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Justification of parameters and selection of equipment for laboratory researches of
a rammer’s operating element dynamics in a soil foundation of a tank for oil and oil
products storage
A. V. Gruzin, V. V. Gruzin, and V. V. Shalay
Citation: AIP Conference Proceedings 1876, 020045 (2017);
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Published by the American Institute of Physics
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Justification of Parameters and Selection of Equipment for
Laboratory Researches of a Rammer’s Operating Element
Dynamics in a Soil Foundation of a Tank for Oil and Oil
Products Storage
A. V. Gruzin1,a), V. V. Gruzin2, and V. V. Shalay1.
1) Omsk State Technical University, 11 Mira pr., Omsk, 664050, the Russian Federation
Kazakh Agrotechnical University by S. Seyfullin, 62, Zhenis pr., Astana, 010000, Kazakhstan
Corresponding author:
Abstract. The development of technology for a directional soil compaction of tank foundations for oil and oil products storage is
a relevant problem which solution will enable simultaneously provide required operational characteristics of a soil foundation and
reduce time and material costs to prepare the foundation. The impact dynamics of rammers’ operating elements on the soil
foundation is planned to specify in the course of laboratory studies. A specialized technique is developed to justify the parameters
and select the equipment for laboratory researches. The usage of this technique enabled us to calculate dimensions of the models,
of a test bench and specifications of the recording equipment, and a lighting system. The necessary equipment for laboratory
studies was selected. Preliminary laboratory tests were carried out. The estimate of accuracy for planned laboratory studies was
Keywords: operating element dynamics; velocity video-recording; test bench; soil foundation; tank.
The development of new oil and gas fields in hard climatic and geological conditions involves searching for
advanced technology of a foundation arrangement and facility foundations of a technological infrastructure in oil
and gas industry [1]. The analysis of long-term field studies of a «tank-soil foundation» system allows us to draw a
conclusion on a complex, nonlinear dynamics of this system components. According to a long-term operation
experience of oil and gas industry facilities incorrect selection of the production technology for works on the
arrangement of the tank soil foundation for oil and oil products storage or production procedure violations often
results in emergencies and an early shut down of the facility. The alteration in a spatial location of a tank while its
operation leads to additional stresses, both in a tank's structure and in its soil foundation. The differential tank
settlement and its spatial geometry dislocation leading to inability of its further operation is a result of cyclic
loadings. As the selection of rational technology in the preparation of a tank soil foundation for oil and oil products
storage, as a rule, is caused by a number of objective factors, studying of technology components and their impact
on a final outcome seems to be an urgent task [2-4].
The relationships describing the rammer’s operating element dynamics in a tank soil foundation for oil and oil
products storage were obtained in the course of analytical studies conducted previously [5]. To estimate the
correctness of the obtained relationships we have made the decision on simulating of interaction process of
rammer’s operating element and non-cohesive soil. That soil is a typical tank soil foundation for oil and oil products
storage in laboratory conditions. A crucial factor in selecting a recording technique of the studied processes was to
minimize the effect of recording tools. Obviously that many of velocity and contact type displacement sensors
Oil and Gas Engineering (OGE-2017)
AIP Conf. Proc. 1876, 020045-1–020045-13; doi: 10.1063/1.4998865
Published by AIP Publishing. 978-0-7354-1556-0/$30.00
brings to some degree additional disturbances in measurement results. State of the art development of photo-/videoand computer facilities provides a remote, contact free way for such measurements. The main advantage of such a
recording method is an opportunity to visualize stop-actions remotely with no contact, obtaining data in the most
informative way i. e. as video images. No impact on the studied process eliminates an additional mistake in the data
obtained. It is important for accurate and clear interpretation of the analyzed subject dynamics. Moreover, photo/video- and computer facilities simplify both the process of recording and further processing of the stop-actions. It
allows us to understand deeper the essence of the examined subject, its structure and its elements interaction.
The technique of parameter justification and the selection of equipment for laboratory studies of a rammer’s
operating element (ROE) dynamics in a soil foundation of a tank for oil and oil products storage is the study subject.
