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Chapter 29
The Influence of Employee Empowerment
on Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Shereen Noranee, Nazlinda Abdullah, Rohani Mohd,
Mohd Rahim Khamis, Rozilah Abdul Aziz, Rohana Mat Som
and Erma Ammira Mohd Ammirul
Abstract Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) makes an organization more
effective over time and across employees. Employee empowerment is necessary for
the success and survival of organizations. However, lack of trust toward employee
and misunderstanding of the employee empowerment may decrease employee
OCB. Hence, the main objective of this study is to examine the relationship
between employee empowerment and the dimensions of OCB. This research is
based on correlational research which to identify the association between
empowerment and the dimensions of OCB. Convenience sampling technique was
administered. 123 respondents were among the part-time of degree students from a
local university. The findings indicate that there were positive and significant
relationship between employee empowerment and all dimensions of OCB. The
study concludes that in general, employee empowerment would increase employee
work voluntarily, lessen complaints, abrest with latest information, and maintain
honesty in equal work pay.
S. Noranee (&) R. Mohd M.R. Khamis R.A. Aziz R.M. Som E.A.M. Ammirul
Faculty of Business and Management, UiTM, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Bandar Puncak
Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
e-mail: shereen@salam.uitm.edu.my
R. Mohd
e-mail: rohani191@salam.edu.uitm.my
M.R. Khamis
e-mail: rahim474@salam.uitm.edu.my
R.A. Aziz
e-mail: rozilah@puncakalam.edu.uitm.my
R.M. Som
e-mail: rohana536@puncakalam.edu.uitm.my
E.A.M. Ammirul
e-mail: ermaammira@gmail.com
N. Abdullah
Faculty of Applied Science, UiTM, Shah Alam 40000, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
e-mail: nazli003@salam.edu.uitm.my
© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018
F. Noordin et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd Advances in Business Research
International Conference, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-6053-3_29
305
306
S. Noranee et al.
Keywords Organizational citizenship behavior
Employee empowerment
Altruism Sportsmanship Conscientiousness Civic virtue Courtesy
29.1
Introduction
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is an important employee behavior to
maintain the growth and success of the organization. OCB is where the employees
act beyond their work-related role. This kind of behavior is not compulsory to
possess but it plays a major role for the success of the organization. This behavior is
a substantial factor in determining the productivity, efficiency and effectiveness of
the organization. Almost all organizations would want to achieve their goals and
profits and maintain their business in the long run. Hence, the organization must
attract the right employees, with the right goals and at the right time. This situation
will ensure that the organization can compete with other organizations within their
business scope or the same business line.
One of the ways for an organization to response to an increasingly complex and
competitive external environment is by practicing employee empowerment.
Employee empowerment is necessary for the success and survival of organizations
(Huq 2015). Employee empowerment in the organizational culture has becoming a
trend for organization development. Organizations prefer any ways that can contribute to the achievement toward their goals and objective. Employee empowerment resulted in higher degree of authority for the employees to function
independently in their job. Employees are urged to make their own decisions
without even consulted or discussed with their own superior, as such this situation
will enhance a bottom-up approach (Humborstad and Perry 2011). An employee is
said to be empowered when they are given the power to make their own decisions
and they have their own saying in the decision-making process. The feeling of
empowerment will influence an employee to be loyal, satisfied and encouraged to
come to work because they are happy and the turnover rate would reduce.
OCB gives several advantages such as productivity, innovative, performance,
reduced turnover and increase the intention to stay in the organization. While
employee empowerment is a situation where the employees are given the right and
power to influence people in the decision-making process (Amir and Amen 2014).
However, managers tend to avoid empowerment practices due to lack of trust
(Ambad and Bahron 2012) which may lead to low employee work performance. In
addition, according to Huq (2015), the benefits of employee empowerment committed by employees is not fully understood by both employees and employers.
This would decrease OCB among the employees. Hence, the main objective of this
study is to examine the relationship between employee empowerment and the
dimensions of OCB.
