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ISSN 0040-5795, Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering, 2017, Vol. 51, No. 5, pp. 708–715. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2017.
Original Russian Text © M.K. Zakharov, G.A. Nosov, Yu.A. Pisarenko, L.M. Zhil’tsova, A.A. Shvets, 2017, published in Teoreticheskie Osnovy Khimicheskoi Tekhnologii, 2017,
Vol. 51, No. 5, pp. 560–568.
Comparison of Distributed Heat Supplies along the Height
of Fractionating Columns with Conventional Fractionation
M. K. Zakharov*, G. A. Nosov, Yu. A. Pisarenko, L. M. Zhil’tsova, and A. A. Shvets
Moscow Technological University, Moscow, 119571 Russia
*e-mail: Melamoryblimm93@gmail.com
Received April 20, 2016
Abstract⎯The heat consumptions during fractionation of a binary mixture using different versions of heat
supply to the column were compared. The standard version of adiabatic fractionation was compared with real
versions that approximate it to reversible fractionation by using distributive heat supply (and removal) along
the height of the column and increasing the number of theoretical stages. Adiabatic fractionation is characterized by the least heat consumption. This is explained by the increased internal energy saving in the column.
Keywords: fractionation, reflux ratio, reversible fractionation, internal energy saving, heat consumption
DOI: 10.1134/S0040579517050402
INTRODUCTION
The increased energy intensity of fractionation is
associated with the necessity of evaporating liquid
mixtures, while spending at least the evaporation heat
[1, 2]. In [3–6], the efficiency of the real adiabatic
fractionation is usually compared with reversible fractionation [3]. Thus, according to the calculation given
in [4], the thermodynamic efficiency of fractionation
for separating an equimolar mixture of benzene and
toluene is 14.7% for the work with a minimum reflux
ratio. At working reflux ratios, the thermodynamic
efficiency of fractionation is much lower [4]. According to [5], the thermodynamic efficiency of fractionation is 4–20% (using external energy saving in
improved fractionation schemes). A detailed analysis
of the low thermodynamic efficiency of fractionating
columns was given in [6], where various sources of
irreversibility were evaluated. It was noted that the
largest loss of thermodynamic efficiency is due to irreversible processes in adiabatic fractionation compared
with processes in reversible fractionation [6]. According to [3], the thermodynamic efficiency of the standard fractionation of a binary mixture depends on the
composition x of the feed expressed in mole percent
(Table 1).
With the contents of components ranging from 30
to 70%, conventional fractionation with a minimum
heat supply has fairly high thermodynamic efficiency.
At very low or very high concentrations of components
in the starting mixture, conventional fractionation is
ineffective. To reduce the heat consumption on fractionation, various energy saving methods [3–16] are
used usually aimed at approximation to reversible
fractionation. One direction in which it is desirable to
change the conventional real fractionation to improve
its thermodynamic efficiency, was proposed in [3]:
distributed heat supply in the stripping part of the column and heat removal in the rectifying part.
Separation of some nonideal multicomponent
mixtures is possible [14] only when performing nonadiabatic fractionation with heat supply or removal in
the column feed section.
In [15], the optimum arrangement of heat supply to
the plates of fractionating columns was found, which
ensured the minimum increase in entropy. According
to [3], this should lead to a reduction in the heat consumption on separation. According to [15], however,
the total thermal energy consumption on separation by
adiabatic fractionation proved lower than with distributed heat supply.
EXPERIMENTAL
To explain this and determine the least energyintensive version of real fractionation, a computation
experiment was performed using AspenPlus software.
The heat consumption on the separation of 1 kmol/s
of an equimolar benzene–toluene mixture in a boiler,
giving benzene and toluene of 98% purity, in a conventional fractionation unit (Fig. 1a) was compared with
the total heat consumption (in the boiler and on (fed
to) the stripping column plates) on the units presented
in Figs. 1b–1d.
The calculated temperatures, flows, and compositions of liquid and vapor on the column plates during
adiabatic fractionation are presented in Table 2.
708
COMPARISON OF DISTRIBUTED HEAT SUPPLIES
Table 2 also gives the ratios of the flows of liquid L
and vapor V required for subsequent calculation of
internal energy saving during fractionation [17, 18].
Before analyzing the results, it is necessary to clarify the notion of internal energy saving. It is convenient to consider it using the concept of a theoretical
plate from which the vapor and liquid flows leave in
both thermal and concentration equilibrium.