We propose to establish the following requirements to obtain correct data on the interaction process of a ROE
model with a soil foundation of a tank for oil and oil products storage in laboratory conditions:
• to provide a visualization of the ROE model movement in a soil and a visualization of soil particles movement
under loading;
• to provide a contact free recording of both the ROE model movement in a soil and a soil deformation;
• to record the interaction process of ROE model with the soil with time discreteness between the obtained shots
an order of magnitude less than its process duration;
• to provide a proper size, depth and sharpness of a represented space where the ROE model interacts with the
• to minimize an influence of the test bench walls on research results in the interaction of the ROE model and the
soil within certain impact velocities of models with a specified shape, dimension and mass;
• to reduce a labour input in laboratory researches, to decrease material costs and to reduce time of studies.
To accomplish the accepted requirements it is necessary to calculate model and bench linear sizes, to determine
conditions of video recording and requirements to the recording equipment. The type of a soil, mass-dimensional
characteristics of a model and an impact velocity are the input data to calculate design bench parameters and to
determine technical characteristics of the equipment involved (Fig. 1). The speed of recording, the number of shots
taken, the distance from the video camera to the subject, lighting of the subjects are the basic parameters of video
recording. The analysis of previously conducted theoretical and experimental studies enabled us to specify the
requirements to recording and processing equipment: to a video camera, a lens, a computer and an interface (Fig. 1).
To accomplish the accepted key principles at the first stage of calculations it is necessary to determine the model
linear sizes. The calculation of the model linear sizes is an important task. Its solution is directly connected with the
need to provide specified requirements of accuracy for simulating in the processes examined. Another important
aspect of the task considered is to provide economic indicators of physical simulating, because using of physical
simulating methods in the research of working processes connected with the interaction of machine operating
elements and soil, results in the reduction of labour input in experimental studies, and decrease of material costs and
time. Clearly, that the increase in dimensions of the machines examined is connected with the increase of costs in
full-scale tests. In some cases approximately it is possible to consider these expenses proportional to a cube of the
equipment or machine linear sizes. For these reasons, it is reasonable to make the model's geometrical sizes smaller.
However, the reduction of model's geometrical sizes is confined mainly to the following factors:
x soil structure heterogeneity;
x accuracy of measuring methods for the studied parameters;
x accuracy of measuring apparatus.
Each of the specified factors imposes the restrictions to the value of model's scale factor k:
where lн is a defining linear size of the working equipment original, m; lm is a defining linear size of the working
equipment model, m.
To define the scale factor k we propose to use the following relationship:
15.4 ˜ d max
where dmax is a maximum linear size of a mineral fraction, m.
The rammer’s operating elementTM-3/2 has been selected as basic data for the calculation of model's maximum
dimensions. The height of the TM-3/2 die is lн = 2 m. An average sandy soil is planned to be used as a compacted
medium. A granulometric composition of a sandy soil sample is determined by the sieve method (Table 1). The
angle of internal friction in the studied sample is φ = 35°.
TABLE 1. A granulometric composition of a sandy soil for laboratory tests.
A particle size, mm
A mass content
of fractionqi, %
An average particle size: 0.38 mm
As we have seen from the provided data (Table 1), the maximum size of mineral fraction is dmax = 0.002 m.
Thus, according to (2) the maximum value of the scale factor k equals
15.4 ˜ d max
# 65
15.4 ˜ 0.002
Then, according to (1) the minimum linear size of the model lm, min is
lм, min
# 0.031 m
Thus, a selection of a cone with 0.065 m height and with a base diameter of 0.045 m as a model is correct
(Fig. 2).
The minimum permissible volume of soil V interacting with the ROE in which characteristics of the compacted
medium remain, this volume of a soil is defined by the relationship
B˜H 2
2 ˜ tgM
where φ is the angle of the soil internal friction, degrees; B is the model's linear size along its movement
direction, m; H is the linear size of the model in the direction, perpendicular to its movement direction, m.
