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index
Abarbanel, Isaac, 141
Aboriginals, 7–8, 10, 11
Abraham, 27, 31, 52, 58,
113, 141, 146, 179, 217; in
Islam, 95, 96, 97–98
Abstinence, 162
Abulafia, Abraham, 182
Activism, 180, 217; vs.
quietism, 177–78
“Act to prevent the cruel
and improper Treatment
of Cattle” (Martin), 91
Adams, Carol J., 11, 18, 82, 85
Addams, Charles J., 97
Afterlife, 53, 58, 69
Aggression strategy for
conflict resolution, 6–7,
21, 26, 40, 51, 217; in
Buddhism, 116–19; in
Christianity, 74–80; in
Hebrew Bible, 27–33; in
Islam, 96–101; in
Judaism, 53–59
Agriculture, 3, 85
Ahmed, Bina, 139, 150, 153
Ahmed, Rafeeque, 134, 139,
141, 142, 216
Akbar (Moghul emperor),
169, 174
Akers, Keith, 71, 72, 73, 81,
84–85, 135, 163, 166
Alam, M., 97, 110, 112, 171
Albo, Joseph, 145, 146, 163
Ali, A. Y., 99, 106, 110, 111
Altruism, 14, 17, 26, 213,
226, 228, 229
America (Jesuit magazine),
79
Androcles, 87
Angell, George T., 91
Animal(s): advocacy, 9, 89;
anti, rationalism, 52;
authority over, 33;
Bodhisattva, 159–60;
Buddhism and, 115–16;
Catholic Church and
cruelty toward, 78–80;
Catholic Church and
hostility toward, 71;
children and, 7, 13–14; in
Christianity, 84;
Christianity and
consideration for, 71, 74;
Christianity and
kindness to, 80, 81,
86–89, 90, 93; cognition
of, 189–90;
communication of, 189;
consideration for,
223–24; demons and, 59;
denigration of, 99;
divine/human concern
for, 39–41; domestication
of, 12, 48; emotion, 222;
free, 32, 120, 192, 194; as
guides/messengers, 22,
23, 25, 26, 185, 190–200,
201; Hinduism and
knowledge of, 190;
human beings equated
with, 46; identification
with, 116, 120; Islam and
kindness to, 102–4, 107,
153; Jesus and, 192–93;
Judaism and cruelty
toward, 57, 69; Judaism
and kindness to, 60, 61,
62, 63, 64, 69; kept, 29,
32, 34, 107, 120; kinship
with, 34, 86–87;
liberation, 178; morality
and, 117; mystical
experience and, 195–96;
naming of, 33, 48;
nativity and, 86; prayer
and, 187–90, 196, 201;
protection/care for, 174;
Protestant Church and
kindness to, 90–91;
rebirth as, 115, 117, 123,
155; religious sense of,
188, 189, 190; saints’
kindness to, 87–89, 93,
167; as signs, 151–53,
182; soul, 4, 57–58, 79,
135, 185–87, 201; speech
and, 193; spiritual
attainment of, 180,
185–90; as teachers of
morality, 196–200; as
teachers of wisdom,
193–95; titles in Qur’an,
109; Torah and
consideration for, 60–61;
as vegetarians, 48;
welfare, 89, 91, 93;
welfare vs. liberation, 7;
working, 40–41, 46, 107,
116, 131, 218; worth of,
41; see also Insects; Pets;
Primates; Sheep; specifi c
animals
Animal experimentation, 6,
7, 13, 54, 78, 79, 121, 129,
164–65, 211, 222; see also
Vivisection
Animal Judge, 2, 21, 22–23,
47, 65, 74, 119, 121, 125,
128, 129, 161, 206, 213,
229; function of, 22
Animal Nepal, 179
Animal perspective, 22–23,
185–201, 217
Animal rights, 2, 3, 17, 18,
21, 89, 163, 219;
Buddhism and, 178;
Christianity and, 149;
inclusion of, 217; Islam
and, 139, 150, 177;
oneness and, 24;
opposition to, 216; in
Qur’an, 106; support for,
133, 228
Anthropocentrism, 2, 24,
53, 68, 78, 207
Antimaterialism, 76
Antirationalism, 181–85; see
also rationalism
Apocalypse, 194
Aquinas, Thomas, 77, 88,
223
Arberry, A. J., 100
Aretaism, 65
Aristotle, 76, 77
Arluke, A., 13
Aryans, 122, 257
Asceticism, 69;
vegetarianism and, 73,
76, 86, 97, 161–63
Asharism, 96
Asia for Animals, 179
Asoka (Emperor), 174
Atheism, 203
Atonement, 85
Atran, Scott, 30, 134
Augustine (Saint), 77, 88
Authoritarianism, 46, 53,
96, 206
Authority, 2, 195; of God,
27, 45, 95, 205; over
animals, 33
Autonomy, 224
Bacon, Francis, 223
Bands of Mercy, 91
Baptism, 85
Barth, Karl, 99
Basil (Saint), 88, 149
Bell, 100, 206
Bellarmine, Robert,
185
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index
Benevolence, 5, 7, 14, 16, 17,
28, 82, 144, 213;
increased, 215
Bergson, Henry, 216
Berman, L. A., 38, 39
Berry, Rynn, 38, 69, 130,
163
Best, Steven, 1, 217
Bhagavad Gita, 174, 207,
257
Bible, 27, 28–29, 36, 37, 55,
59, 135, 161, 187–88;
exploitation and, 40;
royal ideals of, 74; see
also specific Bibles
Bible Christian Church, 3,
167
Bird(s), 60, 62, 64, 80, 88,
99, 101, 103, 109, 119, 125,
150, 159, 178, 184, 188,
189, 191; soul as, 192; will
to enlightenment of, 190
Blakemore, Colin, 19
Blavatsky, Helena, 161
