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Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research Publish Ahead of Print
DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002306
MANUSCRIPT CLARIFICATION
Authors reply to Ishøi et al.: “Inappropriate methods and flawed conclusion in: Can
resistance training enhance the rapid force development in unloaded dynamic isoinertial
multi-joint movements? A systematic review”
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Van Hooren, B.1,2, Bosch, F.2, Meijer, K.1
1
NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Department of Human
Movement Sciences, Maastricht University Medical Centre +, The Netherlands
Fontys University of Applied Sciences, School of Sport Studies, The Netherlands
Address for Correspondence:
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Bas Van Hooren
Fontys university of applied sciences, School of Sport Studies
Theo Koomenlaan 3
Eindhoven, NL
5644 HZ
E-mail: basvanhooren@hotmail.com
Conflicts of interest: None declared.
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Word Count: 377
Copyright ª 2017 National Strength and Conditioning Association
We thank Ishøi, Clausen and Aagaard (3) for their interest in our article (4) and discussing their
concerns about the main conclusion and some methodological aspects.
We agree that data synthesis based on counting significant and non-significant p-values
has major limitaitons as discussed elsewhere (1, 2). For this reason we initially aimed to perform
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a meta-analysis. However, four out of twelve studies with mostly non-significant findings (and
therefore a potential trivial effect) did not provide enough information for a meta-analysis. The
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calculated effect could therefore overestimate the true effect, especially when considering
publication bias. In their response, Ishøi, Clausen and Aagaard (3) performed a meta-analysis on
a subset of the studies in our review, while also separately analysing different rate of force
development (RFD) metrics. Although this analysis provides valuable information on the effect
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of training on different RFD metrics, this way of synthesizing data likely overestimates the true
effect. Additionally, they (1) did not distinguish in the training effects between untrained,
recreationally active, or well-trained individuals, while such a distinction provides valuable
information for practitioners working with better trained individuals.
We acknowledge that different RFD metrics describe different physiological mechanisms,
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and a separate analysis per metric would indeed have provided a more detailed insight into the
effects of resistance training on the underlying mechanisms. However, our perspective is that the
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overall effect of resistance training on RFD may be most interesting for practitioners as it is
unknown how a specific metric such as peak RFD relates to sports performance.
Finally, the authors understood from our conclusion that resistance training is ineffective
at improving RFD and suggested that the conclusion be revised to “resistance training may in fact
improve RFD during unloaded dynamic movements, at least for some RFD metrics.” Although
the information about the effects of training on RFD metrics is a valuable addition, we would like
to emphasize that our original conclusion indicated that resistance training may improve RFD
Copyright ª 2017 National Strength and Conditioning Association
during unloaded dynamic isoinertial multi-joint movements. We did, however, suggest that the
effect is limited and the analysis of Ishøi, Clausen and Aagaard (3) supported this suggestion for
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some RFD metrics.
Copyright ª 2017 National Strength and Conditioning Association
References
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3.
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4.
Batterham AM and Hopkins WG. Making meaningful inferences about magnitudes. Int J Sports
Physiol Perform 1: 50-57, 2006.
Greenland S, Senn SJ, Rothman KJ, Carlin JB, Poole C, Goodman SN, and Altman DG. Statistical
tests, P values, confidence intervals, and power: a guide to misinterpretations. Eur J Epidemiol
31: 337-350, 2016.
Ishøi L, Clausen MB, and Aagaard P. Inappropriate methods and flawed conclusion in: Can
resistance training enhance the rapid force development in unloaded dynamic isoinertial multijoint movements? A systematic review. J Strength Cond Res, 2017.
Van Hooren B, Bosch F, and Meijer K. Can resistance training enhance the rapid force
development in unloaded dynamic isoinertial multi-joint movements? A systematic review. J
Strength Cond Res 31: 2324–2337, 2017.
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Copyright ª 2017 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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