IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 17, NO. 22, NOVEMBER 15, 2017 7533 Ventilation Monitoring and Control System for High Rise Historical Buildings Abhishek Singh, Student Member, IEEE, Yadvendra Pandey, Ashok Kumar, Manoj Kumar Singh, Anuj Kumar , Senior Member, IEEE, and Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Fellow, IEEE Abstract— Adequate ventilation system and difficulty in operating/maintain ventilators at higher levels in temples and high rise historical buildings is a major problem. In this regard, a wireless sensor actuator network-based ventilation monitoring and control system is developed for temples and high rise historical buildings. Sensor array modules are implemented successfully. ZigBee communication module for transmitting real-time data to the control room is being used. Machine-tomachine communication of the exhaust fans and the control applications with personal computer was successfully carried out. Developed system is capable of online monitoring of exhaust fans running information parameters, such as air flow, vibration, revolutions per minute, and load. The system is also capable of ventilation control for good indoor air quality based on real-time monitoring of environmental parameters like as CO2 , temperature, and relative humidity. A graphical user interface for monitoring and control ventilation with the exhaust system was developed. Exhaust fans real-time information and environmental parameters values are displayed on the GUI developed using Visual Studio C# language. Calibration of the sensor module and exhaust system has been implemented successfully and they assure that the desired accuracy is sustained after a time interval. Developed system is of low cost, energy efficient, and easy to operate with high accuracy. Index Terms— Environment monitoring, sensor system application, wireless sensor network, buildings. I. I NTRODUCTION ENTILATION is a necessity for buildings to maintain indoor air quality and removing indoor contaminants. Adequate ventilation in temples, historical building, and monuments which are more than 10m high is a problem in terms of health and safety . CO2 level, temperature and relative humidity inside the buildings is very high because the no proper ventilation in the buildings. With increase in crowd indoor environment and air quality becomes worse. Also there is no guidelines or standard specifically related to indoor environment and air quality of such buildings. Many incidents such as breathlessness, eye irritations, fainting and so on were reported suggesting towards poor indoor environment and air quality because of poor ventilation system. V Manuscript received August 19, 2017; accepted September 21, 2017. Date of publication September 26, 2017; date of current version October 24, 2017. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for publication was Prof. Danilo Demarchi. (Corresponding author: Anuj Kumar.) A. Singh, Y. Pandey, A. Kumar, and A. Kumar are with the Efficiency of Building, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Building Research Institute Roorkee, Roorkee 247667, India (e-mail: email@example.com). M. K. Singh is with the Department of Human and Social Systems, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). S. C. Mukhopadhyay is with Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia (e-mail: email@example.com). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JSEN.2017.2756978 Unavailability of standards to deal with such buildings, in this study nearest ASHRAE standards such as 55 and 62.1 are considered to fix the indoor thermal and air quality parameters while designing the ventilation system. This study also makes the management of these buildings aware about the health issues and tries to put forth following two main suggestions. First is to control the number of persons at a time in the temples or high rise historical buildings or monuments and second is monitor and control the ventilation within the high rise historical buildings, monuments, and temples. Similarly, on few cases the exhaust fans are used for removing indoor contaminants –. But there is always a necessity to develop a ventilation monitoring system using wireless sensor network to fight the warm and damp environments, and to control the thermal comfort in historical buildings. Simple process of ventilation is the exhaust using electrical equipment such as high capacity fans. Indoor air quality can be monitored using sensors, communication technology and graphical user interface applications. Presently, researchers have worked on ventilation monitoring and control (VMC) systems to avoid malfunctioning and failure of exhaust fans in buildings. Temples, high rise historical buildings, and monuments have ventilation problem, persistent high temperature and relative humidity as stated by temple management and same is shown by high CO2 concentration, persistence of high temperature and relative humidity in long term monitoring work. Real problem of Shree Jagannath Temple is the lack of monitoring and control system of exhaust fans. Four-exhaust fans provided at the top of the Temple are approximately 61m high above the Garba griha (Sanctum sanctorum) as shown in Figure 1. To solve the issues related to ventilation it was considered to study in this research. A wireless sensor network for high-rise historical buildings, temples, and monuments in the context of ventilation monitoring system is developed with an emphasis on the energy efficiency and low cost. Control strategy is based on real-time monitoring of environmental parameters such as relative humidity, CO2 , and temperature. Hence, the research study is organized as follows. Section II discusses the previous work. Section III discusses the development of system architecture. Section IV covers the real time testing. Finally, the results of research are covered in Section V. II. R ELATED W ORK This section discusses the previous work on ventilation monitoring and criteria of the control of ventilation parameters. 