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SNPD.2017.8022724

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Krittika Akasarakul, Nagul Cooharojananone, Rajalida Lipikorn
MIMIT Laboratory, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
Krittika.Ak@student.chula.ac.th, Nagul.C@chula.ac.th (corresponding author), Rajalida.L@chula.ac.th
Abstract—According to Thailand policy framework which has a
policy to expand the market and create opportunities in business
by using ICT and E-Commerce for supporting rural community
people. However, these communities mostly do not have their own
website to sell their products. They have to rely on web portal to
sell their local community products. Therefore, having the rural
community official website and electronic commerce (ECommerce) would expect to gain more attention and would be
more advantages to the community. Therefore, in this paper, we
would like to study factors influencing customer’s purchasing
intention through internet shopping of One Tambon One Product
(OTOP), derived from the concept of One Village One Product
(OVOP) in Japan, between on web portal and official web. Several
factors such as perceived ease of use, reliability of website,
reliability of product and social influences that effect customer’s
purchasing intention were discussed and analyzed. The data was
collected using a simply sampling method with survey participants
who are people from each rural area in north eastern of Thailand.
Understanding well the factors influencing online purchasing
would allow rural people the possibility of making their official
OTOP website to finally attract most of their potential consumers
and profit most from the opportunities offered by E-Commerce.
Keywords—E-Commerce; One Tambon One Product (OTOP);
One Village One Product (OVOP); Purchasing Intention;
Technology Acceptance Model (TAM); Reliability; Social Influence;
Perceived ease of use
I. INTRODUCTION
Up to this moment, it is certain that every Thai knows the
"OTOP" project. The abbreviation stands for "One Tambon
One Product" which is a project to promote rural community
product such as traditional handicrafts, cotton and silk garments,
pottery, fashion accessories, household items and food from
each district. Folk crafts in this campaign get a brighter future
than those that are not. It is because OTOP was set up to widen
markets and generate incomes for villagers in each community
to improve their life standard. The ultimate purpose is to
establish a strong sense of marketing management among
people, so that the sustainable self-reliance will take root deeply
in the social structure. The meaning of "product" here covers
services and activities. Actually, one tambon may have more
than one product. And sometimes a product is the outcome of
the cooperation among a few tambons. Therefore, almost all
folk products can be put under the project.
From lots of governmental units that has played important
978-1-5090-5504-3/17/$31.00 ©2017 IEEE
SNPD 2017, June 26-28, 2017, Kanazawa, Japan
213
roles in the OTOP project development, Thailand Information
and Communication Technology Policy Framework (20112020) [18], which has a policy to expand the market and create
opportunities in business for entrepreneurs by promoting and
developing the use of ICT and E-Commerce among SMEs,
social enterprises, enterprise networks, agricultural
cooperatives in improving the business process, trade, service
and market access, with a view to improving competitiveness
and creating networks.
One Tambon One Product (OTOP) is a local
entrepreneurship stimulus program derived and its inspiration
from Japan's successful concept, One Village One Product
(OVOP) program in Japan [2] [11] [19], Policy of regional
development which is very successful process, it helps motivate
and empower people in the community to get the opportunity
for develop the economic growth and develop the local
production with global aspect. The OTOP program also
encourages village communities to improve the local products'
quality and marketing [2] [11], OTOP project is aiming to bring
out folk intelligence to upgrade local products; the government
provided the local artisans with advanced product knowledge
and marketing management skills (both domestic and
international) by arranging for specialists to set up intensive
courses for them. Instead of subsidizing, which, in the long run
tends to reduce the communities' self-reliance, the government
supports each group in other forms. For instance, the setting up
of chain stores and the use of internet system have been
encouraged in order to extend their market shares and channels
of distribution.
Doing the E-Commerce business is suitable for
entrepreneurs which only have one website seem like having
stores located throughout the world and can trade 24 hours a
day for everyday unstoppable so that entrepreneur can reach
their customers directly including counseling and resolve
problems quickly. But the E-Commerce sales channel through
the OTOP in Thailand, some district having their own official
OTOP website, as shown in Fig. 1, but mostly are still not
having the own official website. Since OTOP project started
until now, most entrepreneurs from each district in Thailand
still relied on web portal such as Lnwshop.com and
ThaiTambon.com as Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 had shown, to promoting,
advertising and distributed their local community products.
