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Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics
ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT
High-Frequency Microstrip Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Fabricated using
FR-4 Glass Epoxy Material
To cite this article before publication: Mouloud CHALLAL et al 2017 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. in press https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6463/aa95a7
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High-Frequency Microstrip Dual-Band Bandpass
Filter Fabricated using FR-4 Glass Epoxy Material
Mouloud CHALLAL*, Ali MERMOUL and Kenza HOCINE
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University M’Hamed Bougara of Boumerdes, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,
Signals and Systems Laboratory
Independence street 35000 Boumerdes, ALGERIA
E-mail: mchallal@univ-boumerdes.dz
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, design, fabrication, and measurement of a novel microstrip dual-band
bandpass filter (BPF) structure with compact size using FR-4 glass epoxy material is presented.
The filter structure is composed of folded non-uniform meander resonators. The proposed filter
with a total size of 0.24λg × 0.16λg is designed to exhibit two passbands centred at 2.68 GHz
and 5.64 GHz with fractional bandwidths of 25.38 % and 10.4 %, respectively. The simulation
and experimental measurement results are basically in good agreement which validate the
proposed approach.
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KEYWORDS: High-frequency; Band-pass filter (BPF); Dual-band; FR-4 glass epoxy material.
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Page 1 of 12
*
Corresponding author.
Contents
1. Introduction
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2. Design procedure
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3. Fabrication, measurement and comparison
3.1 Fabrication
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3.2 Measurement and comparison
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4. Conclusion
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1. Introduction
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Filters have great roles in most electronic circuits, especially in radio frequency (RF) and
Microwave application, their main function is to separate combine frequencies to get the desired
results, because the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum has to be shared, however it is limited.
Therefore engineers and designers are interested in filter design fields in order to develop
circuits with higher performance, lower cost and smaller size, depending on the specifications
and requirements, RF/Microwave filters may be designed as distributed or lumped element
circuits; they may be realized in various transmission line structures, such as waveguide, coaxial
line and microstrip [1-6].
The modern progress of new materials and manufacture technologies, including
Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC), High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS),
Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) and Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS),
has stimulated the fast progress of novel microstrip and other filters [7-12]. In the meantime,
advances in Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools such as full-wave EM simulators have
revolutionized filter design. Many novel microstrip filters with advanced filtering characteristics
have been demonstrated.
There exist a large set of filters each having specific characteristics. However, dual-band
bandpass filters (BPFs), in microstrip technology, attracted the researchers in wireless
communication field, especially in satellite and mobile communications, due to high
performance in narrow-band BPFs having low insertion loss (IL), high return loss (RL),
compact size and high selectivity. A variety of techniques have been used to achieve planar
dual-band BPFs such as cascading two individual filters either two BPFs or combining bandpass
and bandstop filters which provides dual-band response [13], stepped-impedance resonators
(SIRs) are introduced to implement dual-band BPFs in [14, 15]. In [16], short-circuited SIR is
employed to perform dual-wideband performance. The central frequencies and bandwidths can
be controlled by tuning the design parameters. In [17], stubs loaded SIR is proposed to design
single/dual-wideband BPFs which central frequencies can be controlled by the loaded stubs. In
[18], transversal signal-interaction concepts are applied to implement dual-band BPFs. Several
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transmission zeros close to the two passbands can be produced due to the superposition of
signals for the two transmission paths. In [19], a novel dual-wideband BPF by means of a ladder
stub resonator is proposed. By varying the design parameters, the central frequency and
bandwidth of the second passband can be tuned. In [20], dual-wideband BPF is designed using a
novel open stub-loaded coupled-line section. The proposed filter is very compact and simple in
structure. In [21], embedded center-grounded SIR and open-loop resonators are employed to
realize a dual-band BPF. In [22, 23], a dual-band BPF is proposed using open/short stub
resonators, stepped impedance resonators, dual-mode resonators. Although these reported dualband BPFs have their own merits, additional improvements are still required. For example, poor
out-of-band rejection [13], [14], [18] and [19]; large circuit size [15], [16], [18], [19] and [22];
poor passband selectivity [16]; complex configuration [19]; and incapability of controlling
central frequencies and bandwidths [17], [20] and [22].