1558-1748 © 2017 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information. 7534 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 17, NO. 22, NOVEMBER 15, 2017 Fig. 1. Ventilation system in Shree Jagannath Temple, Puri, India. To bring forth the gap in research and issues to be solved a comprehensive literature review is carried out and is discussed here in –. A. Natural Ventilation Hao et al.  proposed the approach of transactive control of heating, cooling, and ventilation for commercial buildings and they pronounce system model is based on collected data of selected commercial buildings. They are performed the different building case study to control the heating, cooling, and ventilation through virtual test bed and also calibrated the energy plus model. Kalogirou et al.  proposed a neural network based model for natural ventilation by using environmental parameters like wind velocity with direction and outside air temperature. Measures the indoor parameters such as air pressure, and air velocity with direction across the openings and the measured data are applied to the proposed model for natural ventilation. Luo et al.  developed a model for appraise the ventilation in homes. Real characteristic of natural ventilation based on constant indoor air temperature. And also integrated the air quality with adapted thermal comfort for natural ventilation. Massanes et al.  presented the ventilation design for underground mines and used the geographic information data for underground infrastructure. They suggested the controlling of underground conditions and also suggested the ventilation circuit based on building conditions. These studies are very useful for present research in the context of high rise historical buildings, and temples. B. Ventilation System and Control Module Fuzi et al.  developed air ventilation system for server room and used gas detectors to monitor the fire and exhaust fan for fresh air in the server room. Xu et al.  presented a ventilation control model for multi zone and optimized the indoor air quality, energy consumption, and thermal comfort. The inherent algorithm is used for optimization of temperature of particular zone. Wu et al.  studied the automatic switching system for coal mine fan and ventilation unit. Authors proposed Programmable Logic Control (PLC) based device to control and analyse the air flow rate in ventilation system. Shilei et al.  proposed a ventilation monitoring system (VMS) for tunnel construction based on the WiFi and Bluetooth technology. Authors used dust, air velocity, temperature, and gas sensors to monitor the ventilation status of tunnel. Kievit  developed a cabin air filter for real life conditions. The developed filters are experimentally tested for food fume, smoke, and other chemicals. Blaschke et al.  developed an air quality gas sensor array for car cabin. The odor are discriminated experimentally for the three different cases such as bio-effluents (flatulence), fast-food odor, cigarette smoke, and manure. Comprehensive literature review shows that the existing ventilation system for monitoring fan rpm and control is based on the electro-mechanical components. In the existing system, multichannel long range real-time monitoring and control of exhaust fan functioning information such as switched on-off, jamming, measurement of air flow through forced and natural draft and ventilation control strategy for temples and high rise historical buildings is not present. III. D EVELOPMENT OF S YSTEM A RCHITECTURE A wireless sensor network based air ventilation monitoring and control (VMC) system is designed with the integration of environmental parameters. The exhaust fan’s running information and control of the ventilation for good indoor air quality has been successfully developed. The developed system is capable of monitoring the status of exhaust fan based on real-time parameters such as air flow, vibration, revolutions per minute (rpm), and current consumption with the help of wireless sensor-actuator network and visual studio based GUI application. This system is also capable of ventilation control in high rise historical temples considering real-time monitoring of outdoor and indoor environmental parameters such as relative humidity, CO2 , and temperature. The block diagram of the developed ventilation monitoring and control system is shown in Figure 2. The developed system consists of the multi-channel sensor array with signal conditioning, ZigBee communication, actuators, and graphical user interface. The running status of exhaust fan based on air speed, vibration, current, and rpm parameters are measured in real-time and displayed. The control strategy of the ventilation system based on real-time monitoring of environmental parameters such as CO2 level, relative humidity and temperature has been developed. The Arduino Uno board is working as a processing unit and connected to the ZigBee wireless module. The real-time parameters of the exhaust fan are transmitted via