29
The Influence of Employee Empowerment on Organizational …
29.2
307
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
OCB occurs when the employees perform a task that goes beyond their work
related in accordance for the success of the organizations. This behavior will
influence their performance to be better and easy to get promoted. Over the past few
decades, research on OCB has been focused on the citizenship at work place (Paillé
and Grima 2011). This type of employee will go extra mile in order to feel satisfied
with their work or non-work-related area. An employee is said to have an OCB
when he or she possesses the five dimensions of OCB, namely altruism, sportsmanship, conscientiousness, civic virtue, and courtesy. OCB has an important role
for the survival of the organization. OCB will bring satisfaction, team work, customer orientation, and reduced turnover, and it will increase the productivity level
among employees (Organ 1988; Najafi et al. 2011).
29.3
Empowerment
Empowerment is when the employees are given the autonomy to influence others
and the right to participate in the decision-making process (Kumar and Moorthy
2015). Employees that can drive their subordinates to achieve organization’s
objectives, goals or targets are considered to have leadership skills. In the past two
decades, psychological empowerment has become a very popular topic in management field for academic researchers and business practitioners (Kumar and
Moorthy 2015). A leader is said to empower employees when he can influence
others to get the job done on track. It is important for a leader to empower
employees because empowerment will affect the organization as a whole.
Employees need to possess critical and analytical thinking in order to be empowered. Delegation, shared decision-making, and participative management are parts
of empowerment (Al-Kahtani et al. 2011).
29.4
Relationship Between Employee Empowerment
and OCB
Over the past few decades, there have been a lot of researchers doing research on
empowerment and OCB. Subsequently, there is a positive relationship between
empowerment and OCB (Jha 2014). The employees will show a positive behavior
in doing the job that needed their extra role that is not within their job description,
and this will promote their leadership skills and knowledge in making decisions.
OCB and Altruism. Altruism can be considered as helping others voluntarily
without being asked for help and it is directed toward a person on a face-to-face
basis. Furthermore, altruism includes a various interpersonal acts that will help to
308
S. Noranee et al.
maintain the interpersonal and social context within employees. Altruism has a
positive relationship with empowerment because there are willingly to lend a
helping hand without even being asked for help and they do not take into account
whether their behavior will be rewarded or not (Jha 2014).
OCB and Sportsmanship. A good sportsmanship behavior should bring the team
toward achieving the organizational goals by fostering the right plan to achieve the
organizational goals. When the team can work in a systematic way, it will increase
the profitability of the company and the employees will treasure the social context
that they have between each other. In addition, the organization should promote
sportsmanship within their organization, and this has been proved to have a positive
relationship with empowerment.
OCB and Conscientiousness. When an employee follows all the rules and regulations of the organization, this will create a harmonious and peaceful environment
(Priyadharshini and Mahadevan 2014). This type of behavior will give an impact
toward the newbies. They will eventually follow all the rules and regulations made
by the organization. When the employee obeys the rules and regulations of the work
place without even being supervised by their superior (Zhong et al. 2011).
According to Jha (2014), empowerment has a positive impact with conscientiousness because it is predicted by the traits, skills, ability and their awareness to
condone with the rules and regulations of the organization.
OCB and Civic Virtue. Civic virtue is when an employee joins or involves with
any activities for the well-being of the company and to maintain the positive image
of the company. An employee with this behavior will actively participate with any
activities for the betterment of the organization whether in the long or short run.
Empowerment have a positive relationship with civic virtue where employees are
very cost-minded and they help to ensure that the organization will not be bankrupt
by giving out suggestions and opinions that might directly affect the operating
efficiency.
OCB and Courtesy. An employee is considered as committing a courtesy when
he or she provides any useable information or prevents any problem from arising
within the work limit (Zhong et al. 2011). Employees with courtesy will consider
anything such as decision-making results whether it will affect other employees.
They are very concern with their co-workers. They want mutual benefits between
employees and employer. They will be loyal toward the organizations, supervisors,
work groups, and departments (Jha 2014). There is a positive relationship between
empowerment and courtesy where the supervisor will think first whether his
decisions will affect his employees in a positive or negative way (Zhong et al.
