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The Progressive Fish-Culturist
ISSN: 0033-0779 (Print) 1548-8640 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/uzpf20
Growth and Survival of Atlantic Salmon Fed
Semimoist or Dry Starter Diets
Carol A. Lemm
To cite this article: Carol A. Lemm (1983) Growth and Survival of Atlantic Salmon
Fed Semimoist or Dry Starter Diets, The Progressive Fish-Culturist, 45:2, 72-75, DOI:
10.1577/1548-8659(1983)45[72:GASOAS]2.0.CO;2
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1983)45[72:GASOAS]2.0.CO;2
Published online: 09 Jan 2011.
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Download by: [University of Florida]
Date: 28 October 2017, At: 04:49
Growth
and Survival
of Atlantic
Salmon
Fed Semimoist or Dry Starter Diets
Carol
A. Lemm
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,National Fishery Researchand Development Laboratory
Downloaded by [University of Florida] at 04:49 28 October 2017
Wellsboro, Pennsylvania 16901
ABSTRACT: Growth and survivalwere comparedfor first-feedingfry of Atlantic salmon (Saltnosalar) fed a
closed-formula commercial preparation, BioDiet, or U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service high nutrient density diets
398 or 406 for 14 weeks.Growth of fry fed BioDiet for 2, 3, 4, or 6 weeksfrom first feedingand then fed diet 406
for the rest of the 14-weekstudywas also examined.Growth was fastestin fish fed exclusivelydiets398 or 406
for 14 weeks, or BioDiet for 2 weeks followed by diet 406 for 12 weeks; survival was about 68, 82, and 92ø7o
respectively,for thesethree groups.Theseresultsindicatethat in Atlantic salmonfry growth wasmost rapid and
survival highestamong fish fed BioDiet for the first 2 or 3 weeks followed by diet 406.
Failure of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to begin feeding
by the time yolk-sac absorption is complete may result in
high mortalities (> 50%) during the first weeksof feeding.
Delayed feeding--even on a nutritionally completediet--is
presumedto be due to the flavor, odor, texture, or particle
size of the feed. Lemm and Hendrix (1981) reported that
first-feeding Atlantic salmon fry fed a semimoistcommercial diet (BioDiet, BioProducts, Warrenton, Oregon) had a
higher survival (> 90%) than salmon fed other diets.
BioDiet, composed mainly of freshly hydrolyzed and
pasteurized fish, appeared to be more palatable to salmon
fry and was consumed more readily than the other diets
during the first 2 weeks of feeding. BioDiet fed to brook
trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), lake trout (Salvelinus
namaycush), and brown trout (Salmo trutta) was accepted
within the first 20 days of feeding by about 73, 78, and 98070
of the fish, respectively(Willis and Flickinger 1980).
Although the useof BioDiet has resultedin high survival
and rapid growth of Atlantic salmon (Lemm and Hendrix
1981), it is not totally acceptableas a production fish feed
for at least four reasons:1) It is a closed-formuladiet and
its composition is subject to changes;2) it is manufactured
only in the northwestern United States and shipping costs
to usersin the easternUnited Statesare high; 3) the small
particle sizesof BioDiet are difficult to dispenseuniformly
with some automatic feedersbecauseof the high moisture
content (20-25%);
and 4) the high moisture content
reducesthe shelf-life of the diet, evenwith specialhandling
and storage. Despite thesedisadvantages,BioDiet is useful
for inducing first-feedingAtlantic salmonto begin eating a
formulated diet. After a routine feeding behavior has been
establishedwith BioDiet, I suggestthat other nutritionally
complete diets can be substitutedwithout reducinggrowth
and survival. The objectives of this study were: 1) to com72
pare growth and survival of first feeding Atlantic salmon
fry fed either BioDiet, or U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
diets 398 or 406 for 14 weeks; and 2) to compare growth
and survival of first feeding fry initially fed BioDiet for 2,
3, 4, or 6 weeks and then fed diet 406 for the remainder of
the 14-week period.