Then, according to (5) the minimum permissible volume of the soil V equals
2 ˜ tgM
0.065 ˜ 0.0452
# 9.4 ˜ 105 m3
2 ˜ tg 35q
Due to the absence of definite and reliable data on a distribution of compressive stresses in a soil appearing from
the impact effect of conic models on the soil, and taking into account planed to be studied limited range of speeds
(up to 1.7 m/s) for the available models, we propose to use known relationships of stress distribution for a case of a
plane problem to determine the bench dimensions. Obviously, the bench dimensions should minimize the walls
effect on the results of laboratory tests of a dynamic impact on the soil in the required range of impact velocities of
the models with specified forms, dimensions and mass. According to the available data, the distribution of a vertical
compressive stress making 10% of the actual loading depends on the loading linear size and distributes in the
direction, perpendicular to the application of loading by a value, which equals its double width:
H bn t 4 kin H
where Нbn is a bench width, m; H is a model linear size in the direction, perpendicular to its movement direction,
m; influence coefficient kin considering a dynamic nature of the soil loading.
In a vertical plane a distribution depth of this stress, which is 10% of the actual loading, makes about six values
of the loading width:
Bbn t 6 kin H
where Bbn is a bench height, m.
It is supposed to use prestressed glass having the following key benefits over other translucent materials for
visual control of soil particles movement as a translucent barrier of one of the bench edges:
the prestressed glass strength increases by 5-7 times as a result of a special thermal treatment;
the modulus of elasticity for the prestressed glass in bending reaches Еbn = 250 MPas;
the prestressed glass is more wear resistant;
the prestressed glass breaks with numerous safe splinters.
Thus, a box-type structure with the width of Нbn = 0.7 m and the height of Вbn = 0.75 m is selected as the bench to
carryout laboratory tests (Fig. 3).
Nowadays a velocity photo- and video recording is widely used to study stop-actions and short-term processes. It
is necessary to specify the speed and duration for recording of examined processes to select the necessary recording
equipment. Data on time of penetration in a soil for a flat die depending on its specific impulse value are provided in
FIGURE 4. (a) A velocity video camera with a lens;
FIGURE 4. (a) A velocity video camera with a lens;
(b) A recording equipment assembly.
(b) A recording equipment assembly.
literature. For example, for loams with a different consistency according to professor N. Ya. Harkhuta this range is
10 ÷ 95 msec. However, researchers do not give clear recommendations on the required number of shots for a
quality and quantity estimate of a model impact on the soil. The authors decided to use the velocity video recording,
which provided the recording of all process dynamics and the discreteness between the obtained shots was an order
of magnitude less than the process duration. Thus, for the model movement tracking in the soil we propose the
velocity video recording with at least ten shots in duration and the time discreteness between shots not exceeding
0.001 second which means that the frequency of shooting is 1000 shots per second. A velocity video camera TMC6740GE with a maximum shooting frequency of 1250 shots per second meets these requirements (Fig. 4). The
modes of full and not full shooting of the TMC-6740GE camera with various shooting frequencies are given in
table 2.
TABLE 2. The modes of shooting for the TMC-6740GE camera
Shot size
Shooting frequency,
(width хheight), pixel
shot per second
640 x 480
640 x 160
224 x 480
224 x 160
The main characteristics of photo-and video lenses affecting their selection can be devided into three groups:
x design (optical and mechanical) characteristics (an object-side focal distance f, a diameter of entrance pupil D, a
covering power in object space 2ω etc.);
x photometric characteristics (a transmission factor τ0 etc.);
x characteristics of image quality (an angular resolution ψ etc.).
The main task in calculation of lens parameters for a velocity video camera is to provide shooting conditions for
obtaining a qualitative spatial shape subject image with a set linear resolution. Thus, a permissible diameter value of
a blur circle dper is defined by the accuracy requirements for determination of linear sizes of the subject observed dm:
d per d d т
As the subject is the spatial model with linear orthogonal dimensions of shooting, then for a secure movement
recording of all subject points it is necessary to fulfil condition (9) in the course of laboratory studies. A proper
depth value of a sharply represented space Δp (SRS) should provide a compliance of this requirement. The depth of
SRS Δp is a distance along an optical axis of the lens within which the located objects are represented on a lightsensitive element with a sufficient level of sharpness:
pb p fr
where pb is a distance to a back boundary of SRS, m; pfr is a distance to a front boundary of SRS, m.
The distance to the back boundary of SRS pb is defined according to the formula:
D f c p foc
D f c p foc f cd per
D f c p foc
D f c p foc d per
where D is a diameter of a lens entrance pupil, m; f’ is a back focal length, m; pfocis a distance from an entrance
pupil plane to a focusing plane, m.
The distance to the SRS front boundary pfr is calculated from the formula:
D f c p foc
p fr
D f c p foc f cd per
D f c p foc
D f c p foc d per
Thus, a substitution of formulas (11) and (12) in the equation (10), enables define the SIS depth from the
following approximate formula:
pb p fr # 2
p 2foc ˜ d per
D˜ f c
Since the recording of model's impact on the soil is supposed to conduct from the distance preventing the lens
and video camera damage by soil particles under a minimum vibrational impact on the shooting process, then with a
sufficient accuracy it is possible to accept the following condition:
pb # lobs ,
where lobs is an observation distance from a front surface of video camera lens to the subject, m.
Taking into account the above said the SRS depth Δp equals
'p 2
˜ d per
D˜ f c
As a rule, every lens is supplied with a diaphragm that is a device for adjustment of lens aperture, which allows
an amount of light passing through a lens to be changed, the device also sets the necessary depth of resolution, i.e. to
adjust the SRS depth. Therefore taking into account the equality
where Kгis a diaphragm number, the equation (15) will look like
˜ d per ˜ K г
f c2
Thus, the maximum distance of observation lobs can be calculated by the formula:
'p ˜ f c 2
2 ˜ d per ˜ K г
The linear sizes of observation field L, where the subject under study is located, are defined by the value of a
lens angular field in the object space 2ω:
L 2 lobs tgZ
Let us define a maximum value of the diaphragm number Kг, which would provide specified linear sizes of the
observation field L. For this purpose, we shall solve jointly the equations (18) and (19) relatively to the diaphragm
number Kг:
2 'p tg 2Z f c 2
L2 d per
Average size sand with an average size of particles 0.38 mm is used in the experimental studies (Table 1). It is
planned to record the movement of particles in the soil under external force with the accuracy within dm=dper =0.1
mm. Let us accept that the SRS depth is equal to the base diameter of a conical model – Δp = 45 mm. Based on the
above statements we propose to use Navitar DO-5095 as a lens (Fig. 4), which has the following key characteristics:
x a focal distance isf’ = 50 mm;
x a diaphragm number isKг = 0.95 ÷ 16;
x an angular field in the object space is 2ω (H × V) = 14°36’ × 11°00’.
The minimum value of diaphragm number corresponds to a completely open diaphragm, the maximum value is a
completely closed diaphragm. Let us calculate the maximum distance of observation for extreme values of the
diaphragm number:
K г
K г
'p ˜ f c2
2 ˜ d per ˜ K г
'p ˜ f c2
2 ˜ d per ˜ K г
45 ˜ 502
# 770 mm 0.77 m
2 ˜ 0.1 ˜ 0.95
45 ˜ 502
# 190 mm 0.19 m
2 ˜ 0.1 ˜ 16
Let us define the linear sizes of the observation field in a horizontal Hr and vertical Vr planes for extreme values
of the diaphragm number:
x forKг = 0.95:
2 lobs tgZ H
2 lobs tgZV
2 lobs tgZ H
2 lobs tgZV
2 ˜ 0.77 ˜ tg 7q18c # 0.197 m
2 ˜ 0.77 ˜ tg 5q30c # 0.148 m
x forKг = 16:
2 ˜ 0.19 ˜ tg 7q18c # 0.049 m
2 ˜ 0.19 ˜ tg 5q30c # 0.037 m
Let us define the maximum value of the diaphragm numberKг for a lens in planed laboratory studies. As the
height of conical model is bigger than the diameter of its base, then L = B = 65 mm. The angular field of the selected
lens in the object space in the vertical plane is less than in the horizontal plane and equals 2ω(V) = 11 °00’. Thus, the
maximum value of the diaphragm number Kгwill be equal to
2 'p tg 2Z f c 2
L2 d per
2 ˜ 45 ˜ tg 2 5q30c ˜ 502
# 4.9
652 ˜ 0.1
As a rule, there is a need for additional lighting of the subjects in carrying out of laboratory studies. Basic data
for the calculation of lighting are a sensor sensitivity of video camera Ec, a reflection coefficient of filmed subjects
ρм, a transmission factor of the lens τо, an electric capacity Nu and a luminous efficiency of a lighting source δ.
