describing the object. The locating of information describing an object where that object can be immediately perceived is pedagogically justified because the visitor has their uptake of the information reified by perception of the object that the information is about. We term the justification “in situ” justification: information about an object receives in situ justification from (or, equivalently, “is in situ justified by”) being located where the object that it is about can be immediately perceived. Sequential Layout A museum layout is sequential if it is designed with the intention of leading a visitor from one display to another in a fixed order.1 The displays can be artifacts, text panels, dioramas, art pieces, places, organisms, and so on. Displays are the particular objects that the museum curates and exhibits. A common instantiation of a sequential layout is a unidirectional passageway lined with displays. In moving along the space of the passageway, a visitor will arrive at each display in sequence. The peripheral space in which the visitor moves is a gallery. The contents of the spaces that a gallery presents are the displays and, possibly, accompanying signage. For a space of displays where there is no discernible passageway or where 1 Kali Tzortzi, “Museum Building Design and Exhibition Layout”, Proceedings, 6th International Space Syntax Symposium, Istanbul, 2007, pp. 72–74. 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … 99 there are many passageways, a sequence can be stipulated by a map and conceptually superimposed on the physical space. The spatial sequence of sequential layouts can mirror the temporal sequence of steps in a process, or a chronology of historical events.2 When the presented contents are the steps of a process or a chronology of events identified by a historical theme, the unidirectional spatial sequence reiterates the asymmetrical temporal sequence and serves to reinforce the learning of the temporal sequence through another modality. The spatial sequence of sequential layouts can control access to displays.3 Sequential layouts encourage the movement of a visitor from one display to the next, and this movement can be exploited to thin out crowding at displays. In turn, the thinning out of crowding at displays encourages deferring on-site discussions of displays until afterwards, when the object of the discussion is remembered rather than perceived. Gridded Layout A museum layout is gridded if it contains displays for which there is no predetermined sequence for visiting each display.4 Visitors are left on their own to visit each display as they desire. The peripheral space in which a visitor moves is also a gallery, but in the form of an open space, a room or a hall, rather than a passageway. For sequential layouts, a theme that requires sequential understanding is made known to the visitor in advance. In contrast, no such theme is stipulated for gridded layouts. Gridded layouts mirror the absence of a conceptual sequence structuring the meaning of the contents. This encourages visitors to interpret the presentations of displays on their 2 Ibid., pp. 72–10 (elaborating on the “long-model2” set-up). See also the contrast between sequential and constructivist exhibitions in Kali Tzortzi, “Spatial Concepts in Museum Theory and Practice”, Proceedings of the 10th International Space Syntax Symposium, 2015, 37: 3–4. 3 Layouts can have effects on visitor flow. For example, Tzortzi, “Spatial Concepts in Museum Theory and Practice”, 37: 3–4, which observes that the “layout of displays, the location of objects, and the vista, [define] the direction of visitor flow”. 4 Tzortzi, “Museum Building Design and Exhibition Layout”, 72–104. 100 A. KWEK own, in turn fostering their own construction of the meaning of the presentations.5 The spatial gridding of layouts can control access to displays. The absence of direction of movement removes the pressure to move on to the next display. Together with an absence of a movement-determining passageway leading to the next display, visitors are free to gather at displays and discuss them on-site. Other visitors can choose to inspect other displays while waiting for their turn as there is no prior mandate to visit the displays in a certain order. They are free to walk past crowded displays and return to inspect them later. Depending on pedagogical intentions, sequential and gridded layouts can be combined. Spaces with a gridded layout can bud off from passageways with sequential layouts, when the pedagogical intention aims at exploration and meaning construction of a particular sub-theme engendered by a stage in a process or an event in a chronology. Conversely, spaces with a sequential layout can extrude from spaces with gridded layouts when the pedagogical intention aims at presenting processes or chronologies associated with certain displays, but where these displays are not sequentially related to neighboring ones. Hierarchical Layout A museum layout is hierarchical if it presents classificatory relations between displays.6 Classificatory relations are asymmetrical: something being an instance of a type cannot itself be the type. In order to present classificatory relations spatially, spaces containing displays should reflect the asymmetry. This can be done in two ways: stipulating a sequential path of visit from displays of greater to lesser generality or vice versa (but not both), or proffering a vantage from which instances can be perceived from a location presenting the type that the instances reflect. 5 Ibid., pp. 72–110 (the “short-model” set-up), 72–112 and 72–113. pp. 72–108 give a more general characterization in terms of asymmetry of directional order only. 6 Ibid., 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … 101 A hierarchical layout can mirror classificatory relations.7 The classification can be processual, chronological or conceptual.8 Learning about these relations is reinforced when the content is presented to the museum visitor in a hierarchical layout. Special Features of Walks as Museum Spaces In this section, we discuss special features of walks as museum spaces. We discuss how interpreting the peripheral spaces of walks in terms of the three types of layout described draws our attention to these special features, and how these special features may be exploited for pedagogical purposes. Walks exist against the backdrop of a plethora of features pertaining to human activity: roads, buildings, parks, shopping malls, coffee shops, schools, car parks, residential estates and so on. Among the items in the backdrop are some that are united by an interesting theme. A walk is an attempt, intentionally spatially, to unite items of a certain interesting theme such that the items, as with displays in a museum, can be visited on foot. The backdrop of human activity features that walks are imposed against can serve to constrain walks in three ways: they can impose a spatial order, they can exhibit multiple themes, and there can be main functions of the walk space that compete with the walk designer’s intention for the walk space to be akin to the aisle of a gallery space. Imposed Spatial Order The backdrop of human activity can constrain the spatial order of a walk. First, movement determinants such as a narrow foot path that runs alongside several items marked as significant by the specification of a walk can determine a sequential order, as opposed to gridded, because there is simply no space to visit the items in an order other than sequentially. 7 Kali Tzortzi, “Spatial Concepts in Museum Theory and Practice”, Proceedings of the 10th International Space Syntax Symposium, 2015, 37: 4. 8 For a sophisticated example of how the spatial organization of a museum gallery can reflect the conceptual difference between biological classifications as immutable or mutable, see John Peponis and Jenny Hedin, “The Layout of Theories in the Natural History Museum”, 9H(3) (1982): 23. 