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IICPE.2016.8079528

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Research Issues Related to Cryptography Algorithms
and Key Generation for Smart Grid: A Survey
Ajay Kumar
Electronics and Communication Department
Thapar University,
Patiala, India.
ajay.kumar@thapar.edu
Abstract- With advent of technology existing electrical grids
are changed to smart grids which are effective power
management, secure communication, reduced production cost
and environment friendly. But, Smart Grid is complex hierarchy
architecture. There are various stakeholders included. So, the
biggest challenges are authentication and authorization. Secondly
how to secure the communication lines from various cyber
attacks. In this paper, a survey is done on various cryptography
algorithms and related key generation for smart grid application.
On the basis of survey several research issue have been discussed
for the secure operations in the smart grids. It has been found
that lightweight algorithms are more suitable in smart meters
because of less area and memory required. Key generation for
cryptography algorithm should be generated from noise and
jitter as a seed because of their random nature to prevent from
cyber attacks.
Keywords-Cryptography, Smart Meters, grids, cyber attack and
security.
I. INTRODUCTION
In last few years due to load unbalancing there is a blackout of
electricity industry and due to users affected and wastage of
money. Smart Grid is the next generation of power grids
because it provides an effective two way communication
between users and supplier.
Alpana Agarwal
Electronics and Communication Department
Thapar University,
Patiala, India.
alpana@thapar.edu
Smart grid includes various kinds of sensors in smart meter
which provide user’s real time electricity usage and manage
and give instruction from central unit. Also, smart meter
provides efficient power management, better reliability,
balance between generation and consumption [1].
1.1 Overview of Smart Grids Architecture
Fig. 1 shows the Smart Grid is a hierarchy in which at the
bottom layer Home Area Network (HAN), Building Area
Network (BAN), and Industrial Area Network (IAN) involved
and which are either wire or wireless connected with smart
meter. Smart meter are responsible for giving users electricity
usage reports to grids. The middle layer include Neighborhood
Area Network which combine the small geographic area smart
meters and responsible for the different distributions. The
upper most layer, monitor and manage electricity [2].In
monitoring they check the load balancing on the transmission
lines so load unbalancing never occur and also according to
environment takes action. In management according to demand
they forecast their future plan for electricity generation. Also
generate electricity bills according to user’s electricity usage.
1.2 Different Communication Attacks in Smart Grids
In communication system the attacks are categorized in two
parts [3].
1.2.1. Passive Attacks: In general, when two parties are
communicated third party silently listening your message
without affecting your system resources. In smart grids, the
passive attacks are take form of Eavesdropping or Traffic
Analysis. The Eavesdropping refers to unauthorized inception
of an on-going communication without the permission of the
communicating parties. On the other hand in traffic analysis the
unauthorized parties are monitoring of your electricity loads
information for some physical attacks. For example, in smart
grids within every 15 minutes the customer electricity traffic
load are communicated to local substation using smart meters.
So from traffic analysis the unauthorized parties know when
you come home and go for office.
Fig 1. Multilayer Architecture for Smart Grids [2]
978-1-5090-4530-3/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE
1.2.2. Active Attacks: In active attacks, the unauthorized
parties are according to their requirement can modify messages
or harm the system resources when two parties are
communicating. In smart grids, these unauthorized parties are
tries to pass some wrong information to smart grids so they
take some wrong actions and due to load unbalancing or black
out of electricity.
1.3 Design goals for Smart Grids
Due to different types of attacks, some design goals are
adopted for smart grids security. These are
a) Confidential
Table 1: Comparative Analysis between Symmetric and
Asymmetric Algorithm
Symmetric Algorithm
used for
decryption
Different keys are used for
encryption and decryption
purposes.
Symmetric algorithms are
used for plaintext encryption.
Asymmetric algorithms are
used
for
authentication
purposes.
Key is shared with cipher text
on the network for decryption
purposes.
No
need
communication.
Same key is
encryption and
purposes
b) Authorization
c) Integrity
d) Availability
e) Non Repudiation
f) Authenticity
1.4 Overview of Cryptography Algorithms in Smart grids
Smart grid is complex hierarchy architecture and various
vendors are included. So authenticity and authorization is a big
challenge in Smart Grids. To fulfill the design goals of smart
grid different cryptography algorithms are used for secure
communication. In Cryptography the message write in such a
notation only communicating parties knows how the data is
encrypted. Fig.2 shows the basic block diagram of
cryptography. In Cryptography in which some random key and
encryption algorithm is applied on plain text to produce cipher
text. The Cipher text security depends on random key and on
algorithm.