Instead of making their own official website, web portal looks
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
like easier to maintenance but the entrepreneurs cannot make
their own managements due to web portal will have a rigid
format, a limited content distribution. For example, to showing
a detail of product, the entrepreneurs can only be displayed a
price information and some pictures of the product to promote
their goods. Thus, consumers may feel products are not reliable
or having a 100 percent guaranteed of the OTOP products and
some of web portal have to pay instead to those web serviceprovider for promoting their local community products.
Therefore, it might be more advantages to each rural
community people to having their own market channel by
making their own official website which this research aims to
study about the factors that influence the buying OTOP
products through the use of E-Commerce on the official OTOP
website.
Fig. 1.
A. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Technology
Acceptance Model (TAM)
The theory of action based on cause and effect was
presented by [8] [16] is one of social psychology theory that has
mostly used as the basis for the study of human behavior [23]
[24]. According to the theory that describes the relationship
between beliefs and attitudes toward behavior. That changing
human behavior is the result of unwavering faith and going to
behave because human always consider the reasons before
doing action [10]. TAM is an adaption of the Theory of
Reasoned Action (TRA) and was used to assess user’s
computer acceptance, which is measured by the intention and
the influence of attitude, perceived usefulness, perceived ease
of use toward the intention to use [7] [12]. The result showed
that perceived usefulness strongly influenced intention to use
but perceived ease of use only has a trivial effect on the
intention to use. On the other hand, attitude partially mediated
the effects of perceived usefulness and ease of use on intention
to use [7] [12]. Since attitude did not play as an important
determinant to influence the variables, TAM was then modified
by removing the attitude variable found in TRA [12] as shown
in Fig. 4. The new TAM demonstrated the intention as a
mediator to influence the relationship between perceived
usefulness, perceived ease of use and usage behavior [22].
Example of official OTOP website (www.lopburi.org/otop-lopburi)
Fig. 3.
Fig. 2.
Example of web portal (www.ThaiTambon.com)
Due to the growth of E-Commerce, researchers and
practitioners have made efforts to understand the factors
influencing online consumer behavior. Particularly, researchers
have studied online consumer behavior by focusing on
behavioral intentions. In an effort to understand behavioral
intentions in the ecommerce setting, the technology acceptance
model (TAM), which was developed based on theory of
reasoned action (TRA). According to Theory of Reasoned
Action (TRA), Intention to purchase products was significantly
influenced by the consumer’s perception and actual purchase
behavior of products was only significantly affected by the
purchase intention of the products. Significant means
differences were observed in the purchase intention of products
Example of web portal (www.Lnwshop.com)
214
according to the participants’ demographic. An individual’s
performance of a certain behavior is determined by his or her
intent to perform that behavior [5] [6]. Intent is itself informed
by attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms about
engaging in the behavior, and perceptions about whether the
individual will be able to successfully engage in the target
behavior [9] [17]. Theoretically, this study supported the view
of consumers’ perception towards products will influence their
behavioral intention which lead to the actual purchase of the
products as Fig. 4.
D. Social Influence
In present, there are many social aspects that can affect the
consumer’s intentions to buy a product. According to [13]
focused on capturing social influence data from E-Commerce
platforms and how this influence can be used by E-Commerce
sites to affect consumer decision-making. Some studies support
the effect of informative social influence on decision-making
related to product evaluations [1] [4]. Reference [15]
empirically proved informative social influence has a positive
effect on online purchasing decisions. According to [21], social
influence is about changing of feelings, attitude, thoughts and
behavior, intentionally or unintentionally influenced by the
other person. It is due to the interaction with other people that
know each other such as parents and peers. Consumers would
be influenced by media, parents and peers in order to purchase
the products.
III. METHODOLOGY AND DATA ANALYSIS
Fig. 4.
