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THE INFLUENCE OF SODIUM SALTS ON INTERACTION IN
THE SYSTEM. PORTLAND CEMENT - GRANULATED BLAST
FURNACE SLAG - FUEL ASH - SLAG BLEND
R F Runova
M A Kochevykh
11 Rudenko
J L Nosovskii
V.D. Glukhovskii Scientific Research Institute on Binders and Materials
Ukraine
A B S T R A C T . Among advantages of Portland cement- based binders made with industrial
wastes (multi-blends) are mentioned the following: compliance of the concrete made with
multi-blends working in aggressive environments with increasingly growing engineering
requirements, environmental safety and low cost. Unrestricted possibilities of such concretes
may be attributed, first of all, to a great variety of their compositions, and chemical
modification is of special attention. There have been developed formulations of CC with
Portland cement content up to 20 % by mass and strength varying between 30... 55 MPa.
These properties are reached due to the use of sodium salts which take an active part in the
interactions occurring in the systems containing blast furnace slag, fuel ash-slag blends and
natural glassy pozzolana. The hydration products of the cementitious materials have been
examined. The developed cements may be recommended for the use in road construction in
making road pavement.
Keywords: Calcium hydrosilicates (CHS), Composite cement (CC), Fuel ash- slag blend
(ASB), Granulated blastfurnace slag (GBFS), Ordinary portland cement (OPC).
Professor, DrSc(Eng) Raisa F R u n o v a is Chief Researcher of V.D.Glukhovskii Scientific
Research Institute on Binders and Materials, Kyiv, Ukraine. Since 1970 she has been
investigating the properties of amorphous silicates and herewith suggest of contactcondensation mechanism of hardening these systems.
D r M a r i n a A Kochevykh is Research Scientist of V.D.Glukhovskii Scientific Research
Institute on Binders and Materials, Kyiv, Ukraine. Her research interests include creation of
new materials with determined properties based on calcium hydrosilicates.
D r Igor I R u d e n k o is Research Scientist of V.D.Glukhovskii Scientific Research Institute on
Binders and Materials, Kyiv, Ukraine. He is specialised in the application of fuel fly ashes
and slags in cement-free concretes.
J u r i L Nosovskii is an Engineer of V.D.Glukhovskii Scientific Research Institute on Binders
and Materials, Kyiv, Ukraine. He specialises in developing formulations of the blended
cements with low content of Portland cement clinker.
Downloaded by [ Griffith University] on [25/10/17]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
342
R u n o v a , K o c h e v y k h , R u d e n k o , Nosovskii
INTRODUCTION
Practical experience gained from the use of blended ordinary portland cements (OPC)- based
cements counts a few years and found its reflection in the European Standard ENV- 197. The
role of cementitious materials which are a combination of OPC and natural and industrial
pozzolanas is growing increasingly. In compliance with the norms currently in force in
Ukraine DSTU B V.2.7- 46 which contain the requirements to cements intended for general
application, a type of blended cement- the composite one, is introduced and specified. This
allowed us to use the term «composite cements» in the present paper.
According to analysis reported in [1], the existence of blended cement is connected with the
following aspects:
-
technical - it is caused by a pozzolanic character of hydration which promotes the
corrosion resistance enhancement to aggressive environments and the lower exothermic
effect;
ecological - is determined by compounding of the majority of existing industrial wastes
of aluminosilicate composition with hydration products and decline in the OPC
production due to a «greenhouse» effect;
economical - is caused by decline in energy consumption for production of OPC, increase
in lifespan of structures, decrease in expenses for repair and maintenance of concrete
structures made of blended cements.
One of the way of how to effect the cement activity, first of all, of the composite one, is its
modification with chemical additives.
From this point of view worth mentioning is the use of sodium and potassium salts. The
known-in-the-art works on creation of alkali- containing cementitious materials- so-called
«soil cements», which are known to differ considerably from the traditional ones in nature of
the products of hardening (the presence of alkaline hydroaluminosilicates which are in their
composition analogous to durable natural zeolitic materials [2, 3].
