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A Novel Deep-Impurity-Level Assisted Tunneling Technology for
Enhanced Interband Tunneling Probability
RunDong Jia, QianQian Huang, ChunLei Wu, Yang Zhao, JiaXin Wang, Ru Huang *
Institute ofMicroelectronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
* Email:
In this work, a novel deep-impurity-Ievel assisted
tunneling technology with enhanced band to band
tunneling (BTBT) probability is proposed and
experimentally demonstrated. Through implanting deep
level impurities in the tunnel junction, continuous deep
level states can be introduced to facilitate the BTBT
process for significant BTBT probability boosting.
Compared with conventional tunnel diodes, the
fabricated deep-impurity-Ievel assisted tunnel diodes
exhibit 7.8x and 23x current enhancement in P++/N+ and
N++/P+ tunnel diodes respectively, showing its great
potential for future current enhancement in tunnel FETs.
2. Device Physics and Fabrication
2.1 Device Physics
Fig. 1 shows the schematic band diagram of tunnel
junction with deep level impurities implantation
proposed in this work. Deep level impurities implanted
can introduce continuous states at deep impurity level
(DL) across the tunnel junction [7], and the DL can assist
the BTBT process with enhanced tunneling probability.
As shown in Fig. 1, the whole DL assisted tunneling
process can be divided into two steps: electrons tunnel
from valence band to DL and further tunnel trom DL to
conduction band, finally forming the tunneling current.
1. Introduction
Tunnel FET (TFET) possessing sub-60mV/dec
subthreshold slope based on band-to-band tunneling
(BTBT) mechanism, is one of the most promising
candidates for future low power application [1-2]. In
TFET, the source tunnel junction is the crucial
architecture for the achievable BTBT current, thus
enabling tunnel diode as the effective structure to
investigate the BTBT probability. However, most of
experimental tunnel diodes have shown low current due
to a low BTBT probability, especially for Si devices
[2-4]. Introducing localized deep level states in tunnel
junction is recently proposed and simulated in 2D
material tunnel system as an effective method for BTBT
probability boosting [5]. However, the physics of deep
level states in BTBT process are still not c1ear, and the
states are expected to be generated by introducing
localized defects through transition-metal vacancy or
chalcogenide vacancy in 2D materials [6], which is
difficult to be controlled and realized in experiments,
especially for conventional bulk materials. In addition,
the defects are localized in a limited region, leading to
the limited BTBT probability enhancement.
In this work, instead of introducing localized
defects, continuous deep level states by introducing
controllable deep level impurities is proposed for large
deep-impurity-Ievel assisted tunneling technology is
discussed in detail and experimentally demonstrated in
Si-based tunnel diodes. Current enhancement up to 7.8x
and 23x has been achieved in P++/N+ and N++/P+ tunnel
diodes respectively, showing its distinct advantages for
BTBT probability improvement.
978-1-4673-9719-3/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE
1. Schematic illustration of the band diagram of
tunnel diodes with deep level impurities. The DL assisted
tunneling process consists of electrons tunneling from valence
band to DL and tunneling from DL to conduction band.
To c1arity the advantages of DL assisted tunneling
process more c1early, BTBT probability is investigated
by comparison with conventional tunneling probability.
In conventional BTBT probability (T),
herein, exponential term is the effective tunneling barrier
height Eb, and Eb equals to bandgap width Eg for
conventional tunnel diode. However, in DL assisted
tunneling process, the effective tunneling barrier heights
in two steps no longer equal to bandgap width. For step 1,
the effective barrier height that electrons face is the
energy difference between valence band and DL, and can
be denoted as lic/)!. For step 2, the effective barrier
height is the energy difference between DL and
conduction band, and can be denoted as
The DL
assisted tunneling probability can be expressed as
T. X T2 OC eXP
Therefore, the ratio of
l )j l
eXP -E,O)
Since sum of the two effective barrier heights equals
the above equation (3) can be calculated out that T'/T>1,
as shown in Fig. 2, which indicates the enhanced total
tunneling probability of DL assisted BTBT compared
with conventional tunneling process.
of Ixl019 and lxl021 cm-3 respectively. Following is the
implantation of deep level impurities, and Argentum is
chosen to be implanted with density of lxlO17cm-3 in our
experiment. The tunnel diodes were then annealed for 5s
at 1050 °C to activate these dopants, followed with
contact and metallization.
The N++;P+ tunnel diodes with Nickel as deep level
impurities were also fabricated. The doping density of
As+ and BF/ impurities are designed to be lxl021 and
lx1019cm-3 respectively. The density of Nickel is
1x I017cm-3. Conventional tunnel diodes without deep
level impurities implantation were also fabricated in this
experiment for further comparison.