Theory of reasoned action (TRA) model
In this study, the collected data was analyzed to test the
research hypotheses to accomplish statistical data analytical
methods that are include descriptive statistical analysis which
used for percentage, mean and standard deviation, while Chisquare Test were used to determine the relationship between
each independent attribute with significance level at 0.05.
TABLE I.
MAIN ATTRIBUTES OF THE PARTICIPANTS
Proportion in %
(N=62)
Attributes
Gender
Fig. 5.
Age
The Proposed Research Model
B. Reliability
Nowadays, such a concept represents an omnipresent
marketing tool which goes beyond the mere identification of a
product trying to be a warrant of its quality for the consumer.
Labeling seems to be an important concept in the field of
marketing. However, there are relatively few academic research
works dealing with this concept. Labels could constitute
reliable quality certificates, as they are often created by
professional organizations but equally by public and parapublic
institutions. These labels are aimed at providing consumers
with highquality products with the guarantee of the authorities.
In fact, the creation of a label implies the setting of a monitoring
system assuring that the actual product corresponds to the
defined criteria [2].
Relationship
Type of Purchasing
Products
Purposed of Using
Internet
Using Internet
Experience
C. Perceived ease of use
Perceived ease of use refers to the effort made by
individuals. Reference [8] defines it by the degree with which
users find that the use of the system is effortless. This construct
calls back for Rogers’s complexity thesis (1995) which
expresses the extent to which innovation is perceived as
difficult to understand or use. Ease of use translates noncomplexity degree and establishes the extent to which internet
is perceived effortless at best.
Buying online
Experience
Number of Buying
per month
215
Male
Female
50.00
50.00
21 - 30 years
31 - 40 years
41 - 50 years
51 - 60 years
37.10
38.71
19.36
3.23
Customer
Entrepreneur
88.71
9.68
Foods
Clothes
Accessories
House Decoration
Others
19.35
56.45
22.58
14.52
14.52
Communication
Purchasing
Following News
Researches
Others
95.16
62.90
90.32
79.03
80.65
1 - 2 years
3 - 4 years
5 - 6 years
More than 6 years
40.32
43.55
20.97
4.84
Yes
No
83.87
14.52
1 - 2 times
3 - 4 times
More than 5 times
69.35
3.23
8.06
A. Participants
The questionnaires designed for the customers and
entrepreneurs in North Eastern of Thailand. The questionnaire
survey was created through paper work. We conducted an
empirical study of a sample of people (N=62) living in the
North Eastern of Thailand were administered the questionnaire
and considered knowledgeable of the use and manipulation of
internet. The demographic data of participants are shown in
Table I, associated with the sample. Of the total sample, 50.00
percent were both male and female. A large percentage of the
interviewees belonged to the age segment between 31 and 40
(38.71 percent), being a customer (88.71 percent), purchasing
clothes product (56.45 percent), having experience in using
internet 3 - 4 years (43.55 percent) and buying online product
via E-Commerce 1 - 2 times per month (69.35 percent).
the variance of as much information as possible by using less
number of questions. After doing factor analysis by using the
PC extractions method and varimax rotation, from all
questionnaires had been extracted from 19 variables to 15
variables and can classified each of them into 4 main factors
which namely reliability of community site (Component 1),
reliability of product (Component 2), social influence
(Component 3) and perceived ease of use (Component 4).
These factors provide a reliable and consistent measure of
intended dimensions and no further elimination of items
appears necessary.
D. Regression Analysis
In this study, multiple regression analysis is used to measure
which factors have an effect on the intention to buy in the
reliability of website, reliability of product, perceived ease of
use and social influence of purchasing an OTOP products on
community site. From Fig. 6, showed the result of the
regression model analysis for intention to buy OTOP product
on official community site, including R² and standardized path
loadings. The intention to buy product on official site was
significant. The beta coefficients for reliability of product was
0.259 (p < 0.01), reliability of website was 0.376 (p < 0.01),
perceived ease of use was 0.490 (p < 0.01) and social influence
was 0.555 (p < 0.01) which were found to significantly impact
intention to buy. Altogether, reliability of product, reliability of
website, perceived ease of use and social influence accounted
for 75.6% of the variance in intention to buy with social
influence has the highest impact on intention to buying a
product on official community site, followed by perceived ease
of use, reliability of website and reliability of product.
The results from multiple regression analysis showed that
social influence has the highest impact on intention to buy
factor of OTOP product on community site. As discovered in
[13] which focused on capturing social influence data on
E-Commerce platforms and how that influence can be used by
E-Commerce sites to affect consumer decision-making.
Participants think that website that most people do interested in,
it’s going to be affect more people to use. In addition, nowadays
most Thai people are rapidly adapting and following
themselves to the trend of using social network by looking at
which websites or social network are mostly use. Thus, it might
be more efficiency if an official community site having social
features like Facebook, Instagram or other medias to connected
people to the site. In other hand, the lowest impact factor
according to the result, finding reliability of product might not
be effect to the purchasing intention because participants might
think the product always be the same even though they are
selling on the different website.
B. Reliability Analysis
In order to test the reliability and internal consistency of
each factor, from reliability of product question finding that
most participants think that the appearance of the products
affecting the purchased with highest mean score of 4.2581 and
having a low standard deviation, for reliability of community
site finding that participants mostly think website with having
update information and their reputation are important and could
affect the purchasing because of the mean score is quite high
consistency to the low standard deviation, in term of perceived
ease of use finding that most participants don’t think they can
bring understanding and knowledge to use and adapt to their
needs, it might cause from their background information such
as age, which they might be older to get or remember all things
like teenager does, so the mean score and standard deviation is
consistency. As shown in Table II, Cronbach’s alpha scores
were also calculated, the constructs’ reliability scores are
ranging from 0.964 to 0.969. These are above the minimum
acceptable level of 0.8 [14]. From reliability test using
Cronbach’s Alpha was conducted on most variables to measure
the inter reliability. In this test, any item that was not significant
will be deleted to fulfill the highest reliability of the
measurement.
C. Factor Analysis
Before doing factor analysis, using a statistic of KaiserMeyer-Olkin (KMO) to measures the suitability of data. KaiserMeyer-Olkin’s product moment KMO measure of sampling
adequacy were calculated as initial statistical analysis as shown
in Table III. KMO coefficient is typically showed a relative
value between 0 and 1, if the KMO value approaches 0, the
value is not correlated so the factor analysis is not necessary. If
the KMO value is close to 1 as result in Table III. The results
indicated that these constructs are related and supported for
further factor analysis. In generally, considering that factor
analysis is appropriate to the data when KMO > 0.5. As the
results of factor analysis shown in Table IV, doing factor
analysis composed of 3 steps; 1) Considered and verified the
relationship between variables by correlation matrix. 2) Factor
extraction and 3) Factor rotation. To extracting factor in this
study, using the Principal Component (PC) technique to explain
TABLE II.
Variables
Reliability of Product
Reliability of Product
Perceived ease of use
Social Influence
216
KAISER-MEYER-OLKIN’S STATISTICS
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin’s value
0.893
0.885
0.793
0.728
Fig. 6.
those factors are positively related online purchase intention on
OTOP product. The findings reinforce the need to develop
official website design and quality. In order to persuade people
using OTOP official website, entrepreneurs and developer
should pay more attention on website quality in the form of
improving the website usability, design and information quality.
This is because these factors might influence online purchase
intention.
Like any other study, this study is not without its limitation.
Care should be taken when generalizing the result of this study.
The study only provides some initial findings in investigating
the factors that contribute directly to the online purchase
intention. However, this study only explores some factors
namely reliability of product, reliability of website, perceived
ease of use and social influence. Thus, future study should
explore other dimension that is not cover in the study. There
might be other factors such as knowledge, awareness and brand
image that influence customer perception of website quality.
However, these factors are out with the scope of this study.
Therefore, we suggest future research to explore their impact
on online purchase intention on website.
REFERENCES
The Proposed Research Model
TABLE III.
PT1
FACTOR ANALYSIS (ROTATED COMPONENT MATRIX)
Componentsa
1
2
3
4
0.694
PT2
PT3
0.749
0.721
PT4
WT1
0.736
0.636
WT2
WT3
0.719
0.686
WT4
WT5
0.752
0.735
[1]
[2]
EU1
EU2
EU3
SI1
[3]
0.741
0.589
0.856
[4]
0.624
SI2
0.814
SI3
0.803
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
a
Rotation converged in 8 iterations.
[5]
[6]
IV. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
[7]
This research studies usability factors on purchasing OTOP
product on official community site in Thailand and 62
participants were collected from the customers and
entrepreneurs in North Eastern of Thailand. They were asked
about opinion on buying an OTOP product and what factors that
they think it’s going to impacts their purchasing. A data was
analyzed by using multiple regression analysis. The result
confirmed that social influence, perceived ease of use,
reliability of website and reliability of product have significant
positive on the intention to buy a product on community site.
From this studied, we can conclude that making an official
community site followed the ICT policy to helping rural people
doing E-Commerce which forcing changes in the shopping
habit of customers. Customer no longer relies solely on physical
cue for their purchase decision. The purchasing environment
cue such as reliability of product, reliability of website, social
influence and ease of use are found to be the critical cue that
effect customer purchase intention. This study also reveals that
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
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RELIABILITY STATISTICS
Constructs
Reliability of Product
- (PT1) Do you think that products which have been
marked with a qualification check or standard
feature (such as FDA marked) affect purchasing
product.
- (PT2) Do you think that products that has been
labeled a marked which fit for a specific consumer
group (such as Allergen labelling or Halal
labelling) has effect purchasing product.
- (PT3) Do you think that the appearance of the
products affect purchasing product.
- (PT4) Do you think that the price of the products
affect purchasing product.
Reliability of Website
- (WT1) Do you think the reputation of a community
site is important to customer purchasing.
- (WT2) Do you think that community sites that
display the E-Commerce registration badge
(Department of Business Development register)
affect purchasing product.
- (WT3) Do you think that the format or pattern of
the easy-to-use community site affects purchasing
product.
- (WT4) Do you think that the beauty of a
community site affects purchasing product.
- (WT5) Do you think that community sites that
have updated information all the time affect
purchasing product.
Perceived ease of use
- (EU1) Do you think community sites can easily
access information on the internet.
- (EU2) Do you think accessing the community site
on a social networking site is easy.
(EU3) Do you think that you can bring your
understanding and knowledge to use and adapt to
your needs by yourself.
Social Influence
- (SI1) Do you agree that the general public people
affects purchasing product.
- (SI2) Do you agree that the flow of purchases
through community sites on social networking
affects purchasing product.
(SI3) Do you agree that the person who influences
you affects purchasing product.
Mean
Standard
Deviation
N
Cronbach’s
Alpha
Cronbach’s
Alpha Based on
Standardized
Items
N of
Items
Cronbach’
s Alpha If
Item
Deleted
4.1613
0.94424
62
0.967
0.969
19
0.964
4.0968
0.93580
62
0.967
0.969
19
0.965
4.2581
0.93975
62
0.967
0.969
19
0.965
4.1935
1.05331
62
0.967
0.969
19
0.967
3.9839
1.19414
62
0.967
0.969
19
0.967
4.0323
0.95759
62
0.967
0.969
19
0.965
4.1613
1.07419
62
0.967
0.969
19
0.965
4.1129
0.97686
62
0.967
0.969
19
0.966
4.3226
0.90126
62
0.967
0.969
19
0.965
3.8065
1.00554
62
0.967
0.969
19
0.965
3.7419
1.14427
62
0.967
0.969
19
0.966
3.7581
1.09672
62
0.967
0.969
19
0.969
3.7581
0.93538
62
0.967
0.969
19
0.965
3.8871
0.87037
62
0.967
0.969
19
0.965
3.7903
0.96048
62
0.967
0.969
19
0.965
218
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