The present research performed in a continuation of the above works was dedicated at
investigation of the interaction processes taking place in the blended cements modified with
sodium salts. The objective of the study- to achieve high activity of these cements with
decreased content of the OPC .
MATERIALS AND TESTING TECHNIQUE
Used as basic ingredients of the CC were the OPC with a strength class of 40 MPa and a
specific surface of 400 sq m/kg (by Blaine), and natural and industrial pozzolanas as
aluminosilicate constituents. The chemical composition of raw materials used in the
experiments is given in Table 1.
Used as natural pozzolana was a perlite with a specific surface 420 sq m/kg (by Blaine). The
mineralogical composition of the perlite is presented, mainly, by volcanic water-containing
glass (96.71%) [ 4 , 5 ] . Used as industrial pozzolanas were a granulated blastfurnace slag
(GBFS) and an ash- soda blend (ASB) with a specific surface 430 sq m/kg (by Blaine).
Downloaded by [ Griffith University] on [25/10/17]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Influence of S o d i u m Salts on I n t e r a c t i o n 3 4 3
Table 1 Chemical composition of initial raw materials
OXIDE CONTENT, % by mass
Si0
GBFS
OPC
clinker
ASB
Perlite
2
AL 0
2
3
Fe 0
2
3
CaO
MgO
MnO
R0
2
R0
S0
2
3
LOI
39.5
6.49
0.12
47.1
3.1
1.7
1.15
-
-
0.6
51.5
42.0
3.4
0.4
0.7
-
-
1.2
0.6
0.12
53.7
72.0
17.4
12.5
12.75
0.65
3.70
1.07
2.82
0.17
0.08
3.19
0.03
1.01
4.51
0.61
2.10
4.69
0.05
-
The GBFS may be referred to a basic type slag is is represented, mainly, by a glass phase
(75...80 % by mass) [6 ]. Its mineralogical composition is represented by melilite (gehlenite),
anorthite, sulpfides, calcite. The chemical analysis data of the ASB sample show that it may
be referred to the acid ones [7, 8]. The phase- mineralogical composition of the ASB is
represented by a glassy component of aluminosilicate and silicate composition with
inclusions of quartz and hematite [7, 8, 9]. Used as additives in the experiments were an
anhydrous sodium sulfate Na S0 and sodium carbonate Na C0 as well as their blend (SSB)
in which they were contained in a ratio of 2:1. This blend is a model of an industrial by­
product of chemical industry The additives were introduced together with a mixing water as a
solution in a quantity of 6 % by mass of the cement mass. Used as a plasticiser (introduced in
a quantity of 1 % by mass of the cement) was an additive selected from lignosulfonates.
Used as fine aggregate was fine quartz sand with a gradation factor 1.42. CC was produced
by mixing in appropriate proportions of the components ground to a certain specific surface.
CC activity was determined on the beam- specimens (40x40x160 mm) made from a cement
mortar (cement to slag ratio=l:3) of standard consistency allowed to harden for 3 days in
normal conditions and 25 days in water.
2
4
2
3
E X P E R I M E N T A L RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Activity
Taken as a criterion to assess the interaction processes in CC was its activity as the most
important target property.
These investigations covered a wide range of CC content varying (in % by mass) from OPC
(20 - 80), ASB (5- 65), perlite ( 5 - 65), GBFS (15- 75). The dependances between activity
of CC and content of the above constituents were studied on the systems «OPC-GBFS-ASB»
(Figure 1, a) and «OPC-GBFS-perlite» (Figure 1, b) (for reference).
As a result, it was found that the cements of the first system demonstrated the activity greater
than 40 MPa with the ASB content less than 31 % by mass, and greater than 50 MPa - less
than 5 % by mass. To maintain the 50 MPa activity with 25 mas.% ASB is possible by
increasing the OPC content to 65 % by mass.
Downloaded by [ Griffith University] on [25/10/17]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
344 Runova, Kochevykh, Rudenko, Nosovskii
ui
OPC, %
GBFS, %
ASB, %
20
75
5
20
40
40
65
3C
5
65
15
20
OPC. % 20
GBFS, % 75
Perlite, % 5
20
40
40
65
30
5
50
15
35
Figure 1 Activity of CC of the system 1 «OPC - GBFS - ASB» modified with SSB (a),
of the system 2 «OPC - GBFS - perlite» modified with sodium sulfate (b)
Figure 2 X-ray diffradtograms of the patterns of CC of the system 1 «OPC - GBFS - ASB»
modified with SSB (a), of the system 2 «OPC - GBFS perlite» modified with sodium sulfate (b)
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Influence of S o d i u m Salts on I n t e r a c t i o n
345
To increase the content of pozzolana in the first system may be achieved by decreasing the
OPC content due to activation of the aluminosilicate component by sodium carbonate
[10, 11, 12].
To optimise the first system cement formulations by a criterion of activity, a simplex- grid
method planning a 3-factor experiment was applied. Taken as variables in the first system
with sodium carbonate were the contents of OPC, GBFS and ASB.
R =
where,
R
x,, x , x
2
3
56XJ+18X2+27.28X3
= strength
= OPC, GBFS, ASB content (for reference)
Basing on analysis of the equation for further investigations have been selected the
compositions given in Table 2 .
The investigation of influence of an additive type on the cement activity showed high
efficiency of the SSB additive. While investigating the interaction processes that take place in
the system with 6 mas.% - content of such additive in combination with a plasticiser, some
increase in activity of the cement with the increased ASB content was reported: Composition
No 6 ( 4 0 mas.% ASB) is characterised by activity 4 0 MPa (Figure 1 , a), what is by 3 7 %
higher as that of the additive - free analog (CC activity 2 5 MPa) and of the cement with
sodium carbonate - by 1 2 % ( 3 5 MPa). Besides, the SSB additive affects greatly the activity
of cement with ASB as compared with that containing GBFS. So, at the same OPC content
( 6 5 % ) , Composition No 8* ( 2 0 mas. % ASB) has an activity 5 5 MPa, what
is by 2 4 %
greater as compared with Composition N 7 ( 5 mas.% ASB).
Table 2 CC compositions
COMPOSITIONS
Nos
1
2
3
4*
5
6
7
8*
COMPONENTS CONTENT, mas.%
OPC
GBFS
Perlite
ASB
20
20
65
50
20
20
65
65
75
40
30
15
75
40
30
15
5
40
5
35
-
_
-
5
40
5
20
Clearly followed is the influence of nature of the anion constituent of the modifying
additive: the salts of sodium and weak acids are found to be the most effective in the
compositions with increased calcium content (OPC) (the strong acid anion can take place in
the formation of soluble calcium salts), whereas salts of sodium and strong acids - in a low-
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346
R u n o v a , K o c h e v y k h , R u d e n k o , Nosovskii
2+
calcium compositions due to decreased activity of the last. In the last case a lack of Ca
initiates participation of the Na - ions, in the aluminosilicate glass destruction. These
foundings correlate well with the comparative data on activity of the compositions with
perlite containing Na [11].
+
+
Worth mentioning that it is impossible to give an objective characteristic of interaction
processes in the cements containing the ASB using absolut values of activity because of
variable chemical and phase composition of this product which is an industrial waste. That's
why, when using the ASB containing blended cements in concrete, a extremely careful
approach to analysis of raw materials and, first of all, to the ASB, and their adjustment to
technology should be taken. The formulations should be chosen in which the range of ASB
content would provide a required stability of properties of CC.