Methods
Eggs were obtained from sea-run Atlantic salmon by the
Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery staff in Maine and
were incubated and hatched at the National Fishery
Research and Development Laboratory at temperatures
ranging from 5 to 8 øC on a plasticmeshsubstratein Heath
incubator trays. When yolk-sac absorptionwas about 9007o
completed, groups of 200 randomly sampled fry were
weighed(averagebeginningweight, 0.18 g) and countedinto each of 21 rectangular(80 x 35 x 20 cm) aluminum
troughs. The water temperaturewas raised 1 Celsiusdegree
per day and fish were first offered food when the
temperature reached 11øC. Troughs were supplied at the
rate of 4 L/min with aerated, heated well water
(temperature, 11ø; dissolved oxygen, 10.6-11.0 mg/L;
pH, 7.6-7.8; total alkalinity, < 42 mg/L as CaCO3; and
dissolved gas saturation, < 10207o).A plastic screen that
confined the fish to a small sectionof the trough (35 x 30
x 14 cm) was removedafter 8 weeksto provide additional
rearing spaceas the fish grew larger. Fish were hand-fed to
excess8 times daily between0800 and 1500 h and the excess
food and feceswere removed once per day. All fish in each
trough were weighed and counted at 2-week intervals during the 14-week study. Mortalities were removed and
recordeddaily.
Prog. Fish-Cult. 45(2), April 1983
Downloaded by [University of Florida] at 04:49 28 October 2017
The test diets were BioDiet, a closed-formula semimoist
commercialdiet, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serviceopenformula dry diets 398 and 406, provided by the Diet Testing
DevelopmentCenter, Spearfish, South Dakota (Table 1).
Diet 398 was selectedfor this study becauseexcellent survival (82.3070)was found in salmonfry fed this diet in a
previousstudy (Lemm, unpublisheddata). Except for the
replacementof 5070of the soybeanflour with shrimpmeal,
diet 406 is identicalin compositionto 398, but slightlylower
in energy. Shrimp meal was added to diet 406 to enhance
the feed's flavor in an attempt to make it more palatable to
smallfish. Each diet was fed to triplicategroupsof fish. To
evaluate the effectivenessof BioDiet as a diet for training
salmonto feed, groupsof fish were fed BioDiet and then
triplicate groups of fish were convertedto diet 406 at the
end of weeks2, 3, 4, or 6.
Proximate compositionof the diets (Table 2) was determined accordingto standardproceduresof the Association
of Official Analytical Chemists(Horwitz 1975) and gross
energywas measuredwith a Parr calorimeter(Parr Instrument Co.). Variation in particle size of the feeds was reducedby sievingall feedsto the samerangeof particlesizes
before feeding.
Table 2. Composition (070)and energycontent (kcal/kg) of
testdietsfed to Atlantic salmon.
Diets (%)
Composition
Biodiet
398
406
Protein
38.23
54.15
53.28
Lipid
14.07
17.60
18.14
Moisture
22.11
8.34
9.58
Ash
12.21
10.25
Carb ohydratea
13.38
9.66
9.35
Grossenergy
b
4167
5109
5071
9.65
a Carbohydratecontentwasnot measuredbut wasdeterminedby difference.
b Complete
combustion
in calorimeter.
At the end of the study, all fish in each group were
weighedand counted.Condition factors(weightin grams
Table 1. Compositionof testdiets398, 406, BioDiet. a
Diets (%)
Ingredients
398
406
Herring fish meal (70% protein)
Soy flour
Blood meal (ring dried)
Shrimpmealb
50.0
25.0
10.0
50.0
20.0
10.0
-
5.0
Fish oil
Pellet binder
12.0
2.0
Vitamin/mineral supplements
c
1.0
12.0
2.0
1.0
a BioDietcontains
the followingingredients
andvitamins(exact•
proportions
x 100 per cube of length in centimeters)were calculated
from the lengthsand weightsof 20 fish subsampledrandomly from each of the 21 groups. Tissuesfrom five fish
fed each of the three diets were examined for gross
pathological and histological changes. The tissueswere
preservedin Bouin's solution, embeddedin paraffin, cut to
4 t•n, and stainedwith hematoxylinand eosin.Hematocrits
were determined from centrifuged samplesof blood collectedfrom the caudal peduncleof five fish sampledat random from each trough.