102 A. KWEK This can be exploited pedagogically for determining the visiting of displays in a fixed sequence corresponding to a process or chronology that is intended to be taught by the series of displays in question. It can also be used to control the number of visitors per display, as the width of the passageway would determine the number of people that can gather at a display at any one time. Second, obstacles such as mobility of referent, holistic apprehension, or private property can constrain the proximity of viewer inspection from display. An example of mobility of referent is fauna that is endemic to that locale. Because animals move around, it is likely that the location of the relevant signage (e.g. signage containing information about species found in the vicinity) does not imply the perceivable proximity of the signage’s referent (i.e. individuals of the species). An example of holistic apprehension is architectural styles that can only be perceived by perceiving the entire building. This fact already determines that one cannot stand too near the building if one is to appreciate its architectural style. Finally, some buildings are private property and breaching their outer perimeters can count as trespassing. The proximity constraint can be exploited pedagogically by having it introduce a speculative element to the taught content. Since locations near to the display item are not accessible, the visitor can be prompted to imagine how things are there, given what they have been taught about the display items in question. Third, there can be locations along a walk where a scene is presented. An array of display items is presented to the viewer with different relative positions to one another, which correspond, to various degrees, to the spatial relations between actual items in the scenery. We call such a scene a “vantage”. The most common presentation of a vantage is one of a scene where an annotated outline diagram foregrounds the scene, labeling items and locations of events in the scene that are significant vis-à-vis a predetermined theme. The space occupied by the signage is a peripheral space relative to the space occupied by the presented scene to which the signage refers. Other examples are that of the observable species of birds at a birdwatching location, or an overview of an activity from a location suitable for perceiving different stages of the activity. The imposed spatial order here is a hierarchical one. From one location, the visitor is apprehending different instances (stages) of the same type (activity), where each instance occupies a different actual or possible location in their field of vision. 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … 103 Vantages can be pedagogically exploited by having them present summaries of processes, chronologies and taxonomic relations.9 Because such summaries are shown to correspond to actual or possible spaces in the visitor’s immediately perceivable vicinity, the summaries are imbued with concreteness that would be absent if the processes, chronologies and taxonomic relations were only textually described. Multiple Themes Because walks are defined against a plethora of extant physical features of human activity, a walk co-exists with many other potential walks that are defined by other themes. This special feature of walks can be exploited pedagogically by allowing for the presentation of interconnections between themes, whether implicitly or explicitly. Where interconnections are implicit, visitors can be invited to construct meanings for themselves in identifying and appreciating cross-thematic connections. Where interconnections are explicit, the linkages are experienced by the visitor on the walk, bringing them out of abstraction for the visitor. There are three sorts of pedagogically interesting cross-thematic connections, corresponding to the three higher levels of the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy for cognitive process: Analyze, Evaluate and Create.10 First, cross-thematic connections allow us to appreciate constituent concepts of ideas when these concepts are compared or contrasted with others of different themes. According to the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy, analyzing is the action of “[b]reaking material into its constituent parts and detecting how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose”.11 Cross-thematic connections allow for the comparison and contrast of concepts belonging to different themes, such that component parts of an idea are better understood, and its organizational structure is better understood, which results in a better grasp of the idea. 9 For a more sophisticated exploitation of vantages to nullify the dominance of temporal sequence, see Tzortzi, “Spatial Concepts in Museum Theory and Practice”, 37: 10, on the Acropolis: “But, while the display narrative stresses historical sequence, the spatial design synchronizes time by […] creating vertical visual links across exhibition levels, including through transparent floors”. 10 David R. Krathwohl, “A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview”, Theory into Practice 41(4) (2002): 215. 11 Ibid. 104 A. KWEK Second, cross-thematic connections allow us to evaluate ideas in comparison or contrast with related ideas of different themes. According to the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy, evaluating is the action of “[m]aking judgments based on criteria and standards”.12 The availability of relevant connections with ideas of other themes can help a learner with their evaluation of subject matter with which they are not familiar, and to which they are unable to deploy the evaluative standards that they currently possess. If an idea from another theme is something with which they have more familiarity than the subject matter that they are currently prompted to evaluate, they can rely on analogous reasoning to arrive at judgments about the current subject matter from their judgments about the related idea. Third, cross-thematic connections allow us to create content. According to the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy, creating is the action of “[p]utting elements together to form a novel, coherent whole or make an original product”.13 Cross-thematic connections, particularly of a gridded layout, allow a visitor the autonomy to construct their own meaning by association with related displays of different themes. A visitor can also be guided so as to be more likely to construct certain meanings rather than others at the intersection of sequential layouts. Alternative Main Functions Because walks are defined against a plethora of extant physical features of human activity, a walk can utilize a space that is also fully or partially utilized by other activities. The sharing of display space along a walk with other activities can imbue it with characteristics that are pedagogically exploitable. Activities can be categorized into those that involve the passage of people and those that involve the gathering of people. Each category can be exploited for its own pedagogical features. Some activities involve the passage of people: they involve the movement of people over a certain distance. Examples of physical structures that enable the passage of people include roads, cycling tracks, jogging paths and footpaths. The number of viewers at a display along a passageway can be controlled when that passageway is also a jogging path. 12 Ibid. 13 Ibid. 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … 105 The need to accommodate the passage of joggers will result in a limited number of viewers at the display at one time. This will, in turn, limit the volume of information that can be taken up at a display. Voluminous text will delay the onward movement of viewers and create a bottleneck. Relatedly, if the passageway is also a unidirectional jogging path, visitors will be urged to visit each display along the passageway in the direction of the joggers. To go against the traffic of joggers is to the inconvenience of both the viewer and joggers. This creates a strong sequential layout and can be pedagogically exploited to mirror the sequence of a process or a chronology. Some activities involve the gathering of people. Examples of physical structures that enable the gathering of people include gazebos, rest stops, spacious lookouts, vending machines and restrooms. Display spaces that are shared with physical structures enabling the gathering of people can be pedagogically exploited for opportunities to discuss the displays, or for displays that require more time for appreciation—whether it is because there are intricate details that take time to admire, or because the signage for the display item presents a