Blood, eating of, 38–39
Blood sports, 164; ban of,
168, 172
Bodhisattva, 243n14, 257;
animal, 159–60
Bodhisattva ideal, 207–14;
Mahayana Buddhism
and, 24, 159, 217
Booth, William, 167
Bourne, Francis, 147
Bradley, Ian, 86, 89, 92,
148, 205, 216
Brahma, 173, 257
Brahman, 140
Brahmans, 115, 136, 173
British Interfaith Service,
176
Broome, Arthur, 91
Bryant, Edwin, 122
Buckner, Elijah D., 187
Buddha, 2, 115, 120, 130,
156, 158, 257
Buddhaghosa, 124, 156, 257
Buddhism, 1, 14, 22, 25,
169, 179, 217, 244n42,
247n124; aggression
strategy in, 116–19;
animal rights and, 178;
animals and, 115–16;
antilogocentrism in,
183–84, 201; core
principles of, 139–40;
defensive strategy and,
116, 122–32; Eco, 24;
effective-defensive
strategy and, 155–61;
emptiness doctrine
(sunyata) of, 207–14;
evasion strategy and,
116, 119–21;
identification and, 155;
meat eating and, 116,
118–19, 125, 126, 131, 136,
218; Middle Way of, 130;
morality and, 173;
oneness and, 209;
political defensive
strategy in, 130–32;
rebirth and, 247n124;
sacrifice abandoned in,
173; suffering and, 208,
209; vegetarianism and,
174, 175; vivisection and,
211; see also Mahayana
Buddhism; Theravada
Buddhism
Butler, Joseph (Bishop), 187
Byzantine tradition, 74, 78,
167
Camels, 103, 105–6
Campbell, Joseph, 11, 115
Cannibalism, 119, 127,
244n47
Carson, Gerald, 78
Cartesianism, 92, 154, 224
The Case of the Animals
Versus Man before the
King of the Jinn (Ikhwan
al-safa’), 198–99
Cassuto, Moses, 38
Caste system, 6
Cathars, 162, 177
Catholic Church, 168,
186–87; catechism of,
1994, 78, 79; cruelty
toward animals and,
78–80; hostility toward
animals of, 71
Catholic Study Circle for
Animal Welfare, 89
Cecilia Mary (Mother),
78–79
Change, 14, 219; effectivedefensive strategy and,
25; environmental, 28;
essentialism and, 15–16;
God and, 137, 138; moral
evolution and, 16–17; in
religions, 137
Chapple, Christopher, 115,
160, 161
Charity, 7, 64, 149
Chereso, C. J., 77
Child(ren): animals and, 7,
13–14; mother, bond,
37–38, 47, 103
China, speciesism in, 176
Choice, 3, 143
Christ; see Jesus
Christian Bible, alteration/
editing of, 71, 72, 74
Christianity, 1, 14, 15, 25,
31, 52, 68, 133, 162, 179,
180, 200, 219; aggression
strategy and, 74–80;
animal rights and, 149;
animals in, 84;
consideration for animals
in, 71, 74; defensive
strategy and, 91–94;
distortion of teaching of,
71, 72, 74; Eastern, 78;
effective-defensive
strategy and, 147–49;
ethics of, 149; evasion
strategy and, 80–91;
human superiority and,
71, 76, 78, 79, 80, 92, 93,
95; kindness to animals
in, 80, 81, 86–89, 90, 93;
meat eating and, 31, 72,
81, 82, 163; noninjury
and, 219–21; oneness in,
204–5; sacrifice
abandoned in, 84, 85,
166; social class and, 3;
Syrian, 97; vegetarianism
and, 3, 35, 71, 72, 73, 74,
75, 87, 93, 166, 167, 216;
see also Catholic Church;
Protestant Church
Church; see specific
churches
Church and Society
Consultation, 149, 206
Clement of Alexandria, 32,
137
Clement VIII (Pope), 168
Climate, 2; meat eating
and, 129
Cobbe, Frances Power, 186
Code of Jewish Law, 60, 68
Cognition, of animals,
189–90
Cohen, A., 40, 54, 56, 57,
58, 134, 164, 181, 191
Communication, of
animals, 189
Community, 153
Compassion, 2, 12, 39, 81,
143, 144, 149, 162, 173,
176, 206, 208–9, 219; of
God, 95, 113, 179; Jesus’s
message of, 85; priority
of, 63, 64, 65; wisdom
and, 211–13
Conflict(s), 1, 4, 26;
coexistence of, 7; moral,
10, 215; psychological, 5,
34; religious texts and,
10–14; resolving
strategies, 6–10, 21, 35,
52, 64, 65; see also
Aggression strategy for
conflict resolution;
Defensive strategy for
conflict resolution;
Effective-defensive
strategy for conflict
resolution; Evasion
strategy for conflict
resolution
Confucian tradition, 176
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Conscience, 171, 218
Consciousness, 23, 138, 168,
189, 196, 221; cosmic,
202; self-, 224–25;
wisdom and
discriminating, 183
Consent, 12, 172
Consequentialism, 161
Control, 54; God and, 29
Council of Nicea, 71, 72, 73,
74, 75
Cowherd, William, 167
Cramer, M., 165
Creation, 29–30, 53, 180,
206; God and, 147–48; in
Qur’an, 151
Cruelty, 7, 20, 60, 107, 145,
168, 176; Catholic Church
and, toward animals,
78–80; of factory
farming, 141, 142;
Judaism and, toward
animals, 57, 69
Culture, 2; interchange of,
133
Dalai Lama, 127
