International Journal of General Systems ISSN: 0308-1079 (Print) 1563-5104 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ggen20 Systems, uncertainty, and information: A legacy of George J. Klir Radim Belohlavek To cite this article: Radim Belohlavek (2017) Systems, uncertainty, and information: A legacy of George J. Klir, International Journal of General Systems, 46:8, 792-823, DOI: 10.1080/03081079.2017.1388801 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03081079.2017.1388801 Published online: 16 Oct 2017. Submit your article to this journal Article views: 17 View related articles View Crossmark data Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=ggen20 Download by: [UAE University] Date: 25 October 2017, At: 09:27 GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 CE:DV Revision INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GENERAL SYSTEMS, 2017 VOL. 46, NO. 8, 792–823 https://doi.org/10.1080/03081079.2017.1388801 Systems, uncertainty, and information: A legacy of George J. Klir Radim Belohlavek Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 Department of Computer Science, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY This paper tracks scientific work and contributions of George J. Klir (1932–2016), one of the major figures in systems movement and the founder of this journal. Received 2 October 2017 Accepted 2 October 2017 KEYWORDS System; systems science; information; uncertainty; fuzzy logic 1. Introduction The aim of this paper is to pay tribute to George Klir by providing an overview of his life as a scientist and a guide through his research contributions, as well as his complete bibliography. The paper is based on a variety of sources. The three most important are a complete curriculum vitae of George provided to me in 2011, information I obtained through multiple interviews of George’s wife, Milena Klir, and my personal memories from over 16 years of our close personal relationship of George’s recollections of various events. In addition, the two papers (Klir 1988, 2010) present useful information about formation of George’s views as systems scientist. 2. Life and professional career 2.1. Key moments 2.1.1. Life in Czechoslovakia George Jiří Klir was born as Jiří Klír on 22 April 1932, in Prague, Czechoslovakia. He was the only child of his mother Emílie (b. Přitasilová) and his father Jan. George’s father played French horn in the National Theatre in Prague. After Jan Klir lost his job due to health problems, he was able to earn money only occasionally. As a consequence, the family was by no means rich. Nevertheless, since George’s mother was quite capable and worked to help improve the family’s ﬁnancial situation, the family managed ﬁne. They lived in their own apartment which George’s father had inherited at No. 15 Černomořská street in the nice Prague district Vršovice. The family also had inherited a house in the village of Hrusice. Thanks to his father and his uncle Jaroslav, George developed interest in music. Music became his life-long passion. George took piano lessons with his uncle, who had an indepth knowledge of music and even composed music. Later on, when George himself CONTACT Radim Belohlavek radim.belohlavek@acm.org © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 Revision Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GENERAL SYSTEMS CE:DV 793 tried to compose jazz music, his uncle provided him with valuable feedback. George even intended to study music and become a professional musician, and although he did not do so, he enjoyed music as a hobby throughout his life. Another life-long passion of George which started to develop during George’s childhood was sports and outdoor activities. In 1945, he became a member of Junák – český skaut – a Czech Scout organization. During his summer visits to South Bohemia, he learned to swim. Swimming, along with water polo, later became George’s favorite sport activities. He played water polo during his university studies in Prague as well as after immigrating to the United States. After retiring from active water polo, he took pleasure in playing tennis into his early sixties, and in long-distance swimming, which he quite remarkably continued into his eighties. George also enjoyed hiking, which after his retirement in 2007 was his main activity to stay in good physical shape. After ﬁnishing his early schooling, George enrolled in Reálné gymnásium1 on Kodaňská street in Prague. According to his own words, he was not a good student except for the three subjects in which he took interest – mathematics, physics, and music. After his graduation from the gymnásium, he applied for enrolment at the Czech Technical University in Prague but was not admitted. He therefore took a job with a company Aritma where he worked in the department of telephones. The next year he applied again but once again was not admitted. He learned that part of the reason was the recommendation from the gymnásium which described George as “politically lukewarm”. He therefore applied for enrolment at a new university of mechanical and electrical engineering in Pilsen in Western Bohemia. This time, he was admitted and became a good student. George spent about a year in Pilsen after which period he was allowed to continue his studies at the Czech Technical University in Prague due to his good results as a student. While continuing his studies of electrical engineering in Prague, he worked part time as a teacher in high school to make his living and thus became ﬁnancially independent of his parents. In his studies, he took a specialization in telephone technology. He, nevertheless, learned that Dr. Antonín Svoboda from the Institute of Mathematical Machines of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences was teaching a course on the emerging ﬁeld of computers and decided to attend it. The encounter with Svoboda, in 1955, had a tremendous inﬂuence on George’s life.2 George became involved in some of Svoboda’s projects for Aritma and learned a lot from him. Under Svoboda’s guidance, he became interested in computers and also in cybernetics. George graduated from the Czech Technical University in June, 1957, after defending his master thesis on piezoelectric relays.3 After compulsory military service, George started to work as a researcher in VÚMS.4 VÚMS was established in 1958 as a successor of the Institute of Mathematical Machines, as a result of political pressures. While the Institute of Mathematical Machines was part of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, VÚMS was directly controlled by one of the ministries of the Czechoslovak Government. Svoboda, who was director of the Institute of Mathematical Machines, shortly continued as director of VÚMS but was suspended shortly and continued in VÚMS as director of research. George submitted his candidate of science dissertation in 1960 but was allowed to defend it only in April 1964 due to a politically motivated campaign against Svoboda.5 In VÚMS, George met his futute wife, Milena Řeholová, who worked in the institute as laboratory assistant. To advance her education, Milena decided to attend a technically oriented middle school. Since she worried about mathematics, George oﬀered her his help. GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 794 Revision CE:DV R. BELOHLAVEK Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 The couple got married on 26 January 1962. Some two years after the marriage, their daughter Jana was born.6 2.1.2. Emigration While working at VÚMS, George eventually came to the decision to leave the country. One reason was that George did not like the political developments in Czechoslovakia, which was under the leadership of the Communist party. Secondly, access to recent literature in the emerging ﬁeld of computing and cybernetics was rather limited in Czechoslovakia, as in all countries of the Eastern Bloc. These views were generally shared by researchers at VÚMS and most of them intended to leave Czechoslovakia. George applied for and was oﬀered a two-year contract in 1964 to teach at a new branch of the Baghdad University in Mosul, Iraq. He accepted this oﬀer without hesitation. At that time, Milena and George’s daughter Jana had just been born. George therefore left for Mosul alone in 1964. Milena with Jana followed him in 1965. The Klir family had no intention to return to Czechoslovakia after the two years in Mosul. While in Iraq, George established a correspondence with Svoboda who in the meantime emigrated to the United States. This was a dangerous undertaking because George and Milena had indications that some of the other Czech teachers in Mosul were spies for the Czechoslovak Government. To deceive Czechoslovak authorities, George wrote a habilitation thesis and applied for his habilitation in Prague (his habilitation was not completed).7 To make a long story short, George and Milena decided to emigrate to the United States and to escape via Vienna, Austria. Milena and Jana ﬂew on Czechoslovak Airlines from Iraq to Vienna, while George drove their Czech Škoda car which took him several weeks. The family then had to stay for several months in Vienna before arrangements were made for them ﬁnally to go to the United States. The family’s ﬁnancial situation was diﬃcult, but fortunately they had the money George made in Iraq. In addition, George was able to sell their car in Vienna. In November 1966, the family ﬁnally got to the United States. They traveled to California where Svoboda’s family lived and that family was able to help them with initial accommodation. Since George had published a couple of books by that time – his Cybernetic Modelling co-authored by Valach and Synthesis of Switching Circuits co-authored by Seidl were being prepared for American editions by Van Nostrand and Gordon and Breach, respectively – he obtained the position of lecturer in the Electrical Engineering Department at UCLA. When the Czechoslovak authorities learned that the Klir family escaped, George was sentenced to one year in prison while Milena to two years because of taking their daughter with her. The ﬁrst months in the United States were not easy for the Klir family because they came with virtually no money. George and Milena were, nevertheless, happy to start their new life in a free country. 2.1.3. Life in the United States For the ﬁrst two years, the Klir family lived in California. George was fully occupied by his teaching and research. According to his words, he was amazed by the literature available in the UCLA library and had to learn how to deal with the huge amount of available information. He was eager to learn about new developments in the areas of his research interests, among which the emerging ﬁeld of systems science appealed to him most. GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 Revision Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GENERAL SYSTEMS CE:DV 795 At UCLA he was asked to teach mainly computer-oriented courses. The university showed virtually no interest in developing a program of study in systems science, and thus was not a good ﬁt for George’s interests. After two years at UCLA, in 1968, George was oﬀered a position of associate professor at Fairleigh Dickinson University in Teaneck, New Jersey, with a possibility of doing research in and teaching systems science. George obtained a higher salary than at UCLA and the Klir family rented a house in Westwood, New Jersey. In 1969, George attended a conference where he met Don Gause of the State University of New York at Binghamton (SUNY Binghamton). At that time, a new school – the School of Advanced Technology – was being formed at SUNY Binghamton, and Gause recruited George to help develop a strong program in systems science at the school. The dean of the school, Walter Lowen, later oﬀered George a position of associate professor. Lowen’s sincere interest in systems science as a viable research and study program at the school and the prospect of having the chance to conduct research in systems science in excellent conditions made George accept Lowen’s proposition. The family therefore moved again, this time to the Binghamton area. Binghamton turned out to be a very good choice – George and Milena spent almost 50 years of their happy marriage there. George worked hard in Binghamton. In addition to fulﬁlling his teaching duties as associate professor, he worked part time as adjunct professor in the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science at Fairleigh Dickinson University and as consultant for the IBM Systems Research Institute in New York City in 1970–1974. During summer breaks, he often taught summer courses at various institutions, such as the University of Colorado at Boulder in 1967, Rutgers University in New Jersey in 1975, and the Portland State University in Portland, Oregon, in 1972–1976, 1993, and 1998. On 23 March 1972, George, Milena, and Jana became US citizens. George was not the only Czech among the SUNY faculty in Binghamton. The other three were the sociologist and former Czech politician Otakar Machotka, who died in 1970, the economist Jan Michal, and the political scientist and writer Otto Ulč with whom George maintained regular contacts throughout their tenure at Binghamton. George also maintained occasional contacts with other Czech intellectuals living in the USA and Canada, for instance this included the economist Milan Zelený and the well-known Czech writer Josef Škvorecký who founded, with his wife Zdena, the publishing house ’68 Publishers producing works of Czech and Slovak writers who were banned in Czechoslovakia. In 1974, George founded a new journal, the International Journal of General Systems, and served as its editor-in-chief until 2014 which represents an unmatched record. George was deeply involved in developing the infrastructure for research in systems theory. He organized conferences and other meetings and traveled extensively to these events as well as to deliver lectures on various other occasions. As one of the leading ﬁgures in systems science he was widely recognized for his work. George served in various capacities in several professional organizations. For a long time, he worked for the International Society for Systems Sciences (ISSS). He was its managing director and vice president in 1977–1981 and its president in 1981–1982. He also served as president of the International Federation of Systems Research in 1980–1984. Later on, when his interest moved more into the area of uncertainty and fuzziness, he became a member of the North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society (NAFIPS), the ﬁrst society devoted to fuzzy logic, and served as its president in 1988–1991. George’s meticulous work GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 796 Revision CE:DV R. BELOHLAVEK was generally appreciated within the fuzzy logic community. He was later nominated and elected president of the International Fuzzy Systems Association (IFSA) for 1993–1995 in which period he implemented some convenient organizational changes. It is clear that with a busy schedule and demanding activities, he had to be very eﬃcient in time management. He developed the habit of working in his home oﬃce, particularly when he needed to concentrate on his research, and to go to the university only to teach, work with students, and attend various meetings. This was easily possible because the Klir family lived within walking distance from the SUNY campus. George knew that if needed, he could easily be in his oﬃce in about ﬁve minutes. This was particularly convenient when George served as chairman of the Department of Systems Science from 1978 to 1992. George was not an early bird. He used to work in the evening, sometimes late in night. As Milena describes it, George worked all the time, including weekends and holidays. He was very lucky with Milena because she was able to take care of all practical things and run their household. When George grew older, he changed his habit and used to get up around 6am. Other than that, little had changed, however: He never stopped trying to exploit every minute of his life doing research work. His home oﬃce gradually became a library with a very ﬁne selection of books in mathematics, computer sciences, and philosophy. His library helped him save time but he actually made it his hobby collecting good-quality books covering the areas of his interest. He also developed the habit to work with his doctoral students in his home oﬃce, which oﬀered several beneﬁts in addition to saving time. For one, the meetings were nicely informal and friendly, which was partly due to George’s spirit and to George and Milena’s hospitality. Many students learned to drink coﬀee in what George called the Czech-style. Upon graduation, George and Milena organized a celebration for every doctoral student of George on which occasion the student got a large cake with the title “doctor of uncertainty”, or the like, written on it. In several cases, George and the student continued their collaboration after graduation, which resulted in jointly written books in some cases. Travel deserves to be mentioned separately as a particular activity of George which occupied much of his time. George had to travel very frequently not only as a researcher to conferences, but also as a well-recognized ﬁgure and president of several international organizations. He was also often asked to deliver series of lectures in various universities and institutions. This included many lecture tours all over the world. He also spent two of his sabbaticals at the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study where his main focus was writing books. George always tried to use his sabbaticals for book writing. He had carefully prepared the materials he needed for writing a book before the sabbatical started, developed a plan and followed it strictly. He was extremely disciplined and made the actual writing his absolute priority. He was very well organized – the materials he gathered during preparation always had a great value as a package themselves. This is why he was able to write so many books, several of which became widely used. George put a great deal of eﬀort into every project he had chosen to pursue. This applied to both his research and non-research projects. When he was older, he used to pick a challenging non-research project, which he called a special project, and to prepare himself thoroughly for such project. To name just two examples, at the age of 68 he climbed Kala Patthar, a mountain of over 18000ft in Nepal, for which he trained in the university’s GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 Revision Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GENERAL SYSTEMS CE:DV 797 Nature Preserve. At the age of 69, he swam across Oneida Lake in the upper New York State and completed this freestyle swim in about four hours. Throughout his life in the United States, George closely observed the political developments in the Eastern Bloc and, in particular, in Czechoslovakia. He studied in detail key moments in the history of Czechoslovakia and assembled a nice collection of books about them. When the communist regime collapsed in Czechoslovakia in 1989, George and Milena were very happy – they were able to visit their home country again. They even considered the possibility of returning to Czechoslovakia but eventually decided to remain in the United States. They nevertheless often visited Czechoslovakia and, after the peaceful split in 1993, the Czech Republic. George maintained close contacts with several institutions in the Czech Republic, e.g. the Palacký University in Olomouc, the Czech Academy of Sciences, the Czech Technical University in Prague, the Brno University of Technology, and the University of Ostrava. George retired in 2007, on which occasion SUNY organized a well-attended minisymposium. After his retirement, George remained busy editing his International Journal of General Systems, doing research, and to some extent also traveling to deliver invited lectures. Until the end of his tenure as editor-in-chief of his journal, he maintained high standards and active role as editor. As far as research is concerned, George worked to complete a couple of projects after his retirement. Among them was a long-planned demanding project of writing a comprehensive book on the history of fuzzy logic. After almost ﬁve years, the project was completed. Yet, George did not see the book published. He unexpectedly died on 27 May 2016 (Belohlavek 2016), some eight months before the book appeared (Bělohlávek, Dauben, and Klir 2017). 2.2. George Klir as teacher and supervisor 2.2.1. George’s courses George taught mainly courses for doctoral and masters students. Very often, these courses were closely related to his research interests. This made it naturally possible to challenge the students by presenting open problems to them, which George did. His lectures were always carefully prepared and included good study materials for the students. George often used his own textbooks to teach courses. Sometimes, the handouts were actually parts of a book George was writing. The following is a list of courses taught by him during his career: • • • • • • • • • • Advanced Calculus (Fairleigh Dickinson University) Advanced Special Topics in System Sciences (SUNY Binghamton) Analog Computers (Charles University, UCLA) Applied Mathematics for Electrical Engineers (Baghdad University, Fairleigh Dickinson University) Automata Theory (Fairleigh Dickinson University, SUNY-Binghamton) Combinatorial Analysis (SUNY Binghamton) Computer Programming (UCLA, Fairleigh Dickinson University) Discrete Mathematics (SUNY Binghamton) Discrete Systems (SUNY Binghamton) Electric Circuit Theory (Baghdad University, University of Colorado, Fairleigh Dickinson University) GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 798 Revision CE:DV R. BELOHLAVEK Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 • Fault-Tolerant Computing (SUNY Binghamton) • Fuzzy Set Theory, Fuzzy Logic, and Fuzzy Systems (SUNY Binghamton, Portland State University) • General Systems Theory (University of Colorado, Fairleigh Dickinson University, SUNY Binghamton, Portland State University, Rutgers University, IBM Systems Research Institute) • Generalized Information Theory (SUNY Binghamton) • Introduction to Systems Science (SUNY Binghamton) • Logic Design and Computer Architecture (UCLA, Fairleigh Dickinson University, SUNY Binghamton) • Switching Circuit Theory (SUNY Binghamton, Charles University, UCLA, Fairleigh Dickinson University) • Systems Problem Solving (SUNY Binghamton) 2.2.2. Doctoral students The following is a list of doctoral students of whom George served as the principal adviser along with the titles of their doctoral dissertations and dates of completion of their studies. (1) Roger Cavallo, The Role of General Systems Methodology in Social Science Research (December 1977, outstanding dissertation award in Science and Mathematics category) (2) Hugo J. J. Uyttenhove, Computer-Aided Systems Modelling: An Assemblage of Methodological Tools for Systems Problem Solving (June 1978) (3) Robert Gerardy, Methods for the Identiﬁcation of Probabilistic Finite State Systems (July 1981) (4) Lance Polya, Method for Investigating Relations Between Structure and Behavior for Selected Nonlinear Systems (August 1981) (5) Yu-I. Hsieh, Computer-Aided Design and Microprogramming Optimization for Multivalued VLSI (August 1982) (6) Masahiko Higashi, A Systems Modelling Methodology: Probabilistic and Possibilistic Approaches (August 1983, outstanding dissertation award in Science and Mathematics category) (7) Abdul Hai, An Empirical Investigation of Reconstructability Analysis (August 1984) (8) Behzad Parviz, A General Empirical Study of the Reconstruction Problem (January 1986) (9) Arthur Ramer, Information and Combinatorial Aspects of Reconstructability Analysis: A Mathematical Inquiry (March 1986) (10) Iris Chang, A Numeral Recognition System with Multiple-Level Decision Scheme (August 1986) (11) Matthew Mariano, Aspects of Inconsistency in Reconstructability Analysis (December 1986) (12) Terry Potter, Storing and Retrieving Data in a Parallel Distributed Memory System (May 1987) (13) Michael Pittarelli, Identiﬁcation of Discrete Probability Distributions from Partial Information (December 1987) (14) Doug Elias, General Systems Problem Solver: A Framework for Integrating Systems Methodologies (May 1988) GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 Revision Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GENERAL SYSTEMS CE:DV 799 (15) Zhenyuan Wang, Fuzzy Measure Theory (May 1991) 16) Kevin Huﬀord, Network Thermodynamic Modeling and Lindenmayer System Simulation of Osmotic Growth: A Study of the Artiﬁcial Life Aspects of the Spontaneous Self-Assembly of Inorganic Matter into Life-Like Forms (1993) (17) William Tastle, Reconstructability Analysis of Directed Systems (December 1993) (18) Mark J. Wierman, Possibilistic Image Processing (May 1994) (19) Myoungkwan Yoo, Information-Sensitive Fuzzy Database System for Decision Making and Control Using Information Invariance Principle (May 1994) (20) Cliﬀ A. Joslyn, Possibilistic Processes for Complex System Modeling (May 1994) (21) James C. Rhodes, Music and Information: Use of GSPS as an Analytic Tool (May 1995) (22) Harold W. Lewis, III, A Comparative Investigation of the Utility of Dynamic Compensation in Fuzzy Control (May 1995) (23) Bo Yuan, Data-Driven Identiﬁcation of Key Variables: A Fuzzy Set Approach (May 1996) (24) David Harmanec, Uncertainty in Dempster-Shafer Theory (December 1996, outstanding dissertation award) (25) Luis M. Rocha, Evidence Sets in Contextual Genetic Algorithms (May 1997) (26) Yin Pan, Calculus of Fuzzy Probabilities and Its Applications (July 1997) (27) Richard von Sternberg, Applicability of Fuzzy Set Theory in Biology: The Case of Constructing a Pure Morphology (May 1998, outstanding dissertation award) (28) Richard M. Smith, Generalized Information Theory: Resolving Some Old Questions and Opening Some New Ones (May 2000, outstanding dissertation award) (29) Jack Ryder, Expert Systems Models for Software Size and Eﬀort Predictions (May 2004) (30) Zoran Cvijanovich, A Computer Laboratory for Generalized Information Theory (May 2007) (31) Ronald L. Pryor, Principles of Nonspeciﬁcity (May 2007) (32) Elvis Ljumic, Image Feature Extraction Using Fuzzy Morphology (May 2007) (33) Olga Martin, Retranslation a Problem in Computing With Perceptions (2008) (34) Kari Sentz, Methods of Probability and Imprecise Probability for Uncertainty Quantiﬁcation in Applied Problems (2008) 2.3. Principal honors and awards • Fellow, IBM Systems Research Institute, New York City (1969) • Award from the Austrian Society for Cybernetic Studies for “outstanding contributions to systems research and cybernetics” (1976) • Award from the Netherlands Society for Systems Research for “advancing general systems research” (1976) • Fellow, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (1980) • Life Fellow, Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study, Wassenaar, The Netherlands (1993) • Life Fellow, Institute of Electrical and Electrical Engineers (1994) • Doctor Honoris Causa from the University of Economics in Prague, Czech Republic (1994) GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 800 Revision CE:DV R. BELOHLAVEK • Gold Medal of Bernard Bolzano in Mathematical Sciences from the Czech Academy of Sciences in Prague, Czech Republic (1994) • Distinguished Leadership Award from the International Society for the Systems Sciences (1994) • Life Fellow, International Fuzzy Systems Association (1997) • Doctor Honoris Causa from the Technical University in Brno, Czech Republic (1997) • Doctor Honoris Causa from the Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic (1998) • Arnold Kaufmann’s Gold Medal Prize for “excellence in uncertainty research” (2000) • Award for “outstanding scientiﬁc work on anticipatory and intelligent systems” from the Society for Computing Anticipatory Systems (2001) • Doctor Honoris Causa from the University of Ostrava, Czech Republic (2003) • Doctor Honoris Causa from the University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Czech Republic (2004) • Doctor Honoris Causa from the International Institute for Advanced Studies in Systems Research and Cybernetics in Baden-Baden, Germany (2006) • IEEE Computational Intelligence Society Fuzzy Systems Pioneering Award for “pioneering research in fuzzy set theory, fuzzy systems, fuzzy measure theory, and generalized information theory” (2007) 2.4. Service to profession The following list contains a selection of capacities in which George served. • President, International Federation for Systems Research (IFSR, 1980–1984) • President, North-American Fuzzy Information Processing Society (NAFIPS, 1988– 1991) • President, International Fuzzy Systems Association (IFSA, 1993–1995) • Editor-in-chief, International Journal of General Systems (1974–2014) • Editor-in-chief, IFSR International Book Series on Systems Science and Engineering, Springer, New York (1985–2016) • Editor-in-chief, Basic and Applied General Systems Research Book Series (NorthHolland/Elsevier, New York, 1978–1982) • Editor-in-chief, International Book Series on Frontiers in Systems Science (Martinus Nijhoﬀ, Boston and the Hague, 1978–1985) • Member of editorial boards of 19 journals • Co-editor, The Systems Inquiry Book Series (Intersystems, San Francisco, 1980–1986) 3. Research work George Klir’s research spans over six decades and covers several areas. The breadth of George’s interests corresponds well to the fact that he had been perceived by colleagues as a renaissance man. George liked foundational problems. He liked the systems approach and systems thinking, not only as a research topic but also as a guide to solving practical problems in everyday life. His delight in systems thinking reﬂects itself in one of the two main areas of his research interests – systems science. The other area – uncertainty and information theory – reﬂects his passion for general principles that govern the way GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 Revision INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GENERAL SYSTEMS CE:DV 801 information is processed and communicated by man and computer. In what follows, I describe George Klir’s research interests and accomplishments in greater detail. Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 3.1. Initial research interests George started his research work under the guidance of Antonín Svoboda (see Section 2.1.1). In retrospect, George identiﬁed three key persons who inﬂuenced him as a researcher. Svoboda was the ﬁrst, the other two were W. Ross Ashby and Lotﬁ A. Zadeh (Klir 2009, 2010). After George completed a course Svoboda was teaching at the Czech Technical University, he oﬀered Svoboda his help with the many projects Svoboda was involved in. Svoboda accepted and George started to help him with a logic design of simple digital machines for the company Aritma. George was fascinated by the unique approach of Svoboda to logic design. Gradually, Svoboda gave George more and more autonomy in his work. When George completed his university studies, he continued under Svoboda’s guidance as his doctoral student of computer engineering in Svoboda’s institute at the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences where he further worked on a logic design of digital machines. During this period, Svoboda’s team began to develop a new digital computer named EPOS. When George completed his doctoral studies, he continued to work in the institute and was assigned to work on the control unit of EPOS. This work as well as many conversations with Svoboda inﬂuenced him decisively, in particular Svoboda’s clean, systems-oriented approach to problem-solving as well as his broad knowledge of engineering systems and his ability to recognize structural similarities between them. Svoboda’s interest in general principles applicable to various kinds of engineering systems inspired in George a desire to study general systems theory. Even though Svoboda did his research almost exclusively in the area of computer design, conversations with him remained important for George in the formative years of George’s views about general systems. These conversations continued after George and Svoboda’s reunion at UCLA after George’s emigration to the United States. 3.2. Systems science After Svoboda, W. Ross Ashby is the second person who inﬂuenced George Klir’s views at an early stage. George became familiar with Ashby’s writings in the early 1960s. Unlike Svoboda, Ashby was active in general systems research. His writings on cybernetics and systems soon became classics. In particular, Ashby’s book (Ashby 1956) was a great inspiration to George due to the richness of systems-theoretic concepts expounded in this book. George was fascinated by the generally applicable concepts of information, communication, control, and other concepts, as well as by the prospect of developing a science of general systems, or systems science, which would make it possible to apply general methods to various kinds of speciﬁc systems. In the early 1960s, George’s systems views were also shaped within a small group of six young colleagues at Svoboda’s institute who published under the acronym K. Vasspeg (“K. Vasspeg” stands for Klir, Valach, Sehnal, Spiro, Pelikán, and Gecsei, the last names of the members of this group). The young researchers published their views regarding the concepts of system, environment, information, control, structure, GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 802 Revision CE:DV R. BELOHLAVEK organization, change, and similar fundamental systems concepts. The group arrived at a simple but fundamental discinction between an object, which they understood as a part of the world that is of interest to an investigator, and a system deﬁned on the object, which reﬂects interactions between the investigator and the object. This view, in which a system is understood as an abstraction based on the distinctions of the investigator, became crucial for George’s further explorations. George was primarily occupied by a design of a conceptual framework for general systems. Such a framework is the main content of the book Cybernetic Modelling coauthored by George and his colleague Miroslav Valach. The conceptual framework later became a kernel of the general systems problem solver (GSPS) mentioned below. Another early book with a strong emphasis on systems approach was written by George and Lev Seidl and was entitled Synthesis of Switching Circuits. Both books were quickly translated into English and appeared in 1967 and 1968, respectively. George then continued his quest for a theory of general systems. After he left for Baghdad, he was practically alone in his endeavor. While in Svoboda’s computer institute, he interacted with researchers and practitioners from many ﬁelds who wanted to use computers in solving their problems. He thus became familiar with a variety of speciﬁc systems and made it his hobby to explore them from a systems perspective. He gradually became convinced that an important step in developing a theory of general systems is to develop a taxonomy of systems that would categorize systems from relevant viewpoints. He worked on such a taxonomy in Baghdad and also for several years after he came to the United States. During this period, he was able to summarize his views and wrote a new book, An Approach to General Systems Theory, which was published by Van Nostrand in 1969. This book contained an initial version of George’s taxonomy of systems, which he called an epistemological hierarchy. This version contained ﬁve categories of systems, including the most primitive one, the one called experimental frame. This consists of a set of variables, the sets of states of these variables along with observation channels, and a time set in which the observations are made. Highest in this initial version is the category of structure systems, which are deﬁned as sets of interacting systems of lower categories in the hierarchy, namely what he called behavior systems and state-transition systems. Several extensions were later incorporated to the hierarchy. The ﬁnal version of the hierarchy appeared in the book Architecture for Systems Problem Solving, which was published by the Plenum Press in 1985. When working on his hierarchy of systems, George attempted to deﬁne basic categories of systems problems and to provide a framework for solving systems problems. The result of this attempt is an expert system called General systems problem solver (GSPS). The last version of GSPS is available in the enlarged edition of the Architecture for Systems Problem Solving, published in 2003, that George coauthored with his former doctoral student Douglas Elias. Another signiﬁcant problem which George explored concerned the whole-part relationship in systems, i.e. the relationship between the whole system and its behavior, and its various parts. One particular problem, examined already by Ashby, is represented by the following question: to what extent is it possible to reconstruct the overall system from the information contained in its parts, or generally, from partial information about the overall system? For example, when a system is in the form of an n-ary relation R and one only knows a collection of certain k-ary projections (k < n) of this relation, can one GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 Revision INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GENERAL SYSTEMS CE:DV 803 Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 reconstruct the relation R from these projections? George studied this problem himself as well as with his students and coined the term reconstructability analysis to denote it. They developed various methods to solve it and obtained characterizations pertaining to reconstruction hypotheses. They formalized the notion of reconstruction hypothesis and produced theoretical results about it, including results on how to resolve a possible conﬂict among competing hypotheses. The fact that in many cases, information about the explored systems was available in the form of partial data describing various aspects of the system implied the need for inductive methods in systems modeling. He developed methods for identiﬁcation of various kinds of systems from data. In particular, he formulated a new principle for inductive modeling which he called the principle of novelty production. 3.3. Uncertainty, fuzzy logic, and information During his work on inductive modeling, George became increasingly aware of the omnipresent phenomenon of uncertainty and the need for methods to handle uncertainty. The established tool for handling uncertainty was probability theory and George was clearly familiar with it. In addition, he started to explore other tools, those addressing other kinds of uncertainty. In the early 1980s, George became particularly interested in exploring possibilistic (rather than probabilistic) uncertainty and to exploit the then emerging possibility theory to handle this kind of uncertainty. Two basic, complementary principles of inductive modeling of systems which George formulated were the principle of maximum uncertainty and the principle of minimum uncertainty. To make them operational, a suitable measure of uncertainty was needed for the particular kind of uncertainty theory used to model a particular system. Such a measure was available for the framework of probability theory, namely the well-known Shannon entropy. For possibility theory and other uncertainty theories, such measures were not available. After many unsuccessful attempts, a possibilistic counterpart of Shannon entropy was eventually found by George and his student Masahiko Higashi in 1983 and termed U-uncertainty. George made it his goal to study uncertainty measures thoroughly starting about 1985. It turned out that the U-uncertainty could be extended to other measures, namely the so-called belief and plausibility measures developed by Glenn Shafer within his evidence theory. Together with his doctoral student Matthew Mariano they proved uniqueness of the U-uncertainty and published their result in 1987. This same year, uniqueness of the generalized U-uncertainty in evidence theory was proven by George’s student Arthur Ramer. Possibility theory is closely related to the concept of fuzzy sets introduced by Zadeh (1965). George became familiar with this concept already in the late 1960s, when he visited Zadeh in his oﬃce in Berkeley. Since Zadeh was widely known in the area of systems and control, George came to him to discuss his views on general systems. At the end of their discussion, Zadeh handed him a reprint of his paper (Zadeh 1965) and told him that the concept of fuzzy sets was something he recently proposed and that George might be interested in using this concept in systems science. George read Zadeh’s paper with great interest but, as he later recalled, it took him some 10 years to fully comprehend the signiﬁcance of fuzzy sets and the relatively quickly developing area of fuzzy logic. In the GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 804 Revision CE:DV R. BELOHLAVEK 1980s, he himself made contributions to fuzzy logic, which included the above-mentioned explorations in possibility theory. He was quick to recognize a need for a textbook on fuzzy logic and wrote, with Tina Folger, a very successful book entitled Fuzzy Sets, Uncertainty, and Information, which was published by Prentice Hall in 1988. In addition to fuzzy logic, this book contained substantial parts on uncertainty modeling and the concept of information, and became a standard textbook for several years to come. Later, he wrote other textbooks on fuzzy logic. Notable among them is Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic: Theory and Applications coauthored by another doctoral student of George, Bo Yuan, which became a bestseller. Over a period of over 30 years during which George was active in fuzzy logic, his interests ranged over various kinds of problems. The ﬁrst problem was solving fuzzy relational equations. The problem is, in a sense, a kind of an identiﬁcation problem from general systems viewpoint. It consists in determining an unknown fuzzy relation X for which R ◦ X ≈ S, where R and S are given fuzzy relations, ◦ is a given operation of composition, and ≈ represents equality or approximate equality. George examined the problem of computing minimal solutions of these equations and developed, with Higashi, an algorithm for computing such solutions. Later on in his research, he returned to various other aspects of fuzzy relational equations several times. Measurement of uncertainty in various frameworks became the central topic of George’s research starting in the mid 1980s. Since the concept of fuzzy sets interacts with the concept of uncertainty measurement in various ways, and since George became involved in fuzzy sets and their applications, a number of his publications explore these interactions. However, most of George’s results in uncertainty measurement concerned problems that did not directly involve fuzzy sets. The basic frameworks of these results remained the theory of possibility, Dempster–Shafer theory of evidence, and classical probability theory. Measurement of entropy, measurement of discord, measurement of conﬂict, transformations of various uncertainty measures, and construction of uncertainty measures represent the key topics of George’s interest in this area. In close cooperation with Zhenyuan Wang, George also worked on a closely related topic, namely generalized measures. Unlike probability measures, these measures need not be additive, i.e. need not satisfy P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) for disjoint sets A and B. Such measures, which were called fuzzy measures and later simply and more appropriately just generalized measures, naturally occur in practical situations. George and Wang wrote two books on this topic: Fuzzy Measure Theory published by the Plenum Press in 1993, and its substantially revised version, Generalized Measure Theory, published by Springer in 2008. These books provide a comprehensive introduction as well as a number of original results in the abstract theory of measures. George’s explorations of uncertainty measures led him to pursue the idea of developing information theory based on such measures. His initial ideas gradually developed into a research program termed generalized information theory (GIT). This term was the title of George’s paper published in 1991 in the journal Fuzzy Sets and Systems in which he characterized GIT as an “information theory that is liberated from the boundaries of probability theory”. In GIT, information is conceived as reduction of uncertainty, hence also the term “uncertainty-based information” which is used in GIT. Unlike classical information theory which is based on probability theory, GIT employs the various uncertainty measures mentioned above to measure the particular kind of uncertainty involved in a particular GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 Revision INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GENERAL SYSTEMS CE:DV 805 situation. Since these measures are developed for possibility theory, evidence theory, and other uncertainty theories, GIT is not restricted to the probabilistic framework. The ﬁrst results in GIT were summarized by the book Uncertainty-Based Information, which George wrote with Mark Wierman and which appeared by Springer in 1998. Some 10 years later, George wrote a much more comprehensive book, Uncertainty and Information: Foundations of Generalized Information Theory, which was published by Wiley in 2007. Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 3.4. Other research interests In addition to the above areas, which represent the key research directions, George’s research included various other topics. He was genuinely interested in applications of fuzzy logic in various ﬁelds. He not only closely observed these applications but was himself involved in some of them. His joint research with his student, Rick von Sternberg, a biologist who completed his doctoral degree in systems science under George’s supervision, focused on applications of fuzzy sets to biological taxonomies. With Robert Demicco, a professor of geology at SUNY Binghamton, he examined applications of rule-based fuzzy systems to various problems in geology, such as stratigraphic simulations to model sediment dispersal. This project resulted in the book Fuzzy Logic in Geology which was coedited by George and Demicco and published by the Academic Press in 2004. Another long-term project concerned the role of fuzzy logic in psychology, particularly in the psychology of concepts. The result of this project was the book Concepts and Fuzzy Logic, coedited by George and Radim Belohlavek and published by the MIT Press in 2011, which contained several contributions, mainly by established psychologists, on the prospect of fuzzy logic in the area of psychology of concepts. The scope of this paper does not permit a more complete presentation of George’s research interests and problems on which he worked. The presented overview, nevertheless, demonstrates that George was a man of many research interests. One should also mention his role of expositor of systems science, uncertainty theories, and fuzzy logic. He delivered many tutorial-like presentations in many places all over the world and lectured not only to the research communities directly involved in these areas but also to other communities. He also wrote a number of expository articles and textbooks. His role as expositor was an important part of his research work and he enjoyed it. During our long joint work on the book Fuzzy Logic and Mathematics: A Historical Perspective, George mentioned to me some topics and problems he planned to explore after the completion of our book. These were mainly nontechnical problems he considered conceptually important. One such topic was to examine the concept of a scientiﬁc paradigm and paradigm shift in the sense of Thomas Kuhn as a fuzzy rather than bivalent concept. Another was to look in detail at the interesting question of why applications of fuzzy logic were accepted and succeeded in some areas, often those in which success was not expected, but had not been accepted in certain areas in which applications of fuzzy logic methods seem naturally suitable. Because George died before the publication of our book, these topics are left to be explored. 3.5. Funded research projects The following is a list of the main funded projects of George Klir. GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 806 Revision CE:DV R. BELOHLAVEK • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1970, SUNY Research 1971, SUNY Research 1976–1977, NATO, International Conference Grant 1979–1982, NSF, Research Grant No. ENG-78 18954 1979–1982 NATO, International Research Grant No. 1837 1983–1985, NSF, Travel Grant for International Cooperation No. ECS8217103 1983–1987, NSF, Research Grant No. INT8219423 1985–1988, NSF, Research Grant No. IST85-44191 1990, NSF, Travel Grant 1991–1993, NSF, Research Grant No. IRI-90-15675 1992–94, NASA, Research Grant 1994–1996, Oﬃce of Naval Research, Grant No. N00014-94-1-0263 1994–1997, Air Force, Research Grant No. F30602-94-1-0011 2001-2002, NATO, International Research Grant 2000–2002, NSF, Research Grant No. EAR 9909336 2001–2002, NSF, Supplemental Grant for International Cooperation 4. Bibliography of George Klir 4.1. Books and edited books Klír, J. 1961. Matematické stroje [Mathematical machines]. Prague: Práce. Gecsei, J., J. Klír, and P. Pelikán. 1964. Matematické stroje [Mathematical machines]. Prague: Orbis. Klír, J., and M. Valach. 1965. Kybernetické modelování [Cybernetic modeling]. Prague: Státní nakladatelství technické literatury. Klír, J., and L. K. Seidl. 1966. Syntéza logických obvodů [Synthesis of switching circuits]. Prague: Státní nakladatelství technické literatury. Klir, J., and M. Valach. 1967. Cybernetic Modelling. London: ILIFFE (British edition). Klir, J., and M. Valach. 1967. Cybernetic Modelling. Princeton: Van Nostrand (American edition). Klir, J., and L. K. Seidl. 1967. Synthesis of Switching Circuits. London: ILIFFE (British edition). Klir, J., and L. K. Seidl. 1968. Synthesis of Switching Circuits. New York: Gordon and Breach (American edition). Klir, G. J. 1969. An Approach to General Systems Theory. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Klir, G. J. 1972a. Introduction to the Methodology of Switching Circuits. New York: D. Van Nostrand. Klir, G. J., ed. 1972b. Trends in General Systems Theory. New York: John Wiley. Klir, G. J., ed. 1976. Ogólna teoria systemów : tendencje rozwojowe [General systems theory: Trends in development]. Warsaw: Wydawnictwa naukovo- techniczne. Polish transl. by Czesław Berman of Klir 1972b. Klir, G. J., and G. Rogers. 1972a. Basic and Applied General Systems Research: A Bibliography. Binghamton: State University of New York at Binghamton. GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 Revision Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GENERAL SYSTEMS CE:DV 807 Klir, G. J. 1978. Teoría general de sistemas: un enfoque metodológico [General systems theory: A methodological approach]. Madrid: Edition Ice. Spanish transl. by Francisco José Valero López of Klir 1969. Klir, G. J., ed. 1978a. Tendencias en la teoría general de sistemas [Trends in general systems theory]. Madrid: Alianza Editorial. Spanish transl. by Álvaro Delgado y Andrés Ortega of Klir 1972b. Klir, G. J., ed. 1978. Applied General Systems Research: Recent Developments and Trends. New York: Plenum Press. Trappl, R., G. J. Klir, and L. Ricciardi, eds. 1978. Progress in Cybernetics and Systems Research, Vol. III. Washington, DC: Hemisphere. Zeigler, B. P., M. S. Elzas, G. J. Klir, and T. I. Ören, eds. 1979. Methodology in Systems Modelling and Simulation. Amsterdam: North-Holland. Trappl, R., G. J. Klir, and F. R. Pichler, eds. 1982. Progress in Cybernetics and Systems Research, Vol. VIII. Washington, DC: Hemisphere. Klir, G. J. 1985. Architecture of Systems Problem Solving. New York: Plenum Press. Trappl, R., W. Horn, and G. J. Klir, eds. 1985. Basic and Applied General Systems Research: A Bibliography 1977–1984. Washington, DC: Hemisphere. Klir, G. J., and T. A. Folger. 1988. Fuzzy Sets, Uncertainty, and Information. Englewood Cliﬀs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Klir, G. J. 1990. Architecture of systems problem solving (Russian transl.). Moscow: Radio i Sviaz. Klir, G. J. 1991. Facets of Systems Science. New York: Plenum Press. Klir, G. J., and T. A. Folger. 1993. Fuzzy Sets, Uncertainty, and Information (Japanese transl.). Tokyo: UNI. Wang, Z., and G. J. Klir. 1993. Fuzzy Measure Theory. New York: Plenum Press. Klir, G. J., and B. Yuan. 1995. Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic: Theory and Applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Klir, G. J., and B. Yuan, eds. 1996. Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic, and Fuzzy Systems: Selected papers by Lotfi A. Zadeh. Singapore: World Scientiﬁc. Ören, T. I., and G. J. Klir, eds. 1996. Computer Aided Systems Theory: CAST’94. Berlin/New York: Springer. Klir, G. J. 1996. Fuzzy Sets: Fundamentals and Applications. Paris: Diderot. Klir, G. J., U. St. Clair, and B. Yuan. 1997. Fuzzy Set Theory: Foundations and Applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Klir, G. J., and M. Wierman. 1998. Uncertainty-Based Information: Elements of Generalized Information Theory. Heidelberg/ New York: Springer Klir, G. J., and M. Wierman. 1999. Uncertainty-Based Information: Elements of Generalized Information Theory. Second enlarged ed. Heidelberg/ New York: Springer Klir, G. J. 2000. Fuzzy Sets: An Overview of Fundamentals, Applications, and Personal Views. Beijing: Beijing Normal University Press. Klir, G. J. 2001. Facets of Systems Science. Second enlarged ed. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. Klir, G. J., and D. Elias. 2003. Architecture of Systems Problem Solving. Second enlarged ed. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. Demicco, R. V., and G. J. Klir, eds. 2004. Fuzzy Logic in Geology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press/Elsevier. GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 808 Revision CE:DV R. BELOHLAVEK Ayyub, B. M., and G. J. Klir. 2006. Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis in Engineering and the Sciences. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC. Klir, G. J. 2007. Uncertainty and Information: Foundations of Generalized Information Theory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience. Wang, Z., and G. J. Klir. 2008. Generalized Measure Theory. New York: Springer. Belohlavek, R., and G. J. Klir, eds. 2011. Concepts and Fuzzy Logic. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press Bělohlávek, R., J. W. Dauben, and G. J. Klir. 2017. Fuzzy Logic and Mathematics: A Historical Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press. Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 4.2. Research papers 1957. A proof of universality of bridge networks. Proc. 1957 Symposium of the Czech Institute of Technology SNTL, Prague, 161–163 (in Czech). 1958. Bi-directional counter. Czechoslovak Patent No. 94481, Prague, Aug. 1958 (with L. Seidl). 1958. Methods of analysis and synthesis of switching circuits. Slaboproudý obzor 19 (7, 8, 9) (in Czech, with L. Seidl). 1958. Piezoelectric relay. Slaboproudý obzor 19 (5):303–307 (in Czech). 1959. Bi-directional relay chains. Slaboproudý obzor 20 (6):367–371 (in Czech). 1959. A model of the conditioned reﬂex. Slaboproudý obzor 20 (1):37–45 (in Czech, with L. Seidl). 1960. Number systems. Rozhledy Mat.-fyz 39 (1):1–6 (in Czech). 1960. Codes for coincidence chains. Information Processing Machines Yearbook, 7, Academia, Prague, 21–35 (in Russian, with L. Seidl). 1961. Remote control of a digital computer. Czechoslovak patent No. 105632, Prague, Oct. 1961 (with I. Cech). 1962. Digital computers: an overview. Rozhledy mat.-fyz. 40 (6) (in Czech, with E. Sýkorová). 1962. Implementation of a new machine algorithm for decimal division. Czechoslovak patent No. 112012, Prague, Aug. 1962 (with A. Svoboda). 1962. Weight codes. Information Processing Machines Yearbook, 8, Academia, Prague, 155–162. 1963. Solution of systems of Boolean equations. Aplikace matematiky 7 (4):265–271 (in Czech). 1963. An invention that might have accelerated the development of mathematical machines. Tech. Digest 5 (5):39–41. 1963. A note on Svoboda’s algorithm for division. Information Processing Machine Yearbook, 9, Academia, Prague, 35–39. 1963. A study of equidistant and minimum-distance codes. Information Processing Machines Yearbook, 9, Academia, Prague, 249–270 (with J. Mikuláš). 1964. A note on binary codes. Aplikace matematiky 9 (4): 306–309. 1965. The general system as a methodological tool. General Systems Yearbook, 10, 29–42. 1965. What is cybernetics?.Vesmir 43 (3) (in Czech, under group pseudonym K. Vasspeg). GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 Revision Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GENERAL SYSTEMS CE:DV 809 1965. On organizing of systems. Information Processing Machines Yearbook, 11, Academia, Prague, 167–176 (under group pseudonym K. Vasspeg). 1965. Logical design of sequential asynchronous switching circuits. Information Processing Machines Yearbook, 11, Academia, Prague, 135–166 (with J. Hlavička). 1965. Logical nets and self-organizing systems. Proc. First Conf. on Cybernetics, Academia, Prague, 68–73 (in Czech). 1967. Processing of general systems activity. General Systems Yearbook, 12, 193–198. 1967. A note on the basic block diagrams of ﬁnite automata from engineering point of view. IEEE Trans. on Electronic Computers EC-16 (2):223–224. 1968. A multimodel and computer oriented methodology for synthesis of sequential discrete systems. Proc. Second Hawaii Intern. Conf. on Systems Science (with M. Marin). 1968. An approach to general systems theory. General Systems Yearbook 13, 13–20. 1969. On computer aspects of pseudo-Boolean integer programming. Proc. ORSA Annual Meeting, Miami, FL (with M. Marin). 1969. New considerations in teaching switching circuits. IEEE Transactions on Education E-12 (3):257–261 (with M. Marin). 1969. The general system as a methodological tool (Russian translation of 1965 article). Izdatelstvo Progress, Moscow. 1970. A multimodel and computer oriented methodology for design of sequential discrete systems. IEEE Trans. on Systems Science and Cybernetics SSC-6 (1):40–48 (with M. Marin). 1970. A study of organizations of self-organizing systems. Proc. Sixth Intern. Congress on Cybernetics, Namur, Belgium, 165–186. 1970. On the relation between cybernetics and general systems theory. In: Progress in Cybernetics, ed. by J. Rose, Gordon and Breach, London, 155–165. 1971. On universal logic primitives. IEEE Trans. on Computers C-20 (4):467–469. 1972. Logic design. In: Computer Science, ed. by A. E. Cardenas et al., John Wiley, New York, 37–58 (with M. Marin). 1973. From general systems theory to general systems profession. In: United Through Diversity, ed. by W. Gray and N. Rizzo, Gordon and Breach, New York, 513–535. 1973. Boolean and pseudo-Boolean relations: a unifying agent in logic design. Proc. Sixth Hawaii International Conference on Systems Science. 1973. General systems research. In: OR’72, ed. by M. Ros, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 189–200. 1973. The general systems as a methodological tool. Hungarian translation of 1965 article: Kozgazdasagi es Jogi Konyhvakiado, Budapest. 1974. Taxonomy of systems. In: Interdisciplinary aspects of General Systems, ed. by T.H. Murray, SGSR. 1974. On general systems education. Systems Engineering 4 (1):14–19. 1974. On the solution of Boolean and Pseudo-Boolean relations. EEEE Transactions on Computers C-23 (10):1098–1100. 1975. Computer performance evaluation based on monitoring: A view from general systems methodology and some recommendations. Bell Laboratories, TM-75-9151-1. 1975. Systems methodology in management. Proc. Joint OR Societies Meeting, Kyoto, Japan. GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 810 Revision CE:DV R. BELOHLAVEK 1975. On the representation of activity arrays. Intern. J. of General Systems 2 (3):149– 168. 