great deal of information to be imbibed. Structures that enable the gathering of people need not only be exploited for the exchange of information about on-site displays. When located at strategic points or termini of sequential layouts, they can be points at which visitors pause to discuss their experience of the sequence. When located after gridded layouts, they can be points at which visitors can compare and contrast their varied interpretations of what they have just experienced. In summary, walks can be analyzed with respect to the following characteristics in ways that are pedagogically useful: •Layout –Sequential –Gridded –Hierarchical • Imposed spatial order –Movement –Obstacles –Vantages • Multiple themes –Analyzing –Evaluating 106 A. KWEK –Creating • Alternative main functions – Passage of people – Gathering of people In the next part of this chapter, we will study two walks in Singapore with respect to these characteristics and discuss the pedagogical insights that the analyses yield. Fort Canning’s 14th Century Walk “Fort Canning” names a hill that has been the site of human activity that was already flourishing in the fourteenth century. The site’s long history results in its having a multitude of historically significant landmarks. It is also a park with many plants of botanical interest to laypersons because of their historical significance. Amidst the backdrop of historically significant sites, landmarks, buildings and flora, Singapore’s National Parks Board has delineated what they call a “DIY guided walk” on pamphlets and signage in the park. In the introduction on the pamphlet, it is written: As you embark on this trail, stroll back in time to the era of the five kings and the golden age of fourteenth century Singapore. Visit the keramat that shelters an ancient tomb. This tomb purportedly contains the remains of the last ruler of pre-colonial Singapore. Explore the archaeological dig, where several fourteenth century artefacts on display reveal evidence of trading with Chinese merchants during that era. Stop at the interpretative signboards that point out historic locations and intriguing information on ancient Singapore.14 The intent is ostensibly pedagogical. The walk is designed to let a visitor learn about fourteenth-century Singapore by visiting locations that contain items, sites and informative signs. Each location of significance is numbered (H1 to H24) on the map given in the pamphlet and on the 14 National Parks Board, “A Guide to Singapore’s Ancient History Walking Trail at Fort Canning Park”, accessed 6 March 2017, https://www.nparks.gov.sg/~/media/ nparks-real-content/learning/learning-journeys/guided-walks/diy-guided-walks/revisiting-history/diy-trail-guide--singapores-ancient-history-walking-trail.pdf?la=en. 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … 107 signage. The numbered locations are situated alongside a footpath. The order of H1 to H24 along the footpath suggests a sequential layout. The Sequential Layout and Its Pedagogical Implications The location numbered ‘H1’ contains a pair of informational signboards. The one on the visitor’s left is entitled “The 14th Century Walk” and serves as the initiating informational signboard of the walk. It gives a brief history of the hill and its significance in the fourteenth century, stating that there was already a royal palace on the hill in 1330. The signboard on the visitor’s right is a magnified version of the map of the walk that is found on the bottom of the left-hand signboard. This map is a simplification of the map of Fort Canning; the items of interest to the theme “The 14th Century Walk” H1 to H24 are highlighted, while other features on the hill are kept to a minimum and are there to fix the relative position of the walk. Each of H1 to H24 is informatively titled (for example, “H10 The Royal Palace” and “H19 Singapore’s Golden Age”) and is listed at the bottom of the map. Because the walk is superimposed on a prior existing landscape of human activity features and landmarks that are not within the scope of interest of the walk’s theme, the map is essential. It brings the 14th Century Walk into existence by identifying its path and displays from among the plethora of features and landmarks on Fort Canning. Without the walk map, the walk does not exist (Fig. 4.1). We can see from the sequence H1 to H24 that the layout of displays along the walk is probably intended to be sequential. A spatial sequential layout can be pedagogically intended as a mirror of conceptual sequences such as that of a process or a chronology. More straightforwardly, items can be in spatial sequence because that is where they are actually found. If so, then the information-bearing signboard marking the site in question is in situ justified by the immediate perceptual presence of the object that it is describing. The conceptual relations between the items that are in sequence are of more than one kind. Table 4.1 shows possible conceptual relations between items that are in sequence on the walk. It also states where items are not conceptually related but have their positions in the sequence by virtue of the fact that they are actually found there. 108 A. KWEK Fig. 4.1 The pair of informational signboards at the beginning of the 14th Century Walk 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … 109 Table 4.1 Possible conceptual relations between items that are in sequence on the walk No. Descriptive title H1 The 14th Century Walk H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 Comments on sequential relationa H1 introduces and summarizes all the other Hs, including H2. H1 is hierarchically more general than is the case from H2 onwards The Kings of 14th Century H2 is an elaboration of one aspect of Singapore in Singapore the 14th century, and thus an item hierarchically categorizable under H1. The spatial sequence of H1 and H2 is hierarchical Keramat Iskandar Shah H3 is both hierarchically related to H2, as the purported final resting place of one of the kings of 14th century Singapore, and also an on-site display, in that the informational sign at H3 refers to the actual spot of the purported tomb Parameswara’s Retreat H4 recounts a significant event in the life of the king purportedly buried at H3 (Iskandar Shah was also known as Parameswara). Chronologically, the sequence H3 and H4 should be reversed. The spatial sequence is incongruent with the chronological sequence Longyamen (Dragon’s Tooth H5 describes a narrow passage of sea between Strait) Labrador Point and Sentosa, used extensively by traders, which was documented by travelers in the fourteenth century. That passage is now called the “Keppel Straits”, and is about 2 km away. While the relevance to the walk’s theme is evident, H5 bears no sequential relation to H4 or H6 as a matter of chronology. Furthermore, while H3 is in situ justified because of its on-site referent, the referent of Longyamen 2 km away does not similarly justify the position of H5 The Archaeological Dig and The archaeological dig is not an item of display. Exhibition Area Instead, the site is a gallery in itself, consisting of the dig site with a mini-sequence of informational signboards and the exhibition consisting of showcased artifacts and informational signboards. H6 will be discussed more fully later in the chapter. H5’s position is in situ justified because of its on-site referent (continued) 110 A. KWEK Table 4.1 (continued) No. Descriptive title Comments on sequential relationa H7 14th Century Gold Ornaments H8 Ancient Garden H9 Singapore and Java The location of H7 after H6 does not mirror any evident sequential relation, just the association of gold ornaments as artifacts that may be discovered at an archaeological dig. The relevance to the theme is evident, however: the artifacts being gold ornaments “wrought in the style consistent with jewellery from the 14th century”.b This signage would have been more justifiably located nearer to the service reservoir, where it would receive in situ justification by referring to where the gold ornaments were found (“Chinese labourers carrying out excavation work at the Fort Canning Reservoir discovered gold ornaments hidden 10 feet (3 metres) below the ground surface.”c) While there is no sequential relation between H7 and H8 that is reflected by their spatial sequence, H8 receives in situ justification, since the entire hill, and hence the immediate environs of H8, used to be populated by tropical fruit trees. The signage reproduces the documentation of these trees by John Crawfurd in a diary entry around about 4 February 1822 H9 does not have any conceptual sequential relation to H8; neither does it have any in situ justification. The content of the signboard gives very brief notes about the political relationship between Singapore and Java in the fourteenth century There is no conceptual sequential relation mirrored by the spatial sequence between H10 and H9. The signage receives some in situ justification from the reported fact (on the signage) that the “slopes of the hill were landscaped to create terraces on which the king’s dwellings and other buildings stood overlooking the city below”.d This might include the immediate environs of the signage H10 The Royal Palace (continued) 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … 111 Table 4.1 (continued) No. Descriptive title H11 Construction of the Palace on the Forbidden Hill H12 Parit Singapura H13 Clashes with Siamese Comments on sequential relationa H11 elaborates on one aspect of the information provided by H10. As such, the spatial sequence is justifiable by the fact that the information provided by H11 is hierarchically subsumable by the topic of the royal palace on the hill. On the walk after H11, one arrives at an extensive comic strip panel detailing the historical events surrounding the five kings of ancient Singapore. This panel stands in a space off the walk’s footpath. This space can be interpreted as a break from the sequence of the items on the walk, and thus the next item, H12, does not require justification by conceptual sequential relation to H11 “Parit” is Malay for “moat”. While conceptual sequential relation to H11 is not required, the location of signage with this content at this point of the walk seems arbitrary. The signage would receive in situ justification from being located at Stamford Canal/Stamford Road, where a wall was discovered by the British in 1819, and which is speculated to be the wall alongside which the moat ran, as this is what is reported by the signage H13 does not have conceptual sequential relation to H12; neither does it have in situ justification for its location. However, H13 details events that come sequentially prior to those detailed by H4, since it states that “decisive” attacks caused the ruler, who later founded Malacca, to “abandon his kingdom and flee for his life”. Hence, H13 should be placed along the walk just before H4. Given that H3 is the tomb of the aforementioned king, that location will also give H13 in situ justification. A little down the path from this signage stands another space just off the path with a bench facing a panel entitled “Pre-Colonial Singapore”. On this panel are comic strip-styled sketches with captions and titles that reflect some of the signs on the walk—some yet to be covered. This area can, again, be construed as a break in the progression of the walk, removing the need for conceptual sequential or in situ justification of the next informational sign (continued) 112 A. KWEK Table 4.1 (continued) No. Descriptive title H14 14th Century Singapore H15 Temasek, Singapore and Singapura H16 The Singapore Stone H17 The Strongman of 14th Century Singapore H18 The Forbidden Spring Comments on sequential relationa Due to the break mentioned in relation to H13, H14 does not require conceptual sequential justification for its position in the spatial sequence after H13. H14 presents fourteenth-century Singapore in terms of two settlements, Longyamen and Banzu There is no clear sequential connection between H15 and H14. H15 states that ancient Singapore was known as Temasek, and explains how the name “Singapura” was derived. The derivation of the name “Singapura” was an event in the life of the first of the five kings. As such, this event could have chronological sequential justification if located after H2 and before H3 H16 does not bear any conceptual sequential relation to H15; neither does it have in situ justification. Its position in the walk’s sequence seems arbitrary H16 has a role in the events of the life of the person, the strong man Badang, to whom H17 relates. According to the signage’s information, Badang was appointed by Raja Muda as a “court warrior”.e This relation to the life of one of the five kings of ancient Singapore would suit H16 and H17 as part of a chronological sequence if located early in the walk. Since, chronologically, Raja Muda was the third of the five kings, signage such as H16 and H17 related to his life would find sequential justification if located before those of the last of the five kings, Iskandar Shah (H3) We next come to a signage about Pancur Larangan (“Forbidden Spring”), which purportedly flowed from “the west side of Fort Canning Hill”.f This signage can have in situ justification as it is located on the west side of Fort Canning Hill. This justification can be made explicit by including the location of the signage in the description and by having a directional legend on the map that is reproduced on the bottom half of the signage (continued) 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … 113 Table 4.1 (continued) No. Descriptive title H19 Singapore’s Golden Age H20 The Decline of Singapore’s First Golden Age H21 Hang Tuah H22 Singapore in the 16th Century H23 Singapore in the 17th Century H24 Ruins of ancient Singapore Comments on sequential relationa This signage is unrelated in conceptual sequence to the previous signage and does not have in situ justification. It very briefly mentions that archaeological evidence supports the claim made by local Malay folklore that Singapore was a “prosperous port” This signage receives conceptual sequential justification as it presents the events that chronologically supersede those reported by H19. However, as the text is about Iskandar Shah and H20 does not have substantial matter about Singapore’s Golden Age, the content receives more conceptual sequential justification if presented on signage placed in chronological sequence about Iskandar Shah’s life, before his tomb H21 does not have conceptual sequential relation to H20; neither does it have in situ justification. Its inclusion at that position in the walk’s sequence seems arbitrary This signage and the next seem out of place in a walk that is named a “14th Century Walk”. H22, however, receives conceptual sequential justification as it comes at the end of the walk, mirroring the chronological sequence of the sixteenth century coming after the fourteenth century H23 receives conceptual sequential justification as it comes after H22, mirroring the chronological sequence of the seventeenth century coming after the sixteenth century H24 receives in situ justification as it is located on the very site of the ruins Note aThe table also states where items are not conceptually related but have their positions in the sequence by virtue of the fact that they are actually found there bNational Parks Board, “14th Century Gold Ornaments”, Fort Canning 14th Century Walk H7 Site Signboard, n.d. cIbid dNational Parks Board, “The Royal Palace”, Fort Canning 14th Century Walk H10 Site Signboard, n.d. eNational Parks Board, “The Strongman of 14th Century Singapore”, Fort Canning 14th Century Walk H17 Site Signboard, n.d. fNational Parks Board, “The Forbidden Spring”, Fort Canning 14th Century Walk H18 Site Signboard, n.d. 114 A. KWEK Breaks in the Walk Sequence At H6, after H11 and after H13, there are breaks in the continuity of the spatial sequence of the 14th Century Walk. The break at H6 is different from the breaks at H11 and H13. While the break at H6 is an extensive detour that has a sequential structure of its own that teaches the elements of an archaeological dig and displays artifacts that were discovered on-site, the breaks after H11 and H13 contain straightforward summaries, in the form of cartoon panels, of sub-themes of the walk that are deemed important. The breaks after H11 and H13 double up as gathering rest stops—the break after H13 even has a long curved bench facing the cartoon panels, but the break after H6 has neither space nor furnishing for gathering or rest (Figs. 