Isolation process
N+ implantation (P+, 130keV, 2e14)
P++ implantation(BFt , 33keV, le16)
Deep level impurities implantation
(Ag+, 33keV, 2.5ell)
DL assisted
tunneling process
Contact and Metallization
tunneling process
2. Comparison between the exponential term of DL
assisted tunneling process and conventional tunneling process.
lncreased exponential term indicates enhanced BTBT tunneling
4. Process flow of
tunnel diode with deep level
3. Discussion
2.2 Device Fabrication
Both p++/N+ and N++;P+ tunnel diodes were
fabricated on Si<lOO> substrate, as illustrated in Fig. 3.
Deep level impurities are designed to be implanted in the
junction region. The process tlow of P++/N+ tunnel
diodes is shown in Fig. 4. After isolation, phosphorus
and BF/ are implanted successively with doping density
3 Schematic illustration of (a) the
with deep level impurities and (b)
deep level impurities in this work.
P++/N+ tunnel diode
N++;P+ tunnel diode with
Measured I-V characteristics of P++/N+ DL assisted
tunnel diode and conventional tunnel diode are given in
Fig. 5. From the comparison results, considerable current
enhancement up to 7.8x is achieved. This is attributed to
the enhanced BTBT probability in DL assisted tunneling
5. Measured I-V characteristics of DL assisted and
tunnel diodes at room temperature. The
current is enhanced by 7.8x in DL assisted tunnel diode due to
enhanced BTBT probability.
Temperature dependence of I-V characteristics is
further measured to verify its mechanism. With the
decreased temperature, the bandgap of silicon relatively
increases, leading to the decreased tunneling probability
and current for tunnel diode, as shown in Fig. 6. Instead,
the thermal injection current in conventional MOSFET
has the negative current dependence on temperature.
Therefore, the observed positive correlation coefficient
of current and temperature in Fig. 6 further confirms the
BTBT mechanism in fabricated DL assisted tunnel
diodes. Furthermore, in order to prove that the current
enhancement is induced by DL assisted effect rather than
trap assisted tunneling process, low temperature
electrical characteristics of DL assisted and conventional
tunnel diodes are compared in Fig. 7. Low temperature
measurements can suppress the trap assisted tunneling
process. The DL assisted tunnel diode can still achieve
higher current than conventional tunnel diodes at 77K,
which indicates that the current enhancement is caused
by the enhanced BTBT probability by DL assisted
tunneling process.
which is more significant than the improvement through
Argentum induced DL assisted tunneling in P++IN+
tunnel diodes. This is related to the different deep levels
induced by Nickel and Argentum. DL induced by Nickel
is eIoser to the intrinsic fermi level, resulting in the
higher T'/T and thus higher total tunneling probability.
Measured @ 300K
VN (V)
8. Measured I-V characteristics of DL assisted and
N++/P+ tunnel diodes.
4. Summary
- nK
-.(;_. 200K
1 V (V)
Fig. 6.
In this work, a novel deep-impurity-Ievel assisted
tunnel diode with high BTBT probability is discussed in
detail and experimentally demonstrated. By introducing
continuous deep level states through impuntles
implantation to facilitate tunneling process in silicon,
BTBT probability and current are considerably enhanced.
Temperature characteristics further confrrm the dominant
BTBT mechanism in the deep-impurity-Ievel assisted
tunnel diode. This BTBT probability boosting
technology shows great potential for future current
improvement in tunnel FETs.
Measured temperature dependence ofl- V characteristics
in DL assisted tunnel diode.
This work was partly supported by NSFC
(61421005), 863 Project (2015AAO I6501), and China
Postdoctoral Science Foundation. The authors would like
to thank the staff of National Microl Nano Fabrication
Laboratory of Peking University for their assistance in
the device fabrication.
++ +
0 - OL assisted P /N diode
++ +
11'- conventional P /N diode
[1] G. Dewey
al.,IEDM,p. 785 (2011).
[2] Q. Huang et al. ,TEDM,p.382 (2011).
[3] F. Mayer et al., TEDM,p. 163,2008.
VN (V)
7. Low temperature electrical characteristics of DL
assisted and conventional tunnel diodes.
Electrical characteristics of N++/P+ tunnel diodes are
also measured. As show in Fig. 8, compared with
conventional tunnel diode, 23x current enhancement is
achieved through Nickel induced DL assisted tunneling,
[4] K. Boucart et al., EDL,p. 656,2009.
[5] X. Jiang et al., LEDM,p.309 (2015).
[6] S. Tongay et al., Sci. Rep.,p.1 (2013).
[7] A. G. Milnes, Deep Tmpurities in Semiconductors,
[8] S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices,
Third Edition,Wiley,2007.
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578 Кб
icsict, 2016, 7999004
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