March 2017 NEW BIOLOGICAL BOOKS few are absurdly brief ). This short format was no doubt a major factor in allowing Mora to make the extraordinary claim in the preface that all chapter manuscripts came in on time. The chapter format makes for easy reading and I am happy to say that one comes away with a feeling that you have gotten a good survey of the topic at hand. The book conveys the excitement around coral reef ﬁshes as well as the complexity associated with addressing big questions with these animals. Larval biology is heavily featured and provides several examples of major questions in reef ﬁsh biology that have been hard nuts to crack. Nearly every species of bony ﬁsh that lives on reefs has a pelagic larval stage; a period when the ﬁsh occupy the ocean away from reefs (apparently to get the young ﬁsh away from the many hungry mouths found on reefs). Our understanding of the biology of these larvae has changed dramatically, as they were originally seen as helpless drifters on ocean currents, but the modern view considers them sophisticated in their use of sensory cues, athletic enough to swim without stopping for up to 100 km, and much more likely to return to the reef they were spawned than to be blown away to shores far away. But like so many reef ﬁsh topics this one still desperately needs study. What factors govern the behavior of larvae during this period? Do they search only for food, or do they search for waters that do not attract predators, and how exactly do they ﬁnd their way? Beyond larvae, this book provides nice introductions into the role of competition and predation in shaping reef ﬁsh communities, a terriﬁc overview of not just the fossil record but what it tells us about how the modern ﬁshes are different, patterns of species diversity in a geographic context, and reviews of range size, within-species structure, speciation, and body size evolution. Many of these historical and evolutionary topics are treated in a phenomenological way revealing that much work still remains identifying causal factors: What drives speciation in reef ﬁsh? How do local adaptation and genetic connectivity among populations balance? Why do we see the global patterns of diversity we have today? An intriguing part of the volume is the ﬁnal section titled Debates and Paradigm Shifts where the chapters describe the development and inﬂuence of major paradigms that have dominated the ﬁeld. This is a nice approach to structuring a book of this type because it helps convey the importance of key ideas and the dynamic nature of the ﬁeld. The volume makes it clear that we still have far to go before we can paint a strongly mechanistic picture of the patterns associated with modern coral reef ﬁshes. The urgency for understanding causality is strong because coral reefs around the world 89 are seriously threatened by habitat degradation, overﬁshing, and climate change. About one-third of the chapters address aspects of these threats, what we understand about how they impact reef ﬁshes, and the viability of approaches that have been taken to mitigate them. Readers will not ﬁnd a thorough exploration of any topics in this book, but they will get a very informative and interesting survey of major issues and, best of all, the volume effectively conveys how dynamic and exciting coral reef ﬁsh ecology continues to be. Peter C. Wainwright, Evolution & Ecology, University of California, Davis, California Environmental Sex Differentiation in Fish. Series on Sex Differentiation in Fish. By T. J. Pandian. A Science Publishers Book. Boca Raton (Florida): CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Group). $99.95. xiii + 299 p.; ill.; author, species, and subject indexes. ISBN: 978-1-4822-5437-2. [This book includes a Color Plate Section with 11 color plates.] 2015. Variations in the environment can have profound effects on the sex of ﬁshes. Even in species with genetic sex determination, environment can modulate sexual fate, thus environment is important factor of sexual fate in nearly all ﬁshes. A broad spectrum of environmental inﬂuences on sex spec iﬁcation is described in this book. The author discusses natural environments and how many natural environmental variations contribute to the sex fate choice. Artiﬁcial environmental variations such as exposure to endocrine disrupting pollutants, rearing conditions in aquaculture, and higher temperatures caused by climate change are clearly related to how the environment inﬂuences sexual fate. These artiﬁcial environments are important to consider with respect to inﬂuences on sex ratio and the maintenance of healthy breeding populations of natural and farmed ﬁshes. This book is a well-written, comprehensive account of the wide variety of environmental affects on sex determination in ﬁsh with detailed examples of how the sex of individual species is affected by the environment. Kellee R. Siegfried, Biology, University of Massachusetts, Boston, Massachusetts This content downloaded from 129.008.242.067 on October 25, 2017 14:44:47 PM All use subject to University of Chicago Press Terms and Conditions (http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/t-and-c).