Dalrymple, William, 197
Dana (offerings), 125, 126,
174, 257
Darwinism, 6, 21, 88, 215
Davies, Brian, 137
Davies, Douglas, 149, 188,
204
Death, 11, 39, 156, 211
Defense, 20, 123, 170, 211,
218
Defensive strategy for
conflict resolution, 8, 13,
26, 218; attitude and,
126–28; Buddhism and,
116, 122–32; Buddhism
and political, 130–32;
Christianity and, 91–94;
in Hebrew Bible, 48–52;
Islam and, 95, 109–14;
Islam and political,
112–14; Judaism and,
66–70; literal, 9, 123, 132,
170, 218; nonintention
and, 128–29; political, 9,
51–52, 92–93, 95; against
revenge, 11, 122, 218; ritual
and, 8–9, 129; sacrifice
and, 49–52; state-of-mind
and, 125–29; see also
Effective-defensive
strategy for conflict
resolution
Democracy, 16
Demons, animals and, 59
Desensitization, 13
Devotion, vs. ritual, 36
Dharma, 183, 257
Dietary rules, 37–39, 52
Discontent, 43
273
Discrimination, 18, 59;
justifying, 19
Dissertation on the Duty of
Mercy and Sin of Cruelty
to Brute Animals
(Primatt), 91
Divination, 191
DNA, 19
Dogs, 100, 107, 150, 194,
195–96, 198
Dombrowski, D.A., 47, 182
Dominion, 68, 92, 95, 98,
113; divinely ordained,
52, 78; image of God and,
27–29; logic of, 7; meat
eating and, 47; through
name giving, 33;
stewardship vs., 146, 219;
see also Human
superiority
Donkeys, 61, 193, 196–97
Dreams, 12, 191
Dresner, Samuel, 38
Dualism, 33, 55–56, 181;
gnostic, 75; metaphysical,
76; between spirit/
matter, 71, 76–77, 213
Dukkha
(unsatisfactoriness), 139,
257
Dutton, Yasin, 154–55
East-West interchange,
176–80
Ebionites, 69, 257
Economy, 2
Eden, 66, 71, 93, 216;
vegetarianism in, 4, 27,
31, 48–49, 145, 163
Edenites, 72, 257
Effective-defensive
strategy for confl ict
resolution, 10, 133, 218;
Buddhism and, 155–61;
change and, 25;
Christianity and,
147–49; Islam and,
149–55; Judaism and,
145–47
Egalitarianism, 25, 152,
155–56, 180
Ego, 211, 212, 228, 229
Eightfold Noble Path, right
livelihood in, 158–59
Ein Sof, 203, 204
Eliot, George, 4
Emotions, 1, 3, 17, 26, 38,
212; animal, 222; ethics
and, 25
Emptiness doctrine
(sunyata): of Buddhism,
207–14; Mahayana
Buddhism and, 24
Enlightenment, 117, 155,
184, 218; birds’ will to,
190; exclusion from, 119
Environment, 3, 16, 17, 26,
167, 179, 215; change in,
28
Environmentalism, 145,
205; Islam and, 154–55;
killing and, 226, 227;
stewardship and,
154–55
Equality, 16, 54, 172, 180,
226; ethics and, 202;
moral, 19; oppression
and, 7; species, 66, 149,
202
Essentialism, change and,
15–16
Ethics, 5, 6, 22, 35, 88, 179,
206, 221; Christian, 149;
emotions and, 25;
equality and, 202;
sympathy and, 24
Eucharist, 84
Euphemism, 14
Evasion strategy for confl ict
resolution, 7–8, 13, 14, 26,
51, 52, 64, 65, 66, 218;
Buddhism and, 116,
119–21; Christianity and,
80–91; in Hebrew Bible,
34–47; Islam and, 95,
101–9; Judaism and,
59–66
Evil, 142, 147, 194, 210;
natural/moral, 142, 143,
144, 206; purgation of,
161–62
Evolution, 14; change and
moral, 16–17; moral, 25,
180, 215–17
Experimentation; see
Animal experimentation
Exploitation, 2, 6, 14, 19,
25, 68, 116, 132, 168, 200,
207, 218; Bible and, 40;
dependency on, 6;
justifying, 52; necessity
and, 14, 199–200
Factory farming:
condemnation of, 164;
cruelty of, 141, 142;
vegetarianism and, 143
Fadali, Moneim A., 177, 189,
206
El-Fadl, Khaled Abou, 150
The Fall, 180; meat eating
and, 148–49
Feinstein, Moses, 164
Feminism, 19
Ferrier, Todd, 167
Flack, J. C., 3
Flood, Robert, 186
Folktales, 80
Foltz, Richard C., 15, 107,
151, 153, 169, 171, 199
Force, 199
Forward, M., 97, 110, 112
Fox, R. L., 84
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index
Francione, Gary L., 4
Francis of Assisi (Saint), 79,
86, 87
Frankel, Aaron, 163
Frear, 51
Free will, 2, 73, 142, 195,
212, 225
Friedrich, Bruce, 168
Fur, 68, 70
Gandhi, 128, 177
Generosity, 118, 174, 180,
204
Genetics, 17
Gershom, Yonassan, 63
al-Ghazali, 166
Gnostics, 75, 76, 77, 92, 161
God, 2, 4, 10, 17, 24, 144,
219; authority of, 27, 45,
95, 205; change and, 137,
138; compassionate, 95,
113, 179; constructing, 51;
as controller, 29; creation
and, 147–48; dominion
and image of, 27–29;
image of, 54–55, 77–78,
146; mercy of, 145;
modifying concept of,
137; nature of, 203;
omnipresence of, 155;
oneness and, 202, 203,
206; as parent, 29, 30;
revenge of, 104; as
shepherd, 35, 45–47, 51,
52, 218; Spirit of, 187; as