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4). H6, entitled “The Archaeological Dig and Exhibition Area”, marks the location of an archaeological dig site, which is left as it was during the dig. A series of informative signboards run along the sides of the dig site and extend into an exhibition gallery behind the site. They are numbered continuously from 1 to 19; this suggests the intention that visitors should pay attention to each signboard sequentially. The signboard H6 introduces the visitor to the facts about the dig site; for example, that it was started by Dr John N. Miksic in 1984, how long it lasted, and its relative location. It goes on to talk about other archaeological sites in Singapore and what we can conclude about the unearthed artifacts. A mini-sequence of signboards bud off from the signboard labelled H6. They begin at the dig site commencing with information about Singapore’s ancient history. The content of the sequence changes at the exhibition passageway where artifacts, mostly pottery shards, are displayed. The contents of the signs here refer to the displays and give information about earthenware and ceramics of the periods to which the displayed artifacts belong. After one emerges from the exhibition passageway, the walkway is at the opposite side of the archaeological dig, and concerns the technical aspects of an archaeological dig, with topics such as “Ceramics and Chronology”, “Stratigraphy: The Science of Soil Layers” and “Archaeological Techniques” (Fig. 4.5). The mini-sequential layout that buds off from H6 creates a break in the main H sequence of the walk. This break is cognitively demanding because it mirrors a sequence of going deeper into the topic introduced by the signboard at H6. The entire mini-sequence is in situ justified— either by the dig site itself, or the artifacts on display in the gallery 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … Fig. 4.2 The break at H6: The archaeological dig 115 116 A. KWEK Fig. 4.3 The break after H11 behind it. The visitor is confronted by spaces that contain actual, concrete referents of the signage in the mini-sequence, reifying their uptake of the information that the signboards seek to convey. In contrast to the break from the main H sequence afforded at H6, the breaks after H11 and H13 are straightforward spaces for the visitor to rest, mingle with other visitors, or to recapitulate the various items covered by the walk so far by means of the summarizing informative cartoon panels present in those spaces. The break after H11 is at the far end of a paved clearing on the side of the walkway that leads to H12. It requires a deviation from the walkway to enter, allowing for a crowd to gather without obstructing the passage of visitors who choose to continue to H12. Similarly, the break after H13 is hived off from the side of the walkway, with a bench facing the cartoon paneling for visitors to sit and rest, or to inspect the summarizing information presented there while sitting down. These rest breaks double up as breaks in the conceptual sequence of the signage—even though the next signboard is in 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … Fig. 4.4 The break at H13 117 118 A. KWEK Fig. 4.5 The exhibition passageway 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … 119 spatial and numerical sequence, there is no need for a conceptual connection to the previous signboard because of the summarizing break. Cross-Thematic Aspects of the Walk: Botanicals and Art As one proceeds along the 14th Century Walk, the interstitial spaces between the H signs contain many signs that serve to identify plant species that are present at the respective signs. These are plant species that have historical significance in that they were spices that were heavily traded in the region, or are plant species that were cultivated on those very locations from ancient to colonial times. The presence of the historically significant plant species such as sea hibiscus, ylang ylang and wild nutmegs serve to reify the visitor’s experience of the historical content of the H signboards; for example, of how the ancient palace grounds must have smelled. The signs that label and describe the plant species receive in situ justification since they have nearby referents (Fig. 4.6). The sequential signboards of the 14th Century Walk are also interspersed at points by art pieces such as “The Right Side Down” (Teo Huey Ling 2016), and “Wouldn’t Shoe” (Gerard Velthoen 2016). These installations are referred to by signage that not only includes the title, artist and year, but also a short write-up of its meaning. A visitor on the 14th Century Walk is invited to make their own associations by unexpected contemporary art pieces in the course of learning about Singapore’s fourteenth-century history. The connections that one can draw can serve to illuminate the H signboards that precede or succeed them. For example, one encounters the art piece “A Portrait” (Chang Wei 2016) after the signboard H17, about Badang, the “Strongman of 14th Century Singapore”. The art piece is surprising because it is ostensibly not a portrait as one normally understands the term to refer to a painting, drawing or sculpture of a person’s upper body, where the person’s face is the focus. Instead, it looks like a wooden post with footprints stamped into its side. The signage about the art piece reads, “Generally, a portrait is not a snapshot, but a composed image of a person, on his personality and even his mood are displayed.” The surprise of the referent of something entitled “A Portrait” and the grammatically unsound sentence jolts one into the realization that portraits need not take their standard referents. This leads one to recompose the information conveyed by H17: to what extent is Lat’s (the cartoonist’s) cartoon rendering of 120 A. KWEK Fig. 4.6 Botanical signage intermingled with walk signage Badang a characterization of Badang? What if the story of Badang is a portrait of the Singaporean spirit, rather than a portrait of a historical person? (Fig. 4.7) These two cross-thematic aspects of the Walk serve to activate one’s speculative and evaluative thoughts about the information that the Walk presents. One is involved in knowledge construction rather than mere uptake, making one’s interaction with the presented material even more engaging and memorable. The Tiong Bahru Heritage Trail In contrast to Fort Canning’s 14th Century Walk, the National Heritage Board’s Tiong Bahru Heritage Trail presents the visitor with an ostensibly gridded layout. Recall that a gridded layout does not determine any sequence in which the visitor should visit the displays. The fact that the Tiong Bahru Heritage Trail presents the visitor with a gridded 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … Fig. 4.7 Chang Wei’s “A Portrait” 121 122 A. KWEK layout is not evident from the trail map. This is because the maps present the sites as numbered sequentially, from 01 to 10. The spatial experience of a visitor actually on the trail belies the sequential numbering for two reasons. First, the thoroughfares along which many of the sites are located are often wide combinations of pavement, street and grass verges that can accommodate walkers in opposite directions. Second, there are items in the vicinity of the trail that can prompt one to wander in directions other than those dictated by the number sequence (Fig. 4.8). The Gridded Layout and Its Pedagogical Implications Table 4.2 organizes information about the various sites that are marked on the trail map as having heritage significance and the streets by which they are located, and relevantly interesting features of the streets. What can be noted from the descriptions of the street features is that many of the heritage sites are very close to one another, to the extent that one is visible from another. The heritage sites are numbered according to a walk that would take a visitor from one point to another without backtracking or crossing the path previously taken. This spatial sequence can be rationalized as a walk that efficiently takes a person from one heritage site to another because it covers all the marked sites in the shortest distance. Considerations of efficiency do not reflect the conceptual connections between the informative content of the site signboards. However, because of the ample walk spaces and the lack of a superimposed conceptual sequence, the