ZigBee communication to and from the ZigBee control center. The visual C# app is using for display and control the exhaust fan installed at the top of the Shree Jagannath Temple. The photograph of the developed ventilation monitoring and control system (VMCS) is shown in Figure 3. A. Sensor Array A sensor array is a cluster of sensors such as air flow, rpm, vibration, current, CO2 , temperature, and relative humidity. SINGH et al.: VMC SYSTEM FOR HIGH RISE HISTORICAL BUILDINGS 7535 TABLE I S ENSOR S PECIFICATION U SED IN THE D EVELOPED V ENTILATION M ONITORING AND C ONTROL S YSTEM Fig. 2. system. Block diagram of the Temple ventilation monitoring and control Fig. 3. Photograph of the prototype ventilation monitoring and control system for the Temple (test bed set-up). The selection of the sensors for real-time monitoring of exhaust fans running information and ventilation control based on sensor characteristics and performance is based on the three main parameters such as power, cost, and accuracy for VMC system. The developed sensor module specifications are given in Table I and other components are discussed herein. The development techniques of sensor and actuator was reported in – and . 1) Air Speed Measurement: In the present research, the authors have used the Omron D6F-V sensor for measuring the air speed of the exhaust fans. The air speed is a measurement of the mass of air flowing through the specific area per unit time. An air speed sensor measures massflow and converts into the air velocity. The air speed sensor characteristics, advantage, and disadvantage is reported in . The air speed of exhaust fans is calculated within the range of 0.5 to 2V. The response time and power consumption of the developed air speed sensor module is observed as 5 seconds and 15mW, respectively. 2) Vibration Measurement: The Minisense-100 vibration sensors are used in the measurement of vibration of exhaust fans. The vibration sensor behaves electrically as an active capacitor. When the sensor is mounted horizontally and the acceleration in the vertical plane produces a piezoelectric response in term of output voltage across the sensor electrodes. The sensor is used to detect on-line vibration , . A high-pass filter is formed from resistance and sensor capacitive response to calculate the frequency. The impedance of the sensor is approximately 650M at 1Hz frequency . The advantages, disadvantages and application were reported in . The vibration of exhaust fans is calculated within the range of 0.65 to 6.5Hz. The response time and power consumption of the developed vibration sensor module is found to be 2 seconds and 10mW, respectively. 3) Optical RPM Measurement: The revolution per minute (rpm) is an amount of the number of rotations around a fixed axis in one minute. Optical technique based sensor is used to measure rpm of exhaust fan. The simple rpm measurement of a rotating shaft is based on velocity feedback technique in which a DC generator is connected to the rotating shaft. The induced voltage across the terminals of the generator is proportional to the speed of the shaft –. Nowadays, optical rpm measurement device is in use which has no physical contact to the rotating shaft. The physical contact is avoided by using an optical detection method that consists of an infrared light emitting diode and a photo detecting diode. The infrared light emitting diode transmits an infrared light towards the rotating fan blade and the photo detecting diode collects the reflected light beam. The arrangement of optical infrared sensors is placed at about 100mm away and facing towards the rotating fan blade. A small spot of white shinning color is painted to the rotating fan blade to reflect the incident infrared light when it passes in front of the sensor, which occurs once per rotation. The rpm measurement of exhaust fans is calculated within the range of 1 to 3000rpm. The response time and power consumption of the developed optical rpm sensor module is found to be 60 seconds and 150mW, respectively. 4) Current Measurement: The load measurement of the exhaust fan in active mode or de-active mode is the main task in exhaust fan’s running information and ACS712 hall current sensor is used for load measurement. The current flow in a wire is measured from the current sensing device. There 7536 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 17, NO. 22, NOVEMBER 15, 2017 are five commonly used technologies for current sensing and these are: Hall-Effect, fluxgate transformer, fibre optic, and current clamp meter. Meticulous sensible like as usage, life time, advantages, and disadvantages of the used technologies are reported in  and . The load of exhaust fans is calculated within the range of −2A to +2A. The response time and power consumption of the developed current sensor module is observed as 60 seconds and 70mW, respectively. 5) CO2 Electrochemical Gas Sensor: The CO2 electrochemical gas senor module is developed to measure the indoor and outdoor CO2 gas concentration. In this system, the CO2 module consists of a CO2 electrochemical sensor, signal conditioning, and unity gain operational amplifier. The CO2 sensor is unified with one reference electrode and one working electrode. The instrumentation amplifier (AD620) is used for signal conditioning of the CO2 electrochemical sensor , . The overall voltage gain of the circuit is obtained using the Equation 1. G =1+ 49.4K RG (1) Where, RG is the gain resistance in and G is the overall voltage gain of the circuit. The concentration of CO2 is calculated using output voltage of CO2 sensor by the Equation 2. CC O2 ( ppm) = K × VOU T −C O2 (2) Where, Vout−CO2 is the output voltage of CO2 sensor in volt, CCO2 is the concentration of CO2 in ppm, and K is the proportionality factor (K = 350). The concentration of CO2 is calculated within the range of 50ppm to 1500ppm. The response time and power consumption of CO2 electrochemical sensor module is analyzed as 3 minute and 1.5mW, respectively. 