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doi:10.1017/S0043933917000575
Egg intake and serum low density
lipoprotein cholesterol in humans
R. AYDIN
Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary
Medicine Balikesir University 10145 Balikesir, Turkey
Corresponding author: rahimaydin@yahoo.com
Cholesterol plays an essential role in the synthesis of cell membrane, bile acids, and
steroid hormones as well as vitamin D. Dietary cholesterol comes from only animal
sources, such as meat, butter, cheese and eggs, and contributes about 20% per day
to the body pool in humans. Chicken egg, which is a good source of essential amino
acids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals, contains approximately 213 mg
cholesterol. Data available related to egg intake and the risk of cardiovascular
disease (CVD) is inconsistent. Early research suggested that egg intake elevated
plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)
identified as a major risk factor for CVD in humans. Recent studies show that
dietary cholesterol may not be the actual factor in an individual's plasma TC, LDLC and CVD. According to the latest nutrition recommendations, one egg may be
eaten as long as one's total daily dietary cholesterol is limited to ≤300 mg per day.
Health professionals suggest restricting dietary cholesterol to avoid elevating blood
LDL-C and risk of CVD. This suggestion influences per capita consumption of the
egg playing an important role in the nutrition of children and elderly people. This
review focuses on egg intake, LDL-C and TC levels in the blood and the regulatory
mechanism maintaining the homeostasis of serum cholesterol in the human body.
Keywords: egg cholesterol; serum LDL cholesterol and CVD risk
Introduction
Cholesterol was first isolated from an alcohol-soluble fraction of human gallstones and
described by French chemists in 1789 (Gibbons, 2002; Nes, 2011). It is not essential for
the animal cell, but is synthesised and found in almost every cell including brain and
nervous tissue. Cholesterol is a main component of cell membranes, a precursor of bile
acids and steroid hormones such as aldosterone, progesterone, cortisol, oestrogen, and
testosterone (Daniels et al., 2009). Biosynthesis of cholesterol in the body typically
contributes two-thirds of the total body input (Dietschy, 1984). Dietary cholesterol can
be obtained from only animal sources i.e. meat, butter, cheese, and eggs. Chicken egg is
one of the main sources of cholesterol in the human diet and contains about 213 mg
© World's Poultry Science Association 2017
World's Poultry Science Journal, Vol. 73, December 2017
Received for publication January 2, 2017
Accepted for publication June 1, 2017
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Egg intake vs. serum cholesterol: R. Aydin
cholesterol (USDA, 1991). Because of the cholesterol content, guidelines of the
American Heart Association (AHA) in 1993 recommended restricting egg
consumption and daily intake of cholesterol to ≤300 mg/day (Chait et al., 1993) in an
attempt to reduce the CVD risk and the level of plasma LCL-C considered as a major
class of atherogenic lipoprotein. This recommendation led to ‘cholesterol phobia’ in all
over the world and decreased the consumption of eggs (Zeidler, 2000; Djoussé and
Gaziano, 2008). Cholesterol phobia has been considered as a major cause of decline
in per capita egg consumption (Brown and Schrader, 1990; Ballesteros et al., 2004;
Mizrak et al., 2012). In the United States, increasing public concern over dietary
cholesterol is reflected in annual per capita egg consumption, which has declined
from 303 to 256 during the past 35 years (USDA, 2002). A recent study showed that
the phobia about cholesterol still had an important impact on the egg intake (Mizrak et
al., 2012). About 33% of the subjects were reported to be not consuming eggs because of
the phobia (Mizrak et al., 2012). This review focuses on egg consumption, blood LDLcholesterol and the risk of CVD in humans.
Regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis in human body
Serum cholesterol is regulated by mainly liver and intestine where it is biosynthesised
and absorbed, respectively (Lehninger et al., 1993). It is synthesised from acetyl-CoA in
almost all tissues including liver, intestine, adrenal cortex, ovary, testis, placenta, and
brain. Unlike other tissues where it is derived from either de novo or dietary means,
cholesterol is primarily derived from de novo synthesis in the brain (Orth and Bellosta,
2012). Cholesterol homeostasis is maintained by balancing intestinal cholesterol
absorption and endogenous cholesterol synthesis (Dietschy et al., 1993). The small
intestine is a unique organ regulating cholesterol absorption as chylomicrons. This
organ is also important for reabsorbing biliary cholesterol in the body (Lammert and
Wang, 2005).
