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A. Basic Sleep Science
VI. Learning, Memory, Cognition
0244
(immediate and morning). Similar to prior work in our lab, participants viewed static images, half of which contained a target signaling
a potential threat. Subjects made a response (target present or absent),
received feedback via a short video during training, and then were
tested for two image types: repeated (identical from training to test)
and generalized (same scene from training to test, but novel spatial
viewpoint). During sleep after training, participants received 1.5 mA
of closed-loop tACS (adapted to ongoing slow-wave oscillations) to
F3 and F4 with returns on mastoids, or sham stimulation on different
nights. Normalized spectral power changes in sleep EEG across stimulation events were correlated with performance changes over the night.
Results: We observed not only a robust performance improvement
but also a significant post-stimulation increase in power of slow-wave
(0.5–1.5 Hz), delta (1.2–3 Hz), spindle (11–16 Hz), and gamma (30–
50 Hz) bands relative to pre-stimulation baseline (ps<0.002). Further,
we identified a cluster in the delta band at 3–4 s post stimulation that
significantly correlated with the overnight change in performance for
generalized images (p=0.0160). Performance for repeated images did
not change overnight due to ceiling effects.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that closed-loop tACS during sleep
increases slow-wave and delta activity, which then triggers spindle and
gamma band activity. These mechanisms promote memory consolidation wherein performance becomes less tied to a specific event and
instead more generalized to the goals of the task.
Support (If Any): This material is based upon work supported by the
Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) and the Army
Research Office under Contract No. W911NF-16-C-0018. The views,
opinions and/or findings expressed are those of the author and should
not be interpreted as representing the official views or policies of the
Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.
A GOOD NIGHT SLEEP ENHANCES LIFE SATISFACTION:
THE ROLE OF THE POSITIVITY OF RECALLED
EXPERIENCES
Kim JK1, Shin J2
1
POSTECH(Pohang Univ. of Science & Technology), Pohang,
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF, 2Singapore Management University,
Singapore, SINGAPORE
Introduction: Humans are highly social beings. The most heavily
researched happiness-promoting activity has therefore been on socialization. Despite the benefits of social activities, however, humans spend
more than one third of their time sleeping, fundamentally alone. In this
research, we focused on sleep, testing the effect of sleep quality on life
satisfaction as well as its underlying mechanism. Based on previous
findings on the role of sleep in consolidation and recall of emotional
memories (positive contents were more affected by sleep deprivation
compared to negative contents), it is hypothesized that good sleep
would promote happiness by recalling everyday episodes in a positively biased manner.
Methods: Data was collected from 109 undergraduates (female = 31).
To test the causal link between sleep quality and happiness, participants completed surveys at two time points: before bed time (T1; 9–12
pm) and the next morning (T2; 9–12 am). At Time 1, baseline level
of happiness (the Satisfaction with Life Scale; SWLS) was assessed.
At Time 2, last night’s sleep quality and current life satisfaction were
assessed. In addition, at both Times 1 and 2, participants were asked
to recall three memorable experiences of the day and those of the prior
day, respectively. The positivity ratings of each recalled experience
were made and averaged.
Results: The PROCESS method was used to examine the indirect
effect of sleep quality on life satisfaction through the positivity of
recalled experiences. Results revealed that, controlling baseline variables, last night’s good sleep portends today’s happiness. Moreover,
this relationship was partially mediated by the degree of positivity in
the retrieved episodes (effect size = .07, SE = .029, CI95= [0.02, 0.16],
Z = 2.47, p < .05).
Conclusion: We found that good sleep can lead to greater happiness
via positively biased recall of daily experiences. This study sheds new
light on the vital, nonsocial function of sleep on happiness, which has
been underappreciated.
Support (If Any): This study was supported by POSTECH (Pohang
University of Science & Technology), Korea.
0246
STRESS PRIOR TO ENCODING AFFECTS RESTING
STATE FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY AND EMOTIONAL
MEMORY RETRIEVAL FOLLOWING SLEEP
Sherman SM1, Kark SM1, Daley RT1, Hampton OL1, Payne JD2,
Kensinger EA1
1
Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, 2University of Notre Dame,
University of Notre Dame, IN
Introduction: Previous work has illustrated that sleep and stress
enhance long-term emotional memory. Although memory for emotionally arousing items is strengthened following stress exposure, it is
unclear how consolidation-related neural processes are affected. The
purpose of this project was to examine whether a psychosocial stressor
administered before encoding would influence subsequent emotional
memory retrieval following a night of sleep through changes in the
functional coupling of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)
and the amygdala.
Methods: Participants underwent either the Trier Social Stress Test or
a control task before encoding a series of negative, positive and neutral scenes while we collected functional magnetic resonance imaging
(fMRI) data. Overnight sleep was recorded using polysomnography.
The following day, participants returned to the MRI to complete an
incidental recognition task. Change in functional connectivity was
examined by comparing the resting state fMRI scans following the
stress manipulation and shortly before the recognition task.
Results: Resting state fMRI data collected shortly before the recognition task revealed that greater functional coupling between the amygdala and the vmPFC post-sleep was associated with negative memory
enhancement (negative d’ minus neutral d’) in participants who underwent the psychosocial stressor, β = .51, p = .02 (n = 18). Furthermore,
0245
CLOSED-LOOP TACS DURING SWS BOOSTS SLOW-WAVE
AND DELTA POWER AND POST-SLEEP MEMORY FOR
THREAT DETECTION ON NOVEL STIMULI
Bryant NB1,2, Ketz NA3, Jones AP1, Choe J3, Robinson CS1, Combs A1,
Lamphere M1, Robert B1, Clark VP1, Pilly PK3
1
Psychology Clinical Neuroscience Center, The University of
New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 2Department of Psychology,
The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 3Information and Systems
Sciences Laboratory, HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA
Introduction: Few studies have shown transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) applied in open loop during slow-wave sleep
(SWS) could improve declarative memory performance following
sleep. The present study investigates the mechanisms by which closedloop tACS can enhance sleep consolidation more robustly.
Methods: Participants (n=7) underwent a within-subjects counterbalanced protocol involving baseline, training, and post-training tests
SLEEP, Volume 40, Abstract Supplement, 2017
A90
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