gridded layout allows a visitor to visit the sites in whichever order they please. This makes possible the spatial grouping of sites according to themes. We present two possible themes: architecture styles and road names. Architectural Styles The flats of Tiong Bahru are renowned for their distinctive architectural styles. Chronologically, the bearers of these styles can be divided into pre-war and post-war flats that were built by the Singapore Improvement Trust. The flats that were built in the pre-war years were begun in 1936. These can be identified by stretches of unpainted brick in the exterior walls of the buildings. The distinctive architecture is Streamline Moderne, an Art Deco style that was inspired by vehicles modern at that time. It is characterized thus: 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … 123 Fig. 4.8 The trail map reproduced on the top right-hand corner of every piece of site marker signage 124 A. KWEK Table 4.2 Points of interest marked on the trail map No. Heritage site title Street features 01 The Origin and Development of Tiong Bahru 02 Bird Corner & Former Hu Lu Temple 03 Graves of Tan Tock Seng, Chua Seah Neo and Wuing Neo 04 The Outram Precinct 05 Monkey God Temple 06 The Architecture of Tiong Bahru The location of the heritage sign is closer to the junction of Seng Poh Road and Lim Liak Street than is represented by the map. Seng Poh Road is a two-way street with a partially paved street divider. Lim Liak Street is a one-way street in the direction of Heritage Site 10 The heritage sign and site are located at the junction of Tiong Bahru Road and Seng Poh Road. In order to reach here from Heritage Site 01, one has to walk against the flow of traffic on the paved side of Seng Poh Road The sites are located on Outram Hill behind a bus stop on Outram Road. It is inconvenient to walk here from Heritage Site 02 because, as one walks against the flow of traffic along Seng Poh Road, one either has to jaywalk across the street or, on the other side of the street, walk on the road itself, as the sidewalk peters out into a drain and a curb Walking down Outram Road in the direction of Singapore General Hospital, one encounters the signboard for the site next to the first Singapore General Hospital building and across a building in the International Style along Tiong Bahru Road. Crossing the road takes the visitor to Heritage Site 05 The Monkey God Temple is at the intersection of Eng Hoon Street and Tiong Poh Road. Both streets are narrow, two- way streets with little traffic Continuing down Tiong Poh Road in the direction of vehicular traffic, one reaches Heritage Site 06. The Streamline Moderne architectural style is exhibited by the blocks that line the road on both sides (continued) 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … 125 Table 4.2 (continued) No. Heritage site title 07 08 09 10 Tiong Bahru Community Centre Street features Although one arrives at Tiong Bahru Community Centre by continuing down Tiong Poh Road from Heritage Site 06, this is the rear of the community center. To get to the front of the community center where the Heritage Site signboard is located, one has to walk around the community center via Guan Chuan Street and then Seng Poh Road. Here, Heritage Site 07 is just across the narrow Seng Poh Road from Heritage Site 08. One actually reaches Site 08 first when turning right on Guan Chuan Street, before Site 07, which is diagonally across and down the road from Site 08, away from Guan Chuan Street Seng Poh Garden and Dancing Girl Heritage Site 08, along Seng Poh Road, refers Sculpture to a garden that contains a sculpture of a dancing girl. The site is surrounded by blocks in the Streamline Moderne style The Horse-Shoe Block The Horse-Shoe Block is built in the Streamline Moderne style. It is a massive block in a horse-shoe shape. Around the “U” of the horseshoe runs Yong Siak Street, Moh Guan Terrace and Guan Chuan Street. The interior space of the “U” provides car parking. At the “feet” of the “U” are two blocks in the Streamline Moderne style, and, on the other side of these two blocks, is Chay Yan Street. In stark contrast to the distinctive architecture of the Horse-Shoe Block, the row of shophouses across Yong Siak Street from it is of a nondescript and utilitarian later design Design of Tiong Bahru’s Post-War Heritage Site 10 is situated at the end of Lim Flats Liak Street, close to where it ends at Kim Pong Road. The flats here were built in the post-war years, in a second wave of building by the Singapore Improvement Trust. They are in the International Style and have their boxy aesthetic broken by curved designs reminiscent of bows of ships and portholes 126 A. KWEK [C]lean, curved shapes and rounded corners; long horizontal and vertical lines; occasional nautical elements (such as port-hole windows and stainless steel railings); simple, uncluttered lines; bands of windows; flat roof; racing stripes simulate speed and motion; and glass blocks and group windows.15 The style is ubiquitous along both sides of Tiong Poh Road, Eng Watt Street, Guan Chuan Street, and one side of Chay Yan Street, Yong Siak Street, Moh Guan Terrace and Seng Poh Road. These streets also contain six out of the ten heritage sites (Fig. 4.9). Seng Poh Road has flats of the pre-war Streamline Moderne style on one side and flats of the post-war International Style on the other side. Built between 1948 and 1954, these flats inherited the vehicular inspiration of the older style across the road by having curved open-air stairwells that remind one of the bows of ships and a circular porthole-like design on the wall of the stairwell. The similarity ends here, however, as the nautical embellishment sought only to temper the brute utilitarian International Style. This style was characterized thus: Practitioners of the International Style adopted a machine aesthetic, emphasising abstract, undecorated surfaces and following the edict that form follows function. This meant that the designs favoured the heavy use of concrete, steel and glass, and tended to be boxy and stark.16 The plot of land bordered by Seng Poh Road, Tiong Bahru Road, Kim Pong Road and Moh Guan Terrace contains 28 blocks of flats in the International Style. Lim Liak Street runs through the plot, connecting Seng Poh Road with Kim Pong Road. Double-counting the heritage sites found along Seng Poh Road and Moh Guan Terrace, four heritage sites can be found here, with Heritage Site 10 the only site that is not shared (Fig. 4.10). The distinctiveness of the two architectural styles, the proximity of the buildings that manifest these styles and the numerous marked heritage sites in the areas containing flats of these architecture styles suggests 15 National Heritage Board, “The Architecture of Tiong Bahru”, Signboard at Tiong Bahru Heritage Trail Site 06, n.d. 16 National Heritage Board, “Design of Tiong Bahru’s Post-War Flats”, Signboard at Tiong Bahru Heritage Trail Site 10, n.d. 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … 127 Fig. 4.9 Signage 06 and surrounding Streamline Moderne architecture visiting the heritage sites with the theme of architecture style in mind, rather than following their numerical sequence. The relative locations of the styles make comparison easy along roads such as Seng Poh Road, where different styles flank the road. One can even simultaneously compare other architectural styles visually; for example, between Streamline Moderne and Peranakan styles at the junction of Tiong Poh Road and Eng Hoon Street, and between Streamline Moderne and a nondescript utilitarian style flanking Yong Siak Street. Any information proffered by the various marking the heritage sites can then be imbibed in the context of architectural style, rather than read as standalone pieces of information. The signboard for Heritage Site 10 at Lim Liak Street, which contains information about the International Style, states that the designers of the flats took seriously the heat and rain of the tropics. One might observe the flats around for features that are conducive to cooling shade in the tropical heat and shelter or flood preventing features against heavy rain. 128 A. KWEK Fig. 4.10 Signage 10 and surrounding international style architecture 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … 129 One could then construe information proffered