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00221589.1982.11515049

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Journal of Horticultural Science
ISSN: 0022-1589 (Print) (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/thsb19
Rooting Softwood Cuttings of Adult Pistacia Vera
Z. Al Barazi & W.W. Schwabe
To cite this article: Z. Al Barazi & W.W. Schwabe (1982) Rooting Softwood
Cuttings of Adult Pistacia Vera, Journal of Horticultural Science, 57:2, 247-252, DOI:
10.1080/00221589.1982.11515049
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221589.1982.11515049
Published online: 27 Nov 2015.
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Citing articles: 2 View citing articles
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Date: 28 October 2017, At: 22:18
Journal of Horticultural Science ( 1982) 57 (2)
247-252
Rooting softwood cuttings of adult Pistacia vera
By Z. AL BARAZI and W. W. SCHWABE
Wye College (University of London) Nr. Ashford, Kent TN25 5AH, UK
Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 22:18 28 October 2017
SUMMARY
Successful propagation of softwood cuttings taken from mature trees (over 6 years old)
of Pistacia vera was achieved after treatments which included very high concentrations
(up to 45 000 ppm) of IBA.
PISTACHIO (Pistacia vera) is an important crop in
the eastern Mediterranean (Turkey, Iran, Syria,
etc.) (Maggs, 1973), and requires warm, dry
summers and relatively cold winters. It is normally propagated by budding graftwood onto
rootstocks of P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebenthus
and P. khinjuk (Hartmann and Kester, 197 5), and
only very recently by cuttings taken from seedlings (Joley and Opitz, 1971; Lee et a/., 1976).
Attempts to root pistachio cuttings from mature
trees have been unsuccessful regardless of treatment or season (Joley and Opitz, 1971 ), the only
success being obtained with cuttings from seedlings during their first year of growth. As four to
five years are required before graft combinations
begin cropping, or eight to ten years for seedling
material (Firuzeh and Ludders, 1978), it would be
of considerable advantage if softwood cuttings
from selected cultivars of mature trees could be
grown on their own roots. This would ensure uniformity and quality of planting material, especially in the absence of clonal rootstocks which
themselves could now be developed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Rooted trees, either raised from seed or grafted
and at least six years old, were brought from
Syria and grown in pots under glass in natural
daylength at 25°-30°C. Cuttings were taken
from these plants in April, about two to two-anda-half months after bud break. The cuttings
carried at least six expanded leaves and were still
actively growing.
After removing the lower leaves and buds by
hand, deliberately leaving some slight surface
injury, the cuttings (20 per treatment) were given
a quick, shallow dip (Nahlawi and Howard,
1971) in indole butyric acid (IBA) at concentrations varying from 0 to 45 000 ppm dissolved in
50% ethanol. They were then treated with 50%
captan powder, placed in trays containing vermiculite and kept in natural daylength under a
mist propagation unit. During mist bench treatment the cuttings were lightly shaded from direct
sunlight and held at an air temperature of
20°-25 °C while bottom heat in the bench ranged
from 25° to 30°C. The proportion of cuttings
rooted, the number of roots per cutting and root
length were recorded after four and six weeks.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Preliminary but unsuccessful attempts to
obtain rooting included the following treatments:
(I) Application of IBA at concentrations up to
6 250 ppm in 50% or 95% ethanol as a quick
dip, or stems of cuttings immersed in up to
100 ppm solution for 24 h (Jaynes, undated).
(2) Application of anti-transpirants (TAG,
polyvinyl resin) to leaves prior to placing on a
mist bench, under polyethylene covers or on
an open bench in the glasshouse (Sultan,
1974).
(3) Enclosing the cuttings and rooting medium in
an atmosphere of oxygen (Howard, 1975).
(4) IBA applied either to base or tip of cuttings of
different lengths.
Rooting softwood pistachio cuttings
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248
(5) Subjection to different daylengths (8 h, 24 h,
natural daylength (Whitehill and Schwabe,
1975).
(6) Pretreatment with 2N of H 2S0 4 or NaOH pH
10 (Lee eta/., 1976).
(7) IBA and nutrient solutions sprayed on leaves.
(8) Reapplication of auxin (see also Nahlawi and
Howard, 1973).
(9) Root cuttings: soaked in an abscisic acid
solution (60 ppm) for 24 h.
Other experiments using IBA at 10 000 and
20 000 ppm in lanolin or 50% ethanol while
attempting air-layering on the mother trees gave
some cell division, callus and weak root formation.
The results of experiments with cuttings from
seedling material indicated that pistachio
responded well to particularly high concentrations of IBA; cuttings treated with 10 000 ppm
IBA rooted in 3-4 weeks, compared to 8-10
weeks at 3 000 ppm as found by Sultan (1974)
and Lee et a/. (1976). When even higher concentrations were applied to softwood cuttings
from mature trees, a high proportion of cuttings
rooted and continued growth, with a 35 000 ppm
IBA treatment proving optimal (Table I, Plate 1).
These were either 6-year-old plants or scions
from trees which had been cropping for over 20
years and had been grafted on seedling root-
stocks, both behaving equally recalcitrantly in
earlier attempts to induce rooting.
After auxin treatment root formation
originates in the phloem area in clqse proximity
to the cambium and the emerging roots seem to
penetrate through the cortical layers, apparently
by compressing tissue in their path (Plate 2).