6) Temperature and Humidity Sensor: The temperature sensor (LM35CZ) and humidity sensor (HIH4000) are used to measure the indoor and outdoor environmental parameters of the Temple. The developed humidity and temperature modules range from 0% to 100%, and 15°C to 70°C, respectively. The response time and power consumption of the humidity sensor module is observed as 15 seconds and 1.0mW, respectively. The response time and power consumption of the developed temperature sensor module is observed as 2 seconds and 2mW, respectively. In this work, Arduino Uno board is used as a processing unit. The processing unit and high power exhaust fans circuit was integrated through MCT2E (Opto Coupler) IC and the MCT2E work as an isolator . It means the isolator exchange the signals between processing unit and exhaust fans. The application, advantage, and disadvantage of the Arduino Uno board is reported in  and . B. Control Mechanism and Ventilation System Currently, the Temple ventilation control system is either working continuously or controlled manually by switching it on before the Morning Prayer time and switch it off after of the evening prayer. It means that the exhaust fans operate continuously at same rpm (revolution per minute) throughout the day and thus consume more power. In present operation mode it is quite possible that the exhaust fans are in operation when it might not be needed, so interventions are required to improve its operation efficiency. Therefore, a self-sensing fan based airtight room ventilation control has been investigated and a highly sensitive pressure sensor is used and the indoor and outdoor pressure is measured. And based on the pressure differential the fan is controlled . Zhang et al.  developed a home energy management model for controlling the heating, cooling, and ventilation. The authors used the machine learning demand response strategy for the control of power consumption in home. The simulation results showed the real-time energy demand and responses. Sun et al.  proposed the model for reduction of the daily used energy. The authors used the integrated strategies for shading blinds and natural ventilation in the buildings. Wang et al.  proposed the CO2 predictive model to forecast the indoor CO2 . They used the particle swarm optimization and fuzzy techniques for the indoor CO2 prediction model. They also applied the simulation results in different situation and different input parameters. The literature also shows that despite some gorgeous solutions; very few are executed and tried in real-world creating the presence of a gap between theory and real world applications at scientifically accepted precession level. In this section, the control mechanism and development of the temple ventilation system based on ASHRAE 62 standards is presented and ventilation control strategy based on environmental parameters like as CO2 , temperature, and relative humidity is discussed. Measurement of real-time environmental parameters is dependent on two main approach. First is the sensor node development and their location and second is actuator control strategy. In the proposed system, two sensor nodes have been developed for measuring indoor and outdoor real-time environmental parameters. The photograph of the developed wireless sensor node is shown in Figure 4, respectively. The first sensor node is situated inside the Temple and set at a height of 1.1 meters above the ground surface. The second sensor node is situated outside the Temple and set at a height of approximately 8 meters. Both the sensor nodes transmit the signal to the developed actuator through ZigBee communication. The actuator receives the signal of the sensor node 1 and sensor node 2. The actuator processing unit works as a decision maker and follows the developed control mechanism. The decision maker compiles the received data every 10 minutes’ intervals. The ventilation control mechanism is based on the differential gas concentration, differential temperature, and differential relative humidity based on the mathematical relation as shown in Equation 3. C = C I − C O ; C I = C O + N VO (3) Where, C is the differential concentration in ppm range, CI is the CO2 concentration level inside the Temple in ppm SINGH et al.: VMC SYSTEM FOR HIGH RISE HISTORICAL BUILDINGS Fig. 4. Photograph of the developed sensor node. Fig. 5. Developed multi-channel actuator. range, CO is the CO2 concentration level outside the Temple in ppm range, N is CO2 generation rate per person, and VO is the outdoor airflow rate per person. The control mechanism of the ventilation system is divided into two possibilities. The first possibility is; the CO2 concentration level exceeds the threshold value i.e. the exhaust fans 1 to 4 are active. The second possibility is the difference between inside and outside the real-time measuring environmental parameters. It means the inside parameters values are more to the outside environmental parameters values i.e. the exhaust fans 1 to 4 is active otherwise de-active. For testing purpose, the threshold values of CO2 sensor are fixed at 1000 ppm. Hence the prototype ventilation monitoring and control system is tested in 303 Efficiency of Building Laboratory, in Central Building Research Institute Roorkee. Figure 5 represents the developed multi-channel actuator for high rise historical buildings and temples. C. Machine-to-Machine Communication The data communication between devices is known as Machine-to-Machine communication. The Machine-toMachine (M2M) communication is the vital technology for quicker and secure data transfer between remote sensor and 7537 control unit without manual supporting buildings, smart grids etc. There are many protocols for communication between devices like UDP, TCP/IP, and wireless network. The M2M communication approaches are reported in –. 1) Wireless Communication: A building automation, security and management system exploitation using Internet-ofThings (IoT) and wireless technology is outcome of human being. The developed system is using efficient implementation of wireless technology for monitoring and controlling the ventilation in buildings . A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of the transceiver module integrated with sensors to transmit data over the long distance. A WSN system also includes a gateway that delivers wireless connectivity to the wired zone and distributed sensor nodes . The advantage, disadvantage, and applications are reported in . The main advantage of ZigBee communication is low cost and low power consumption. Based on these characteristics, the ZigBee communication is used for the development of ventilation monitoring and control system. The signal strength testing was done through X-CTU and it was tested on the vertical transmission distance of 60m with no error in data transmission and after 60m the successful transmissions decrease rapidly. Initial −58 dB signal strength was measured at a 10m transmission distance, after which the signal strength decays exponentially to a value of −92dB, where the successful transmissions start decreasing. The range test was done to verify a successful vertical transmission distance of 60m and an error rate of less than 4%, with a maximum transmission period of 2 seconds. The X-CTU software range test sent a data packet consisting of 32 bytes. The software waited for the data to be sent back from the indoor module within a certain time period. This time period was specified as 1 second. If no packet was received, then the transmission was indicated as a failure. A transmission success rate of 100% was achieved up to 60 m (vertical). The results of test through 1 walls and distance 60 m vertical height. 2) Graphical User Interface: The users are interacting with electronics devices through visual indicators and graphical icons known as Graphical User Interface (GUI). Currently, Graphical User Interface based instrument is operated easily and the users monitor and control the measuring parameters simply through visual icons. The exhaust fans real-time data is received at the control center. The control center has the feature of Microsoft Integrated Development Environment (MIDE), in which Microsoft Visual Studio is used to develop GUI computer apps, web apps, and mobile apps. The GUI app is used to interact with microelectronic devices through graphical signs and visual gauges, instead of script based interfaces , . Figure 6 represents the GUI apps during testing of overall ventilation system. The real-time air flow, vibration, rpm (revolution per minute), and current data of ventilation system is tested in the laboratory. The GUI app consists of individual panel for each exhaust fan. Each panel contains fan visual status, rpm, current, air flow dialog, and vibration plot. In the panel, rpm dialog and current dialog shows the 1332 rpm and 340.29mA respectively. The air flow dialog describes the level of air flow (low, medium, 7538 Fig. 6. system. IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 17, NO. 22, NOVEMBER 15, 2017 Fig. 7. Developed GUI App for the ventilation monitoring and control Real-time data measurement of the CO2 sensor. and high) and velocity. In the developed ventilation monitoring and control system, the level of air flow is high at 3.06m/s velocity. The overall system response time and data rate is around 100ms and 250Kbit/s respectively based on hardware interrupts handling. D. Calibration of the Sensor Module The calibration is the most important part in a system design. It is essential to calibrate the system after a time interval for achieving the desired accuracy and reliability of the system. The re-calibration of the gas sensor after integration is very important and based on literature; two methods are available such as static and dynamic chamber methods. In the proposed study, a static chamber method facility is developed in CSIR-CBRI laboratory. Firstly, the zero and span values of the developed modules have been defined and then the pure nitrogen is used to calibrate the zero value (standby voltage) of the developed sensor module. The static chamber method required targeting gas with known gas concentrations such as 200ppm to 1500ppm, etc. (set the pressure valve approximately 30 liters/hour flow into the gas inlet and after 2 minutes a stable signal appears). The CO2 electrochemical sensor module accuracy is based on standard CO2 data logger Trak Plus Q-8552 & 8554 is ±3%. The temperature and humidity sensor modules calibration is based on the standard instruments such as HOBO H8 temperature & humidity data