Plasma lipoproteins are classified as chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins
(VLDL), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and
high-density lipoproteins (HDL) (Cox and García-Palmieri, 1990). Each of the
lipoproteins is carrier for the cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in the bloodstream and
has a specific lipid and apolipoprotein content (Lehninger et al., 1993). A high level of
serum LDL-C is considered to be a major risk factor for CVD (Wu et al., 2000).
LDL particles in the serum contain apoB-100 as a major apolipoprotein. Under normal
conditions, this apolipoprotein is recognised by LDL-receptors found in the liver cell
during the removal of LDL particles (Lehninger et al., 1993; Bezkorovainy and Rafelson,
1996). This LDL cholesterol is also an important regulator of the cholesterol metabolism
in the liver (Goldstein and Brown, 2009). Once internalised back into the liver cell, the
LDL-C directly lowers cholesterol synthesis in the hepatocyte by inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3methyl-glutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) (Goldstein and Brown,
1984). The HMG-CoA reductase enzyme which is a rate-limiting enzyme of the
mevalonate pathway in the cholesterol biosynthesis is the target of statins known as
cholesterol-lowering drugs (Cohen, 2008). Normally, many vital intermediates such as
ubiquinone, dolichol and squalen are synthesised during synthesis of the cholesterol
(Figure 1). Therefore; statins used in the treatment of CVD influence the synthesis of
those vital intermediates having important roles against chronic illnesses such as agerelated macular degeneration (AMD), cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and
atherosclerosis in the humans (Coskun et al., 2013).
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Egg intake vs. serum cholesterol: R. Aydin
Figure 1 Cholesterol biosynthesis in the body.
Egg intake, plasma cholesterol and CVD in humans
Extensive research has not clearly established a link between egg consumption and the
risk for CVD (McNamara, 2000; Kritchevsky, 2000; Jones, 2009; Barona and Fernandez,
2012; Dimarco et al., 2017). A previous study showed that six weeks of egg consumption
increased serum HDL-C and total cholesterol (TC) levels, whereas the ratio of TC/HDLC was not changed significantly (Schnohr et al., 1994). Serum TG and LDL-C levels
were not changed (Schnohr et al., 1994). Gillingham et al. (2005) reported that
consuming docosahexaenoic acid-enriched eggs did not change TC levels in statintreated hyper-cholesterolemic male patients. Similarly, Vishwanathan et al. (2009)
showed that consuming two or four eggs per day for five weeks significantly
increased HDL-C level without an increase in LDL-C in an elderly population taking
statin medications. Eggs rich in carotenoids such as lutein and zeaxanthine were shown to
increase serum lutein and zeaxanthine levels (Vishwanathan et al., 2009). Consumption
of one egg per day in the individuals >60 years of age increased serum lutein and
zeaxanthin concentrations without altering the levels of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and
triglycerides (TG) in the blood (Goodrow et al., 2006). In a randomised controlled
crossover trial, the effects of egg consumption were tested on endothelial function
(Katz et al., 2005). It was shown that egg intake for six weeks did not have any
adverse effect on the levels of TC or LDL-C in heathy individuals (Katz et al.,
2005). And they concluded that short-term egg intake did not adversely affect the
endothelial function in the healthy adults (Katz et al., 2005). Daily egg consumption
World's Poultry Science Journal, Vol. 73, December 2017
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Egg intake vs. serum cholesterol: R. Aydin
was shown to be non-detrimental to endothelial function and serum lipids in
hyperlipidemic individuals (Njike et al., 2010). In a cohort study conducted in 9734
individuals (aged 25-74), Qureshi et al. (2007) reported that eating one egg per day did
not increase the risk of CVD (Qureshi et al., 2007). There was no association found
between egg consumption and carotid atherosclerosis in the Northern Manhattan study
(Goldberg et al., 2014).
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 30,068 individuals (Korean) to determine
association between dietary cholesterol and subclinical atherosclerosis and showed that
dietary intake of cholesterol was not associated with LDL-C or risk for calcification of
coronary artery (Rhee et al., 2017). Another recent study was performed to assess the
association between egg consumption and CVD in a large Mediterranean cohort where
approximately 50% of participants had type2 diabetes (Díez-Ezpino et al., 2016). And it
was shown that low to moderate egg intake was not related to the risk of CVD in diabetic
or non-diabetic individuals (Díez-Ezpino et al., 2016).