stockbreeder, 29, 46, 51;
as unknowable, 23; will
of, 73, 96; wish to
imitate, 51; wrath of, 34
Golden Rule, 5, 21, 22, 26,
72, 155, 219–23, 224;
value systems outside, 226
Golders Green Unitarians,
176
Gombrich, Richard, 173
Gompertz, Lewis, 163
Goodness, 147, 213
Gospel of the Ebionites, 73
Gotama; see Buddha
Grandin, Temple, 12
Granger, James, 91
Green, G., 195
Green, Joe, 216
Gregory XIII (Pope), 168
Guides, animals as, 22, 23,
25, 26, 185, 190–200, 201
Guide to the Perplexed
(Maimonides), 258
Guilds, 159
Guilt, 6, 9, 11, 26, 34, 47, 53,
215; coping with, 13
Habits, 6, 7; clinging to, 216
Hadith, 95, 102, 103, 111,
150, 171, 172, 194, 257
Hafiz, 257
ha-Hasid, Judah, 60
Halal; see Slaughter
Hardy, Thomas, 188
Harm, willingness to do, 20
Hartshorne, 204
Harvey, Peter, 125
Harwood, Dix, 187
Hasidism, 203, 258
Hassan of Morocco (King),
154
Haykali, 206
Haykal, M. H., 103
Health: meat eating and,
164; preventive, care,
165; vegetarianism and,
63, 167
Hebrew Bible, 27, 53;
aggression strategy in,
27–33; defensive strategy
in, 48–52; evasion
strategy in, 34–47; on
killing, 28–29;
vegetarianism in, 41–45;
see also Tanakh
Hekhalot, 188, 258
Hellenism, 55, 74, 92, 94
Hertzberg, Arthur, 146
Hiebert, Theodore, 31, 33,
45, 48
Hierarchy, 76, 77, 152, 160,
181, 213; of merit of
giving, 118; quantifiable,
202–3; of states of being,
117; values and, 24; of
wrongness of killing,
123–24, 132
Hinduism, 1, 6, 25, 115, 140,
155, 159, 160; animals’
knowledge and, 190;
meat eating and, 174–75;
oneness and, 207–8;
rebirth in, 247n124;
sacrifice abandoned in,
115, 122; vegetarianism
in, 115, 122
Holmes-Gore, V. A., 87
Holy Spirit, 192
Hope, 229
Hourani, 96
Human beings: concern of,
for animals, 39–41;
equated with animals,
46; oppression of, 6, 7;
reason and, 55; sacrifice
of, 31, 35, 141; soul of, 54,
186
Humaneness, 61, 95
Humanism, 21, 55, 59, 167;
Western, 99
Human nature, higher/
lower, 87
Human qualities, 19
Human superiority, 14, 18,
226; Christianity and, 71,
76, 78, 79, 80, 92, 93, 95;
Islam and, 95, 99, 100,
113; Judaism and, 53, 55,
56; responsibility and,
54; see also Dominion
Hume, David, 3, 222
Humility, 146, 198
Hunger, 145; meat
production and, 153
Hunting, 44, 45, 107, 109,
112, 129, 150, 172–73, 184,
217, 219; disapproval of,
164; society, 2, 5, 8, 11, 12
Hyland, J. R. (Regina), 32,
33, 36–37
Ibn’Arabi, 258
Idealism, 76
Ideal world, 226–29
Identification, 217; with
animals, 116, 120;
Buddhism and, 155
Identity, 14, 139, 140
Ignorance, 125
Ikhwan al-safa’, 198–99,
200
Immortality, 185, 187, 201
The Immortality of
Animals (Buckner), 187
Impermanence (anitya/
anicca), 133, 139, 219
Incarnation, 148, 180
Indifference, 212
Individuality, 24, 25
Inferiority, 20, 203
Innocence, 34, 195
Innocent VIII (Pope), 78
Insects, 20, 189
Inspiration, 73
Instinct, suppressing, 96
Insubstantiality (anatta/
anatman), 257
Intelligence, 19
Interconnectedness, 207
Interpretation:
experiential, 135; ijtihad,
134, 172, 258; of religions,
15, 16, 134; see also
reinterpretation
‘Isa; see Jesus
Islam, 1, 10, 14, 16, 25, 28,
31, 52, 67, 133, 134–35,
182, 188, 200, 217, 219;
Abraham in, 95, 96,
97–98; aggression
strategy and, 96–101;
animal rights and, 139,
150, 177; conservative,
138; defensive strategy
and, 95, 109–14; divine
prescriptions of, 96;
effective-defensive
strategy and, 149–55;
environmentalism and,
154–55; evasion strategy
and, 95, 101–9; human
superiority and, 95, 99,
100, 113; kindness to
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animals in, 102–4, 107,
153; meat eating and, 31,
95, 96–97, 101–2, 108,
171; noninjury and, 220;
oneness and, 205–6;
perfectionism in, 98–101;
political defensive
strategy and, 112–14;
sacrifice in, 95, 97–98,
111–12, 113, 169; spiritual
vs. legalitarian, 183;
vegetarianism and, 96,
108, 150, 170, 171, 216–17;
vivisection and, 171–72
Isserles, Moses, 62
Izzi Dien, M., 97, 104, 110,
135, 154, 177, 182
Jacobs, L., 30, 62
Jainism, 1, 25, 115, 120–21,
127, 128, 140, 155, 160,
161, 162, 169, 174, 212;
analysis of reality in,
210–11; hostility toward,
130; killing and, 175
James, Apostle, 71, 73
Japan, 129
Jatakamala, 119, 156, 157,
158, 159, 160, 184,
243n15, 258
Jatakas, 116, 117, 118, 121,
131, 156–58, 159, 160,
243n15, 258; Pali, 119,
156, 157, 159, 160
Jeff rey, David Lyle, 76