logger and finally an accuracy of the developed modules achieved is ±0.6% and ±0.8%, respectively. IV. R ESULTS AND D ISCUSSION Wireless sensor network based ventilation monitoring and control system was developed successfully. Air flow, vibration, rpm (revolution per minute), current, CO2 , temperature, and relative humidity sensors were successfully implemented. Two-sensor nodes with ZigBee communication were developed. In the experimental study first sensor node was kept inside the laboratory and the second was kept outside the laboratory. Both sensor nodes were tested successfully. Actuator node has been developed based on ZigBee communication. Control mechanism was successfully implemented through the Fig. 8. Real-time data measurement of the temperature and humidity. performance of exhaust fans 1 to 4. C# based GUI app was also developed successfully. Calibration process was completed and the developed sensor modules were successfully tested in the laboratory. Figure 7 shows the real-time data measurement of the CO2 gas concentration of 24-hour duration in the laboratory. Measured minimum and maximum CO2 concentration values are 410ppm and 450ppm, respectively. Figure 8 shows real-time data measurement by temperature and humidity sensors. Figure 9 shows the real-time measurement of the current and optical RPM sensor module. In Figure 9, we have proposed the load current and rpm data if exhaust fan is ON or running condition. We have received some spike in different time interval, this is basically depending upon the response of acs712 current sensor. The acs712 current sensor sense the load current based on the principle of hall-effect with high sensitivity (66-185mV/A). Due to the ability of the current sensor to sense current flow precisely in mA range current fluctuating range is 340.29mA to 366.44mA (approximately 0-26.15mA) in Figure 9. The fluctuations in current is less (in mA range) and these current fluctuation is not affecting the exhaust fan speed curve in Figure 9. Results obtained from real-time vibration and air flow sensor modules are shown in Figure 10. Table II represents the developed sensor module range, power consumption, and response time. Power consumption of the developed indoor and outdoor sensor modules are observed both are same value 180mW. SINGH et al.: VMC SYSTEM FOR HIGH RISE HISTORICAL BUILDINGS Fig. 9. The real-time plot of current and optical RPM measurement module. Fig. 10. The real-time plot of vibration and air flow module. TABLE II D EVELOPED S ENSOR M ODULE PARAMETERS 7539 fans running information module has also been implemented. Developed sensor nodes for real-time indoor and outdoor monitoring of environmental parameters have been tested in CSIR-CBRI laboratory. Controlling of actuator devices based on proposed control strategy was tested. Visual C# based GUI app for ventilation monitoring and control (VMC) system was developed and executed in the laboratory. Calibration process was done to achieve the desired accuracy of the developed sensor node with integrated devices. Impressive features of the developed system are low cost, fast response, low power consumption and wide zone for handling problems of real-time ventilation system in Shree Jagannath Temple, Puri, India. The developed system is installed in the Temple and feedback from the users shall be considered in further improvement of the ventilation system. The developed VMC system is consuming 3.38KWh power per day whereas the commercial available ventilation systems consume power from 73.38KWh/day to 744.8KWh/day , . The comparative study shows that the power consumption is high of the existing ventilation system in the comparison of developed VMC system. The cost of the developed system is approximately US$ 400. Accuracy of the developed CO2 , temperature, and relative humidity module is ±3%, ±0.6% and ±0.8%, respectively. Based on the developed module accuracy, the performance of the developed VMC system is scientifically acceptable. Similarly, the future research will focus on the design of enabled Internet of Things (IoT) for world-wide decisionmaking. There is also need to study the wireless signal characterization in high rise tunnel type buildings, monuments, and Temples. R EFERENCES Power consumption of the developed ventilation module and control center are observed as 415mW and 120mW, respectively. Total power consumption of the developed ventilation monitoring and control system is 895mW without exhaust fans and 281W with four exhaust fans. V. C ONCLUSION In this study ventilation monitoring and control (VMC) system for historical buildings, monuments, and temples has been developed. Sensor node for real-time monitoring of the environmental parameters such as CO2 , temperature, and relative humidity has been implemented successfully. Exhaust  Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. ASHRAE, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2007.  H. Hao, Y. Lin, A. S. Kowli, P. Barooah, and S. 