Treatment meansof fish weightand mortality were comparedusinganalysisof varianceand Duncan's(1955)multiple range test. The level of statisticalsignificancewas acceptedasbeingP__<
0.05.
Results and Discussion
BioDiet was used effectively to start first-feeding Atlantic salmon on formulated feeds. Salmon fed on it aggressively,and survivalfor fish startedon BioDiet was 9007o
or more, regardlessof whetherthe fish receivedthis diet for
14 weeks or were switched to diet 406 after 2, 3, 4, or 6
are not known becausethis is a closedformula feed): fish meal, cooked
weeks(Table 3). However, the growthof fish fed BioDiet
hydrolyzedfish and krill, delactosedwhey, fish oil, wheat germ meal,
carboxymethylcellulose,
wheat gluten, crab meal, and a vitamin supple-
than those switched from BioDiet
ment.
bShrimp
mealcontained
36.5%protein,
1.5%lipid,29.2ø70
ash.
c Vitamins (mg/kg of diet unlessotherwisespecified):ascorbicacid, 750;
d-biotin, 0.35; vitamin B,2, 0.02; choline chloride, 1,125; folacin, 9; menadione sodiumbisulfite complex, 11; niacinamide,220; d-pantothenateacid,
105; pyridoxine HC1, 31; riboflavin, 53; thiamine, 35; alphatocopherol
acetate, 352 IU; vitamin A, 6,600 IU; vitamin D3, 4•0 IU. Minerals (mg/kg
of diet); ZnSOn'7H20•92.4; MnSO4.HzO• 103.4; FeSO4.7H20224.8; KIO3,
0.4; CuSO4-5H20, 1.9.
Prog. Fish-Cult. 45(2), April 1983
for more than 3 weekswas significantlylessafter 14 weeks
to diet 406 after 2 or 3
weeks(Fig. 1).
Fish fed diets 398 or 406 exclusively,or BioDiet for 2
weeks, followed by diet 406 for 12 weekswere significantly
larger (final mean weight, 1.31 to 1.37 g) than thosefed any
other combination of diets. Although growth of fish fed
diets 398 or 406 alone was excellent, the mortality of fish
fed 406 was significantlylessfrom week 4 to the end of the
73
Table3. Weight,survival,and conditionfactor of A tlantic
salmonafter 14 weekson different dietsor combinations.
Table 4. Cumulativemortality (%) of Atlantic salmon.
Each valueis the meanof threegroups.
Each value is the mean of threegroups?
Period
Period fedb
Diet
398
406
BioDiet
BioDiet
Downloaded by [University of Florida] at 04:49 28 October 2017
406
(weeks)
14
14
14
(g)
initialnumber) factord
BioDiet
3
406
11
BioDiet
4
406
10
BioDiet
6
406
8
Diet
(weeks)
1.37x
1.31xz
1.17Y
68.0x
81.7Y
90.0yz
0.94 (9.99)
0.96 (7.64)
0.93 (9.50)
398
406
BioDiet
14
14
14
1.33xz
91.5Yz
0.96 (6.54)
BioDiet
406
12
BioDiet
3
406
BioDiet
2
12
fed
Weightc Survival(ø7oof Condition
1.25Yz
93.2z
0.94 (7.34)
1.15Y
90.0yz
0.96 (8.06)
1.15Y
93.5z
0.034
3.15
0.94 (5.94)
4
6
8
10
12
14
2.8 16.8 27.8 30.0 31.7 31.8 32.0
1.2 6.7 16.3 17.0 17.8 18.2 18.3
1.2
3.8
6.3
7.7
9.5
9.5 10.0
2
406
BioDiet
Pooled SE
End of week
2
1.8
4.8
7.0
7.7
7.7
8.3
8.5
11
4
0.8
4.0
5.3
5.7
7.0
7.0
6.8
10
2.2
4.0
7.7
9.0
9.2
9.8
10.0
0.7
3.0
5.0
6.0
6.7
6.5
6.5
6
406
8
a Meanswithin a columnfollowedby different superscripts
are significantly
different (P•< O.05).
b Timefishwerefedeachdietduringthe14weeksof observation.