It is believed that the greater the HDL-C in the plasma is the lower the risk of CVD.
Table 1 represents the effects of egg consumption on the levels of TC, TG, HDL-C and
LDL-C in different populations. In the study conducted in overweight men consuming a
carbohydrate-restricted diet, it was shown that egg intake increased plasma HDL
cholesterol (Mutungi et al., 2008). In the same study, it was shown that the levels of
LDL-C in the plasma as well as the ratio of LDL-C: HDL-C did not change during the
intervention (Mutungi et al., 2008). Blesso et al. (2013) investigated that if daily egg
intake, along with carbohydrate restriction would alter lipoprotein metabolism in men and
women with metabolic syndrome. Egg consumption in those individuals improved the
lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity to a greater extent than the control (Blesso et
al., 2013). Individuals consuming eggs had a greater increase in the HDL-C levels and
decrease in the total VLDL levels compared to the control (Blesso et al., 2013). Statin
treated hypercholesterolemic male patients consuming docosahexaenoic enriched eggs
were shown to have greater levels of HDL-C, omega-3 fatty acids such as
docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acids (Gillingham et al., 2005). Elderly
people consuming three eggs per day were shown to have greater levels of LDL-C
and HDL-C in the blood (Greene et al., 2005). In the same study, it was shown that
consuming three eggs daily did not cause any change in the ratios of LDL-C:HDL-C or
the TC:HDL-C, which is often associated with increased atherogenicity (Greene et al.,
2005). Consuming one egg daily was reported not to cause any increase in the plasma
LDL-C or HDL-C in the subjects (Goodrow et al., 2006).
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Egg intake vs. serum cholesterol: R. Aydin
Table 1 Changes in LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels.
Author
Population
Duration
(week)
TC
TG
HDL-C
LDL-C
Greene et al.,
2005
Elderly men
4
176.8±30.0
170.8±25.9
82.2±34.9
96.5±49.1
51.9±12.9
47.2±12.9
107.4±27.8
105.2±32.4
Greene et al.,
2005
Postmenopausal
women
4
104.6±54.7
104.4±59.3
104.6±54.7
104.4±59.3
59.2±14.7
57.7±12.0
115.3±40.7
105.2±32.4
Katz et al.,
2005
Healthy men
and women
6
203.8±31.5a
205.3±35.6a
135.6±77.3a
126.6±72.8a
52.6±14.6a
51.2±15.1a
124.8±25.0a
129.1±32.2a
Mutungi et al.,
2008
Overweight
men (n=15)
12
198.3±42.1a
202.2±41.8a
114.2±49.4a
70.1±20.8b
47.6±15.1a
57.1±15.1b
127.5±42.2a
144.3±45.1a
Njike et al.,
2010
Hyper-lipidemic
adults (24
women and 16
men)
6
244±24
239±27
132±52
118±47
52±15
51±14
168±17
165±24
Blesso et al.,
2013
Men and
Women
(with metabolic
syndrome n=40)
12
192.4±30.4a
192.0±28.1a
140.9±58.0a 49.9±14.3a
100.3±54.0 b 58.5±14.8b
114.2±29.1
113.2±27.6
Kishimoto
et al., 2016
Healthy men
4
192.3±32.9a
190.9±28.4a
90.6±63.6a
85.1±37.1a
118.9±23.7a
114.9±21.6a
55.2±11.7b
59.0±15.7a
TC: total cholesterol (mmol/l); LDL: low density lipoproteins (mmol/l); HDL: high density cholesterol (mmol/l);
TG: triglycerides (mmol/l)
Previously, the Framingham Heart Study examined the serum cholesterol in high
versus low egg consumption and found no significant difference in either men or
women (Dawber et al., 1982). The Nurses Health Study (80,082 women) and the
Health Professionals Follow Up Study (37,851 men) showed no association between
egg intake (one per day) and risk of CVD (Hu et al., 1999). The association among egg
consumption, serum total cholesterol and CVD was studied in a Japan Public Health
Centre-based prospective study (Nakamura et al., 2004). In that study a total of 90 735
subjects (19856 men and 21408 women, aged 40-59 years in cohort I; 23463 men and
26008 women, aged 40-69 years in cohort II) were followed from 1990-1994 to the end
of 2001 and it was concluded that eating eggs every day was not associated with the
increase in CVD incidence for middle-aged men and women (Nakamura et al., 2004).
Recently, in a meta-analysis, it was concluded that the egg consumption was not
associated with the risk of CVD or cardiac mortality (Shin et al., 2013). Similarly, in
a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort study, egg consumption and the risk
of CVD and stroke were analysed (Ying et al., 2013) and concluded that daily
consumption of the eggs was not associated with the increased risk of CVD or stroke
(Ying et al., 2013). The most recent study similarly showed that consuming one egg per
day for four weeks at breakfast did not influence serum lipids such as TC, TG, and LDLC in the health individuals (Kishimoto et al., 2016). They reported that individuals
consuming eggs for four weeks had a significantly greater plasma HDL-C levels
compared to the negative controls (Kishimoto et al., 2016). In a study conducted in
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Egg intake vs. serum cholesterol: R. Aydin
moderately hypercholesterolemic male individuals, it was shown that intake of one egg
daily for four weeks did not have any effect on serum TC or LDL-C (Kishimoto et al.,
2017). It was also shown that dietary egg intake significantly increased serum lutein plus
zeaxanthin content in hypercholesterolemic individuals and lowered oxidised LDL-C
(Kishimoto et al., 2017).
It was recently shown that intake of one egg per day was sufficient to increase HDL
function and large LDL-C particle concentration (DiMarco et al., 2017). DiMarco et al.
(2017) concluded that intake of three eggs daily favoured less atherogenic LDL particle
profile, improved HDL function and increased plasma antioxidants in young and healthy
individuals (DiMarco et al., 2017).
In some studies, paradoxically, people eating fewer eggs were shown to have greater
levels of blood cholesterol than those eating more eggs. In the Third National Health and
Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) 20,000 people participated were evaluated and it was
found that individuals eating less than one egg per week had a higher cholesterol than
those consuming more than four eggs per week (Song and Kerver, 2000). Interestingly,
daily consumption of additional three eggs to the regular diet increased the level of HDLcholesterol and decreased the ratio of LDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol in the
hyperlipidemic subjects treated with lipid-lowering drugs (Klangjareonchai et al.,
2012). A recent study in Eastern Finland was conducted to investigate the
associations of intakes of cholesterol and eggs with carotid intima-media thickness
and the risk of incident coronary artery disease (CAD) in middle-aged and older men
(Virtanen et al., 2016) and reported that egg intake was not associated with the increased
CAD risk, even in the highly susceptible individuals (i.e., ApoE4 carriers). An earlier
study showed that a small but significant increase in total cholesterol was seen after four
weeks in the group eating seven eggs a week compared with that in the group eating two
eggs a week, but this was no longer apparent after eight weeks (Edington et al., 1987).
Conclusions
Eggs are relatively inexpensive as a food and provide an excellent source of amino acids,
fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Since 1972, poultry scientists have been seeking ways
to decrease egg cholesterol concentrations, because of recommendations to limit egg
consumption by the public. However, efforts to modify egg cholesterol contents have
demonstrated that it is extremely difficult to decrease egg cholesterol by ordinary means.
During the past decades, research efforts directed toward decreasing shell egg cholesterol
content have centred on genetic selection or alteration of the diet of laying hens with
various nutrients, natural products, non-nutritive factors, or pharmacological agents
(Elkin, 2007). As reviewed in the present article, there is no clear evidence relating to
the egg consumption, LDL-C and CVD risk. The latest nutrition recommendations by the
AHA do not limit the number of eggs consumed as long as one's total dietary cholesterol
is limited to no more than 300 mg per day. However, health professionals still advice
limiting egg consumption. This recommendation negatively influences per capita egg
consumption. It is estimated that the number of elderly people (>60 years old of age) in
the worldwide will be reached one billion by the year 2020 (Herron and Fernandez,
2004). Therefore, elderly people who limited the egg intake will be more susceptible to
the certain diseases such as cancer, dementia, bone problems, and AMD. AMD was
reported to influence 5% of the people at age 65 and older (Goodrow et al., 2006). Egg
nutrition is also important and positively influences the growth of children. Children not
consuming sufficient nutrients will be influenced negatively. Author believes that dietary
cholesterol is not the cause of CVD. Therefore, extensive clinical controlled studies
6
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Egg intake vs. serum cholesterol: R. Aydin
should be conducted to demonstrate if there is a relationship between egg intake and risk
for CVD.
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