close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

6.1989-3331

код для вставкиСкачать
Valerie J. Gawron2
Louis H. ~ n o t t s ~
Calspan Advanced Technology C e n t e r
Buffalo, New York
S a m u e l G. S c h i f l e t t
School of Aerospace Medicine
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES (UNSW) on October 27, 2017 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1989-3331
ABSTRACT
Much r e s e a r c h is being conducting t o identify t h e
e f f e c t s of drugs on pilot performance.
S o m e of this
research is conducted in t h e laboratory, s o m e in-flight.
O f t e n t h e r e s u l t s of t h e l a b o r a t o r y and in-flight s t u d i e s
a r e n o t t h e same. T h e sources of t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s c a n
include: d i f f e r e n t subjects, additional s t r e s s o r e f f e c t s
of flight, and a n i n a d e q u a t e mapping of t h e l a b o r a t o r y
and flight tasks. T h e f i r s t s o u r c e c a n b e e l i m i n a t e d by
a strong e x p e r i m e n t a l design. T h e e f f e c t s of t h e second
s o u r c e c a n b e i n t e r p o l a t e d f r o m multi-stressor l a b o r a t o r y
experiments.
T h e third source c a n b e e l i m i n a t e d by
using a special s e t of l a b o r a t o r y t a s k s and a validated
mapping scheme. Both of t h e s e a r e described in t h e
following paper.
INTRODUCTION
Much l a b o r a t o r y research h a s been c o n d u c t e d
r e c e n t l y t o identify t h e e f f e c t s of a wide r a n g e of drugs
on performance.
R e s u l t s from t h e s e studies a r e then
used t o guide t h e design of in-flight r e s e a r c h examining
t h e s a m e e f f e c t s in-flight.
B u t how c a n a r e s e a r c h e r
e x t r a p o l a t e results f r o m simple laboratory tasks, e.,g.,
single-axis tracking, t o t h e complex tasks of c o n t r o l l ~ n g
an aircraft.
As p a r t of a inflight evaluation of
pyridostigmine bromide (PB), Calspan developed a
methodology t o do just that:
Ag
p e r f o r m a n c e d e c r e m e n t s a s s o c i a t e d with PB in singlet a s k p e r f o r m a n c e of a probability-monitoring t a s k and in
dual-task p e r f o r m a n c e of a memory-search task with
visual tracking.
They also found p e r f o r m a n c e
enhancements: d e p t h perception a c c u r a c y (matching t h e
d i s t a n c e of t w o placards) was improved a b o u t 3 mm;
hand steadiness was increased; and visual-contrast
sensitivity improved a t 3 c y c l e s per d e g r e e (c/d). I t i s
noteworthy t h a t f o r o t h e r c / d grids (0.5 through 22.8
c/d), no d i f f e r e n c e s in p e r f o r m a n c e occurred.
In a similar study by Kay and Morrison (19851,
s u b j e c t s performed a visual-contrast t a s k 1.5 t o 2.23 hr
a f t e r ingesting PB. T h e a u t h o r s found no p e r f o r m a n c e
e n h a n c e m e n t e v e n a t 3 c/d. Finally, Borland, Brennan,
Nicholson, and S m i t h (1985) found no e f f e c t of PB on
c o n t r a s t sensitivity; however, the frequencies they
e v a l u a t e d did n o t include 3 c/d.
Borland, et al. (1985) subjected four young m e n t o
a m u l t i t u d e of p e r f o r m a n c e tasks a f t e r doses of PB. T h e
authors
reported
two
performance
enhancements
a s s o c i a t e d with PB: 1) m e a n c r i t i c a l f l i c k e r fusion was
raised a n d 2) f e w e r responses w e r e missed on a d y n a m i c
visual-acuity t e s t (identifying t h e location of t h e break,
in a Landolt C p r o j e c t e d o n t o a r o t a t i n g mirror). T h e
overall a c c u r a c y of t h e a c u i t y t e s t did n o t d i f f e r f r o m
t h e placebo condition, however.
Further, these
r e s e a r c h e r s found no e f f e c t s on t h e following:
digit
symbol substitution, symbol copying, pupil d i a m e t e r ,
macular threshold (pupillary response t o light flashes), o r
k i n e t i c q u a n t i t a t i v e p e r i m e t r y (ocular response t o varying
illumination levels). As in t h e G r a h a m and Cook study,
visual-tracking p e r f o r m a n c e was degraded.
Step 1
-
Step 2
- L i s t t h e Laboratory T a s k s and
E f f e c t s of Drugs on E a c h Task
Step 3
-
Step 4
- Identify A i r c r a f t and Mission C h a r a c t e r istics
S c h i f l e t t , Stranges, S l a t e r , and J a c k s o n (1987)
e x a m i n e d t h e e f f e c t s of PB in combination with mild
hypoxia. E a c h of t h e i r s u b j e c t s performed a s e r i e s of
t e s t s t h a t m e a s u r e d sensory, motor, and cognitive
functioning a t ground level and a t a l t i t u d e s of 8,000 and
13,000 f t . PB did n o t a l t e r performance.
Step 5
-
Step 2 -
Review L a b o r a t o r y R e s e a r c h
the
Map t h e T a s k s t o t h e Unified Tri-Service
Cognitive
Performance
Assessment
B a t t e r y (UTC-PAB)
Map UTC-PAB T a s k s t o t h e A i r c r a f t and
Mission
We began by reviewing t h e l a b o r a t o r y studies on PB.
Step 1
-
Review Laboratory Research
Graham and Cook (1984) e x a m i n e d t h e e f f e c t s of
PB on p e r f o r m a n c e of a multiple-task b a t t e r y in a
controlled laboratory environment.
They r e p o r t e d
1. This r e s e a r c h w a s funded by t h e J o i n t Working Group
on Drug Dependent Degradation in Military P e r o f r m a n c e ,
Army Medical R&D C o m m a n d , F o r t Detrick, MD.
2. Human F a c t o r s Engineer, Flight R e s e a r c h D e p a r t m e n t ,
Member AIAA.
3.
Principal A e r o n a u t i c a l Engineer, Flight R e s e a r c h
D e p a r t m e n t , Member AIAA.
Copyright O American Institute of Aeronautics and
Astronautics, Inc., 1989. All rights reserved.
L i s t t h e L a b o r a t o r y Tasks a n d the E f f e c t s of
Drugs on E a c h Task
T h e e f f e c t s of PB on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of l a b o r a t o r y
t a s k s a r e s u m m a r i z e d in T a b l e 1.