For an arbitrary (nth plate), the inlet flows are the
flows of a liquid Ln – 1 of composition xn – 1 and vapor
Vn + 1 of composition yn; the outlet flows (which are
equilibrium at a temperature tn) are the flows of the
liquid Ln of composition xn and vapor Vn of composition уn – 1 (Fig. 2) .
When the equilibrium is reached on a theoretical
plate (stage), the heat flows (and, with them, the mass
flows of the components that pass from one phase to
another) are determined only by the throughput
capacity of the heat supply and removal stages on the
plates [19]. The significant fraction of the “additional
contribution to the volatile component transfer due to
the temperature difference” in the total mass flow was
reported in [20–23], and these studies experimentally
confirmed the positive effect of heat exchange on mass
transfer during fractionation. On real plates, the transfer capacities of the kinetic stages of heat and mass
transfer are high because of the high coefficients of
heat transfer α and mass transfer β and the developed
phase contact surface F [19] and do not affect the
overall efficiency of heat and mass exchange. The
vapor and liquid flows that leave the theoretical plate
certainly have equal temperatures and equilibrium
compositions, and the values of interphase heat and
material flows are determined only from the balance
equations [1, 19, 24].
Previous analysis [17, 25] of the heat and mass
transfer on the theoretical plates of fractionating columns using the t – x, y and y – x diagrams confirms
the above conclusions.
The heat and mass transfer on a theoretical plate
(numbered n) can also be represented on the
enthalpy–composition diagram (Fig. 3).
In Fig. 3, the abscissa axis presents the compositions of the liquid x and vapor y; the enthalpy of the
liquid I and vapor h and the equidimensional Qs/L0
and Qcond/D that reflect the heat consumption in the
still and heat removal in the condenser are plotted
along the ordinate. The rays passing through the pole
SB for the rectifying column and SH for the stripping
column connect the working (conjugate) compositions of the liquid and vapor encountered in any section of the apparatus. The dashed lines show the nodes
(conodes) connecting the equilibrium compositions
of the liquid and vapor.
The point Cr that characterizes the dummy mixture
of the liquid and vapor with a composition yn fed on
the nth plate lies in the region of the vapor–liquid
709
Table 1. Thermodynamic efficiency of standard fractionation of a binary mixture
х, %
Thermodynamic efficiency
0 or 100
1 or 99
5 or 95
10 or 90
20 or 80
30 or 70
50
0
0.056
0.189
0.325
0.500
0.611
0.693
mixture closer to the saturated vapor line than the
boiling liquid line. This means that the amount of liquid in this mixture is smaller than that of vapor. The
vapor flow of composition yn – 1 obtained in the heat
and mass transfer on the plate will also be larger than
the leaving liquid flow of composition xn. The smaller
liquid flow limits the heat (and mass) exchange on all
the plates of the rectifying column. In contrast, on the
plates of the stripping column, the point C0 is located
closer to the line of the boiling liquid; i.e., the fraction
of the vapor flow (in the total inlet and outlet liquid
and vapor flows) is always less than that of the liquid
(а)
(b)
Qc
Qc
D
D
L1
L1
QR
QR
L0
L0
(c) Q
c
(d) Q
c
D
D
L1
L1
QR
QR
L0
L0
Fig. 1. Rectification units with different heat flow arrangements: (a) adiabatic rectification, (b) uniform heat supply,
(c) linear heat distribution, and (d) optimized heat supply.
THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
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2017
710
ZAKHAROV et al.
the heat flows from the condensing vapor to the boiling liquid on the plates completely depend on the
amount of the vapor flow.
xn – 2
yn – 2
n–1
tn – 1
Vn
yn – 1
Ln –1
Cn – 1
xn – 1
n
tn
Ln
Vn + 1
cnn
yn
xn
n+1
tn + 1
Ln + 1
Vn + 2
yn + 1
xn + 1
Fig. 2. Flow parameters: L is the liquid flow, kmol/s; V is
the vapor flow, kmol/s; y is the gas phase; x is the liquid
phase; and n is the number of plates in the column.
When the initial mixture is fed to the column in the
saturated state (at the boiling point), the value of the
vapor flow depends on the purity of the separated
products and the reflux ratio. The energy efficiency of
the use of this vapor flow is taken to be unity. When the
starting mixture is supplied to the column in the form
of vapor (or vapor–liquid mixture), the vapor flow in
the stripping column decreases (“less vapor” works),
and therefore the internal energy saving in the stripping column decreases [18].