1975. General Systems Theory. In Handbuch der dedrieblichen Informations systeme, ed. by B.J. Jaggi and R. Gorlitz Veriag Franz Vahlen, Muchen (in German), 3–24. 1975. Processing of fuzzy activities of neutral systems. In: Progress of Cybernetics and Systems Research, ed. by R. Trappl and F. Pichler, Hemisphere, Washington, D.C, 21–24. 1976. Computerized methodology for structure modelling. Annals of Systems Research 5, Martinus Nijhoﬀ, Iziden, The Netherlands, 29–66 (with H. Uyttenhove). 1976. Procedure for generating hypothetical structures in the structure identiﬁcation problem. Proc. Third European Meeting on Cybernetics and Systems Research, Vienna, Austria, 19–29 (with H. Uyttenhove). 1976. Identiﬁcation of generative structures in empirical data. Intern. J. of General Systems 3 (2):89–104. 1976. Systems synthesis. In: Health Research: The Systems Approach, ed. by H. H. Werley et. al, Springer, New York, 283–291. 1977. On the problem of computer-aided structure modelling: Some experimental observations. Intern. J. of Man-Machine Systems 9 (5):593–628 (with H. Uyttenhove). 1977. Pattern discovery in activity arrays. In: Systems: Approaches, Theories, Applications, ed. by W.E. Hartnett, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 121–158. 1978. Identiﬁcation of generative structures in empirical data. Polish translation of 1976 article. 1978. Structural modelling of indigenous systems. Proc. 22nd Annual Meeting of the SGSR, Washington, D.C., 151–155. 1978. The problem of choosing appropriate structure system in systems modelling and its meaning to modelling in developing countries. Proc. Intern. Conf. on Systems Modelling in Developing Countries, Bangkok, Thailand, 2–20. 1978. The general systems research movement. In: Systems Models for Decision Making, ed. by N. Sharif and P. Adulbhan, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, 25–70. 1978. The role of simulation as a laboratory tool of the systems scientist. Proc. Eleventh Hawaii Intern. Confer. on Systems Science, Honolulu, Hawaii, Jan. 1978. 1978. A problem-solving basis for general systems research. In: Applied General Systems Research, ed. by G. J. Klir, Plenum Press, New York, 53–59 (with R. Cavallo). 1978. A conceptual foundation for systems problem solving. Intern. J. of Systems Science 9:219–236 (with R. Cavallo). 1979. Procedure for generating reconstruction hypotheses in the reconstructability analysis. Intern. J. of General Systems 5 (4):231–246 (with H. Uyttenhove). 1979. The structure of reconstructable relations. J. of Kybernetics 9 (4):399–413 (with R. Cavallo). 1979. Reconstructability analysis of multi-dimensional relations. Proc. First Inter. Conf. on Policy Analysis and Information Systems Duke University, Durham, N.C., 58–66. 1979. Architecture of structure systems: a basis for the reconstructability analysis. Acta Polytechnica Scandinavica, Math and Computer Sciences 32, Helsinki, 33–43. GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 Revision Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GENERAL SYSTEMS CE:DV 811 1979. Reconstructability analysis of multi-dimensional relation: a theoretical basis for computer-aided determination of acceptable systems models. Inter. J. of General Systems 5 (3):143–171 (with R. Cavallo). 1979. Foundations of systems methodology. Proc. of a Seminar of Latin American and Canadian Scholars, Edmonton. 1979. Computer-aided systems modeling. In: Theoretical Systems Ecology, ed. by E. Halfon, Academic Press, 291–323. 1979. General systems problem solving methodology. In: Methodology in Systems Modelling and Simulation, ed. by B.P. Zeigler et al., North-Holland, New York, 3–28. 1981. On systems methodology and inductive reasoning: the issue of parts and wholes. General Systems Yearbook 26:29–38. 1981. Systems methodology: from youthful to useful. Proc. Intern. Congress on Applied Systems Research and Cybernetics, ed. by G. Lasker, Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY. 1981. Systems of overall possibilities: reconstruction aspects. Proc. Int. Congress on Applied Systems Research and Cybernetics, ed. by G. Lasker, Pergamon Press, Elmsford, New York, 937–946 (with R. Cavallo). 1981. Reconstructability analysis: evaluation of reconstruction hypotheses. Intern. J. of General Systems 7 (1):7–32 (with R. Cavallo). 1981. Reconstructability analysis: overview and bibliography. Intern. J. of General Systems 7 (1):1–6 (with R. Cavallo). 1982. Reconstruction of possibilistic behavior systems. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 8 (2):175–197 (with R. Cavallo). 1982. Decision making in reconstructability analysis. Intern. J. of General Systems 8 (4):243–255 (with R. Cavallo). 1982. On measures of fuzziness and fuzzy complements. Intern. J. of General Systems 8 (3):169–180 (with M. Higashi). 1983. General systems concepts. In: Cybernetics: A Sourcebook, ed. by R. Trappl, Hemisphere, Washington, D.C, 91–119. 1983. On the notion of distance representing information closeness: possibility and probability distributions. Intern. J. of General Systems 9 (2):103–115 (with M. Higashi). 1983. Measures of uncertainty and information based on possibility distributions. Intern. J. of General Systems 9 (1):43–58 (with M. Higashi). 1983. Systems science: a new dimensional in science. Systems Research: Methodological Problems, Nauka, Moscow, 61–85 (in Russian). 1984. Reconstructability analysis: an overview. In: Simulation and Model-Based Methodologies, ed. by T. Oren et al., Springer-Verlag, New York, 409–425. 1984. Reconstruction of possibilistic behavior systems. Projectowanie i Systemy, Osslineum, Warsaw, 11–37 (Polish transl. of 1982 paper, with R. Cavallo). 1984. General systems framework for inductive modeling. In: Simulation and ModelBased Methodologies, ed. by T. Oren et al., Springer-Verlag, New York, 69–90. 1984. Reconstruction families of possibilities structure systems. 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Klír, J. Analysa dvojhodnotových kódů se zřetelem k synthese kybernetických soustav [Analysis of binary codes with particular respect to the synthesis of cybernetic systems]. Candidate of science thesis (roughly corresponds to PhD thesis), Prague: Výzkumný ústav matematických strojů, 1964. GGEN 1388801 17-10-2017 Revision INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GENERAL SYSTEMS CE:DV 823 6. At that time George already had a son, Jan, from his ﬁrst marriage. 7. Klír, J. Úvod do problematiky teorie systémů. Habilitation thesis, Prague: Výzkumný ústav matematických strojů, 1966. Acknowledgements I thank George Klir’s wife Milena for helpful information she kindly provided, and to Harold W. Lewis III and Eduard Bartl for their remarks on this text. Downloaded by [UAE University] at 09:27 25 October 2017 Notes on contributor Radim Belohlavek received PhD degree in computer science from the Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic, in 1998, PhD degree in mathematics from Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic, in 2001, and DSc degree in informatics and cybernetics from the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in 2008. He is a professor of computer science at Palacky University. Dr. Belohlavek’s academic interests are in discrete mathematics, logic, uncertainty and information, and data analysis. He published four books (Kluwer, Springer, MIT Press, Oxford University Press) and over 200 papers in conference proceedings and journals. Dr. Belohlavek’s is a senior member of IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), and a Member of ACM (Association for Computing Machinery) and AMS (American Mathematical Society), and is a member of editorial boards of several international journals. References Ashby, W. R. 1956. An Introduction to Cybernetics. New York: Wiley. Belohlavek, R. 2016. “Obituary: George J. Klir (1932–2016).” International Journal of General Systems 45 (7): 769–770. Bělohlávek, R., J. W. Dauben, and G. J. Klir. 2017. Fuzzy Logic and Mathematics: A Historical Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press. Klir, G. J. 1988. “Systems Proﬁle: The Emergence of Systems Science.” Systems Research 5 (2): 145–156. Klir, G. J., ed. 2007. Memorable Ideas of a Computer School: The Life and Work of Antonín Svoboda. Prague: Czech Technical University Publishing House. Klir, G. J. 2009. “W. Ross Ashby: A Pioneer of Systems Science.” International Journal of General Systems 38 (2): 175–188. Klir, G. J. 2010. “Uncertainty in Systems: An Autobiographical Retrospect.” International Journal of General Systems 39 (4): 437–450. Zadeh, L. A. 1965. “Fuzzy Sets.” Information and Control 12: 94–102.

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