Jesus, 71, 72, 80, 81, 148,
149, 163; animals and,
192–93; message of
compassion of, 85; as
sacrificial lamb, 83–85,
218; as shepherd, 82–83;
vegetarianism and, 166
Jewish Reconstructionists,
4
Jewish Vegetarian Society,
164
Jewish Vegetarians of
North America, 164
Jews for Animal Rights, 164
John, Apostle, 73, 76, 81
John Chrysostom (Saint),
88, 149
John Paul II (Pope), 187
Judaism, 1, 4, 12, 14, 15, 25,
31, 39, 52, 133, 134, 169,
179, 200, 219, 233n1;
abandonment of sacrifice
in, 165; aggression
strategy and, 53–59;
cruelty toward animals
and, 57, 69; defensive
strategy and, 66–70;
effective-defensive
strategy and, 145–47;
evasion strategy and,
59–66; five mandates in,
275
145–46; human
superiority and, 53, 55,
56; kindness to animals
in, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 69;
meat eating and, 12, 31,
44, 57, 58, 63; oneness in,
202–4; sacrifice and, 27,
29, 58, 67; vegetarianism
and, 30–31, 35, 50,
68–69, 140, 163–65, 216
Judaism and Animal
Rights, 164
Justice, 186; social, 153–54
Justification: for
discrimination, 19; for
exploitation, 52; for
killing, 3; for meat
eating, 30; for sacrifice,
9, 140, 141; for slaughter,
31, 46
Justinian (Emperor), 197
Kabbalah, 55, 58, 59, 69,
100, 203, 258
Kabbalism, definition of,
235n10
Kabir, 171
Kalechofsky, Roberta, 36,
41, 43, 61, 63, 65, 145,
147, 164
Kant, Immanuel, 41, 62,
220, 223
Kaplan, Mordecai, 4, 16
Kapleau, Philip, 126, 129,
136
Karma, 2, 116–17, 118, 140,
155, 157, 207, 228, 258;
kindness and, 120–21;
kinship and, 175;
Mahayana Buddhism
and, 159
Kemmerer, Lisa, 16, 18
Kempe, Margery, 89
Keown, D., 123–24, 140
Khalid, Fazlun, 154
Killing, 11–12, 25, 151, 157,
162, 170, 171;
environmentalism and,
226, 227; Hebrew Bible
on, 28–29; hierarchy of
wrongness of, 123–24,
132; Jainism and, 175;
justification of, 3;
necessity and, 1, 5, 6, 8,
14, 51, 95, 109, 110, 111,
112, 114, 116, 128, 129,
132, 142, 169;
problematization of, 10;
sacred places and, 111; see
also Sacrifice; Slaughter
Kindness, 7, 21, 39, 40, 41,
47, 155, 218; to animals in
Christianity, 80, 81,
86–89, 90, 93; to animals
in Islam, 102–4, 107, 153;
to animals in Judaism,
60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 69; to
animals in Protestant
Church, 90–91; karma
and, 120–21; loving, 173;
saints’, to animals, 87–89,
93, 167; see also Metta/
maitri
King James Bible, 37
Kinship, 21–22, 212, 224,
225–26; with animals, 34,
86–87; karma and, 175
Klawans, Jonathan, 27, 29,
39, 46, 51
Kook, Abraham, 140, 216
Kosher; see Slaughter
Krishna, 159, 207, 257, 258
Krishnamurti, 177
Kundera, Milan, 28
Landau, Ezekiel, 164
Language, 181–82, 183, 217,
224; downgrading of,
200–1; sanctification of,
181; see also
Logocentrism;
Logomysticism
Last Supper, 81
Laws of Manu, 115, 116, 175;
on meat eating, 122
Leather, ban on, shoes, 53,
67, 70
Lee, Ann, 91
Levinas, Emmanuel, 29,
181, 204
Liberation: animal, 178;
welfare vs., 7
Liberation movement, 19
Lichtenstein, Aaron, 68
Linden, Maya, 150
Lindner, Lorin, 222
Ling, Trevor, 123
Linzey, Andrew, 35, 51, 74,
78, 79, 81, 83, 89, 138,
148, 149, 162, 166, 182,
205, 207, 216, 219
Logocentrism, 27, 33,
55–56, 71, 76–77, 95, 101,
181; anti-, in Buddhism,
183–84, 201; anti-, in
Sufism, 183, 201
Logomysticism, 76, 181–85,
200
Lommel, Andreas, 11
Luke, Apostle, 85
Lurianic doctrines, 203
Luther, Martin, 90
Luxury, 43, 163
al-Ma’arri, Abu al-’Ala’, 171
McCarthy, Colman, 168
McCarthy, Susan, 222
Magic, 11
Mahabharata, 136, 175,
207, 220, 258
Mahayana Buddhism, 140,
156, 195, 258;
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index
Mahayana Buddhism
(continued)
Bodhisattva ideal and,
24, 159, 217; emptiness
doctrine and, 24; karma
and, 159; meat eating
and, 175, 176;
vegetarianism and, 125,
129, 176
Maimonides, 37, 39, 41, 54,
56, 58, 60, 62, 141, 147,
258
Majjhima Nikaya, 117, 129,
130
Manichaeanism, 239n86
Manichaeans, 76, 161, 162,
258
Mannin, Ethel, 126
Martin, Richard, 91
Masri, al-Hafi z B. A., 95,
101, 102, 106, 108–9, 113,
135–36, 169, 171, 172, 187,
189
Masson, Jeff rey M., 222
Meat eating, 4, 5, 7, 27, 38,
53, 142, 216; Buddhism
and, 116, 118–19, 125, 126,
131, 136, 218; Christianity
and, 31, 72, 81, 82, 163;
climate and, 129;
dominion and, 47; the
Fall and, 148–49; health
and, 164; Hinduism and,
174–75; Islam and, 31, 95,