C h a r a c t e r of H y d r a t i o n P r o d u c t s
The X-ray analysis data of the hydration products of the modified cement of Composition No
6 of the first system (Figure 2, a) as compared with those of an additive-free reference
cement testify to a predominant formation of low-basic calcium hydrosilicates (0.305, 0,280,
0.182 nm). The intensity of the peaks of the non-reacted ASB and GBFS in a form of
residual peaks of quartz (0.335, 0.251, 0.202 nm) and coinsiding with them the peaks of
melilite (0.336, 0.273, 0.220 nm) and y-C S (0.336, 0.268, 0.228 nm) is by 2 times less
intensive. The presence of the peaks attributed to the initial components even in the modified
CC testifies to uncompleteness of the pozzolanic reaction resulted from the increased density
of the aluminosilicate glass of the ASB and GBFS. This allowed to increase the OPC content
up to 65% by mass. These data obtained correlate well with those of differential - thermal
analysis and infra-red spectroscopy. Of interest is the comparison of these data with those
obtained for the cement compositions containing perlite (the second system).
2
As the X-ray analysis data demonstrate (Figure 2, b) the hydration products of the second
system cement compositions modified by sodium sulfate containing 20% by mass of the OPC
(Composition No 2) at high perlite content are, in general, similar to hydration products of
the Composition No 6 containing industrial pozzolana. Worth mentioning is the formation of
large quantities of low-basic calcium hydrosilicates of CSH (1) type (d= 0.305, 0.280, 0.182
nm) accompanied by residual peaks of low intensity attributed to melilite and y-C S (d=
0.427, 0.335, 0.273, 0.267 nm), testifying to a more completeness of the pozzolanic reaction.
The last may be also attributed to a lower, as compared with the ASB, density of watercontaining perlite glass, and its relative homogeneity. The X-ray analysis results correlate
well with those obtained using the differential- thermal analysis and the infra- red
spectroscopy.
2
The new formations composition in a form of calcium hydrosilicates of the lower basicity
and the gel phases, inclusive of alkaline aluminosilicate composition, explain rather high
values of activity of CC modified by sodium salts additives. The identification of such phases
is possible during their crystallisation for a long- term period [10]. At the same time, the
earlier reported data [ 12] on the character of micropores, suggested to assume that just a gel
of such composition is of importance in the formation of material property. To the properties
in support of this assumption refer, first of all, resistance to aggressive environments.
Downloaded by [ Griffith University] on [25/10/17]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
347
Influence of S o d i u m Salts on I n t e r a c t i o n
The results of corrosion resistance of CC compositions after they were cured for 72 days in
5% - solutions of sodium and magnesium sulfate salts are shown in Table 3.
The coefficient of resistance of all CC compositions under investigation, which is expressed
as a ratio of flexural strengths of the specimens kept in solutions and those reference ones
kept in water, exceeds 0.8, the coefficient of their resistance in sodium sulfate solution being
somewhat greater than of those stored in magnesium sulfate solution.
Table3 Corrosion resistance of CC
COEFFICIENT OF
RESISTANCE
FLEXURAL STRENGTH, MPa
COMPOSITIONS
Nos
(See Table 2)
Aggressive environments
InNa S0
2
H 0
Na S0
7.0
6.0
7.5
5.4
10.7
8.3
9.8
5.3
2
2
4*
6
8*
2
4
MgS0
6.8
8.03
8.2
9.1
4
InMgS0
4
4
1.52
1.38
1.31
0.98
0.97
1.34
1.09
1.68
CONCLUSIONS
1. The interaction processes in the system "OPC-GBFS-ASB" are initiated by alkali metal
salts.
2. The hydration products of the studied CC are found to be similar to those formed in the
pozzolanic systems. A difference is the increased content of the gel-like new formations
in a form of calcium hydrosilicates and the creation of conditions for possible formation
of the products which in composition would be analogous to natural alkaline
hydroaluminosilicates in a gel state.
3. The choice of the anion constituent of sodium salt which is used as an activator is
determined by a nature of pozzolanic constituent of CC: sodium salts of weak acids are
found to be the most efficient in the basic systems, whereas sodium salts of strong acids in low-calcium systems due to the lower activity of the last, thus causing participation of
the Na ions,
predominantey, in the destruction of glass of the aluminosilicate
component of the system.
+
4. The new formations compositions of CC modified by additives while hydration allowed to
recommend them for the use in the aggressive environments, including when laying road
pavements.
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348 Runova, Kochevykh, Rudenko, Nosovskii
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4.
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6.
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8.
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