Evaluation of the internal energy saving Es in the
fractionating column shows how fully the vapor flow
works (at the final reflux ratio, always partially in the
rectifying part and to the maximum possible extent in
the stripping part). The average internal energy saving
over the column can be calculated taking into account
the number of theoretical plates in rectifying nr and
stripping n0 parts by the equation [26]:
flow. On the theoretical plate, the flow of heat transferred from vapor to liquid is determined by the smallest flow in accordance with the heat balance of an
individual plate. Therefore, in the stripping column,
ny
⎛ Ln−1 ⎞
⎟ + n0
n +1 ⎠ i
i =2
ES =
nr + n0
∑ ⎜⎝V
(1)
Table 2. Temperatures, flows, and concentrations of vapor and liquid on the column plates
Plate no. Temperature, °C
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
80.57
81.20
82.15
83.45
85.09
86.95
88.82
90.50
91.84
92.84
93.67
94.95
96.79
99.18
101.93
104.69
107.10
108.97
110.29
111.16
Heat, MW
40.0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
40.5
L, kmol/s
1.301
0.796
0.789
0.781
0.772
0.763
0.755
0.750
0.746
1.743
1.738
1.732
1.725
1.718
1.713
1.711
1.711
1.713
1.714
0.500
V, kmol/s
0.000
1.301
1.296
1.289
1.281
1.272
1.263
1.255
1.250
1.246
1.243
1.238
1.232
1.225
1.218
1.213
1.211
1.211
1.213
1.214
Benzene
Ln−1
V n+1
liquid
vapor
–
0.617*
0.617*
0.616*
0.614*
0.611*
0.608*
0.604*
0.602*
0.600*
1.408
1.411
1.414
1.416
1.416
1.415
1.413
1.411
1.410
–
0.980
0.950
0.907
0.850
0.780
0.706
0.635
0.575
0.529
0.495
0.469
0.428
0.373
0.305
0.232
0.164
0.108
0.066
0.038
0.020
0.980
0.962
0.935
0.901
0.859
0.814
0.772
0.737
0.710
0.687
0.650
0.594
0.517
0.422
0.319
0.223
0.144
0.085
0.046
–
* For the rectifying column.
THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
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COMPARISON OF DISTRIBUTED HEAT SUPPLIES
711
SB
i, h
Qcond/D
h(y)
Cr
C0
Qb/L0
i(x)
x0
x1
xn xn – 1 yn yn – 1 x2
SH
Fig. 3. Compositions and enthalpies of liquid and vapor.
for equal evaporation heats of the mixture components
and hence constant vapor and liquid flows (in the rectifying and stripping parts):
ES =
ny
n0
R
+
.
R + 1 nr + n0 nr + n0
(2)
Table 2 shows the values of the ratio Ln – 1/Vn + 1
for each plate, starting with the second one. The fact is
that the first plate in the given computation is considered to be a total condenser, in which the whole heat
emitted during vapor condensation is transferred to
the coolant and ceases to participate in the separation.
Also note that complete vapor condensation gives a
liquid of the same composition without any separation
effect. The calculation of the internal energy saving
neglects the last (20th in our calculation) plate since
the vapor that leaves the boiler forms due to the heat
supply in the boiler. The internal energy saving begins
with the “work” of the vapor on the 19th plate. Thus,
the number of “working” (energy-saving) plates is
smaller by two plates than the total calculated number
(in our case, 20 – 2 = 18). Among these, nine plates
are in the rectifying column and nine in the stripping
column. The sum of the values of Ln – 1/Vn + 1 for the
rectifying column is 5.50.
To confirm the necessity of excluding the two theoretical plates (the first and last), it is reasonable to
recall the gradual distillation process including evaporation of the bottom liquid due to the external heat
supply and vapor condensation in the condenser; there
is no energy saving in this case.
Thus, according to the calculated data presented in
Table 2, the internal energy saving in a conventional
fractionating column (Fig. 1a) in accordance with (1)
is
E S = 5.50 + 9 = 0.806.
9+9
The variation of the vapor and liquid flows along
the height of the column for the above version of column operation is shown in Fig. 4a. The vapor flow is
constant along the height of the column (slight differences are due to the difference in the evaporation heats
of the mixture components); accordingly, the liquid
flows in the rectifying and stripping parts, which differ
in the amount of feed, are constant.