96–97, 101–2, 108, 171;
Judaism and, 12, 31, 44,
57, 58, 63; justification
for, 30; Laws of Manu on,
122; Mahayana
Buddhism and, 175, 176;
New Testament and, 75;
postflood permission for,
30–31, 56–57; sacrifice
and, 31–32, 34;
wrong-doing and, 42, 43;
see also Vegetarianism
Meditation, 178, 182, 183,
217; jhana/dhyana and,
258
Menache, Andre, 165
Mendelsohn, Robert, 165
Mernissi, Fatima, 192
Messengers, animals as, 22,
23, 25, 26, 185, 190–200,
201
Metaphysics, 2, 3, 212
Methodist Church, 187
Metta/maitri
(lovingkindness), 123,
131, 155, 243n30, 258
Micah Press, 164
Midrash, 61, 64, 134, 141,
258
Mill, John Stuart, 7, 220
Mindfulness, 161
Miracles, 191–92
Mishnah, 59, 62, 147,
233n1, 259
El-Misri, 100
Mistranslation, 135–36
Molari, Carlo, 186
Monastra, Yahya, 171
Money, 154–55
Mongolia, 129
Monotheism, 202, 205
Moore, G. E., 183
Morality, 1, 2, 18, 24, 35,
205, 214, 221, 224;
animals as teachers of,
117, 196–200; Buddhism
and, 173; building blocks
of, 3; change and
evolution of, 16–17;
conflict, 9, 215; equality
and, 19; evil and, 142,
143, 144, 206; evolution
of, 25, 180, 215–17;
priority and, 21;
responsibility and, 55;
surrendering judgment
of, 96; wisdom and, 210
Moral Philosophy
(Rickaby), 79
Moses, 15, 30, 34, 45, 63
Mother, child bond, 37–38,
47, 103
Mountain, Michael, 219
Muhaiyaddeen, Bawa, 171
Muhammad, 95, 100, 102,
113, 191–92
Muhrim, 112, 259
Muntzer, Thomas, 90
Murray, Robert, 28, 73–74
Murti, Vasu, 72
Mu’tazilites, 259
Mystical experience,
animals and, 195–96
Mysticism, 78, 99, 181, 204,
207
Myths, 7–8; exculpatory, 10
Nagarjuna, 195, 208, 209,
210, 259
Name giving, 181; to
animals, 33, 48;
dominion through, 33
Nasef, Abdullah Omar, 154
Nativity, 85, 93; animals
and, 86
Nature: of God, 203;
harmony with, 167;
higher/lower human, 87;
love of, 151
Necessity(ies): exploitation
and, 14, 200; killing and,
1, 5, 6, 8, 14, 51, 95, 109,
110, 111, 112, 114, 116, 128,
129, 132, 142, 169; of life,
172
New International Bible, 36
New Testament, 3, 71, 80,
93, 166; meat eating and,
75; see also Christian
Bible
Next-of-kin claim, 21–22,
224, 225–26
Nirvana, 140, 209, 259
Noachide laws, 38, 61, 164,
171
Nonexistence, 208, 210
Noninjury (ahimsa), 9, 115,
120, 122, 123, 128, 130,
131–32, 156–58, 162, 169,
211, 212, 217, 257;
Christianity and,
219–21; exceptions given
to, rule, 224–26; Islam
and, 220
Nonintention, 128–29
Noske, Barbara, 23
Nursi, 151, 153
Obedience, 27, 58, 62, 79,
85, 113, 146, 217
Old Testament, 55, 135
Oneness: animal rights
and, 24; Buddhism and,
209; Christianity and,
204–5; God and, 202,
203, 206; Hinduism and,
207–8; Islam and, 205–6;
Judaism and, 202–4;
problems of, 24–25, 202,
213; Sufism and, 205–6;
Vedanta and, 212
Ontology, 179, 212;
dynamic, 137
Opportunity, 143
Oppression, 19, 173, 196;
equality and, 7; of human
beings, 6, 7; of women, 7
Order of the Cross, 167
Padmapurana, 155
Page, Tony, 119, 136, 177,
178, 209
Paley, William, 167
Pali, 17, 117, 118, 125, 137,
158, 242n9, 259; Jatakas,
119, 156, 157, 159, 160
Panentheism, 201, 203,
204
Pantheism, 201, 203, 204,
206
Passover, 81, 140
Patton, Kimberley, 9
Paul (Saint), 71, 72, 93;
influence of, 74–75
Paul VI (Pope), 89
Peace, 66, 145, 180; inner,
215
People for the Ethical
Treatment of Animals
(PETA), 139, 150, 168
Pereq Shirah, 188, 189
Perfectionism, 21, 22, 93,
224–25; in Islam,
98–100
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PETA; see People for the
Ethical Treatment of
Animals
Pets, 5, 7, 8, 20, 99, 227
Phelps, Norm, 39, 60, 90
Philip II of Spain (King),
168
Philip Neri (Saint), 79
Philosophy, 92;
vegetarianism and, 6
Pius IX (Pope), 78
Pius V (Pope), 168
Plato, 47, 76
Plurality, 203
Politics, 2, 80, 91
Polytheism, 205
Poor, helping, 153–54
Porat, Mordecai Ben, 164
Porphyry, 32
Portmess, L., 108
Power, 200, 205, 225;
abusing, 146; psychic,
184–85
Prayer, 62, 67, 68, 82, 145,
147; animals and, 187–90,
196, 201; sacrifice and,
35, 141, 165, 171;
slaughter and, 50, 128,
218
Preece, Rod, 3, 9, 74, 86,
88, 177, 186
Primates, 19, 20, 60
Primatt, Humphrey, 91
Procter-Smith, 85
Projectionism, 2, 4, 138,
212
Propitiation, 9; rituals of,
116, 132, 218
Protestant Church, 71, 162;
kindness to animals in,
90–91
Purification, 39, 51, 165; of
soul, 162
Pythagoras, 32
Qitmir, 196
Qur’an, 95, 96, 97, 99, 101,
104–6, 135, 142, 151, 153,