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Commercial Energy (ICUE), Cape Town, South Africa, Aug. 2014, pp. 1–7. IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 17, NO. 22, NOVEMBER 15, 2017 Abhishek Singh (S’16) received the M.E. degree in electronics and communication from Panjab University, Chandigarh, India, in 2013. He is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree with the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Building Research Institute (CSIR-CBRI), Roorkee, India, and Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun, India. He is a Senior Research Fellow with the Division of Energy Efficiency, CSIR-CBRI. His research interest includes intelligent buildings, wireless sensor-network, sensor fusion, and instrumentation and measurement. Yadvendra Pandey is currently a Chief Scientist with the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee, India. His field interests include historical buildings/monuments and landslides aspects based on instrumentation and measurements. Ashok Kumar received the degree (Hons.) in architecture from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, in 1989, the MURP (Hons.) in 1998, and the Ph.D. degree from IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, India, in 2016. He was with the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Building Research Institute as a Scientist ’B’ during 1990. He is currently a Senior Principal Scientist and the Group Leader/Head of the Architecture and Planning and Efficiency of Building. He has made significant contributions in handling multitasks. Some of these are: he had an opportunity to nurture young talents while teaching at IIT Roorkee as a Visiting Faculty for about 15 years (1998–2012) and guided about 30 UG, PG, and Ph.D. students for their dissertation and internships as well as Professor AcSIR; developed guidelines, byelaws and code of practice on use of glass for buildings; published 81 papers in international and national journals, conferences, and delivered over 80 keynote and invited lectures on different themes to engineers and architects. He also contributed to several National Committees of the Bureau of Indian Standards and National Building Code, Energy Conservation Building Code and Resource Person to many organizations as a Member Expert. Hence, during a span of 28 years of professional, research, and teaching carrier, the excellent application-oriented research and development contributions, have paved the way for the advancement of research by partnering with frontline institutions both national and international in the area of energy efficiency in buildings and smart cities by completing over 85 research and development projects. The outstanding achievements have directed toward the furtherance of pioneering research in the area of energy efficiency, green buildings and retrofits. The expertise attained has culminated into winning two international projects and one national project, leading to self-financing research and development through external funding of about INR 1590.20 lakhs during the last one and half year. He is currently contributing as a member of the ISO Working Group Committee on Solar Heat Gain Coefficient Measurement. Manoj Kumar Singh received the M.Tech. degree in energy technology from Tezpur University, and the Ph.D. degree in built-environment design and instrumentation from the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. He is a JSPS Post-Doctoral Fellow with the Department of Human and Social Systems, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. His research interest is smart building, indoor environment quality, building energy simulation, and performance and industrial design. He is a member of ASHRAE, International Solar Energy Society and a Life Member of the Indian Solar Energy Society. SINGH et al.: VMC SYSTEM FOR HIGH RISE HISTORICAL BUILDINGS Anuj Kumar (M’11–SM’16) received the M.Phil. degree in instrumentation from the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India, in 2000, the M.Tech. degree in instrumentation from the National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra, Haryana, India, in 2004, and the Ph.D. degree in embedded systems from the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India, in 2011. He is currently a Ramanujan Fellow and an Assistant Professor (AcSIR Faculty) with the Department of Energy Efficiency, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Building Research Institute Roorkee, India. He was a Post-Doctoral Fellow with the University of Seoul, Seoul, South Korea, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, and the National University of Singapore, Singapore, from 2011 to 2015. His research interests include intelligent systems, sensor-actuator development for smart city and smart buildings, and wireless sensor network. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE Societies of IES, Sensors, and Instrumentation and Measurement. He is an Associate Editor of the IEEE A CCESS J OURNAL. 7541 Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay (M’97–SM’02– F’11) is currently a Professor of Mechanical and Electronics Engineering with the School of Engineering, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia. He has authored/co-authored over 400 papers in different international journals, conferences, and book chapter. His fields of interest include sensors and sensing technology, instrumentation, wireless sensor networks, Internet of Things, mechatronics, and robotics. He has edited 15 conference proceedings. He has also edited 17 special issues of international journals as a Guest Editor and 30 books. He is a Fellow of IET (U.K.), and IETE (India). He is a Topical Editor of the IEEE S ENSORS J OURNAL, and Associate Editor of the IEEE T RANSACTIONS ON I NSTRUMENTATION AND M EASUREMENTS . He is the Founding Chair of the IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society New South Wales, Australia Chapter. He is a Distinguished Lecturer of the IEEE Sensors Council (2017–2019).