As is known [3–6], the main features of reversible
fractionation are an infinite number of plates, the
absence of a boiler and condenser for heat supply to
the plates of the stripping column, and its removal
from the plates of the rectifying column. Therefore,
heat consumption on fractionation was calculated and
the results of calculations similar to the previous calculation were analyzed for the number of plates
increased to 42 and 82 in the columns without heat
supply in the stripping (and without heat removal in
the rectifying) column and also with different versions of heat supply and removal along the height of
the column.
THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
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No. 5
2017
712
ZAKHAROV et al.
N
20
(а)
1
2
18
N
18
16
14
(b)
12
14
10
12
2
1
16
10
8
8
6
6
4
4
2
2
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
L, V, kmol/s
0
0.5
N
20
1.5
1.0
(d)
2
1
N
18
(c)
18
2
16
1
16
2.5
2.0
L, V, kmol/s
14
14
12
12
10
10
8
8
6
6
4
4
2
2
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.5
2.0
L, V, kmol/s
0
0.5
1.5
2.0
L, V, kmol/s
1.0
Fig. 4. Profiles of (1) vapor and (2) liquid flows along the column for (a–d) different versions of column operation.
The results of all calculations are presented in Table 3.
Versions 4–7 correspond to uniform heat supply
(and removal): 20 MW in versions 4–6, which corresponds to approximately half of the heat consumption
in the conventional version, and 42.4 MW with
expected significant reduction of consumption in the
boiler (version 7). Note that in the latter case, the total
heat consumption (59.2 = 42.4 + 16.82) MW is almost
1.5 times higher than in version 1.
The increased number of plates in the column (versions 2 and 3) makes it possible to work with a reflux
ratio close to the minimum value. It was found that
zones of constant concentration form near the feed
plate. For the total number of plates 42, the benzene
concentration in the liquid varies from 0.508 on the
16th plate to 0.497 kmol of benzene/kmol of mixture
on the 28th plate; in the case of 82 plates in the column, the benzene concentration changes from 0.508
to 0.496 kmol of benzene/kmol of mixture from the
THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Vol. 51
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2017
COMPARISON OF DISTRIBUTED HEAT SUPPLIES
713
Table 3. Comparison of versions with different heat supply (and removal) arrangements during fractionation
Number
Number
of plates in
No. of plates in
the rectifying
the column n
part nr
Reflux
ratio R
Heat supply
Maximum
Internal
Heat supply Total heat
along the height
vapor flow
energy saving
in the boiler consumption
of the stripping
in the column
QΣ, MW
Es
QB, MW
column QH, MW
V, kmol/s
1
20
10
1.602
0
40.5
40.5
1.300
0.805
2
42
21
1.346
0
36.6
36.57
1.172
0.781
3
82
41
1.344
0
36.6
36.55
1.171
0.779
4
18
9
0.897*
20
29.7
49.7
1.525
0.773
5
42
21
0.227*
20
19.5
39.5
1.215
0.707
6
82
41
0.120*
20
17.8
37.84
1.174
0.694
7
18
10
0.053*
42.4
16.8
59.2
1.820
0.713
8
20
10
1.600
35.3
40.6
1.300
0.794
5.29
* The reflux ratio refers to the uppermost plate in the rectifying part of the column.
16th plate to the 68th. It is not economically reasonable to increase the number of plates in a column twoor fourfold in order to obtain a 10% saving in heat consumption in the boiler. The final answer to this question can only be obtained after a technoeconomic calculation.
When additional uniform heat supply (and
removal) of 20 MW is used (versions 4–6), the total
consumption (including heat consumption in the
boiler) is higher than without heat supply along the
height of the column (versions 1–3). This is explained
by the lower internal energy saving (0.773 < 0.806,
0.707 < 0.781, 0.694 < 0.779) with heat supply
(removal) because on the bottom plates of the stripping column, it is not the whole vapor stream that
works, but only some part of it from the boiler. Gradually increasing along the height of the stripping column, the consumption reaches maximum only on the
feed plate, which is naturally higher than in cases without distributed heat supply.
A comparison of the values of the vapor and liquid flows and their profiles along the height of the columns are shown in Fig. 4.
The increased vapor flow in the column is just the
factor that explains the increased heat consumption.
The calculation of fractionation performed using
AspenPlus software with the additional Optimization
module with the minimum total heat consumption
chosen as an optimization criterion confirmed the
necessity of heat supply in the boiler. The low heat
supply to the plates of the stripping column (Fig. 1d)
(the highest heat supply being to the bottom plate
according to Table 4) is aimed, according to the internal energy saving concept, at uniformly distributing
the vapor flow along the height of the column. The
internal energy saving becomes maximum in this case.