In this article, a novel compact microstrip dual-band BPFs for Wi-Fi and WLAN
applications is designed, fabricated and measured. The used substrate material, flame retardant 4 (FR-4), has a relative dielectric constant of 4.3, a thickness of 1.62 mm, a copper thickness
0.035 mm and a loss tangent of 0.0017. The design and simulation are carried out using method
of moment based IE3D EM software whereas the process of implementation is performed using
an MITS electronics printed circuit board (PCB) prototyping machine and the measurement part
is achieved using a Rohde and Schwarz vector network analyzer (VNA). The proposed dualband BPF has satisfactory results demonstrating that it is well-suited for wireless
communication systems.
2. Design procedure
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This work is started by using a conventional second-order hairpin filter structure as shown in
Figure 1(a). The open-loop resonators are embedded in a U-shaped resonator to realize a
significant size reduction of the filter. The initial structure dimensions W1, W2, W3, L1, L2, L3
and g are considered respectively 3.11 mm, 0.7 mm, 0.6 mm, 8.8 mm, 4.5 mm, 5.9 mm and 0.2
mm. The simulated S-parameters are shown in Figure 1(b). From Figure 1(b), one can observe
that a mono-band with a central frequency around 4 GHz is obtained.
Figure 1 : Second-order hairpin filter (a) Layout and, (b) Magnitude of the S-parameters.
In order to generate a second central frequency, first, we decrease “L1” into 2 mm and
then we widen “g” into 2.8 mm while the other parameters are kept constant. Next, we connect
the two U-shaped resonators each other. Finally, another two U-shaped resonators coupled to a
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50 Ω microstrip line are added as shown in Figure 2(a). This cross-coupling between resonators
is exploited to generate multiple transmission zeros in the stopbands of the filter. As a result,
wide stopbands with sharp and large attenuations are obtained as shown in Figure 2(b) which
illustrates a dual-band bandpass response; however, the RL of the 2nd band is less than 10 dB
which is not desirable. For that, the structure must be modified so that to improve that
parameter. To see the effect of changing the length L1, a parametric study is carried out, where
L1 is varied from 6.7 mm to 9 mm while the other parameters are kept constant. The Sparameters simulation results are shown in Figure 3.
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(a)
(b)
Figure 2 : Modified hairpin filter (a) Layout and, (b) Magnitude of the S-parameters.
Figure 3 : Magnitude of the S-parameters for different values of L1.
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From Figure 3, as L1 increases, the first passband is shifted down while the S11 is kept
constant, but an unwanted ripple occurs at the second one and, in order to get better results,
further modifications are taken. A parametric study is used to optimize the filter design; the
final structure of the proposed dual-band BPF is shown in Figure 4.
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Figure 4 : Geometrical structure of the proposed dual-band BPF
The structure dimensions are illustrated in Table 1.
W1
W2
W3
W4
W5
L10
G4
Value
(mm)
3.11
0.2
0.73
8.37
8.2
5
0.2
Parameter
W6
W7
W8
W9
W10
G1
G5
Value
(mm)
9.1
9
0.63
0.4
7.2
0.2
0.2
Parameter
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TABLE 1: THE PROPOSED DUAL-BAND BPF DIMENSIONS
W11
L1
L2
L3
L4
G2
G6
Value
(mm)
6.8
6.7
0.75
0.55
0.9
0.4
0.2
Parameter
L5
L6
L7
L8
L9
G3
-
Value
(mm)
0.6
1.1
0.7
2.1
1
0.37
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The simulation results are illustrated in Figure 5.
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Figure 5 : Magnitude of the S-parameters for the proposed dual-band BPF
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The filter performances are summarized in Table 2.
TABLE 2: FILTER CHARACTERISTICS
First band
Second band
Operating frequency (f0)
(GHz)
2.45
5.5
Transmission zero
level (dB)
-41/ -36
-36/ -32
Maximum IL
(dB)
0.43
0.53
FBW
(%)
15.2
8.06
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Band
The advantage of the proposed filter is that it can be used for many applications besides
Wi-Fi and WLAN applications by only changing one parameter which is W10 as shown in
Figure 6.