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES (UNSW) on October 27, 2017 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1989-3331
T a b l e 1.
S u m m a r y of L a b o r a t o r y R e s e a r c h
Laboratory
Task
Effect
of PB
Probability-Monitoring
Memory Search with
Visual Tracking
Depth Perception
Hand Steadiness
Visual Contrast
Critical Flicker Fusion
Dynamic Visual Acuity
Degrade Performance
Degrade Performance
Increase Accuracy
Enhance Performance
Increased Sensitivity
Degrade Performance
Decrease Number
of Misses
No E f f e c t
Digit Symbol Substitution
Symbol Copying
No Effect
Kinetic Quantitative Perimetry No E f f e c t
Visual Tracking
Degrade Performance
Step 3
-
Map t h e T a s k s to the UTC-PAB
T o e n s u r e t h a t t h e e f f e c t s of drugs a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d
for t h e full s p e c t r u m of human skills, t h e UTC-PAD
( P e r e z , Masline, R a m s e y , and Urban, 1987) was developed.
I t has 25 tasks organized in 6 a r e a s (see T a b l e 2). E a c h
t a s k is described below. T h e mapping of l a b o r a t o r y t a s k s
t o UTC-PAB t a s k s is presented in T a b l e 3 .
T a b l e 2.
UTC-PAB O r g a n i z a t i o n S c h e m e
I.
Perceptual input, Detection, and Identification
Visual Scanning Task
Visual Probability Monltoring Task
P a t t e r n Comparison (Simultaneous)
Four-Choice Serial Reaction Time
11.
Central Processing
Auditory Memory Search (Memory Search
Tasks)
Continuous Recognition Task
Code Substitution Task
Visual Memory Search (Memory Search Tasks)
Item Order T e s t
111.
Information Integration/Manipulation--Linguistic/
Symbolic
Linguistic Processing Task
Two-Column Addition
Grammatical Reasoning (Symbolic)
Mathematical Processing Task
Grammatical Reasoning (Traditional)
1v.
Information Integration/Manipulation-Spatial
Mode
Spatial Processing Task
Matching to Sample
Time Wall
Matrix Rotation Task (Spatial Processing Task)
Manikin Test
Pattern Comparison (Successive)
v.
OutputlResponse Execution
Interval Production Task
Unstable Tracking Task
VI.
Selective/Divided Attention
Dichotic Listening Task
Memory Search Unstable Tracking Combination (Sternberg-Tracking Combination)
Stroop Test
Perez, e t al. (1987, p. 11)
1.
Linguistic Processing Task "The purpose of t h e
Linguistic Processing Task is t o t e s t a subject's ability
t o c o d e linguistic i n f o r m a t i o n a t d i f f e r e n t d e p t h s of
processing. T h e t a s k places variable demands upon t h e
resources
associated
with
the
processing
and
transformation of linguistic information." ( P e r e z , e t al.
1987, p. 14)
2.
G r a m m a t i c a l Reasoning (Traditional) "The purpose
of t h e g r a m m a t i c a l reasoning t e s t is t o measure t h e
subject's g e n e r a l reasoning ability. This t e s t is a t y p e
of s e n t e n c e verification task t h a t t a p s t h e processing
c a p a c i t y of working memory. F u r t h e r m o r e , it is known
t o b e sensitive t o environmental stress, pollutants, and
t h e e f f e c t s of sleep loss."
(Perez, et al. 1987, p. 24).
T h e traditional g r a m m a t i c a l reasoning task has been used
t o e x a m i n e nitrogen n a r c o s e s (Baddeley, 1968), t r a f f i c
pollution (Lewis, Baddeley, Bonham, and L o v e t t , 19701,
hypothermia (Baddeley, C u c c a r o , Egstrom, Weltman, and
Willis, 19751, and s l e e p loss (Angus and Heslegrave, 1985).
3.
G r a m m a t i c a l Reasoning (Symbolic) "The purpose
of this task is t o t a p resources d e d i c a t e d t o general
reasoning ability. T h e symbolic g r a m m a t i c a l reasoning
task is a t y p e of s e n t e n c e verification task t h a t taps
t h e processing c a p a c i t y of working memory. This t a s k
is known t o b e sensitive t o variable information
processing d e m a n d s and is probably sensitive t o
environmental s t r e s s , pollutants, and s l e e p loss!'
(Perez,
e t al., 1987, p. 34). G r a m m a t i c a l reasoning t a s k s have
been used t o i n v e s t i g a t e nitrogen narcosis (Baddeley,
1968), t r a f f i c pollution (Lewis, Baddeley, Bonham, and
L o v e t t , 1970), hyperttiermia (Baddeley, C u c c a r o , E g s t r o m ,
Weltman, and Willis, 1975), durinal variations (Folkard,
1975), and s l e e p loss (Poulton, Hunt, C a r p e n t e r , and
Edwards, 1978).
4.
Two-Column Addition "The purpose of this subjectpaced, m e n t a l a r i t h m e t i c t e s t is t o m e a s u r e t h e subject's
ability t o sum s i m p l e addition problems.
T h e t e s t is
diagnostic of t h e s p e e d and a c c u r a c y with which subjects
r e t r i e v e a r i t h m e t i c i n f o r m a t i o n (e.g., math f a c t s ) and
(e.g.,
well learned
u t i l i z e procedural
knowledge
procedures f o r adding columns of digits).
In addition,
s h o r t t e r m s t o r a g e of c a r r y and i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s u l t
information i s required."
( P e r e z , e t al., 1987, p. 51).
Mental addition tasks have been used t o e x a m i n e t h e
e f f e c t s of c a r b o n monoxide (Johnson, Cohen, Struble,
S e t z e r , Angur, Gutuik, McDonough, and Hauser, 19741,
norganic l e a d (Repko, Morgan, and Nicholson, 1975),
methly chloride (Repko, Jones, G a r c i a , Schneider,
Roseman, and C o r u m , 1976), atropine, ditran, and
scopolamine (Ketchum, Sidell, Crowell, Aghajanian, and
Hayes, 1973), and p a r p a n i t e (Michelson, 1961).
5.