Occasionally, IBA treatment seems to stimulate
cell division in the ray cells between the primary
bundles
(Thimann
and
Koepfli,
1935;
Zimmerman and Wilcoxon, 1935), but this does
not result in root formation (Plate 2b). It will be
noted in Plate 1 that root formation seems to
occur well above the basal end of the cutting. The
reasons for this are not clear, but a preliminary
study has shown that the non-root bearing base is
not dead and it is not very probable that this
represents IBA damage to the base since the few
shoots which rooted with lower IBA concentrations exhibited the same phenomenon.
It is uncertain whether such high concentrations are required because little IBA is taken
up by the cuttings, or whether there are interactions between applied rooting promotors and
internal auxin levels which vary between juvenile
and mature material (Gardner, 1929; Pilet, 1958;
Leopold and Kriedemann, 1975). The possible
basis of such differences is presently being
studied.
TABLE I
Effect of concentration of I BA on rooting of pistachio cullings
After 4 weeks from planting
After 6 weeks from planting
Treatment
IBA
ppm
0
To
15 000
T,
25 000
T2
35 000
TJ
45 000
T.
LSD (P=0.05)
No. of
rooted
cuttings
0
I
7
Average No.
Mean of
roots per
total root
rooted
length per
cutting
cutting (em)
15
4.0
8.1
13
5.5
3.1
3.7
33.7
12.1
20.9
No. of
rooted
cuttings
0
6
8
17
14
Average No.
Mean of
roots per
total root
length per
rooted
cutting
cutting (em)
3.2
5.0
8.6
6.8
3.1
15.5
29.0
52.7
30.1
25.1
Cuttings. 20 per treatment. were placed randomly in trays (10 per tray) and moved randomly on the mist bench twice weekly.
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Z. AL
BARAZI
and W. W.
SCHWABE
A
PLATE I
Pistachio cuttings after 4 weeks of IBA application at (A) 0
o r (B) 35 000 ppm in 50% ethanol.
249
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250
Roofing sojlll'ood pistachio cullings
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Z. AL BARAZI and W. W. SCHWAB E
PLATE
251
2
T.S. through pistachio stem x 100
(A) Control for (B)
(B) lBA at 20 000 ppm in lanolin
(C) lBA at 35 000 ppm in 50% ethanol
(D) Control for (C)
REFERENCES
FIRUZEH, P. and LDDDERS, P. (1978). Pistachio growing in Iran. Erwerbsobstbau, 20, 254-8.
GARDNER. F. E. ( 1929). The relationship between age and the rooting of cuttings. Proceedings of the
American S ociety for Horticultural Science, 26, 101-4.
HARTMANN, H. T. and KESTER, D. E. (1975). Plant propagation. 3rd edition, Prentice-Hall Inc.,
Englewood Cliffs, N.J ., 568-9, 608.
HowARD, B. H. (1975). Improved rooting of cuttings by diffusion of oxygen through the rooting
medium. Journal of Horticultural Science, 50, 21-2.
JAYNES, R. A. (undated). Propagation of chestnut and other difficult-to-root plants from softwood
cuttings. Annual report of the Northern Nut Growers Association Inc., Ontario, Canada,
128-3 1.
JoLEY, L. E. and OPITZ, K. W. (1971). Further experience with propagation of Pistacia. Combined
Proceedings of the International Plant Propagators' Society, 21, 67-76.
LEE. C. 1., PAUL, J. L. and HACKETT, W. P. (1976). Root promotion on stem cuttings of several
ornamental plant species by acid or base pretreatment. Combined Proceedings of the International Plant Propagators' Society, 26, 95- 9.
LEOPOLD, A. C. and KRIEDEMANN, P. E. (1975). Plant growth and development. 2nd edition, McGrawHill Book Co., N.Y. , 254.
MAGGS, D. H. ( 1973). Genetic resources in Pistachio. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter, 29, 7-15 .
NAHLAWI, N. and HowARD, B. H. ( 1971 ). Effect of IBA application on the rooting of plum hardwood
cuttings. Journal of Horticultural Science, 46, 535-43.
NAHLAWI, N. and HowARD, B. H. (1973). The effects of duration of the propagation period and
frequency of auxin treatment on the response of plum hardwood cuttings to IBA. Journal of
Horticultural Science, 48, 169-74.
PILET, P. E. (1958). Action de !'indole sur Ia destruction des auxines en relation avec Ia senescence
cellulaire. Compte Rendu de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 246, 1896-8.
252
Rooting softwood pistachio cuttings
SuLTAN, S. M. ( 1974). Studies on vegetative propagation of some nursery stocks. Ph.D. thesis, University of London.
THIMANN, K. V. and KoEPFLI, J. B. (1935). Identity of the growth-promoting and root-forming substances of plants. Nature, UK., 135, 101-2.
WHITEHILL, S. J. and SCHWABE, W. W. ( 1975). Vegetative propagation of Pinus sylvestris L. Physiolgia
Plantarum, 35, 66-71.
ZIMMERMAN, P. W. and WILCOXON, F. {1935). Several chemical growth substances which cause initiation of root and other responses in plants. Contributions. Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant
Research, 7, 209-29.
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(Accepted 24 August 1981)
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