SeeTable
1 for compositionof diets.
c Averagebeginningweight, 0.18 g.
d Condition
factor= weightof fishin gramsx 100/cube
of lengthin cm.
Mean for 60 fish per diet; coefficientof variation in parentheses= standard deviation
x 100/mean.
feeding on this shrimp flavored diet when yolk reserves
weredepletedthan on the non-shrimpflavoreddiet 398.
Fish that were switched to diet 406 after 2 or 3 weeks on
study (Table 4) and the overall survival was significantly
higher (81.7% versus68.0%) for fish fed diet 406 when
comparedwith thosefed diet 398 (Table 3). SinceAtlantic
salmon fry fed diet 406 survivedbetter than those fed diet
398, it can be presumedthat more of these fish began
BioDiet were as heavy as the heaviest fish in the study
(thosefed diets398 or 406 alone) by the end of week 4 (1 - 2
weeksafter the diet change). However, fish switchedto diet
406 at 4 or 6 weeks never gained as much weight as those
whosedietswere changedearlier in the study(Table 5). It is
unclear whether the growth lag in thesefish was due to the
timing of the diet change,the method of weaningthe fish,
or someother unrecognizedfactor.
Survival of Atlantic salmon fry fed only diet 406 or
BioDiet during a 5-week period at Craig Brook National
Fish Hatchery was 88% and > 90%, respectively(Michael
Hendrix, Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery, Maine, perL
sonal communication). Fish fed diet 406, however, were
28% larger than fish fed BioDiet (0.60 and 0.43 g, respectively).
Condition
factors are often used to reflect differences in
feedinglevel (Brown 1957) or to indicategeneralhealth or
debilitation(Frantsi et al. 1972)in hatcheryfish. Condition
factorscomputedfor 60 fish per diet (20 per group) indicate
that all fish were growing, well proportioned, and apparentlyhealthy. Fish in all groupswererelativelyuniform
in size (Table 3) as evidencedby the small (< 10%) coefficients of variation
of the condition
factors. The observed
hematocritsof 38 to 42ø7owere well within the normal range
40S (12)
408 (Ill
DIET
40•
[io)
40G
SEQUENCE
reported by Foda (1974) and indicated no detrimental
dietaryeffectson red blood cells.Histologicalexaminations
showed no abnormalities in the structure of the kidneys,
Fig. 1. Mean weight(g) andsurvival(%) of Atlanticsahnonat the
end of 14 weeks.
74
liver, and gills other than thosetypical for hatchery-reared
Atlantic
salmon.
Prog. Fish-Cult. 45(2), April 1983
Table 5. Mean weight (g) of Atlantic salmon fry fed
BioDiet or diets 398 or 406, at end of each 2-week growth
period.aEach valueis the meanof threegroups.
Adoption of a feedingregimethat includesBioDiet for 2
to 3 weeks, followed by a diet suchas 406 for the rest of the
first year, could enhancethe production of 1-year smolts
(i.e. > 14 cm) with or without the useof heatedwater.
Period
fed
Diet
398
406
BioDiet
14
14
14
BioDiet
2
406
12
BioDiet
3
406
11
BioDiet
406
Downloaded by [University of Florida] at 04:49 28 October 2017
(weeks)
BioDiet
406
Acknowledgments
End of week
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0.20 0.26 0.38 0.53 0.78 1.03 1.37
0.20 0.26 0.38 0.53 0.75 0.98 1.31
0.21 0.24 0.33 0.44 0.66 0.90 1.17
I thank Gary Reinitz, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
Diet Testing Development Center, Spearfish, South
Dakota, for providingthe dry test diets,SarahMead for
0.21 0.27 0.38 0.54 0.76 1.02 1.33
diet analysis, and the fish-culture staff at the National
Fishery Researchand DevelopmentLaboratory for the care
and feeding of the fish.