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The magnitude of the S-parameters for distinct values of W10 is shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6 : Magnitude of the S-parameters for different values of W10.
The results illustrated in Figure 6 are summarized in Table 3.
TABLE 3: DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS FOR DIFFERENT VALUES OF W10
1st band /2nd band
(GHz)
2.51/5.68
2.45/5.50
2.40/5.38
2.34/5.24
RL (dB) at
1st band/2nd band
26.92/23.43
26.3/26
25.77/28.1
25.3/30.5
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W10
(mm)
6.8
7.2
7.6
8.0
IL (dB) at
1st band/2nd band
0.39/0.65
0.43/0.53
0.45/0.46
0.49/0.41
FBW (%) at
1st band/2nd band
16.17/6.98
15.2/8.06
14.57/8.88
13.98/10.06
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Based on the values highlighted in Table 3, one may deduce that when W10 is increased
by 0.4 mm the first/second pass-bands are shifted down by approximately 0.05 GHz and 0.15
GHz, respectively. However, when W10 is increased, for the first pass-band, RL and FBW are
decreased while IL increased. For the second pass-band, RL and FBW are increased while IL
decreased.
The knowledge of the current distributions can help understanding the physical operating
mechanism of the proposed dual-band BPF which is based on folded non-uniform meander
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resonators. Following transmission line theory, for a simple open and lossless transmission line,
periodically when the voltage becomes minimum, the current takes minimum value and viceversa at every half-wavelength distance. Figure 7 shows the current distributions in the
proposed structure at at both passband frequencies 2.45/5.5 GHz and at rejection band
frequencies 0.5/3.6/6.4 GHz (as sample frequencies). At the passband frequencies 2.45/5.5
GHz, the observed current has the same distribution as described in an open
transmission line theory. That is; the current is maximal in the folded non-uniform meander
resonators. This maximum current creates a maximum magnetic coupling with the parallel
input/output coupling lines. Accordingly, the signal transfer to the second port is maximized at
the both passband frequencies of each resonator. In the other hand, at the rejection band
frequencies, the current turn out to be low and signal transfer is very weak (lowest value around
-40 dB). Therefore, the filter operates perfectly at the rejected frequencies.
(b)
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(a)
(d)
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(c)
(e)
Figure 7 : Current distributions (a, b) at pass-band (2.45 GHz, 5.5 GHz), and (c, d, e) at
rejection-band frequencies 0.5 GHz, 3.6 GHz and 6.45 GHz, respectively.
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The open-loop resonators are embedded in a U-shaped resonator to realize a significant
size reduction of the proposed dual-band BPF. To further reduce the filter size, some practical
techniques can be employed to carry out a reduced size filter design such as the process of
bending different parts of the filter. This probably will be the most useful process to obtain more
compact sizes, particularly for extensive straight transmission lines or stubbed filters. In
addition, it may possibly, introduce either etching defects in the ground plane [5, 6], known as
defected ground structure (DGS) technique, or extra cross-coupling between nonadjacent
resonators.
3. Fabrication, measurement and comparison
3.1 Fabrication
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In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design, the proposed dual-band BPF is
fabricated using an MITS electronics PCB prototyping machine shown in Figure 8.
Figure 8 : Photograph of the PCB prototyping machine
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The photograph of the fabricated filter is depicted in Figure 9.
(a)
(b)
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Figure 9: Photograph of the fabricated filter (a) Top view and, (b) Bottom view.
3.2 Measurement and comparison
After the fabrication process, the filter performances are measured using Rohde & Schwarz
VNA. Figure 10 shows the simulated and measured S-parameters of the proposed filter. From
Figure 10, different shifts of 130 MHz and 120 MHz are observed for the first and second pass
band respectively. Concerning the RL, a noticeable decrease from 26.2 dB to 21.3 dB for first
pass-band frequency, and an increase from 26 dB to 31.4 dB for the second one. The IL is
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shifted from 0.45 dB to 1.8 dB and from 0.54 dB to 2.61 dB. The small difference between the
simulated and experimental results may possibly be caused by the realization imperfections such
as dimensions accuracy, weld between the feeding line and SMA connectors.