1.4.1 Cryptography algorithms are classified in two terms
based on keys.
a) Symmetric Algorithm: In Symmetric algorithm same key is
used for encryption and decryption purposes like AES,
HIGHT, PRESENT etc. So, in symmetric algorithm key is also
shared on the network with cipher text.
b) Asymmetric Algorithm: In Asymmetric algorithm different
keys used for encryption and decryption purposes like RSA,
ECC etc.
Table 1 shows the comparative analysis of symmetric and
asymmetric algorithm.
1.4.2 There are two techniques of cryptography algorithms.
These are
a) Block Cipher: In block cipher the plaintext bitstream break
into fixed block size and same key is applied on each block for
produce cipher text. Some block based cipher algorithms are
AES, HIGHT, and PRESENT etc.
b) Stream Cipher: In stream cipher each bit of plaintext is
Exclusive- OR with key stream. The key stream is produced by
some pseudorandom process.
Plain Text
Encryption
Algorithm
Key
Fig.2 Block Diagram of Cryptography
Cipher
Text
Asymmetric Algorithm
of
key
The paper is organized as section 2 covers the literature survey.
In the literature different symmetric and asymmetric algorithms
and key generation are survey based on their performance and
security to secure the smart grid communication. Moreover
section 3 covers the comparative analysis of different
algorithms for smart grids. Afterwards section 4 covers
research direction on which further work can be done to secure
the smart grids and finally section 5 covers the conclusion.
II. LITERATURE SURVEY
In the literature survey covers the symmetric and asymmetric
algorithms used in smart grids for secure communication.
Also, some new lightweight cryptography algorithms are
survey because of their good performance. Moreover
cryptography algorithms overall security depends on key
randomness so some survey also done on key generation.
Liu, et al.[4], discuss how secure the two way communication
between smart meter and neighborhood gateway. For securing
the communication line, a lightweight authenticated scheme is
proposed. In their algorithm encryption is done using
Exclusive OR operation and communication line is
authenticated using Lagrange interpolation formula. Their
whole algorithm required very less memory and good
performance so hardware efficient.
Jia-Lun Tsai and Nai-Wei Lo [5], discuss how identitybased signature and encryption scheme used for key
distribution between smart meter and service provider in smart
grids without the involvement of trusted anchor.
Neetesh Saxena, et al.[6], discuss that smart grid are secure,
reliable and efficient network for power distribution. There
are number of users includes in smart girds like customers,
different grid operators and so on. So, authentication and
authorization are the big challenge in smart network. In this
paper, authenticate user by their unique signature or one time
password (OTP) send to their mobile phone to verify that
actual user accessing the system and authorize using attribute
based hash values.
Uludag, et al.[7], presents a secure data communication
protocols for data collection. Smart gird is a hierarchical
architecture so authentication and authorization required for
communicating the data collected from measurement device to
the power operator. They are using Asymmetric RSA
algorithm for to create and verify signature. The parameter in
their system is to optimize time.
Asmaa Abdulla and Xuemin Shen [8], discuss how to
reduce the overheads (Computation and Communication
burden) of smart grids because smart grid has limited memory
and area available. They proposed a lightweight secure
algorithm in which cluster of houses electricity demand is
forecasted in place of individual customer reports and it limits
the cluster’s connection with electricity utility.
Hongwei Li, et al.[9], presents a efficient privacy preserving
demand response scheme for secure the communication in
smart grids. There technique have two phase in first phase the
data is encrypted using homomorphic encryption to achieve
privacy preserving demand aggregation and in second phase
they are ensuring the session key using adaptive key evolution
technique.
Bassam J. Mohd, et al. [10], surveyed different lightweight
algorithms based on their performance on software as well on
hardware platform. Also, define some research issues on
which in future work can be done. They are concluding that
PRESENT cipher as a good reference for hardware
implementation.
Lang Li, et al. [11], proposed a QTL ultra-lightweight
algorithm for resource constraint environment. QTL algorithm
have based on Feistel network. The advantage of QTL
algorithm is that it changes the all block messages in an
iterative round as compared to conventional Feistel network
where only half of block message changes. Also, to reduce the
energy consumption on hardware they never doing key
scheduling while maintaining security.
Mohd, et al. [12], discuss that in low resource devices
security and resource limitation are big challenge. They
designed an optimized lightweight HIGHT block cipher and
implement on FGPA. The algorithm is highly secure because
of key scheduling and large number of rounds.
Lee, et al. [13], proposed a lightweight LEA algorithm for
resource constraint environment. LEA algorithm is
128/192/256 iterates with 24/28/32 rounds and in place of
complex Substitution box they are doing simple addition,
rotation and Exclusive- OR operation. LEA algorithm required
only one round function so hardware efficient.