188, 195; animal rights
in, 106; animal titles in,
109; creation in, 151
Rachels, James, 19
Racism, 18, 20, 215
Raqim, 196
Rationalism, 27, 33, 56,
76–77, 225; anti-animal,
52; Cartesian, 154; see
also Antirationalism
Reason, 2, 3, 6, 38, 71, 76,
77, 134, 181, 224; human,
55
Rebirth, 116, 140, 160, 162,
241n31, 247n124, 257; as
animal, 115, 117, 123, 155;
Buddhism and, 247n124;
277
five states of, 117;
Hinduism and, 247n124
Recognitions (Clement), 137
Regan, Tom, 18
Regenstein, Lewis G., 36,
50, 79, 88, 89, 90, 135, 168
Regret, 37, 70, 114, 124
Reincarnation; see Rebirth
Reinterpretation: of
scripture, 133–35, 179;
types of, 135–37
Religion(s): animals’ sense
of, 188, 189, 190; change
in, 137; conflict and,
10–14; core values of,
15–16; development of, 2;
interpretation of, 15, 16,
134
Respect, 5, 8, 9, 152; for life,
150–51
Responsibility, 146;
disownment of, 50;
moral, 55; superiority
and, 54
Resurrection, 9, 194, 196
Revenge: defense against,
11, 122, 218; fear of, 8, 9,
122, 123; God’s, 104;
protection against, 170
Reverence, 9
Revulsion, 36
Rg Veda, 11, 115, 123
Richard of Chichester
(Saint), 167
Rickaby, Joseph, 79
Ridicule, 91
Rifkin, Jeremy, 8
Ritual(s), 4, 5, 11, 13, 14, 27,
29, 217; of apology, 12;
defensive, 8–9, 129;
devotion vs., 36; of
propitiation, 116, 132,
218; slaughter, 67, 69–70,
95; see also Sacrifice
Rituale Romanum, 89
Rolston, Holmes, 226
Rose-Garden (Sa’di), 196
RSPCA, 91
Ruegg, David Seyfort, 125
Ruesch, Hans, 224
Rumi, 170, 183
Rushd, Ibn, 111, 112
Russell, Bertrand, 7, 149
Ryder, Richard, 20
Sabas (Saint), 191
Sabbath, 40, 60, 61, 64, 69,
80
Sacredness, of all life, 69,
109, 150, 174
Sacrifice, 5, 9, 11, 137, 179,
218; abandonment of, in
Buddhism, 173;
abandonment of, in
Christianity, 84, 85, 166;
abandonment of, in
Hinduism, 115, 122;
abandonment of, in
Judaism, 165; defensive
strategy and, 49–52;
denunciation of, 35–37; in
Gospels, 81; human, 31,
35, 141; Islam and, 95,
97–98, 111, 113, 169; Jesus
and, 83–85, 218; Judaism
and, 27, 29, 58, 67;
justification for, 9, 140,
141; meat eating and,
31–32, 34; prayer and, 35,
141, 165, 171; rejection of,
136, 154; rules for, 37–39,
52, 109, 111–12, 217;
Temple and, 67, 83, 165,
166–67; see also Ritual
Sa’di, 100, 106, 196, 259
Sadism, 13
Saints: kindness to animals
of, 87–89, 167; see also
specific Saints
al-Salam, 97
Salt, Henry, 22, 177
Salvation Army, 167
Samsara, 140, 156, 209, 259
Sanders, 167
Sangha, 130, 259
Sangharakshita, 209, 217
Sanskrit, 17, 117, 242n9, 259
Santos, Rafael (Cardinal), 89
Schmithausen, Lambert,
15, 123, 130
Schochet, 41
Scholem, G., 203
Schwartz, Richard H., 36,
38, 42, 54, 57, 64, 141,
145, 165, 216
Science; see Animal
experimentation
Scripture, reinterpretation
of, 133–35, 179
Sefirot, 203, 259
Self-interest, 5, 14, 26, 200
Sentience, 14, 21, 39, 57,
127, 140, 148, 155, 175,
176, 178, 186, 209, 215,
217, 221, 227, 229;
evaluation of, 221
Sergey (Saint), 86–87
Serpent, 195
Seventh-Day-Adventists, 162
Sexism, 18, 20, 215
Sexuality, 34, 162
Shah, Idries, 100
Shamanism, 184, 217
Shame, coping with, 13
Shechitah, 67, 259
Sheep, 45–46
Shepherd: analogies, 46;
God as, 35, 45–47, 51, 52,
218; Jesus as, 82–83
Sherira, 65
Shi’ism, 259
Sikhism, 171
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index
Sin, 210; original, 148
Singer, Isaac Bashevis, 12
Singer, Peter, 7, 14, 93
Sixtus V (Pope), 168
Skilton, Andrew, 139
Slaughter, 12–13, 38, 43, 81,
103, 125, 217; halal, 102,
108, 110, 111, 149, 150,
258; justifying, 31, 46;
kosher method of, 57, 67,
216, 258; prayer and, 50,
128, 218; ritual, 67, 69–70,
95; rules for, 109, 110
Slavery, 6, 16, 78, 90, 143,
215, 227
Smart, Ninian, 12, 96
Snyder, Gary, 178
Social class, Christianity
and, 3
Social reforms, 90
Society: gathering, 2, 5, 8,
11; hunting, 2, 5, 8, 11, 12;
patriarchal, 7
Society for the Prevention of
Cruelty to Animals, 163
Society of Ethical and
Religious Vegetarians, 176
Soul, 161, 217; animal, 4,
57–58, 79, 135, 185–87,
201; as bird, 192; eternal,
199–200; human, 54,
186; purification of, 162
SPCA, Massachusetts, 91
Speciesism, 21, 22, 52, 59,
71, 77, 80, 146, 162, 216;
in China, 176; definition
of, 18–21; non-, 226–29
Speech, animals and, 193
Spinoza, Baruch, 56, 203,
204, 206
Spira, Henry, 165
Sprigge, T., 204
Stewardship, 149; vs.