by the Heritage Site 01 signboard near the other end of Lim Liak Street, at its junction with Seng Poh Street, in light of design features that are conducive to tropical living. One could also understand the “‘open development principle’ with open spaces such as grassy plots and playgrounds served by footpaths created between the blocks” to mimic the spaces that the residents of kampong houses would enjoy, for relaxation, as thoroughfares and for play.17 Furthermore, one could compare the almost makeshift zincroofed old Tiong Bahru Market from the photo available on the Site 01 signboard with the flats of the International Style and appreciate how the raised “five-foot ways” serve to elevate walkways above rainwater flooding in a way that would have been impossible for the wares laid out on the open ground of the old market to avoid. One could then compare the information contained in the Site 10 signboard with the information contained in the Site 06 signboard. One may be surprised at how misleadingly titled the Site 06 signboard is (“The Architecture of Tiong Bahru”), given that it makes reference with ostensibly in situ justification to a distinctive architecture style that is differentiated from the “Design of Tiong Bahru’s Post-War Flats” referred to by the Site 10 signboard. Tiong Bahru does not have one but two distinctive architecture styles displayed by its flats. Continuing one’s exploration of the Streamline Moderne neighborhood, one may marvel at how the architecture style can be scaled up into the massive horseshoe block that the Site 09 signboard makes reference to, and how buildings of two completely different architectural styles, The Horse-Shoe Block and the Tiong Bahru Community Centre (marked by the signboard at Heritage Site 07) can similarly accommodate an air-raid shelter beneath each. Finally, at Heritage Site 06, one can speculate on whether the Dancing Girl Sculpture at Seng Poh Garden continues the vehicular inspiration that is shared by the two architectural styles: do the folds of her skirt resemble the fins of a jet engine? A gridded museum layout is conducive to knowledge creation as the visitor is free to visit and revisit displays in any order, and to make sense of the resultant order in their own way. There is no imposed sequence of visitation that reflects a preconceived relation between the displays. Diverging from the efficiency of spatially following the numbered 17 Ibid. 130 A. KWEK sequence of heritage sites on the trail, we can make sense of many of the sites in relation to architectural style. The discussion in this section shows how it can be done with certain sites as examples. Creating one’s knowledge from sites in a gridded layout has two benefits. First, the fact that one creates the knowledge by oneself gives ownership over the knowledge, and the ownership motivates the learner to find out more, or to make more connections. Second, the creation of links and the deriving of conclusions of one’s own walk of discovery serve to etch the details of the walk more deeply in one’s memory. In the next subsection, we consider another way of rationalizing the sites: by road names. Road Names Another thematic grouping with which to visit the heritage sites is by road name. With the exception of Tiong Bahru Road and Outram Road, the roads in Tiong Bahru are named after notable Chinese businessmen in Singapore’s nineteenth-century history. The informative signboards at each of the numbered sites on the trail often have additional information about the person after whom the road at the site is named. In addition, there are informative signboards not belonging to the trail, which provide information on personalities behind road names. Table 4.3 summarizes information about the various heritage sites along the trail and about the personality after whom the road at which the heritage site is located was named (Fig. 4.11). In addition to the numbered trail sites, there are two informative signboards off the trail that also present extensive information about personalities after whom roads were named. One of the signboards presents the life of Tan Chay Yan, grandson of Tan Tock Seng, as the “first rubber planter in Malaya”.18 It is found on the wall of one of the Streamline Moderne blocks along Chay Yan Street. The other signboard presents the life of Tan Kim Ching, the eldest son of Tan Tock Seng. He was a successful businessman, a leader of the Chinese community, appointed Justice of the Peace by the British, bestowed a second-rank imperial court title by the Ching emperor and was Siamese Consul-General.19 The road that bears his name in Tiong Bahru is Kim Cheng Street. Tan 18 National Heritage Board, “Tan Chay Yan: First Rubber Planter in Malaya”, Storyboard, 27 July 2014. 19 National Heritage Board, “Tan Kim Ching, J. P. (1829–1892)”, Storyboard, 27 July 2014. 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … 131 Table 4.3 Various heritage sites along the trail No. Heritage site Road name described by site signboard 01 Tiong Bahru 04 05 The Origin and Development of Tiong Bahru Bird Corner & Former Hu Lu Temple Graves of Tan Tock Seng, Chua Seah Neo & Wuing Neo The Outram Precinct Monkey God Temple 06 The Architecture of Tiong Bahru 07 Tiong Bahru Community Centre 08 09 Seng Poh Garden & Dancing Girl Sculpture The Horse-Shoe Block 10 Design of Tiong Bahru’s Post-War Flats 02 03 Tiong Bahru Road and Seng Poh Road Outram Road Outram Road Eng Hoon Street, Sit Wah Road and Tiong Poh Road Eng Watt Street, Sit Wah Road and Tiong Poh Road Eu Chin Street, Guan Chuan Street and Eng Watt Street Seng Poh Road and Moh Guan Terrace Moh Guan Terrace and Guan Chuan Street Lim Liak Street Kim Cheng Road, though, is beyond the Tiong Bahru neighborhood, near the junction of Bukit Timah Road and Farrer Road. The signboard is located on the wall of Tiong Bahru Market and Food Centre, just beside the narrow Kim Cheng Street that runs along the wall. The other side of the street blocks of flats in the post-war International Style can be seen (Figs. 4.12 and 4.13). From the above summary alone, one can appreciate the history that one can learn by simply paying attention to the personalities after whom the streets are named. Should one take this approach, one could make connections between Heritage Site 03 (“Graves of Tan Tock Seng, Chua Seah Neo & Wuing Neo”), Chay Yan Street and Tan Kim Cheng Road, since these locations make in situ reference to names of members of the same family. Furthermore, one can appreciate the fact that the very existence of Site 03 was made possible by Tan Kim Cheng’s buying of the land on Outram Hill for family burial. Over and above the person after whom the street was named, some of the signboards at heritage sites give interesting details about the streets themselves. For example, the signboard at Site 04 (“The Outram Precinct”) tells us that Outram Road used to be known as River Valley Road, but that created confusion with a road of the same 132 A. KWEK Fig. 4.11 Example of site marker signage with road name information 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … 133 Fig. 4.12 The informative signboard about Tan Chay Yan name that lay in a different river valley. We also learn about prominent buildings that used to be located along Outram Road. The signboard at Site 05 (“Monkey God Temple”) describes Eng Hoon Street as one of the earliest streets in Tiong Bahru to be developed, presents Sit Wah Road as the site of the “first cluster of buildings to be constructed in Tiong Bahru”, a “row of three shophouses”, and the people who were responsible for these initial building projects. We learn also that Sit Wah Road and Eng Hoon Street “were once linked to each other and led to the Singapore General Hospital”.20 We can appreciate the difference in the current layout of the two roads, still linked together, but now separated from the Singapore General Hospital by the Central Expressway. 20 National Heritage Board, “Monkey God Temple”, Signboard at Tiong Bahru Heritage Trail Site 05, n.d. 134 A. KWEK Fig. 4.13 The informative signboard about Tan Kim Cheng Another example of a signboard describing roads, rather than just the person with whom it shares its name, is the signboard at Heritage Site 02 (“Bird Corner & Former Hu Lu Temple”). From the signboard at Heritage Site 01 (“The Origin and Development of Tiong Bahru”), we already learn the meaning of “Tiong Bahru”. Here, we learn that Tiong Bahru Road “ran through a large Chinese cemetery that stretched all the way to Leng Kee Road”.21 Finally, while we learn from the signboard at Heritage Site 08 (“Seng Poh Garden & Dancing Girl Sculpture”) about the person that Seng Poh Road is named after, it is at the signboard at Heritage Site 01 where we discover that on the current site of the Tiong Bahru Market and Food Centre once stood the Seng Poh Road Market, which took the place of the first market in the Tiong Bahru neighborhood, at Tiong Poh Road. While the Tiong Bahru and Food Centre and the Seng Poh Road Market occupy the same plot of land at the corner 21 National Heritage Board, “Bird Corner & Former Hu Lu Temple”, Signboard at Tiong Bahru Heritage Trail Site 02, n.d. 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … 135 of Seng Poh Road and Lim Liak Street, they are worlds apart. We can observe from the photographs on the signboard at Site 01 the rudimentary zinc-roofed structure and the disorganized laying of wares by hawkers on the ground that was Seng Poh Market, and compare this image with the clean, well-lit and well-ventilated two-storey building with a rooftop carpark before us. Conclusion By way of concluding this study, we summarize how the 14th Century Walk at Fort Canning and the Tiong Bahru Heritage Trail, in exemplifying a sequential layout and a gridded layout, respectively, can fail to contribute pedagogically to conveying their historical information. Finally, we return to the more general topic of the peripheral spaces of walks and show how the study was made possible only by attending to the spaces from which displays and vantages are presented; spaces that are peripheral and overlooked when dominated by the spaces containing the objects of presentation. The Pedagogical Pitfalls of Sequential Layouts Sequential layouts are pedagogically useful when the order of displays mirror some conceptual order between the information presented at the different displays. This can be chronological, processual or hierarchical. There are two ways in which the spatial sequence of displays can serve to thwart pedagogical goals. The first way is where the spatial sequence is reversed in the conceptual sequence; for example, in a sequential layout that whose direction of visitor travel corresponds to the movement from earlier to later in a chronology, unjustified reversals in the chronological sequence can serve to confuse the visitor. The second way is where an item in an explicitly sequential layout exhibits no conceptual continuity with the previous item in the sequence and there are no alternative justifications for its inclusion at that point in the sequence. Such inclusions can also serve to confuse a visitor expecting a reason for including something at a certain point in a sequence. A sequential layout does not mandate that every item contains information that can be sequentially rationalized, but it does require that information that cannot be sequentially rationalized has its presence at that point in the sequence rationalized in some other way. In our 136 A. KWEK discussion, we explored two forms of rationalization: first, breaks in the spatial order, exemplified by rest stops and gathering spaces, can indicate the start of a new sequence at the next display, thus obviating the need for it to be sequentially rationalized; second, a display that bears no sequential rationalization to the previous display in the sequence can have in situ justification because that spatial position is, or was, precisely where the referent of the information is found. In designing walks in which the sequential layout is explicit, care should be taken to ensure that the spatial sequence is rationalized by the information presented by the displays. The Pedagogical Pitfalls of Gridded Layouts Gridded layouts are pedagogically useful when the scatter of displays allow a visitor to construct their own knowledge vis-à-vis the displays and the in situ justified information provided about them. Because the knowledge is constructed by the visitor, their ownership of the knowledge motivates them to discover more and inscribes the learning more deeply in their memory. There are two potential problems that a gridded layout presents and which can distract a visitor from concertedly pursuing one line of knowledge construction: competing sequential themes and competing objects of interest. The first problem is that of conflicting sequential themes. The designer of a walk in which many, if not all, of the significant items on the walk have in situ justification may want to specify a sequence of visitation for the visitor so that the visitor efficiently covers all the notable sites in the shortest distance. The items that are in the stipulated spatial sequence do not have any systematic conceptual relations that are mirrored by the sequence. As such, the visitor does not benefit from the spatial reiteration of such a sequence. Treating the trail experience as one of ticking off a checklist of notable sites to visit, the visitor could end the walk with a completed mental checklist of sites and the corresponding photographs, but little retained knowledge. The second is that of competing objects of interest. The Tiong Bahru neighborhood is replete with quaint bookstores, coffee shops, cafés, bakeries and restaurants. Examples of quaint bookstores include The French Bookshop along Tiong Bahru Road, which specializes in the French books niche market, and Books Actually along Yong Siak Street, an independent 4 THE PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL SPACES … 137 bookstore that specializes in literature and poetry. Strangelets, a few doors away, tempts one away from the heritage trail with interesting knick-knacks for sale. Hua Bee at Moh Guan Terrace is the traditional coffee shop where Eric Khoo’s classic film Mee Pok Man was filmed. One can stop to savor the offerings of the famous P. S. Café Petit along Guan Chuan Street, or the Nonya kuehs (confectionaries) from Galicier Pastry along Tiong Bahru Road. At Tiong Bahru Market and Food Centre there is a smorgasbord of delectable local hawker fare, some of which were the same stalls that operated at the Seng Poh Road Wet Market that stood on the same site. One can seriously pursue a food-themed exploration of local fare here, relinquishing one’s prior pursuit of less gastronomic knowledge. Finally, if one walked the heritage trail in the evening, venerable Chinese restaurants such as the Por Kee Eating House and the Golden Spoon Restaurant at either end of Seng Poh Lane beckon the dinner-hungry visitor away from the heritage trail. Without a strong conceptual sequence justifying an explicitly designed spatial sequence, the mindboggling variety of distractions intermingled with the heritage trail sites threaten to distract the casual visitor from the knowledge that the trail can impart. The Peripheral Spaces of Walks It is unsurprising that the spaces of walks are frequently overlooked as a significant pedagogical contributor to the walker. What is of perceptual and cognitive interest to the visitor is not the space in which they walk but, rather, the objects contained in the spaces that are presented along their walking space. Yet, a visitor to a historical walk or a heritage trail can have their learning experience enhanced by attention to the spatial and conceptual organization relevant to the space in which the walking occurs: conceptual sequences mirrored by spatial sequence reiterate the conceptual relationships; exploration in unstructured layouts engender knowledge construction with the attendant benefits of ownership over the knowledge. In this exploratory study, we applied layout types and features from the area of museum design to an analysis of the pedagogical contributions of two walks in Singapore, Fort Canning’s 14th Century Walk and the Tiong Bahru Heritage Trail. The discussions about the two walks correspond to a discussion about a sequential layout and a gridded layout, respectively. We acquire pedagogical insights about these ways of organizing peripheral walk spaces in the process. 138 A. KWEK References Krathwohl, David R. “A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview”,. 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