Chugunkov, et al. [14], shows that it is possible to generate
lightweight pseudorandom number generator by modifying the
function of feedback. They are applying the modify function
of feedback in AES for pseudorandom number and results
shows that there is reasonable decrease in the classic generator
parameter.
Liu, et al. [15], discuss that overall security of cryptography
algorithm depends on randomness of key. They are generating
random number using tetrahedral oscillator with large jitter
and for further enhancing randomness of bits the output of
oscillator pass through post digital processor.
They
implemented the design on 0.13μm technology and bit rate
after processing is 100kb/s. There design passes the NIST and
Diehard test.
III. COMPARATIVE
In this section, different cryptography algorithms comparative
analysis is done on the basis of different parameters for
security are shown in table II.
Table II. Comparative Analysis of Different Cryptography Algorithms
Reference
Symmetric/
Conventional/
Block Size
Asymmetric
Lightweight
Number of Rounds
Algorithm
Asymmetric
Lightweight
Round:1
Liu, et al.[4]
Jia-Lun Tsai
and Nai-Wei
Lo [5]
Neetesh
Saxena,
et
al.[6]
Uludag,
al.[7]
et
ANAYLSIS OF DIFFERENT ALGORITHM FOR
SMART GRIDS
Symmetric
Lightweight
Round:1
Asymmetric
Conventional
Round:1
Asymmetric
Conventional
Round:1
Merits
Limitation
Hardware Efficient
due
to
simple
operations.
For Encryption
only one step
Exclusive-OR so
not highly secure.
Unique
Identity
based encryption so
highly secure.
Highly
secure
because of unique
signature or OTP on
operator
mobile
number.
In Hash algorithm
no key is used.
The time spent on
encrypting a
message using
public key is similar
to the time needed in
verifying a
signature.
Slower
than
Symmetric
Algorithms.
Asmaa
Abdulla and
Xuemin Shen
[8]
Asymmetric
Lightweight
Round:1
Reduces the number
of connection with
electricity utility.
Hongwei Li,
et al.[9]
Asymmetric
Conventional
Round:1
Double Tier Security
Lang Li, et al.
[11]
Symmetric
Ultra lightweight
Block
Size:
64/128bits
Rounds: 16/20
Mohd, et al.
[12]
Symmetric
Lightweight
Block Size:64 bit
Rounds:32
Lee,
[13]
Symmetric
Lightweight
Block Size:
128/192/256
Rounds: 24/28/32
a) In Feistel network
same
architecture
used for encryption
and
decryption
purposes.
b) Changes the all
block messages in
iterative round so
highly secure.
a) Feistel network
based
so
same
hardware used for
encryption
and
decryption purposes.
b) Pipeline structure
gives
higher
throughput and less
energy consumption.
Key generation on
the fly.
Hardware Efficient
et
al.
IV. RESEARCH ISSUES
In this section, highlight the research issue determined from
the literature survey.
1. In smart grids, smart meters are used to give real time
customer electricity usage information. Smart meter
have limited memory and area available. So, one
research direction is to use lightweight algorithms in
place of conventional algorithms.
2. For security purposes, block ciphers are preferred in
smart meters. So, one research direction is to prefer
stream Cipher in place of block cipher because
limited customer information is communicated to
smart grid.
3. Generate a unique signature for each smart meter so
that physical clonable smart meters are not designed.
4. Authentication and Authorization are the big
challenge in smart grids whenever they access
intelligent electronic device, smart meters, and
outdoor field equipment. So, how different user are
managed in hierarchy of smart grid. So, one research
direction is to provide smart card for login and also
How to manage
Clustering data. If
there is attack on
cluster data then
all
individual
which are in the
cluster are suffer
from it.
They break the
keys into two
halves and using
one key for odd
iterative
round
and one key for
even rounds. So,
there are chances
of key attacks.
Overall security
depends on one
function.
set security in smart card that they use smart card after some
biometric security like finger print scan.
V. CONCLUSION
In this paper, different cryptography algorithms and their
related key generation algorithms are surveyed and concluded
that lightweight algorithm are prefer in smart grids because
limited memory and area required. Also, our research shows
that symmetric algorithms are used for message encryption
and asymmetric algorithms are used for authentication.
Moreover, cryptography algorithms overall security depends
on randomness of key so taking noise or jitter as a seed prevent
from attacks.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors are grateful to DeitY for the financial support
through ‘Visvesvaraya Fellowship’ and ‘SMDP chips to
system design’ project. The authors also want to express their
sincere gratitude towards the Director, Thapar University,
Patiala for his persistent support and encouragement.
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