M a t h e m a t i c a l Processing Task
"The purpose of
this self-paced m e n t a l a r i t h m e t i c t a s k is t o t e s t a
subject's information processing resources a s s o c i a t e d with
working memory. Specifically, t h e s u b j e c t i s required
to: (a) r e t r i e v e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m long t e r m memory, (b)
u p d a t e i n f o r m a t i o n in working memory, (c) sequentially
e x e c u t e d i f f e r e n t a r t h m e t i c operations, and (dl p e r f o r m
n u m e r i c comparisons." (Perez, et al., 1987, p. 61)
6.
Continuous Recognition Task
"The Continuous
Recognition Task is designed t o p l a c e variable demands
upon processing resources a s s o c i a t e d with encoding and
s t o r a g e in working memory. T h e t a s k t e s t s a subject's
ability t o encode, reherse, recall, and c o m p a r e numbers
in s h o r t t e r m m e m o r y on a continuous basis."
(Perez,
et al., 1987, p. 75)
7.
Four C h o i c e Serial R e a c t i o n T i m e "This t a s k is
designed t o e v a l u a t e information processing resources
dedicated t o stimulus encoding and categorization, and
response selection, although i t is probable t h a t resources
dedicated t o encoding a r e tapped m o s t heavily!'
(Perez,
et al., 1987, p. 87)
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES (UNSW) on October 27, 2017 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1989-3331
8.
Visual Memory S e a r c h Task "The purpose of t h e
Alpha-Numeric Visual Vigilance Task (ANVVT) is t o t e s t
a subject's ability t o continue making decisions and rapid
responses to visual symbols for long nonstop periods. T h e
ANVVT is a discrimination reaction task intended t o
s i m u l a t e a situation in which a person monitoring a visual
display might show f a t i g u e and performance d e c r e m e n t
without being a w a r e of it." (Perez, et al., 1987 p. 101)
9.
Memory S e a r c h Tasks "The purpose of this memory
search task is to t e s t a subject's ability t o m a k e
comparisons of l e t t e r s maintained in memory. T h e t a s k
is diagnostic of t h e processes of selective retrieval and
comparison in s h o r t t e r m working memory. This t a s k
may also r e f l e c t processes involved in t h e encoding of
stimulus i t e m s , categorization, response selection, and
response execution!'
( P e r e z , e t al., 1987, p. 110)
10. Spatial Processing Task "This task is designed t o
e x a m i n e t h e subject's ability t o mentally r o t a t e a s e r i e s
of histograms prior t o making a s a m e l d i f f e r e n t judgment
a b o u t them. T h e task taps visual s h o r t t e r m memory,
since t h e standard and t e s t stimuli a r e presented
successively r a t h e r than simultaneously." (Perez, et al.,
1987, p. 136)
11. Matrix R o t a t i o n Task "The purpose of t h e Matrix
R o t a t i o n Task is to assess t h e subject's facility for s p a t i a l
rotation.
Spatial rotation, also known a s spatial
transformation, is one component of spatial orientation.
This t a s k also e v a l u a t e s s h o r t t e r m perceptual memory!'
(Perez, et al., 1987, p. 146)
12. Manikin T e s t "The purpose o f t h e Manikin T e s t i s
to assess the subject's ability t o perform r o t a t i o n s and
r e l a t e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of a m e n t a l image. This ability
is one of t h e t h r e e general subdivisions of spatial ability.
Lohman (1979) h a s called this ability spatial orientation
(SO), which requires mental m o v e m e n t of t h e self t o
view t h e t e s t stimulus from a new perspective."
(Perez,
et al., 1987, p. 155).
13. P a t t e r n Comparison (Simultaneous) "The primary
purpose of this self paced p a t t e r n comparison t e s t is t o
assess t h e subject's perceptual speed. P e r c e p t u a l speed
is one a s p e c t of general spatial ability. T h e t e s t provides
information a b o u t t h e subject's ability t o m a k e
simultaneous judgments a b o u t t h e similarity of t w o
patterns." P e r e z e t al., 1987, p. 164).
14. P a t t e r n Comparison (Successive)
"The primary
purpose of this t a s k is t o e x a m i n e t h e subject's s h o r t
t e r m spatial memory and perceptual speed. T h e t e s t i s
diagnostic of s p a t i a l memory, since t h e subject m u s t
m a i n t a i n t h e s t a n d a r d in memory while t h e comparison
with t h e t e s t p a t t e r n i s being made."
(Perez, et al.,
1987, p. 174)
15. Visual Scanning Task "This t a s k is a modification
of Neisser's (1963) l e t t e r s e a r c h task which requires
subjects t o s e a r c h f o r and d e t e c t a t a r g e t embedded in
n o n t a r g e t items. This t e s t is diagnostic of a subject's
ability t o perform rapid visual p a t t e r n discrimination."
(Perez, et al., 1987, p. 184)
16. C o d e Substitution Task "This task is designed t o
t a p information processing resources dedicated t o t h e
rapid encoding and associative evaluation of stimuli."
(Perez, et al., 1987, p. 198)
17. Visual Probability Monitoring Task
"The purpose
of this task is t o t e s t perceptual resources devoted t o
scanning and d e t e c t i n g of visual signals."
(Perez, et al.,
1987 p. 205)
18. T i m e Wall
"The purpose of t h e t i m e wall task is
t o t e s t a subject's ability t o e s t i m a t e t h e t i m e a t which
a t a r g e t , moving a t a c o n s t a n t r a t e , will have t r a v e l e d
a predetermined distance. T h a t is, on e a c h trial t h e
subject m u s t i n t e g r a t e t h e available speed and distance
information in o r d e r t o c o r r e c t l y a n t i c i p a t e t h e t i m e a t
which t h e t a r g e t r e a c h e s a c e r t a i n s p o t on t h e screen."
(Perez, e t al., 1987, p. 218)
19. Interval Production Task "This t a s k was designed
t o b e used a s a secondary task t o m e a s u r e demands
placed o n m o t o r o u t p u t by a primary t a s k (Michon, 1966).
However, i t may be used a s a stand alone t e s t t o e x a m i n e
t h e d e g r e e t o which variables such a s drugs,
environmental stress, and toxic substances d i s t r u p t
manual response timing."
(Perez, et al., 1987, p. 230)
20. S t r o o p T e s t "This t e s t is a modified version of
t h e classic color-word t e s t developed by Stroop (1935).
T h e purpose of this t e s t is t o measure a subject's
susceptibility t o response interference."
(Perez, et al.,
1987, p. 239)
21.