0.21 0.26 0.37 0.51 0.73 0.95 1.25
References
0.21 0.24 0.33 0.48 0.69 0.92 1.15
Brown, M. E. 1957. The physiology of fishes, Vol. 1. The
Academic Press,New York. 447 pp.
Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Bio-
4
10
6
8
0.21 0.24 0.33 0.47 0.68 0.87 1.15
metrics 11:1 - 42.
a Averagebeginning
weight,0.18g.
Frantsi, C., J. A. Ritter, and A. Foda. 1972. A method used to
describe the quality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts
released from hatcheries in Nova
I concludethat feedingsmallAtlantic salmonBioDiet for
2 to 3 weeksis sufficientto inducemost of the fish to begin
feeding. After a routine feeding behavior has been
established,salmon can be placed on other nutritionally
complete dry feeds such as diets 406 or 398 with the same
high survival observedpreviously for fish fed BioDiet exclusively. Feeding BioDiet to Atlantic salmon for more
than 2 or 3 weeksresultsin slowergrowth than can be obtained by switchingthe fish to a highernutrient densitydiet
after the initial feedingperiod.
Diet 406 is a nutritionally completedry food that yields
fast growth and good survival in Atlantic salmon. The
disadvantagesassociatedwith the useof the closed-formula
BioDiet in a production salmon hatchery, as discussed
earlier, are overcomewhen an open-formuladry diet canbe
usedwith equalresults.Bothopen-forilaula
dry diets398
and 406 can be manufactured to exacting specifications,
yieldinga diet that is consistent
in qualityand composition,
does not require specialhandling and storage,and can be
convenientlydispensedwith automatic feeders.
Scotia and New Brunswick.
Prog. Rep. 7, ResourceDevelopmentBranch, FisheriesService,
Department of the Environment, Halifax, Nova Scotia,
Canada. 15 pp.
Foda, A. 1974. Seasonalvariation in blood parametersand muscle
and liver glycogen of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon
(Salmo salar). Technical Report Series MAR/T-74-3. Resource
Development Branch, Fisheries and Marine Service, Department of the Environment, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. 18 pp.
., and T. K. Henderson. 1977. Effect of water temperature or rate of embryonicdevelopment,growth and survival of
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). C. M. 1977/M:31. Resource
Development Branch, Fisheriesand Marine Service,Department
of the Environment, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. 7 pp.
Horwitz, W., Editor. 1975. Official methods of analysisof the
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Assoc. Off. Anal.
Chem., Washington, D.C. 1094pp.
Lemm, C. A., and M. A. Hendrix. 1981. Growth and survival of
Atlantic salmon fed various starter diets. Prog. Fish-Cult.
43:195-
199.
Peterson, H. H. 1973. Adult returns to date from hatchery-reared
one-year-old smolts. Int. Atl. Salm. Found. Spec. Pub. Ser.
4(1):219-226.
Ritter, J. A. 1975. Relationships of smolt size and age at first
maturity in Atlantic salmon. Resource Development Branch,
MaritimeRegion,Tech.Rep.SeriesMAR/T-75-5.Department
Practical Application of Data
The 1-yearsmolt rearingprogramsare beingviewedwith
renewed interest by fishery managersand fish culturists.
One-year smoltscost much lessto produce, and increasethe
production capacityof a hatchery. In addition, there are indicationsthat 1-yearsmoltsare superiorto 2-year smoltsin
that they have better fin condition and greater disease
resistance(Foda and Henderson1977), they produceproportionatelymore multi-sea-wintersalmon(Ritter 1975),
and they yield as many adult returnsas do 2-year smoltsof
the samesize(Peterson1973).
Prog. Fish-Cult. 45(2), April 1983
of the Environment, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. 7 pp.
Willis, D. W., and S. A. Flickinger. 1980. Training successof
brook, brown and lake trout fry onto a prepared diet. Prog.
Fish-Cult.
42:232 - 233.
Accepted1 October1982
75
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