The profile of the vapor (and liquid) flows also confirms this assumption.
Calculations for versions with nonuniform heat
supply (Fig. 1c) showed even higher total heat consumption (much higher than for uniform heat supply)
and are not given here.
Figure 5 compares the heat consumptions in separation by adiabatic fractionation methods with those
in versions using heat supply (removal) along the
height of the column.
Lower consumption takes place in adiabatic fractionation, which provides greater internal energy saving (higher vapor utilization coefficient on the plates
of the fractionating columns).
Q, MW
50
1
45
2
40
35
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80 n
Fig. 5. Dependence of heat consumption during rectification on the number of theoretical plates in the column:
(1) with uniform heat supply and removal along the height
of the column; (2) adiabatic rectification.
THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Vol. 51
No. 5
2017
714
ZAKHAROV et al.
Table 4. Calculated data for the version of fractionation seeking the minimum total heat consumption
Plate no. Temperature, °C
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
80.57
81.21
82.16
83.48
85.13
87.01
88.89
90.56
91.91
92.90
93.75
95.06
96.92
99.33
102.07
104.80
107.17
109.01
110.31
111.15
Heat, MW
–39.735
–0.113
0.009
0.004
–0.007
0.009
–0.004
0.015
0.014
0.062
0.071
0.062
0.044
0.043
0.086
0.237
0.093
0.269
4.275
35.295
L, kmol/s
V, kmol/s
1.300
0.799
0.792
0.783
0.774
0.765
0.757
0.751
0.747
1.742
1.735
1.727
1.718
1.710
1.703
1.694
1.691
1.685
1.558
0.500
0.000
1.300
1.299
1.292
1.283
1.274
1.265
1.257
1.251
1.247
1.242
1.235
1.227
1.218
1.210
1.203
1.194
1.191
1.185
1.058
Benzene
Ln−1
V n+1
liquid
vapor
–
0.616*
0.618*
0.617*
0.615*
0.612*
0.608*
0.605*
0.602*
0.601*
1.410
1.414
1.417
1.420
1.422
1.426
1.422
1.428
1.592
–
0.98
0.95
0.91
0.85
0.78
0.70
0.63
0.57
0.53
0.49
0.47
0.43
0.37
0.30
0.23
0.16
0.11
0.07
0.04
0.02
0.98
0.96
0.93
0.90
0.86
0.81
0.77
0.74
0.71
0.68
0.65
0.59
0.51
0.42
0.31
0.22
0.14
0.08
0.05
–
* For the rectifying column.
CONCLUSIONS
Thus, our analysis of the results of calculation of
various versions of fractionation showed that the conventional method (heat supply to the boiler of the column and its removal in the condenser) is more reasonable from the viewpoint of heat consumption in the
process and simplicity of arranging the heat supply
(and removal). It is important only to correctly choose
the excess reflux ratio based on a complete technoeconomic calculation. At underestimated excess reflux
ratios, the number of theoretical plates required for the
separation significantly increases, which leads to the
formation of a zone of almost constant liquid and
vapor compositions in which separation is actually
absent.
The heat supply distributed along the height of the
column reduces the internal energy saving in the column and leads to increased total heat consumption in
separation.
NOTATION
С
Es
dummy mixture
internal energy saving
F
h
I
L
L0
N
n
Q
R
r
Sв
Sн
t
V
x
y
phase contact surface, m2
vapor enthalpy, kJ/kmol
liquid enthalpy, kJ/kmol
liquid flow, kmol/s
bottom product flow, kmol/s
plate no.
number of plates in the column
heat consumption, MW
reflux ratio
evaporation heat, kJ/kmol
pole for rectifying column
pole for splitter column
temperature, °С
vapor flow, kmol/s
LBC concentration in the liquid, kmol of
LBC/kmol of mixture
LBC concentration in the vapor, kmol of
LBC/kmol of mixture
α
heat removal coefficient, W m2/K
β
mass removal coefficient, W m2/K
THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
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COMPARISON OF DISTRIBUTED HEAT SUPPLIES
SUBSCRIPTS AND SUPERSCRIPTS
0
1
2
n
n–1
n+1
b
cond
r
Σ
bottom product, stripping column
starting mixture
upper product
plate no. in the column
previous plate no.
next plate no.
boiler or boiling mixture
condenser
rectifying column
total amount
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THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Translated by L. Smolina
Vol. 51
No. 5
2017
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