Dichotic Listening Task
'This t e s t e v a l u a t e s
information processing resources dedicated t o auditory
s e l e c t i v e attention."
(Perez, e t al., 1987, p. 250)
22. Unstable Tracking Task "This task t e s t s information
processing resources dedicated t o t h e execution of rapid
and a c c u r a t e manual responses."
(Perez, et al., 1987,
p. 263)
23.
Memory Search-Unstable Tracking Combination
"This dual task combination is intended t o t a p information
processing resources dedicated t o t i m e sharing ability;
t h a t is, t h e ability t o perform t w o tasks concurrently.''
(Perez, et al., 1987, p. 278)
24. Matching t o Sample "This task is designed t o assess
t h e subject's ability t o quickly and a c c u r a t e l y choose a
t e s t stimulus which is identical t o a standard stimulus
presented previously. T h e t e s t t a p s s h o r t t e r m spatial
memory and p a t t e r n recognition skills!'
(Perez, et al.,
1987, p. 288)
25. Item-Order T e s t "The purpose of t h e item-order
t e s t is t o e x a m i n e a subject's ability t o recognize strings
of l e t t e r s a s being t h e s a m e o r different. E r r o r r a t e s
produced from this test should r e f l e c t processes of s h o r t
t e r m memory recognition."
(Perez, et al., 1987, p. 297)
Table 3.
Mapping Laboratory Tasks to UTC-PAB Tasks
Laboratory Task
UTC-PAB Task
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES (UNSW) on October 27, 2017 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1989-3331
-
Probability-Monitoring
Visual Probability Monitoring
Memory Search Unstable
Memory Search with
Tracking Combintion
Visual Tracking
Depth Perception
Matrix Rotation
Hand Steadiness
Unstable Tracking
P a t t e r n Comparison
Visual Contrast
Critical Flicker Fusion
P a t t e r n Comparison
Dynamic Visual Acuity
Unstable Tracking Task
Digit Symbol Substitution Code Substitution
Grammatical Reasoning
Symbol Copying
(Symbolic)
Kinetic Quantitative
Unstable Tracking
Perimetry
Unstable Tracking
Visual Tracking
Step 4
- Identify Aircraft
I
I
and Mission Characteristics
Both t h e Air F o r c e and A r m y w e r e c o n c e r n e d with
t h e e f f e c t of PB on C-130 a i r c r e w s t o perform a n airdrop
mission. Given t h e i m m e n s e s a f e t y considerations both
t o t h e s u b j e c t s and t o ground personnel, t h e USAF F l i g h t
Dynamics Laboratory T o t a l In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) w a s
used in t h i s study. T h e TIFS (Figure 1) is a r e s e a r c h
a i r c r a f t developed by Calspan Corp., Buffalo, NY, f o r
use in flight-testing advanced f l i g h t control technology,
avionics, and c o c k p i t instrumentation. T h e basic a i r c r a f t
F i g u r e 1.
is a C-131H (Convair 580) which has been modified for
use a s a n in-flight simulator. T h e TIFS has direct-lift
flaps, side-force surfaces, and a variable-stability system.
These f e a t u r e s allow six degree-of-f reedom d y n a m i c
simulation in f l i g h t and replication of t h e flying
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o t h e r f l i g h t vehicles. TIFS has t w o
cockpits: a normal C-131 c o c k p i t occupied by t w o s a f e t y
pilots and a simulation cockpit occupied by t w o subjects.
Flight Safety.
TIFS is always under t h e c o m m a n d
of t h e s a f e t y pilots e v e n when flown by t h e s u b j e c t s i n
t h e simulation cockpit. T h e c o n t r o l s in t h e s a f e t y c o c k p i t
a r e mechanically c o n n e c t e d t o t h e a i r c r a f t ' s c o n t r o l
s u r f a c e s and always i n d i c a t e t h e motion of e a c h s u r f a c e .
A single b u t t o n in t h e s a f e t y cockpit disengages t h e
variable-stability s y s t e m and l e a v e s t h e s a f e t y pilots with
d i r e c t mechanical c o n t r o l of t h e a i r c r a f t . In addition,
a u t o m a t i c monitor c i r c u i t s have been programmed t o
p r e v e n t e x t r e m e signal inputs t o t h e control s u r f a c e s
from t h e s i m u l a t o r c o c k p i t and t o p r e v e n t inadvertantly
exceeding a i r c r a f t s t r u c t u r a l limits.
TIFS Simulation of t h e C-130. F o r this e x p e r i m e n t ,
t h e simulation c o c k p i t was modified t o resemble a C130 t a c t i c a l - t r a n s p o r t a i r c r a f t .
In addition, a i r c r a f t
handling qualities similar t o t h e C-130 w e r e g e n e r a t e d
by t h e variable-stability system.
Mission Profile. T h e mission profile developed f o r
this study w a s a two-hour low a l t i t u d e heavy-equipment
e x t r a c t i o n . T h e mission profile is described in T a b l e 4.
TIFS
T a b l e 4.
Minutes
Description of the Mission P r o f i l e
Manewers
CLIMB: Climb and turn on course. Objective
scoring of airspeed (170 KIAS), vertical
velocity (1000 fpm), and bank angle (0
degrees).
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES (UNSW) on October 27, 2017 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1989-3331
INGRESS:
Simulated formation flight with
station-keeping equipment (SKE). Objective
scoring of altitude (1000 f t above highest
obstacle within 5 NM), airspeed (210 KIAS),
bank angle (0 degrees), waypoint arrival, and
formation position.
DROP:
Slowdown and descent t o drop
altitude. Simulated air drop a t 1100 f t above
ground level (AGL). Escape (turn and climb).
Objective scoring of airspeed (130 KIAS),
altitude (1100 f t AGL), bank angle (20
degrees), and simulated air drop score.
EGRESS:
Simulated formation flight with
station keeping equipment (SKE). Objective
scoring of altitude (1000 f t AGL), airspeed
(210 KIAS), bank angle (0 degrees), waypoint
arrival, and formation position.
APPROACH:
ILS approach and landing.
Objective scoring of airspeed assigned by Air
T r a f f i c Control (ATC), vertical velocity (1000
fpm) and bank angle (0 degrees), localizer and
glideslope maintenance, and yoke and throttle
movements.
During ingress, t h e main t a s k f o r both t h e pilot
and copilot was s t a t i o n keeping.