dominion, 146, 219;
environmentalism and,
154–55
Suffering, 13, 79, 138, 139,
160, 165, 220, 221–22;
Buddhism and, 208, 209;
illusion of, 208, 209;
preventing, 17
Sufism, 95, 99, 100, 113,
133, 138–39, 189, 198,
259; antilogocentrism in,
183, 201; oneness and,
205–6; vegetarianism
and, 170, 171
Sumedho, Ajahn, 161
Sunna, 110, 259
Sunni, 95, 96, 108, 139, 259
Superficiality, 215
Superstition, 51, 56, 191–92
Suri, Hiravijaya, 169
Sutra, definition of, 259
Swinburne, Richard, 142,
144
Symbolism, 80, 99, 100,
107, 173, 182, 192–93,
235n10
Sympathy, 5, 14, 17–18, 26,
61, 107, 215, 228; ethics
and, 24
Synagogue Ritual of the
Day of Atonement, 165
Syrian Christianity, 97
Talmud, 36, 53, 55, 57, 59,
60, 62, 69, 77, 134, 145,
162, 164, 177, 186, 197,
202, 233n1, 259
Tanakh, 27, 69, 259; order
of, 233n1; see also
Hebrew Bible
Tappan, Robert, 64, 142
Tasmiyah, 110, 259
Tathagata, 118, 126, 184,
260
Tathagatagarbha, 124, 176,
212, 254n48, 260
Teachers, animals as,
193–95, 196–200
Technology, 2, 14, 16, 215
Temple, 260; fall of, 50, 63,
68, 140, 141, 162, 165;
sacrifice and, 67, 83, 165,
166–67
Ten Commandments, 37
Tess of the d’Urbervilles
(Hardy), 188
Tetragrammaton, 181, 182,
260
Thamud, 95, 101, 104, 113,
153
Thari, 177
Theistic subjectivism, 96
“The Oxen” (Hardy), 188
Theravada Buddhism, 260
Thomas Aquinas (Saint),
76, 77, 88
Thomas, Keith, 188
Thou Shalt Not Kill or the
Torah of Vegetarianism
(Frankel), 163
Tibet, 129, 156
Tiger, 160–61
Timmins, Thomas, 91
Torah, 28, 31, 64, 145, 204,
233n1; consideration for
animals in, 60–61;
independent judgment
and, 146–47
Transcendence, 202, 206
Truth, seeking, 22
Tzimtzum, 203
Unitary outlooks, 3
Unterman, Alan, 12, 53
Upanishads, 260
Usefulness, 144
Values, 3, 4; core, of
religions, 15–16;
hierarchical, 24; outside
Golden Rule, 226
Vedanta, 260; oneness and,
212
Vedas; See Rg Veda; Vedic
tradition
Vedic tradition, 11, 115, 122,
136, 169, 173, 260
Veganism, 31, 118, 150, 170,
179, 219, 221
Vegetarianism, 2, 15, 19, 27,
34, 52, 141, 142, 219;
adoption of, 227; animals
and, 48; ascetic, 73, 76,
86, 97, 161–63; Buddhism
and, 174, 175;
Christianity and, 3, 35,
71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 87, 93,
166, 167, 216; in East/
West, 176–77; in Eden, 4,
27, 31, 48–49, 145, 163;
factory farming and, 143;
health and, 63, 167; in
Hebrew Bible, 41–45;
Hinduism and, 115, 122;
Islam and, 96, 108, 150,
170, 171, 216–17; Jesus
and, 166; Judaism and,
30–31, 35, 68–69, 140,
163–65, 216; Mahayana
Buddhism and, 125, 129,
176; philosophical, 6;
Sufism and, 170, 171;
utopian, 48–49, 52, 53,
66–67
Venkata Ramanan, K., 208
Vinaya rules, 125, 175, 260
Vishnu, 160, 260
Vivisection, 79–80, 121, 165,
216, 219; Buddhism and,
211; Islam and, 171–72;
see also Animal
experimentation
Volozhiner, Hayyim, 55,
100, 182, 204
Voluntarism, 62; divine, 58,
96, 97, 113, 146
Waal, F. B. M. de, 3
Waldau, Paul, 18, 19, 20, 51
Waliullah, 189, 205
Walters, K. S., 108
Ward, Nathaniel, 90
Webb, Stephen H., 75, 85,
90, 166, 187, 219, 227
Welfare: animal, 89, 91, 93;
liberation vs., 7
Wesley, Charles, 90
Wesley, John, 90, 187
Whaling, 129
White, Ellen G., 162
Wilderness, maintaining,
228
Wisdom, 183, 209; animal
as teachers of, 193–95;
compassion and, 211–13;
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discriminating
consciousness, 183;
morality and, 210
Wood, John George, 187
Word(s): freedom from,
183, 184; importance of,
181–82; inadequacy of,
279
210, 211; see also
Language; Logocentrism;
Logomysticism
Wordlessness, 25, 26, 201
Writing, 33
Young, Richard Alan, 73,
74, 75, 142, 166
Zaidi, Iqtidar, 99
az-Zaybaq, M., 109
Zohar, 203, 235n10
Yom Kippur, 53, 64, 67, 70
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