2011).
Based on the above discussion, the following hypotheses were formulated:
H1: The employee empowerment has a relationship with altruism in OCB.
H2: The employee empowerment has a relationship with sportsmanship in OCB.
H3: The employee empowerment has a relationship with conscientiousness in OCB.
H4: The employee empowerment has a relationship with civic virtue in OCB.
H5: The employee empowerment has a relationship with courtesy in OCB.
29
The Influence of Employee Empowerment on Organizational …
29.5
309
Methodology
This research is based on correlational research which to identify the association
between empowerment and the dimensions of OCB. There were 700 distance
learning program (DLP) part-time students from the Bachelor of Business
Administration (Hons) Human Resource Management program in UiTM Puncak
Alam that were selected to be the respondents for this study. From the study
conducted, majority of respondents among e-PJJ students in UiTM Puncak Alam
consist of female students. Most of the respondents aged between 21 and 23 years,
and majority of them was single. Moreover, most of the respondents hold a
bachelor degree as their highest education qualification. More than 80% respondents are Malay because UiTM only consists of student who is Malay and
Bumiputera. Lastly, majority of the respondent’s length of services is more than
3 years which hold a position as an executive in government sector.
Convenience sampling technique was administered. According to Kretjcie and
Morgan (1970), the minimum sample size for 700 student population is 100
respondents. In total 123 questionnaires were returned which considered as adequate and valid for statistical analysis. All data of the respondents were collected in
the spreadsheet using the Google Form. The questionnaire consists of three sections
which are demographic information of the respondents such as age, gender, education level, and length of service; Section B is the dimensions of OCB, and
Section C consists of employee empowerment items. The questionnaire for OCB
dimensions was obtained from Podsakoff et al. (1990),while the employee
empowerment items were adopted from Spreitzer (1995), namely 12-item
Empowerment at Work Scale.
29.6
Results and Discussion
The overall results of the correlation analysis between employee empowerment and
the dimensions of OCB are indicated in Table 29.1.
From Table 29.1, it can be said that all of the factors are correlated. There was a
positive correlation between employee empowerment and altruism (r = 0.585,
n = 123, p < 0.01). Overall, there was a strong, positive correlation for both
variables. This view is supported by Jha (2014) who writes that altruism has a
positive relationship with empowerment because there are willingly to lend a
helping hand without even being asked for help and they do not take into account
whether their behavior will be rewarded or not. Altruism is a behavior that a person
does without even being asked to do so (Zhong et al. 2011).
There was a positive correlation between employee empowerment and sportsmanship (r = 0.710, n = 123, p < 0.01). Overall, there was a strong, positive correlation for both variables. Sportsmanship has the strongest correlation with
employee empowerment compared to other dimensions of OCB. In the same vein, a
Altruism
Sportsmanship
Altruism
1
Sportsmanship
0.784**
1
Conscientiousness
0.673**
0.728**
Civic virtue
0.732**
0.808**
Courtesy
0.696**
0.760**
Employee empowerment
0.585**
0.710**
**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (two tailed)
Correlations
Table 29.1 Correlation analysis (N = 123)
1
0.765**
0.710**
0.628**
Conscientiousness
1
0.726**
0.698**
Civic virtue
1
0.681**
Courtesy
1
Employee empowerment
310
S. Noranee et al.
29
The Influence of Employee Empowerment on Organizational …
311
person with positive minded will accept any comments from anyone and will turn
the comments into a positive one. When employees can work in a systematic way, it
will increase the profitability of the company and the employees will treasure the
social context that they have between each other.
There was a positive correlation between employee empowerment and conscientiousness (r = 0.628, n = 123, p < 0.01). Overall, there was a strong, positive
correlation for both variables. In accordance with the present results, a previous
study has demonstrated that empowerment has a positive correlation with conscientiousness because it is predicted by the traits, skills, ability, and their awareness to
condone with the rules and regulations of the organization (Jha 2014). A discipline
employee will follow all the rules and regulations anywhere they go (Zhong et al
2011).
There was a positive correlation between employee empowerment and civic
virtue (r = 0.698, n = 123, p < 0.01). Overall, there was a strong, positive correlation for both variables. Increases in employee empowerment were correlated with
increases in civic virtue. The present findings seem to be consistent with other
research which found that empowerment has a positive relationship with civic
virtue where employees are very cost-minded, and they help to ensure that the
organization won’t be bankrupt by giving out suggestions and opinions that might
directly affect the operating efficiency (Talat et al. 2016). An employee with civic
virtue attitude will defend any negative comments being thrown at the company and
the will actively participate in any meetings for the betterment of the organization
(Lin 2013).
There was a positive correlation between employee empowerment and courtesy
(r = 0.681, n = 123, p < 0.01). Overall, there was a strong, positive correlation for
both variables. Increases in employee empowerment were correlated with increases
in courtesy. These results agree with the finding of a study (Zhong et al. 2011), in
which there is a positive relationship between empowerment and courtesy where
the supervisor will think first whether his decisions will affect his employees in a
positive or negative way. An employee with courtesy behavior will be loyal toward
the company, and they hate to create any quarrel between their co-workers (Jha
2014).
29.7
Conclusion and Recommendation
Employee empowerment correlated with all five dimensions of OCB which is
altruism, sportsmanship, conscientiousness, civic virtue, and courtesy. The
employees believed that the employee empowerment would increase their work
voluntarily, less of complaints, always keep up with the latest information and
maintaining honesty in equal work pay. The employees thought that with employee
empowerment, they are able to solve any work-related problems, maintain a positive image by gaining extra knowledge to improve the status quo and acknowledge
co-workers in every area.
312
S. Noranee et al.
All employers want employees who demonstrate an initiative by taking on and
completing tasks with little guidance. Of course, the expectation is that those
employees will perform OCB only in ways consistent with the organization
objectives and values. Hence, employees should foster an open communication,
reward for self-improvement, clearly define job description, and appreciate
employee efforts.
All these variables used by researcher would help the organization to consider
the important things for the leaders as well other distance learning program
(DLP) students who are working or pursuing their studies in UiTM Puncak Alam.
Other than that, an organization should look how the relationship of variables
(employee empowerment, altruism, sportsmanship, conscientiousness, civic virtue,
and courtesy) would give an impact to the organization whether in good effect or
vice versa.
The following are the recommendations based on findings from this study. In
term of empowerment, it is good to practices greater empowerment for everyone in
the organization such as continuous learning and wide involvement (Al-Kahtani
et al. 2011). The organization should make all of their employees involve in the
decision-making process which will increase their level of empowerment.
Besides that, in order to give a greater impact on OCB, the researcher can
provide information about goal performance (Fernandez and Moldogaziev 2013).
By providing information about goal performance, it can increase the level of OCB
among employees. When the employee feels that he or she needs to make sure that
the organization runs smoothly, they will play the role of OCB in their daily life.
The management should provide a 360° feedback system where the entire unit in
organization can evaluate each other so that the management can provide an
effective ways to overcome negligence. The employees also should organize their
work effectively in order to perform efficiently in their day-to-day work basis.
Lastly, reward those who perform better or improve greatly in their work area such
as by giving bonus on their next pay. This action will keep the employees loyal with
the organization.
29.8
Recommendations for Future Research
It must be noted that the research focuses only on employee empowerment. It is
recommended that future research with the same study may be conducted on the
public educational institutions of other cities. In order to get better finding,
researcher may conduct the same survey on other public educational institutions of
other cities. This is because different universities may provide different results or
findings.
It also must be noted that the research focuses on the dimensions of OCB and
employee empowerment. It is recommended that future research explore the study
by putting the mediator between the dimensions of OCB and employee empowerment to get the best result such as reward or mental motivation.
29
The Influence of Employee Empowerment on Organizational …
313
Comparative studies are recommended which may be held for private and public
institutes and other organization. This similar study can be conducted from organization itself. This is because it will be able to give clear practices that will
influence the dimensions of OCB in their organization. The findings may different
from the employee perspective.
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