The device presents
range i n f o r m a t i o n in t h e f o r m of c o n c e n t r i c circles, e a c h
representing 4000-ft separation. An airspeed of 210 +/20 KIAS was s i m u l a t e d f o r t h e two-ship formation. T h e
copilot also p e r f o r m e d low-level
navigation
and
communication, and responded t o c h e c k l i s t calls f r o m
t h e pilot.
T h e slowdown began a t t h e e n t r y point,
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 16 NM f r o m t h e drop zone.
A t the
stabilization point, t h e a i r c r a f t w a s 6 NM from t h e drop
z o n e and was on drop a l t i t u d e (1100 AGL), drop heading,
and drop airspeed. A t this point, t h e s i m u l a t o r a i r c r e w
transitioned f r o m a n SKE drop profile t o visual a i r d r o p
procedures:
they w e r e given s i m u l a t e d s u r f a c e winds
which required a d j u s t m e n t s t o accomplish t h e visual drop.
When t h e red light c a m e on, t h e s i m u l a t o r a i r c r e u
transitioned f r o m visual a i r d r o p procedures back t o SKE
d r o p procedures. C r u i s e l e g s w e r e flown a t 210 KIAS.
T h e drop w a s flown a t 130 KIAS.
A transient ramp
pitching m o m e n t w a s used t o s i m u l a t e t h e e x t r a c t i o n of
4000 Ib of heavy equipment. During t h e e s c a p e leg, t h e
pilot descended, a c c e l e r a t e d , turned, and c o m p l e t e d t h e
af ter-drop checklist.
Step 5
-
Map UTC-PAB Tasks to the Aircraft and
Mission
F l i g h t t a s k s c a n c r e a t e d t o m a t c h t h e sensory,
motor, a n d c o g n i t i v e r e s o u r c e d e m a n d s of t h e UTC-PAB
t a s k s a s closely a s possible b u t s t i l l m a i n t a i n t h e validity
in a n operational environment. E x a m p l e s from t h e PB
study a r e given below.
Responding t o a n Engine F i r e - A s i m u l a t e d engine
f i r e o c c u r r e d during t h e e g r e s s s e g m e n t of o n e of t h e
_four d a t a flights. T h e d a t a f l i g h t was randomly selected.
T h e f i r e w a s scheduled t o begin a t a randomly s e l e c t e d
t i m e b e t w e e n 2 and 20 min a f t e r t h e level off. T h e
f i r e was s i m u l a t e d by illumination of t h e m a s t e r f i r e
warning (MFW), a steady f i r e light in one of t h e f o u r
f i r e handles mounted a b o v e t h e windscreen, a n d t h e
sounding of a warning ("whoop") horn.
The correct
response was f o r t h e pilot t o give t h e c o m m a n d ,
"Condition lever," followed by t h e number of t h e e n g i n e
(one, two, t h r e e , or f o u r ) and "feather."
A t t h e pilot's
command, t h e copilot was required t o move t h e
a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e r in t h e c e n t e r console t o t h e full-back
position. T h e pilot then pulled t h e corresponding f i r e
handle and s t a t e d , "Engine," followed by t h e number of
t h e engine on f i r e (one, two, three, or four) and "Fire
h a n d l e pull."
When h e pulled t h e f i r e handle, t h e
simulator copilot discharged t h e f i r e extinguishing agent.
Finally, t h e simulator pilot called f o r t h e cleanup
checklist. A t t h a t t i m e , a s a f e t y pilot informed t h e
simulator crew: "Emergency terminated."
C o m p l e t i n g Checklists - Nine c h e c k l i s t s w e r e
scheduled t o b e c o m p l e t e d during e a c h f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n or
d a t a flight a t t h e following times: I) b e f o r e flight, 2)
a f t e r t a k e o f f , 3) 20 minute, 4) 10 minute, 5) slowdown,
6) 1 minute, 7) drop, 8) d e s c e n t , and 9) b e f o r e landing.
D e t e c t i n g a n Oil-Pressure Change - A c h a n g e in
oil pressure in one of t h e f o u r engines occurred during
t h e ingress s e g m e n t of t h e mission. T h e c h a n g e was
i n i t i a t e d a t a randomly s e l e c t e d t i m e , f r o m 1 t o 36
m i n u t e s a f t e r level-off.
T h e random selection was t o
e n s u r e a full range of values f o r t h e s t a r t time. This
s e g m e n t was chosen because t h e c r e w would b e
c o n c e n t r a t i n g on navigating t o t h e drop point r a t h e r than
on monitoring engine s t a t u s . T h e engine t h a t had t h e
e r r o r was randomly s e l e c t e d , with one constraint: t h a t
e a c h oil-pressure gauge fail an equal number of t i m e s
a c r o s s t h e e n t i r e e x p e r i m e n t . Because of t h e 360-degree
f a c e of t h e dial, t h e e r r o r was 3 d e g r e e s / m i n u t e with a
maximum e r r o r of 20 degrees. If t h e e r r o r was n o t
d e t e c t e d , i t continued throughout t h e remainder of t h e
flight.
D e t e c t i n g a Heading Discrepancy - A n incipient
heading-angle e r r o r ( 6 degreeslmin) was introduced i n t o
both t h e pilot's and copilot's Horizontal Situation
Indicators (HSI) during t h e e g r e s s s e g m e n t of t h e d a t a
flights. This e r r o r could r e s u l t in a maximum 15-degree
discrepancy in heading a n g l e b e t w e e n t h e HSI and t h e
radio m a g n e t i c indicator (RMI). T h e e r r o r began a t a
t i m e s e l e c t e d randomly b e t w e e n I and 10 minutes a f t e r
t h e s t a r t of t h e segment.
T h e selection w a s
pseudorandom because of t h r e e constraints: 1) e a c h t i m e
a s s i g n m e n t must occur a t l e a s t four t i m e s , and no m o r e
t h a n f i v e , a c r o s s t h e e n t i r e e x p e r i m e n t , 2) t h e heading
e r r o r could n o t s t a r t simultaneously with t h e engine f i r e ,
a n d 3) t h e f o u r s t a r t t i m e s f o r e a c h c r e w had t o b e
unique. T h e e r r o r was c o r r e c t e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y if n o t
d e t e c t e d b e f o r e t h e beginning of t h e n e x t s e g m e n t , i.e.,
illuminated landing s y s t e m (ILS) approach.
Controlling t h e A i r c r a f t - When t h e landing g e a r
w a s raised, t h e simulation pilot controlled t h e a i r c r a f t
by using t h e fully functioning yoke, rudders, and throttles.
Altitude, airspeed, v e r t i c a l velocity, bank angle, yoke
and t h r o t t l e movements, and f l a p s e t t i n g s w e r e recorded
e v e r y t w o hundredths of a second during e v e r y s e g m e n t
of t h e mission.
Localizer a n d glideslope e r r o r w e r e
recorded during t h e ILS a p p r o a c h a n d landing segment.
Throughout t h e f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n (fam) and d a t a flights,
t h e s i m u l a t o r pilot also i n s t r u c t e d t h e s i m u l a t o r copilot
t o s e t f l a p s and t o raise and lower t h e landing gear.
0% during
F l a p s e t t i n g s varied by mission segment:
ingress and t h e ILS approach: 50% during t h e a i r drop
and e g r e s s segments; and 100% during landing.
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES (UNSW) on October 27, 2017 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1989-3331
Of special i n t e r e s t was t h e simulator pilot's
p e r f o r m a n c e during a 3-degree s t e p c h a n g e in pitch during
t h e s i m u l a t e d air drops. This c h a n g e w a s c r e a t e d using
TIFS'
variable-stability
feature
and
occurred
a u t o m a t i c a l l y I second a f t e r t h e chute-release pushbutton
was pressed.
N o t e t h a t t h e chute-release pushbutton
was a r m e d by t h e onboard technician during t h e
slowdown, and disarmed a f t e r t h e s i m u l a t e d drop, t o
avoid t h e danger of a c c i d e n t a l a c t i v a t i o n of t h e r a m p
c h a n g e during a n o t h e r s e g m e n t of t h e flight. T h e c h u t e release pushbutton was a r m e d e v e n if a "No drop" signal
w e r e given i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t , thus allowing t h e a i r c r e w
t o drop heavy e q u i p m e n t in error.
T h e pitch c h a n g e was a r a m p i n c r e a s e in pitch ( t o
s i m u l a t e heavy e q u i p m e n t moving a f t of t h e c e n t e r of
gravity) followed by a 3-degree stepdown in pitch ( t o
s i m u l a t e t h e e q u i p m e n t leaving t h e aircraft). T h e 3d e g r e e , pitch-down a t t i t u d e was s e l e c t e d t o provide t h e
simulator pilot with a d i f f i c u l t t a s k t o perform during
t h e low airspeed (130 knots) nose-up a t t i t u d e . This s e t
of conditions k e p t t h e TIFS just a b o v e s t a l l conditions in
a C-130 t y p e a i r c r a f t .
task
S t a t i o n Keeping - T h e station-keeping
s i m u l a t e d f o r m a t i o n flying a n d required pursuit tracking
of a mythical l e a d a i r c r a f t . T h e pilot was i n s t r u c t e d t o
maintain 4000-foot spacing b e t w e e n TIFS a n d t h e l e a d
a i r c r a f t , using s i m u l a t e d SKE. T h e display p r e s e n t e d a
s e t of 4000-ft r a n g e rings, with t h e l e a d a i r c r a f t in t h e
c e n t e r . T h e position of t h e l e a d a i r c r a f t was marked
on t h e display with a box symbol in t h e 12 o'clock
position.
If t h e l e a d a i r c r a f t symbol was d r i f t i n g
downward on t h e display, t h e response was t o d e c r e a s e
airspeed; upward d r i f t required speeding up. T h e pilot's
t a s k was t o m a t c h t h e l e a d a i r c r a f t ' s flight path.
-
Aerial Navigation
T h e copilot was responsible of
a e r i a l navigation during a l l s e g m e n t s of t h e mission. His
job w a s aided by a c o m p u t e r f l i g h t plan g e n e r a t e d by a
C-130 navigator b e f o r e e a c h flight. T h e plan i d e n t i f i e d
t h e e s t i m a t e d t i m e of a r r i v a l (ETA) a t waypoints A
through F. Used a s d a t a w e r e deviations f r o m t h e s e
ETAS, and t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e waypoints a t t h e
s i m u l a t o r c r e w ' s waypoint back.
- The
copilot
received
an
Authentication
a u t h e n t i c a t e c o m m a n d (e.g., " A u t h e n t i c a t e Bravo Zulu")
f r o m a s a f e t y pilot during t h e ingress s e g m e n t of t h e
familiarization and d a t a flights, just a f t e r t h e slowdown
( s t a r t of t h e drop segment). T h e copilot scanned his
a u t h e n t i c a t i o n c o d e book t o find t h e page with t h e
a p p r o p r i a t e d a t e and t i m e . When t h e copilot found t h e
a p p r o p r i a t e page, h e r e a d back t o t h e s a f e t y pilot t h e
t w o l e t t e r s identified by t h e column heading from t h e
f i r s t l e t t e r in t h e commnd (e.g., Bravo) a n d t h e row
heading from t h e second l e t t e r in t h e c o m m a n d (e.g.,
Zulu).
T h e l e t t e r s w e r e s e l e c t e d randomly, with t h e
c o n s t r a i n t t h a t e a c h l e t t e r occur a t l e a s t o n c e during
t h e e n t i r e experiment.
Changing Radio F r e q u e n c i e s - During t h e preflight
planning, t h e simulator a i r c r e w s w e r e given a l i s t of six
VHF frequencies identified a s T A C A , B, C , D, E, a n d
F. A s e p a r a t e s e t of f r e q u e n c i e s was assigned f o r use
during e a c h d a t a flight. T h e f r e q u e n c i e s w e r e randomly
s e l e c t e d b u t with t h r e e constraints: 1) e a c h f r e q u e n c y
o c c u r r e d a t l e a s t t w i c e b u t never m o r e than t h r e e t i m e
across all d a t a flights, 2) all six frequencies within a s e t
w e r e unique, and 3) special use f r e q u e n c i e s (e.g., 120.5,
121.5, 121.9, 1122.6, and 123.9) w e r e not used.
T h e copilot s w i t c h e d f r o m o n e t o a n o t h e r of t h e
six f r e q u e n c i e s in response t o radio c a l l s from a simulated
formation-lead a i r c r a f t (for example, "Go t o TAC A").
F o r this e x p e r i m e n t , t h e s e c a l l s w e r e initiated by a s a f e t y
pilot shortly b e f o r e t h e 10-minute checklist, during t h e
slowdown, and a t t h e s t a r t of t h e e g r e s s segment. T h e
simulator copilot responded by tuning in t h e VHF
frequency corresponding t o t h e T A C frequency, and
t r a n s m i t t i n g t h e c a l l sign followed by t h e n e w frequency
designation. Call signs w e r e randomly s e l e c t e d English
words with t h r e e t o f i v e l e t t e r s . E a c h word w a s followed
by a two-digit number. E a c h digit ( z e r o t o nine) o c c u r r e d
a t l e a s t 9 t i m e s and no m o r e t h a n 10 t i m e s throughout
the experiment.
Returning f r o m a n E m p t y Channel - During one of
t h e f r e q u e n c y changes, t h e new f r e q u e n c y w a s a n e m p t y
channel. Hence, t h e s i m u l a t o r copilot had t o r e t u r n t o
t h e previous frequency, ask f o r a n operational channel,
e n t e r i t i n t o t h e VHF head, and confirm t h a t t h e channel
was indeed o p e r a t i o n a l by t r a n s m i t t i n g a message. If
t h e simulator pilot failed t o change back t o t h e original
frequency within 5 minutes, a s a f e t y pilot would c o m m a n d
t h e s i m u l a t o r copilot t o g o t o t h e new operational
frequency.
Responding t o a n IFF Query - O n c e during ingress
a n d o n c e during egress, a s a f e t y pilot g a v e a n Identify
F r i e n d or F o e I F F ) query: f o r example, s t a t e d "One,
two, t h r e e , four, IDENT."
T h e simulator copilot t h e n
moved t h e four I F F thumbwheels t o t h e s e t t i n g s given
in t h e I F F request, and pressed t h e IDENT pushbutton.
E a c h I F F thumbwheel could b e s e t t o a single digit f r o m
0 through 9. T i m e f o r t h e IFF query w a s random, with
t w o constraints: 1) t h e query during t h e e g r e s s s e g m e n t
could n o t happen simultaneously with t h e engine f i r e a n d
2) e a c h s t a r t t i m e had t o b e unique a c r o s s all four d a t a
flights f o r a single crew. Numbers f o r t h e IFF query
w e r e randomly s e l e c t e d with o n e constraint: all digits
had t o occur a t l e a s t six a n d no m o r e t h a n s e v e n t i m e s ,
across the entire experiment.
Updating t h e R e l e a s e Point - A f t e r responding t o
t h e predrop a u t h e n t i c a t i o n c o m m a n d , t h e simulator
copilot received winds a t s u r f a c e information from drop
z o n e personnel (simulated by a s a f e t y pilot).
This
information could be, f o r e x a m p l e , "Winds a t s u r f a c e 180
degrees, 10 knots."
T h e winds a t s u r f a c e vlaues w e r e
pseudorandomly s e l e c t e d t o b e +/-20, +/-25, +/-30, +/35, or +/-40 k n o t s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e winds p r e s e n t e d a t
t h e preflight briefing.
T h e r e was o n e c o n s t r a i n t on
selection of t h e wide deviation:
t h a t e a c h deviation
occur a n equal number of t i m e s in t h e drop and no-drop
d a t a flights.
T h e wind direction identified which radius on t h e
windface was t o b e used.
T h e copilot used this
information t o u p d a t e t h e c o m p u t e d air release point
(CARP), c a l c u l a t e d during t h e preflight briefing, by using
a t r a n s p a r e n t c i r c u l a r windface.
T h e c e n t e r of t h e
windface was overlaid on a s c a l e d a e r i a l photograph of
t h e drop zone. T h e c e n t e r w a s displaced by t h e F o r w a r d
T r a v e l D i s t a n c e (FTD) p r e s e n t e d a t t h e preflight briefing.
Wind velocity, assigned a l t i t u d e , and initial heading f r o m
t h e initial p o i n t (IP) w e r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e preflight
briefing, and r e m a i n e d unchanged.
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES (UNSW) on October 27, 2017 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1989-3331
Dropping Heavy Equipment - Immediately b e f o r e
t h e simulated a i r drop, t h e simulator copilot monitored
t w o voice channels: t h e ground personnel (represented
by t h e onboard experimenter). Unless t h e copilot heard
a "No drop" signal f r o m e i t h e r channel, h e pressed t h e
"chute-release" pushbutton in t h e c e n t e r console of t h e
simulation cockpit, and moved t h e jump-signal toggle on
t h e r i g h t bulkhead t o t h e "go" position. T h e l a t t e r a c t i o n
caused t h e g r e e n drop-status light t o illuminate. N o t e
t h a t pressing t h e chute-release pushbutton caused t h e
e q u i p m e n t t o b e dropped e v e n i f t h e jump signals had
not been moved t o t h e go position.
A no-drop signal required only t h a t t h e copilot m o v e
his hand away f r o m t h e chute-release pushbutton.
Subjects w e r e briefed t h a t air drops o c c u r r e d in t h r e e
o u t of f o u r opportunities in t h e operational environment,
and t h a t they could e x p e c t similar probabilities in t h i s
experiment. In reality t h e s i m u l a t e d a i r drops o c c u r r e d
in t w o o u t of four opportunities. T h e o r d e r of t h e drop
or no-drop signals was random a c r o s s d a t a flights, with
o n e constraint: t w o drops a n d t w o no-drops o c c u r r e d
f o r e a c h aircrew.
respond in^ t o P i l o t Commands - T h e copilot
adjusted f l a p s a n d raised a n d lowered t h e landing- g- e a r
upon command f r o m t h e pilot.
Secondary Task - E s t i m a t e s of inflight workload
w e r e obtained f r o m p e r f o r m a n c e of a self-paced,
secondary task:
specifically, t h e S t e r n b e r g memory
s e a r c h t a s k (task 9 of UTC-PAB).
Single l e t t e r s w e r e
presented in t h e lower left-hand a r e a of both t h e pilot's
and t h e copilot's SKE display, with s e p a r a t e l e t t e r s being
presented t o each.
Both t h e pilot and copilot w e r e
i n s t r u c t e d t o a c t i v a t e a slider s w i t c h on their yokes when
a l e t t e r was presented. They w e r e told t o push t h e
slider upward if t h e l e t t e r belonged t o one of e i g h t s e t s
of f o u r l e t t e r s m e m o r i z e d b e f o r e t h e flight; downward,
if t h e l e t t e r did not. T h e s e t s i z e of four was s e l e c t e d
t o m a x i m i z e t a s k difficulty.