To support normal conditions of operation for the velocity video camera it is necessary to provide the
illumination E of its sensor no less than a threshold value Ec specified in a device certificate:
E t Ec
The illuminance E of the video camera sensor can be calculated by the formula:
Uм W о
J cos D
r2 ,
where J is a light intensity of a source, cd; α is an angle formed by a normal to the lighting plane with the
direction to a source, degrees; r is a distance from the source to the sensor along an optical axis of the video
camera, m.
The light intensity of the sourceJ is calculated by the formula:
where Фu is a luminous flux created by a lighting source, lm.
The values of the luminous flux Фu for different sources are provided in their certificates. In the absence of
certificate data for a given source, we propose to determine its luminous flux Фuby the table data [6], multiplying the
value of luminous efficiency δ by the value of electric capacity Nu of a radiation source:
G Nи
Thus, the distance r from the source to the video camera sensor along its optical axis is
lobs. llg h.
where llgh is a distance from a light source to an illuminated subject, m.
Taking into account expressions (28) - (30), the equation (27) will be
Uм W о
J cosD
Uм W о
Фи cosD
4 S lobs. llg h. Uм W о
G N и cosD
4 S losb. llg h. (31)
Thus, for the specified distance of observation lobs and parameters of the velocity video camera selected it is
possible to calculate the maximum distance from the available light source to the illuminated subject by the formula:
Uм Wо
G N и cos D
4 S Ec
It is supposed to use as the subjects not only operating elements’ models made of steel with a high reflecting
coefficient, but also the soil particles movement under loading transferred by these models. Sandy soil samples
under study are located behind a translucent edge of the bench with the transmission factor τс (≈ 0.85). The luminous
flux crosses the translucent barrier twice, therefore the equation (32) will look like:
U м W оW с2
G N и cosD
4 S Ec
Since in planned experimental studies it is supposed to use a sandy soil, then as the reflection coefficient ρм we
accept its value for the sand. A sandy soil dispersion affects significantly its reflection coefficient which increases
from 0,4 to 0,8 with the particle size reduction [7]. For the average sandy soil we accept ρм = 0.4. The data on
transmission factors for specific lens models are not usually published. For practical calculations, with a standard
lens, the transmission factor value can be accepted as τо=0.785 [8]. As a light source we use an incandescent bulb
B220-230-100 under the state standard of Russia IEC 60064-99 with the capacity Nu = 100 W and the luminous
efficiency δ = 13.8 lumen/W. We shall place a lighting source at an angle of 45˚ to the observation place withα =
45° to simplify the work and to prevent a direct illumination of video camera with the light reflected from a
translucent bench edge. According to the device certificate, the sensitivity of TMC-6740 GE video camera is Ec =
1.4 lx [9]. Thus, the maximum distance from the available light source to the illuminated subject with a full-open
lens diaphragm equals
J N и cos D
13.8 ˜ 100 ˜ cos 45q
0.77 # 2.78 m
U м W оW с2
0.4 ˜ 0.785 ˜ 0.852
4S ˜ 1.4
4 S Ec
The calculations performed allowed us to develop the laboratory bench scheme for a contact free measurement
of the velocity and movement of the subject under study that is the ROE model (Fig. 5) [10, 11]. To implement a
method of contact free measurement of the subject's velocity and movement by means of a velocity video camera,
the subject 1 with a graduated scale 2 is rigidly fixed on a rod 3, with a possibility to move in a vertical plane in
guides 4. A horizontal mark 5 overlapping the divisions of graduated scale 2 by value Δ is rigidly fixed on the guides
4 . There is a video camera 6, mounted on a tripod 7 at a distance lobsmax from the axis of the subject under study 1.
To illuminate the subject 1, we use an illumination source of the area under study that is an «illuminator» 8 located
at llghmax distance from the subject under study 1 at an angle α, formed by the normal to the lighting plane, matching
an optical video camera axis, and the direction to the «illuminator» 8.
To carry out laboratory studies at the distance of lobsmax from the subject 1 we install the video camera 6 so that
the optical axis be perpendicular to the movement plane of the subject under study 1 and be directed to the
horizontal mark 5. At the distance of lobsmax from the subject under study we set the "illuminator" 8 at the angle α to
the optical axis of the video camera 6. Simultaneously with a start in movement of the subject 1 we turn on the video
camera 6 which records shot by shot the movement in the sight of video camera 6 relatively to the horizontal mark
5 of the divisions in the graduated scale 2 which is rigidly connected to the subject under study 1 by the rod 3. After
the end of shot by shot video recording we compare the division values of the graduated scale 2 matching the
horizontal mark 5 on the successive shots, then we calculate the current movementΔh of the subject 1 for a period,
equal to a change of one shot by another. Taking into account the movementΔh of the subject under study 1 from
shot to shot and the speed of video recording n, we calculate the speed of Vsub for the subject under study 1.
The developed technique for justification of parameters and selection of equipment for laboratory studies of the
ROE model dynamics in a soil foundation of a tank for oil and oil products storage allowed us:
x to calculate minimum linear sizes of the ROE model;
x to calculate the minimum volume soil interacting with the ROE model in which characteristics of the compacted
medium remain;
to calculate bench overall dimensions;
to determine the speed of video recording and its minimum duration;
to define design (optical and mechanical) characteristics of a lens;
to select a velocity video camera and a lens to it;
to calculate conditions of velocity video recording: maximum distances of video recording and linear sizes of the
observation field for extreme values of a diaphragm number;
x to calculate design parameters of a lighting system for the observation field;
x to develop a layout diagram of the test bench.
To estimate the correctness of calculations performed and the accuracy of measurements, which were carried out
at the initial stage of laboratory studies by means of the velocity video camera, the video recording of free fall and
the ROE model impact on the soil was performed. A specialized software «Shot analyzer», that allowed us to obtain
numerical data on the velocity movement of the subject under study based on the analysis of separate shots was
developed for video material processing. The analysis results are given in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7.
The analysis of the ROE model free fall section, from the beginning of its free fall till the contact with the soil,
allowed us to estimate the value of free fall acceleration experimentally and to compare it with the
known value (Fig. 7):
9.95 9.81
˜ 100% # 1.43 %
As can be seen from the obtained data (34) the value of a relative error in defining of free fall acceleration by
means of registration techniques used and data processing does not exceed 1.5%. It should be noted that this value is
a characteristic of the integral value for the relative error in the technique defining dynamic characteristics. Due to a
stochastic nature of physical and mechanical soil characteristics, the achieved accuracy for the defining of dynamic
characteristics of the ROE model for planned laboratory studies can be accepted.
The calculation results obtained were used in the development of a specialized measuring system intended to
carry out laboratory studies with the velocity video camera and to provide given requirements and conditions.
Preliminary laboratory studies confirmed the correctness of previous calculations.
Thus, the developed specialized measuring system provides:
x the possibility to carry out planned laboratory studies correctly and completely;
x the reliability of research results for dynamic stop-actions.
M. A. Zavyalov, A. M. Zavyalov, A. V. Gruzin, and M. V. Kucherenko, [Oil Industry]. 8, 105-107 (2013).
A. V. Gruzin, V. V. Gruzin, and M. V. Kucherenko, Dynamics of impact operating elements of construction
machines in a soil, (Palmarium Academic Publishing, Saarbrucken, 2012). Russian
3. D. E. Abramenkov, A. V. Gruzin, and V. V. Gruzin, edited by professor E. A. Abramenkov, Mechanical
equipment and construction technology, (Palmarium Academic Publishing, Saarbrucken, 2012). Russian
4. A. V. Gruzin, V. V. Tokarev, V. V. Shalai, and Yu. V. Logunova, Procedia Engineering, 113, 158-168 (2015) .
5. A. V. Gruzin, V. V. Gruzin, and V. V. Shalay, Procedia Engineering, 152, 182-189 (2016).
6. Available
7. O. N. Kanigina, and A. Е. Sorokin, KRSU Bulletin 4, (2002). Available at:
8. Progress company, Available at:
9. Camera
10. V. V. Gruzin, A. V. Gruzin, T. V. Gruzin, and A. V. Gruzin KZ Patent No. 26,087, MPK E02D 1/00
(2011.01), E02D 27/12 (2011.01), E21B 7/26 (2011.01), G01M 99/00 (2011.01). (14 September 2012)
11. A. V. Gruzin, V. V. Gruzin, M. V. Kucherenko, and A. V. Katunin. RF Patent No. 2,518,018 RU, MPK G01P
3/68 (27 February 2014).
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