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Figure 10: Measured and simulated S-parameters of the proposed dual-band BPF
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The performance comparison between the proposed dual-band BPF against previously
published filters is summarized in Table 4.
TABLE 4: COMPARISON BETWEEN THE PROPOSED DUAL-BAND BPF AND PREVIOUSLY
PUBLISHED WORKS
Reference
Central
frequencies
(GHz)
IL
RL
(dB)
2.41/3.52
2.35/5.05
2.4/5.7
2.3/5.25
1.92/5.44
1.63/2.42
4.1/7.3
2.1/5.19
2.4/ 5.2
2.45/5.5
2.68/5.64
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Size
(dB)
FBW
(%)
(λg× λg)
2/2.2
1.64/2.9
1.37/1.73
0.8/0.8
0.3/0.5
0.86/0.97
0.9/1.2
1.12/0.98
0.18/0.5
1.3/0.96
19/22
17.7/11.6
13/15
20/20
15/17
N/A
20/20
20/23
30/20
15/24
N/A
16.6/13.5
9.8/12
54/20
66.7/28.3
28.8/22.7
41.5/25.7
5.7/11.9
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.22×0.215
0.31×0.31
0.213×0.134
0.69×0.31
0.51×0.42
0.08×0.146
0.2×0.24
0.14×0.10
1.8/2.61
21.3/31.4
25.38/10.4
0.24×0.16
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[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19]
[20]
[22]
[23]
This current
work
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In order to verify again the design, the fabricated filter dimensions are measured which are
tabulated in Table 5. The performed simulation results of the fabricated dual-band BPF are
illustrated in Figure 11.
TABLE 5: THE MEASURED DUAL-BAND BPF DIMENSIONS
Parameter
W6
W7
W8
W9
W10
G1
G5
Value
(mm)
9
8.9
0.52
0.35
7
0.18
0.19
Parameter
W11
L1
L2
L3
L4
G2
G6
Value
(mm)
6
6.2
0.65
0.5
0.87
0.3
0.185
Parameter
L5
L6
L7
L8
L9
G3
-
Value
(mm)
0.5
1
0.6
2
0.9
0.3
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W2
W3
W4
W5
L10
G4
Value
(mm)
3
0.18
0.7
8.2
8.1
4.8
0.19
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Parameter
Figure 11: Magnitude of the S-parameters for the measured dual-band BPF dimensions
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From Figure 11, it is observed that the proposed filter exhibits two passbands centred at 2.52
GHz and 5.60 GHz with RL about 20 dB and 25 dB, respectively, which are close to the
measured results, especially, for the second central frequency. It is supposed that the
experimental results represent the actual behaviour of the proposed dual-band BPF under test
with particular measuring errors. In fact, usually, we cannot experimentally reproduce
accurately what we are studying.
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4. Conclusion
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In this paper, design, fabrication and measurement of a novel compact dual-band BPF using FR4 glass epoxy material for the applications of Wi-Fi and WLAN has been proposed. The
measured filter, with overall size of 0.24λg × 0.16λg, covered two passbands centered at 2.68
and 5.64 GHz with the corresponding fractional bandwidth of 25.38 % and 10.4 %, respectively.
The proposed filter presented satisfactory performances and the experimental results were in an
acceptable agreement with the simulation ones.
Acknowledgments
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The authors express their thanks to Dr. K. Ben Ali, University catholique de Louvain, Belgium,
and to Mrs. F. Mouhouche, University M’Hamed Bougara of Boumerdes, Institute of Electrical
and Electronic Engineering, Signals and Systems Laboratory, for providing support and
assistance to perform simulations by using software and, for the help during the fabrication and
measurement of the filter prototype.
References
[1] I. Hunter, Theory and Design of Microwave Filters, IET Electromagnetic waves Series 48,
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Cambridge University Press 2006.
[2] J.S. Hong, Microstrip Filters for RF/Microwave Applications, John Willey and Sons, Inc., New
York 2011.
[3] R.W. Rhea, HF Filter Design and Computer Simulation, Noble Publishing Corporation1994.
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[4] C. Nguyen, Analysis Methods for RF, Microwave & Millimeter-wave Planar Transmission Line
Structures, John Willey and Sons, Inc., New York 2001.
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