T h e mapping of flight t a s k s t o UTC-PAB t a s k s i s
given in T a b l e 5.
Table 5.
Mapping Flight Tasks to
UTC-PAB Tasks
slight Tasks
UTC-PAB Tasks
iesponding to an
Engine Fire
Visual Memory Search
Zompleting Checklists
Time Wall
Interval Production
3etecting a n OilPressure Change
Four-Choice Serial Reaction
Time
Visual Probability Monitoring
P a t t e r n Com arison
(Successvie7
Detecting a Heading
Discrepancy
P a t t e r n Comparison
(Simultaneous)
Controlling the Aircraft Visual Scanning
Station Keeping
Spatial Processing
Matrix Rotation
Manikin Test
Aerial Navigation
Mathematical Processing
Spatial Processing
Authentication
Code Substitution
Changing Radio
Frequencies
Linguistic Processing
Grammatical Reasoning
(Traditional)
Grammatical Reasoning
(Symbolic)
Returning from an
Empty Channel
Continuous Recognition
Auditory Memory Search
Responding t o an
IFF Query
Four-Choice Serial Reaction
Time
Updating the
Release Point
Two-Column Addition
Mathematical Processing
Dropping Heavy
Equipment
Dichotic Listening
Unstable Tracking
Memory Search Unstable
Tracking Combination
Responding t o Pilot
Commands
Linguistic Processing
Performing a
Secondary Task
Visual Memory Search
N o t e t h a t t h e S t r o o p Task f r o m t h e UTC-PAB w a s n o t
incorporated i n t o t h e f l i g h t tasks s i n c e t h e S t r o o p
required a color display.
REFERENCES
Angus, R.G. and R.J. Heslegrave, 1985, E f f e c t s of
Sleep Loss on Sustained Cognitive Performance during a
Command and Control Simulation, Behavior Research
methods, Instruments and Computers, l7, 55-67.
Downloaded by UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES (UNSW) on October 27, 2017 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1989-3331
Baddeley, A.D., 1968, A 3-Minute Reasoning T e s t
Based on G r a m m a t i c a l Transformations, Psychonomic
Science, 10,341-342.
Lohman, D.F., 1979, Spatial Ability: A Review and
Reanalysis of t h e Correlational Literature, (Tech R e p o r t
Number 8), Stanford, California: Aptitude Research
Project, School of Education, Stanford University.
.,
Michelson, M.J 196 1, Pharmacological Evidence of
t h e Role of Acetylcholine in t h e Higher Nervous Activity
of Man and Animals, Activas Nervosa Superior, 3, 140147.
Michon, J.A., 1966, Tapping Regularity a s a Measure
of Perceptual Motor Load, Ergonomics, 2, 401-412.
Baddeley, A.D., Cuccaro, W.J.,
Egstrom, G.H.,
Weltman, G., and Willis, M.A., 1975, Cognitive Efficiency
of Divers Working in Cold Water, Human Factors, l7,
446-454.
Neisser, V., 1963, Decision-Time Without ReactionTime: Experiments in Visual Scanning, American Journal
of Psychology, 76, 376-385.
Borland, R.G., Brennan, D.H., Nicholson, A.N., and
Smith, P.A., 1985, Studies on t h e possible c e n t r a l and
peripheral e f f e c t s in man of a cholenesterase inhibitor
(pyridostigmine). Human Toxicology, 5, 293-300.
P e r e z , W.A.,
Masline, P.J., Ramsey, E.G., and
Urban, K.E.,
1987,
Unified tri-service cognitive
performance
assessment
battery:
review
and
methodology.
AAMRL-TR-87-007,
Wright-Patterson
AFB, OH.
Folkard, S., 1975, Diurnal Variation in Logical
Reasoning, British Journal of Psychology, 66, 1-8.
Graham, C. and Cook, M.R., 1984,
pyridostigmine bromide on psychomotor
performance. AFAMRL-TR-84-052.
E f f e c t s of
and visual
Johnson, B.L., Cohen, H.H., Struble, R.P., S e t z e r ,
J.V., Anger, W.K., Gutuik, B.D., McDonough, T., and
Hauser, P., 1974, Field Evaluation of Carbon Monoxide
Exposed Toll Collectors, In C. Xintaras and Johnson, B.L.,
(Eds.), Behavioral T o x i c o l o ~(306-3281, U S . D e p a r t m e n t
HEW, Publication Number 74-126, U S . Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Kay, C.D. and Morrison, J.D., 1985, The e f f e c t s
of a single oral dose of pyridostigmine on c o n t r a s t
sensitivity.
Clasgow, U.K.:
Institute of Physiology,
University of Glasgow.
Sidell, F.R.,
Crowell, E.B.,
Ketchum, A.S.,
Aghajanian, G.K., and Hayes, A.H., 1973, Atropine,
Scopolamine, and Ditran: Comparative Pharmacology and
Antagonists in Man, Psychopharmacologia, 2, 12 1- 133.
Lewis, J., Baddeley, A.D., Bonham, K.G., and
Lovett, D., 1970, T r a f f i c Pollution and Mental Efficiency,
Nature, 225, 95-96.
Poulton, E.C., Hunt, G.M., Carpenter, A., and
Edwards, RS., 1978, T h e P e r f o r m a n c e of Junior Hospital
Doctors Following Reduced Sleep and Long Hours of
Work, Ergonomics, 2 l , 279-295.
Repko, J.D., Jones, P.F., Garcia, L.S., Schneider,
E.J., Roseman, E., and Corum, C.R., 1976, Behavorial
and Neurological E f f e c t s of Methyl Chloride, Washington,
D.C.:
U S . Government Printing Office. U S . DHHS
(NIOSH) Publication Number 7 7 - h 5 .
Repko, J.D., Morgan Jr., B.B., and Nicholson, J.,
1975, ~ e h a v i o r a l ~ f f e c t sof Occupational ~ x p o s u r e t o
Lead, DHEW Publication Number (NIOSH) 75-184,
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Schiflett, S., Stranges, S., Slater, T., and Jackson,
M., 1987, T h e e f f e c t s of pyridostigmine bromide on
perforrnance a t ground level and altitude. Proceedings
of t h e Aerospace Medical Association Annual Meeting,
L a s Vegas, Nevada, 1987.
Stroop, J.R., 1935, Studies of Interference in Verbal
Reactions, Journal of, 643662.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
778 Кб
Теги
3331, 1989
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа