close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

40927%28243%29539

код для вставкиСкачать
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007: Restoring Our Natural Habitat
© 2007 ASCE
Application of Water Quality Models to Everglades Restoration
Brooke T. Ahrens, E.I.1, Caroline Masek, P.E.2
1
Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University Of Florida on 10/25/17. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.
HDR Engineering, Inc., 1400 Centrepark Blvd. Ste 100, West Palm Beach, FL
33406; PH (561) 209-6623; FAX (561) 209-6606; email: brooke.ahrens@hdrinc.com
2
HDR Engineering, Inc., 2202 N. West Shore Blvd., Ste 250, Tampa, FL 33607; PH
(813) 282-2300; FAX (813) 282-2440; email: caroline.masek@hdrinc.com
Abstract
The C-44 Reservoir/Stormwater Treatment (STA) Project will be located on
approximately 12,000 acres of land located in southern Martin County, directly north
of the C-44 Canal, halfway between Lake Okeechobee and the Atlantic Ocean. The
Project will include an above-ground reservoir, pump station, canals, stormwater
treatment area cells, and associated structures to capture and treat water from the C44 Basin and water to be potentially diverted from the C-23 Basin in the future to
achieve flow attenuation and water quality goals. A number of analytical tools have
been utilized in the assessment of the Reservoir/STA system to assess these goals,
such as phosphorus load reduction. The primary tool utilized for this assessment is
the Dynamic Model for Stormwater Treatment Areas (DMSTA), which the South
Florida Water Management District has used to successfully assess STA
performance. In addition, CE-QUAL-W2 was applied in order to evaluate several inreservoir water quality parameters, such as nutrients, dissolved oxygen (DO), and
blue-green algae (cyanobacteria).
Introduction
The proposed C-44 Reservoir/Stormwater Treatment Area (STA) Project supports the
goals and objectives of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP).
This ambitious plan calls for the implementation of more than sixty projects over a
period of thirty years and will cost an estimated 10.9 billion dollars. The overarching
goal of the plan is to restore, protect, and preserve the water resources in a sixteen
county area of central and southern Florida, including the Everglades. The goal will
be achieved primarily by capturing excess surface water runoff that currently flows to
the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico and re-directing it to a series of
impoundments for storage and treatment.
The C-44 Project will be located on approximately 12,000 acres of land located in
southern Martin County, directly north of the C-44 Canal, halfway between Lake
Okeechobee and the Atlantic Ocean (see Figure 1.0). The Project will include an
above-ground reservoir, pump station, canals, stormwater treatment area cells, and
associated structures to capture and treat water from the C-44 Basin and potentially
the C-23 Basin in the future. The C-44 Project will also provide facilities for
-1Copyright ASCE 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007: Restoring Our Natural Habitat
© 2007 ASCE
Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University Of Florida on 10/25/17. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.
continued local agricultural operations. Currently, the land that comprises the project
site is in active citrus production and will continue through June 2007.
Figure 1.0 Location Map for C-44 Reservoir/STA Project
A number of analytical tools have been utilized in the assessment of the
Reservoir/STA system since a primary goal of the C-44 Reservoir/STA Project is to
reduce annual phosphorus loads. The overall analysis of the system includes a
reservoir & STA phosphorus treatment model and an in-reservoir water quality
model. The purpose of the water quality models is to develop an understanding of the
pollutant removal capability of the Reservoir/STA combination. The primary tool
utilized for this assessment is the Dynamic Model for Stormwater Treatment Areas
(DMSTA), which the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) has used
to successfully assess STA performance. DMSTA provides a single platform for
estimating the total phosphorus removal performance in reservoirs and wetlands. In
this case, wetland simulation includes those dominated by emergent macrophytes.
The model provides a flexible set of options for parameter selection, water balance
issues, water flows and internal hydraulics, and cell configurations.
In addition to DMSTA, a water quality model, CE-QUAL-W2, was applied in order
to evaluate several water quality parameters. Reservoir flows, soluble nutrients,
dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended solids (TSS), and blue-green algae
-2Copyright ASCE 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007: Restoring Our Natural Habitat
© 2007 ASCE
(cyanobacteria) were issues of particular interest in the model simulations. This
model is more appropriate for use in deeper water impoundments than the DMSTA
applied to the STA. The primary objective of this project is not concentration
reduction; rather the total phosphorus load reduction is considered the critical metric
for success.
Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University Of Florida on 10/25/17. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.
Model Overview and Results
Dynamic Model for Stormwater Treatment Areas Version 2 (DMSTA2)
DMSTA2, the 2005 version of DMSTA (Walker and Kadlec 2005), was selected for
the project. The purpose of the model is to assess the phosphorus removal capability
of both the STA and the reservoir. Flow derived from the RESHDR water budget
model and nutrient concentrations were provided by either the SFWMD or from URS
WaSh model results, which were assessed to determine the amount of phosphorus
removal that can be expected from the system.
DMSTA2 provides a single platform for estimating the total phosphorus removal
performance in reservoirs and wetlands. The available options for wetland simulation
include those dominated by emergent macrophytes (EMG - classic STA), submerged
aquatic vegetation (SAV), periphytic algae (PSTA), and pre-existing wetlands used
for water management (PEW). The model provides a flexible set of options for
parameter selection, water balance issues, water flows and internal hydraulics, and
cell configurations. The model’s calibration was based on various robust datasets
representative of each major vegetation type (EMG, SAV, PSTA, PEW). More
recently, calibration to lakes and reservoirs (RES) was also completed. For additional
model calibration information the reader is directed to http://www.wwwalker.net/
dmsta/index.htm.
DMSTA2 has the capability to simulate wetlands considering variations in inflow
volume, load, rainfall, and ET; hydraulic compartments; linking of reservoirs and
wetlands in parallel or in series; ability to provide for agricultural releases from
reservoir cells; compartmentalization of biological communities; dry-out frequency
and supplemental water needs; and seepage collection and management. The driving
variables and parameter values in the DMSTA include:
L
P Load, Including Atmospheric Deposition
mg/m2/yr
Q
K1
Outflow
Maximum Uptake Rate
m/yr
m3/mg-yr
K2
Recycle Rate
m2/mg-yr
K3
Burial Rate
1/yr
If it is assumed that the STA acts as a single completely-stirred tank reactor (CSTR)
at steady-state, the mass balance equations are:
-3Copyright ASCE 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007: Restoring Our Natural Habitat
Storage:
K1 C = K2 S + K3
Overall:
L – QC = K3 S
© 2007 ASCE
Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University Of Florida on 10/25/17. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.
It must be noted that early simulations using DMSTA (Version 1) during the Basis of
Design Report (BODR) phase were targeted at determining the STA performance
related to phosphorus removal for a wide variety of flow rates and STA
configurations. These initial simulations were utilized in the analysis of the potential
STA configurations and were simulated for two basic STA flow conditions. The first
inflow condition is based on the Indian River Lagoon – South Project Implementation
Report (IRL-S PIR) (USACE 2004) and includes inflow from the C-44 Basin and
diversion water from the C-23 Basin. The second inflow condition is the initial
condition for the Project with inflow only from the C-44 Basin, since the C-23 Canal
diversion will not exist at the startup of the Project. Existing flow and water quality
data were in the form of daily output files from the WaSh water quality model. The
model output files consisted of the 36-year period-of-record (POR) from January 1,
1965 to December 31, 2000 for the C-44 Basin and C-23 Basin. In keeping with the
goals and objectives of the IRL-S PIR, the regulatory releases from Lake Okeechobee
were excluded from the majority of the BODR modeling tasks. However, since the
C-44 Project will be operational prior to the completion of other CERP projects that
address the Lake Okeechobee regulatory releases, regulatory releases were considered
in the operations plan portion of the Preliminary and Intermediate Design phases
since it is assumed that these releases will exist during initial C-44 project operations.
Four cases from the water budget simulations were run in DMSTA2 and are
presented below. Four additional cases were run to include the Lake Okeechobee
Schedule Study (LORSS), but are not included in this paper. The consideration of
LORSS gives an idea of future potentially different operations due to differing water
levels. All cases included a maximum 15-ft reservoir water depth and a 1,100 cfs
maximum withdrawal from the C-44 Canal, the total capacity of the reservoir pump
station.
Case 1.
Base case Wash Model C-44 basin runoff and C-23 diversion, no Lake
Okeechobee regulatory releases
Case 2.
Base case WaSh Model C-44 basin runoff only, no Lake Okeechobee
regulatory releases
Case 3.
S-308 actual flows to C-44 Canal with Lake releases, negative return
flow to Lake assumed available for capture and storage (set to positive
values)
S-308 actual flows to C-44 Canal with Lake releases, negative return
flow to Lake assumed unavailable for capture and storage (set to zero)
Case 4.
The model results from the four cases are presented in Table 1.0. In the IRL-S PIR,
the C-23 diversion water is included as an input to the C-44 Project, and thus, it is
included in the cases with WaSh model input data. During Basis of Design Report
(BODR), Preliminary Design (PD), and Intermediate Design (ID) phases of the C-44
Project, cases 1 and 2 were updated for comparison of results of changing
-4Copyright ASCE 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007: Restoring Our Natural Habitat
© 2007 ASCE
Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University Of Florida on 10/25/17. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.
configurations and layout of the reservoir and STA components. Cases 3 and 4 were
compared during design phases due to potentially different operations or basin
capture schemes. These cases evaluate the recirculation of water discharged from the
Reservoir/STA system when the C-44 Canal is flowing toward Lake Okeechobee.
Load reduction will be maximized to the extent possible during this condition, but
efficiency is expected to decrease with each pass of the recycled water. However,
even though the mass removed decreases with each pass, the total removal
contributes to the load reduction goal. In general, results were similar throughout the
life of the C-44 Project, even with footprint changes. During the BODR phase, the
Project contained eight STA cells of 6,200 acres, the PD phase included seven STA
cells of 6,600 acres, and the ID phase finalized the configuration with six STA cells
of 6,300 acres.
The TP load reduction in the Reservoir and STA cells as modeled in DMSTA2
depends on system operations, as demonstrated by comparing the results of all cases.
The Intermediate Design detailed results can be found in Table 2.0 for demonstration
of component differences. The design of the C-44 Reservoir/STA system is such that
flows above the expected 600 cfs normal flow can be passed through the system.
Thus, the system has the capability to be operated in a manner that will increase the
flows through the STA cells and coincidentally increase the TP load reduction. The
input nutrient concentrations significantly affect load reduction. In general, modeled
WaSh concentrations are higher than actual data. The inclusion of C-23 Canal water,
which provides high nutrient loading to the STA, increases overall TP reduction.
Again, all four cases simulate emergent vegetation only within the STA cells,
resulting in conservative estimates for TP load reduction. The Reservoir was
simulated with a specific calibration for open water. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation
(SAV) zones, which increase TP load reduction when combined with emergent
vegetation, are expected in areas where former citrus grove ditches exist.
Table 1.0 Results of Water Budget and DMSTA2 Models
Case
1
Water Budget
Model C-44 Basin Flow Capture1
Total Phosphorus Load Reduction in
Reservoir and STA for Three Project
Phases (metric tons)
BODR
PD
ID
1
66%
28
28
28
2
75%
19
19
19
3
51%
n/a
n/a
24
4
47%
n/a
20
20
Cases 1 and 2 simulate basin runoff only. Cases 3 and 4 include regulatory releases.
-5Copyright ASCE 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
© 2007 ASCE
Table 2.0. Detailed Intermediate Design DMSTA2 Results
Variable
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University Of Florida on 10/25/17. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.
Copyright ASCE 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007: Restoring Our Natural Habitat
Inflow Volume
Inflow P Load
Inflow FWM P
Concentration
Mean Hydraulic Loading
Rate
Outflow Volume
Outflow P Load
Outflow FWM P
Concentration
Mean Depth
Minimum Depth
Maximum Depth
Frequency Depth < 10 cm
P Load Removed
P Load Removal Efficiency
Total P Load Removed
Total P Load Removal
Efficiency
Units
Case 1
Case 2
Case 3
Case 4
Reservoir STA Reservoir STA Reservoir STA Reservoir STA
hm3/yr*
196
178
145
131
272
231
200
160
kg/yr
39520
29586
25233
18155
40478
30693
30186
21041
ppb
202
166
174
138
149
133
151
132
cm/day
hm3/yr
kg/yr
4
196
32724
2
178
8416
3
146
20085
1
131
3931
5
273
35891
2
232
10923
4
201
25589
2
161
5754
ppb
cm
cm
cm
%
kg/yr
%
kg/yr
%
167
47
175
45
1
1
459
69
4%
1%
6796
21171
17%
72%
27967
71%
138
30
137
41
1
1
446
69
8%
1%
5148
14224
20%
78%
19372
77%
*1 hm3/yr = 1,000,000
m3/yr
-6World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
131
47
190
49
1
26
394
75
5%
0%
4587
19770
11%
64%
24357
60%
127
36
134
45
1
20
313
75
8%
0%
4597
15286
15%
73%
19883
66%
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007: Restoring Our Natural Habitat
© 2007 ASCE
CE-QUAL-W2
The CE-QUAL-W2 model is a linked hydrodynamic and water quality model that can
predict nutrient treatment in deeper water impoundments, such as the Reservoir
component of the C-44 Project. Flow from the water budget model as well as the
nutrient concentrations from WaSh were used as the input for the model.
Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University Of Florida on 10/25/17. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.
CE-QUAL-W2 for the simulation of individual water quality parameters in the
Reservoir was chosen since it incorporates a density driven, 2-D hydrodynamic
capability or a heat budget solution for temperature. Normally, the temperature
structure of the water column and the resulting circulation in a reservoir must be
determined through separate analysis and descriptions of these parameters specified
as input to the water quality model. In addition, CE-QUAL-W2 Version 3.2 (Coles
and Wells 2003) has the ability to directly simulate various flow scenarios. The
model was selected based on its ability to simulate resuspension of sediment, its
extensive development, its being widely applied and generally accepted, and its
familiarity to the project team from a previous application to Tampa Bay Water’s
C.W. Bill Young Regional Reservoir.
The in-reservoir water quality was modeled during both the BODR and Preliminary
Design phases. In both instances, development of the model applications included: 1)
defining the geometry/bathymetry of the Reservoir, 2) selecting a representative
period to model, 3) specifying meteorological conditions, 4) setting kinetic
coefficients and stoichiometry, and 5) specifying the model inflows and outflows
including flow, water temperature, and water quality constituents. Modeled inflows
and water quality from the WaSh model for 1993 were used as input for the Reservoir
water quality simulations. The 1993 time period for this set of simulations, referred to
as a baseline condition (B), was selected for these initial simulations because it was
within the WaSh modeling period, and the Reservoir water level varied from full to
relatively shallow depths. For the bathymetry setup for the BODR phase, the
Reservoir design was represented as a series of segments beginning at the inflow,
wrapping around a dike, and ending at the discharge. For the Preliminary Design
phase, a series of segments was defined without an internal dike and a modified
footprint. The difference in bathymetry is shown in Figure 2.0.
Figure 2.0. BODR and Preliminary/Intermediate Design Reservoir
Configurations
-7Copyright ASCE 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007: Restoring Our Natural Habitat
© 2007 ASCE
Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University Of Florida on 10/25/17. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.
Meteorological conditions for an average precipitation year (a median precipitation of
46 inches in 2003) were used in the baseline applications because data for 1993 were
not readily available. Hourly air temperature, dewpoint, wind speed and direction,
and solar radiation data were obtained from the Florida Automated Weather Network
(FAWN) maintained by the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences. Since FAWN station data is not available for Martin County, the Ft. Pierce
station data was selected due to its thorough hourly data. Water quality parameters
simulated included temperature, soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonia, nitrate, labile
dissolved organic matter, refractory dissolved organic matter, labile particulate
organic matter, refractory particulate organic matter, algae, and dissolved oxygen.
Initial and boundary conditions for nitrogen and phosphorus were based on WaSh
model results for 1993. These results, along with average monthly chlorophyll a
concentrations from available C-44 Canal data and dissolved to total ratios for
organic carbon data from the C-23 Canal, were used to estimate initial and boundary
conditions for organic matter state variables.
The model also includes multiple kinetic coefficients and stoichiometric ratios related
to water quality processes. In the absence of project-specific data for model
calibration, typical values in the CE-QUAL-W2 User Manual were used for initial
model simulations and sensitivity analyses.
Optimization of the CE-QUAL-W2 model was performed, where model parameters
were adjusted based on all available data. For this application, baseline simulations,
model kinetic coefficients and stoichiometry were adjusted based on results of the
initial sensitivity analyses, assessment of available data and best professional
judgment. Selected values investigated and modified for the C-44 Reservoir
applications are as follows:
• Extinction for water (from 0.25 to 1.5/m)
• Algal settling (from 0.14 to 0.0/day)
• Organic matter to phosphorus ratio (from 0.005 to 0.001 and 0.015)
• Organic matter to nitrogen ratio (from 0.08 to 0.02)
• Sediment oxygen demand (from 0.3 to 1.0 m2/day)
In general, kinetics and ratios were adjusted to represent cyanobacteria primary
production in colored water reservoir conditions. Adjustments to organic matter to
nutrient ratios are consistent with data indicating relatively high levels of humic
materials. Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) was set to represent future conditions
after accumulation of organic-rich sediments resulting from primary production in the
Reservoir.
Individual factors were adjusted in separate model simulations and the results were
compared to the baseline results. This approach is meant to bracket various potential
alternatives and scenarios to understand how the reservoir may respond when
-8Copyright ASCE 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007: Restoring Our Natural Habitat
© 2007 ASCE
operational. The following simulations were performed to assess general performance
of the Reservoir during different conditions:
1. Reservoir maintained at a full depth during the entire year
2. Reservoir maintained at 3-ft depth during the entire year
Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University Of Florida on 10/25/17. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.
3. Reservoir discharge location set at the surface elevation to determine water
quality impacts
4. Reservoir discharge location set at the bottom elevation to determine water
quality impacts
5. Algae settling rate set to zero to assess worst case bloom conditions
6. Algae type specified for nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria bloom
7. Decreased inflow loadings to Reservoir to assess the response to changes in
loading water quality
Some preliminary conclusions that are generally supported by the simulations and
analysis are discussed below.
1. The model indicates that the relatively large fetch and shallow depth will
result in a generally mixed reservoir except under light wind conditions.
Lower average wind speed in early February correlates to less apparent
mixing indicated by the February algal profile. Moderate to high wind
conditions will tend to mix the Reservoir and lead to the potential
resuspension of organic rich sediments including algae. Output showing the
higher average wind speed in early April correlates to a more mixed condition
indicated by the April algal profile.
2. The model indicates that nutrient loads to the Reservoir have the potential to
support levels of cyanobacteria. The highest algal levels occur when
simulating the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, such as anabaena, which are
generally less common than the microcystis species commonly found in
Florida. An onsite pilot project, the C-44 Test Cells, have not indicated any
algae problems and that the almost daily pumping into the reservoir Test Cells
mimics the anticipated operations of the reservoir.
3. A difference in algal concentrations between the 1-meter depth and bottom
layers was noted during simulations. In addition, algal concentrations should
be somewhat lower and relatively uniform during moderate to high wind
periods. Dark colored water (as occurs in the C-44 and C-23 canals) can also
limit water column algal levels during relatively calm periods.
4. The model indicates that reservoir discharge water will likely decrease in
inorganic sediment and inorganic nutrients compared to inflowing
concentrations. Reservoirs are known to accumulate sediments, even
-9Copyright ASCE 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007: Restoring Our Natural Habitat
© 2007 ASCE
relatively shallow ones. This observation is evident from the reduction of
available phosphorus when nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are simulated.
Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University Of Florida on 10/25/17. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.
5. The model indicates that treatment of phosphorus by the Reservoir (i.e.,
reductions in TP loads) will be somewhat variable over an average year. The
annual load reduction will be influenced by the amount of algal biomass, if
produced. However, long-term monthly and annual discharge loads will be
affected by sediment resuspension and anaerobic release of phosphorus not
fully represented by the current model simulations.
In addition, the following preliminary conclusions are based on results of reservoir
modeling, a review of water quality in reservoirs in southern Florida, and best
professional judgment:
• The Reservoir will convert inorganic phosphorus to organic phosphorus for
highly effective removal by the STA. This is evident from the reduction of
available phosphorus when nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are simulated.
• Annual reductions in phosphorus are anticipated. However, long-term monthly
and annual discharge loads will be affected by sediment resuspension and
anaerobic release of phosphorus.
• Nitrogen treatment by the Reservoir is more uncertain due to uncertainties for
the potential for nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria.
Conclusion
The DMSTA2 and CE-QUAL-W2 models were applied in the planning and design
process of the C-44 Reservoir/STA Project. During the process, both the reservoir
and STA components were reconfigured due to land purchases, value engineering,
and coordination with agencies. The water quality models were used as a verification
tool during the decision making process, which in many cases, involved budget
savings and schedule implications. With the setup flexibility of both DMSTA2 and
CE-QUAL-W2, alternative component footprints could be checked relatively quickly
to ensure water quality considerations were integral to the planning process. During
the preliminary and intermediate design phases, the reservoir changed from a thick
“L” shape with an internal dike to a rectangular shape without a dike with a discharge
structure located further away from the reservoir pump inlet. The STA design not
only changed from seven to six cells, but also incorporated different footprints and
available lands. When the water quality models were run with similar results from
previous configurations, it confirmed the advancement of the project design in ways
that ultimately reduced the budget. The C-44 Reservoir/STA Project initial
construction began in October 2006.
Acknowledgements
The authors gratefully acknowledge the South Florida Water Management District
(SFWMD) and the technical support from Michael Kasch (HDR) and Jack Harrison
- 10 Copyright ASCE 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007: Restoring Our Natural Habitat
© 2007 ASCE
(HyQual) for CE-QUAL-W2, and Wetlands Solutions, Inc. (Dr. Robert Knight and
Chris Keller) for DMSTA2.
References
Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by University Of Florida on 10/25/17. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.
Cole, T. M., and S. A. Wells. (2003). CE-QUAL-W2: A two-dimensional, laterally
averaged, hydrodynamic and water quality model. Version 3.2. Draft Instruction
Report EL-03-1. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
USACE, Jacksonville District and South Florida Water Management District.
(March 2004). Central and Southern Florida Project, Indian River Lagoon-South,
Final Integrated Project Implementation Report and Environmental Impact Statement.
Walker, W.W., and R.H. Kadlec. (2005). Development of a Dynamic Model for
Everglades Stormwater Treatment Areas. Work in Progress for U.S. Department of
the Interior and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. http://www.wwwalker.net
- 11 Copyright ASCE 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2007
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
2
Размер файла
392 Кб
Теги
28243, 29539, 40927
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа