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000335639

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Subject Index
diagnosis 102–104
etiology 101, 102
specific versus nonspecific 100, 101
treatment 103, 104
overview 98, 99
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
(ACEIs), angiodema induction 101, 102
Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs),
angiodema induction 102
AZD6244, side effects 199, 200
Baboon syndrome
exanthema 84
histopathology 68
Basophil activation test (BAT) 49
Betalactam antibiotics, hypersensitivity
diagnosis 54–56
BRAF, inhibitor side effects 198, 199
Bullous pemphigoid, drug-induced
biologic agent induction 210, 211
histopathology 76
Candidiasis, acute generalized exanthematous
pustulosis differential diagnosis 144
Carbamazepine, genetic susceptibility of
cutaneous adverse drug reactions 25, 26
Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC),
hypersensitivity diagnosis 51
Cetuximab, side effects 193
Chemotherapy, see Oncological drugs
Chronic actinic dermatitis, see Photoallergy
Ciprofloxacin, rapid drug desensitization 224
Contact dermatitis, type B adverse drug
reaction 40
Cyclophosphamide, Stevens-Johnson
syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis
management 160
235
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Abacavir, genetic susceptibility of cutaneous
adverse drug reactions 23, 25
Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), rapid drug
desensitization reaction management 230,
231
Acneiform drug eruption
biologic agent induction 212, 213
histopathology 77
Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, see
Sweet’s syndrome
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis
(AGEP)
clinical features 3, 4, 140, 141
diagnosis 49, 140
differential diagnosis
candidiasis 144
drug reaction with eosinophilia and
systemic symptoms 143
generalized acute pustular psoriasis
142
pustular vasculitis 143, 144
Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic
epidermal necrolysis 143
subcorneal pustular dermatosis 143
epidemiology 5–7, 140
etiology 13, 14, 144, 145
histopathology 69, 74, 75, 142
overview 139, 140
pathogenesis 145, 146
treatment 146
Allopurinol, genetic susceptibility of cutaneous
adverse drug reactions 26, 27
Alopecia, drug induction 192, 194, 197, 214,
215
Angioedema (AE)
classification 99, 100
drug induced
Drug-induced lupus erythematosus
biologic agent induction 209, 210
histopathology 63
Desensitization, see Rapid drug desensitization
Diagnosis, drug allergy
acute generalized exanthematous
pustulosis 49, 140
angioedema 102–104
drug reaction with eosinophilia and
systemic symptoms 129–131
exanthema
diagnosis 95
differential diagnosis 94, 95
fixed drug eruption 49, 50, 114, 115
indications 48
photoallergy/phototoxic reaction
evaluation 176, 177
radiocontrast media hypersensitivity
reactions 52, 53, 186–188
sensitivity of tests 48
specific substances causing reactions
antineoplastic drugs 53
betalactam antibiotics 54–56
biological agents 56, 57
excipients and stabilizers 51, 52
iodine contrast media 52, 53
neuromuscular blocking agents 54
Stevens-Johnson syndrome 49, 156
toxic epidermal necrolysis 49, 156
Docetaxel, rapid drug desensitization 225
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic
symptoms (DRESS)
acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis
differential diagnosis 143
clinical features 4, 124–126
complications and sequelae 133, 134
diagnosis 129–131
epidemiology 5–8, 124
etiology 14, 15
histopathology 63, 64
laboratory findings 127, 128
overlap with other severe drug
eruptions 126, 127
overview 123, 124
pathogenesis 131–133
pathology 131
treatment 134, 135
Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, see
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and
systemic symptoms
Efalizumab, psoriaform eruptions 207
Eosinophilic pustular dermatosis,
histopathology 77
Epidemiology, cutaneous adverse drug
reactions
acute generalized exanthematous
pustulosis 5–7, 140
drug reaction with eosinophilia and
systemic symptoms 5–8, 124
overview 1, 2
photoallergic and phototoxic
reactions 168–170
radiocontrast media hypersensitivity
reactions 181
Stevens-Johnson syndrome 5–7, 150,
151
toxic epidermal necrolysis 5–7, 150, 151
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR),
inhibitors
acneiform eruptions 212, 213
side effects 192–194
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
aminopenicillin drug reaction
association 3, 8
drug reaction with eosinophilia and
systemic symptoms reactivation 128,
133, 134
Erlotinib, side effects 193
Erythema multiforme (EM),
histopathology 64, 65
Erythema nodosum, exanthema 93
Erythroderma, exanthema 92
Exanthema, see also Maculopapular exanthema
course 84, 86, 89
diagnosis 95
differential diagnosis 94, 95
drug hypersensitivity classification 90
efflorescence characteristics 81–83
erythema nodosum 93
erythroderma 92
etiology 86–88
histopathology 62
interstitial granulomatous drug reaction
93
lesion morphology 81–84
lichen planus-like reactions 93
localization and distribution 84–87
236
Subject Index
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Cyclosporine A, Stevens-Johnson syndrome/
toxic epidermal necrolysis
management 159
Fixed drug eruption (FDE)
clinical features 2, 3, 108–110
diagnosis 49, 50, 114, 115
etiology 8
histopathology 64, 113, 114
overview 107
pathogenesis 116–118
unusual forms 110–112
Folliculitis, histopathology 77
Gefitinib, side effects 193
Genetic susceptibility, cutaneous adverse drug
reactions
abacavir 23, 25
allopurinol 26, 27
blistering disease 27
carbamazepine 25, 26
drug allergy 43
human leukocyte antigen alleles 23, 24
overview 15, 20–23
prospects for study 27, 28
severe reactions 154
Genome-wide association study (GWAS),
cutaneous adverse drug reaction
susceptibility genes 21, 22
Hair structure, drug effects 215
Halogenoderma, histopathology 75
Hand-foot syndrome, see Oncological drugs
Hirsutism, drug induction 215
Histopathology, adverse drug reactions
acneiform drug eruption 77
acute generalized exanthematous
pustulosis 69, 74, 75, 142
baboon syndrome 68
bullous pemphigoid, drug-induced 76
chemotherapy-induced cytotoxic
reactions 66
drug-induced lupus erythematosus 63
drug reaction with eosinophilia and
systemic symptoms 63, 64
eosinophilic pustular dermatosis 77
Subject Index
erythema multiforme 64, 65
exanthema 62
fixed drug eruption 64, 113, 114
halogenoderma 75
hypersensitivity vasculitis 69, 74
interstitial granulomatous drug eruption 69
lichen planus-like reactions 66, 68
linear immunoglobulin A dermatosis-like
drug reaction 75, 76
lymphomatoid drug reaction 62, 63
neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis 75
overview by reaction 70–74
panniculitis 76, 77
pattern-based classification of drug-induced
skin diseases 67, 68
pemphigus, drug-induced 76
photoallergy 63, 176
phototoxic reactions 65, 173, 174
pityriasis rosea-like drug eruption 68
pseudoporphyria cutanea tarda 76
psoriasis, drug-induced 74
radiation recall dermatitis 66
sclerodermoid drug reactions 77
Stevens-Johnson syndrome 65
toxic epidermal necrolysis 65
urticarial drug reaction 62
HLA-B*1502, cutaneous adverse drug
reaction genetic susceptibility 25, 26, 87,
154
HLA-B*3101, cutaneous adverse drug reaction
genetic susceptibility 26
HLA-B*5701, cutaneous adverse drug reaction
genetic susceptibility 22–25
HLA-B*5801, cutaneous adverse drug reaction
genetic susceptibility 27, 87, 154
Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), drug reaction
with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms
role 128–130
Hyperpigmentation, drug induction 214
Hypersensitivity vasculitis, histopathology 69,
74
Hypertrichosis, drug induction 215
Hypopigmentation, drug induction 214
Immune complex, deposition in type B adverse
drug reaction 38
Immunoglobulin E
rapid drug desensitization mechanisms 219
type B adverse drug reaction mediation 37
Immunoglobulin G, type B adverse drug
reaction cytotoxicity 37
237
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overview 80, 81
pathophysiology 88–91
psoriasis 92
ptyriasis rosea-like drug eruption 91, 92
Sweet’s syndrome 93, 94
symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and
flexural exanthema 68
treatment 95, 96
Lichen planus-like reactions
biologic agent induction 207, 208
exanthema 93
histopathology 66, 68
photoallergy 176
phototoxic reactions 173
Linear immunoglobulin A dermatosis-like
drug reaction
biologic agent induction 211, 212
histopathology 75, 76
Lupus, see Drug-induced lupus erythematosus
Lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) 49, 50,
57, 131
Lymphomatoid drug reaction
biologic agent induction 213, 214
histopathology 62, 63
Maculopapular exanthema (MPE), see also
Exanthema
clinical features 2, 3
etiology 8
Mast cell, degranulation in type B adverse drug
reaction 36, 37
MEK, inhibitor side effects 199–201
Minimum erythema dose (MED),
photoallergy/phototoxic reaction
evaluation 177
Minimum phototoxicity dose (MPD),
photoallergy/phototoxic reaction
evaluation 177
Mitogen activated protein kinase, see MEK
Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs),
hypersensitivity diagnosis 54
238
Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis,
histopathology 75
Oncological drugs, see also specific agents
BRAF inhibitor side effects 198, 199
chemotherapy-induced cytotoxic
reactions 66
epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor
side effects 192–194
hand-foot syndrome 191, 192, 195, 196
MEK inhibitor side effects 199–201
multikinase inhibitor side effects 194–198
overview of adverse cutaneous
reactions 191, 192
platinum drug hypersensitivity
diagnosis 53
rapid drug desensitization
monoclonal antibodies 227, 228
platins 225, 226
taxanes 225
Paclitaxel, rapid drug desensitization 225
Panitumumab, side effects 193
Panniculitis, histopathology 76, 77
Pemphigus, drug-induced
biologic agent induction 210
histopathology 76
Penicillins
Epstein-Barr virus and aminopenicillin
drug reaction association 3, 8
rapid drug desensitization 222–224
Photoallergy
clinical manifestations
chronic actinic dermatitis 175, 176
lichen planus-like reactions 176
differential diagnosis 177, 178
epidemiology 168–170
evaluation 176, 177
histopathology 63, 176
management 178
overview 167, 168
pathophysiology 174, 175
Phototoxic reactions
biologic agent induction 211
clinical manifestations
acute 171, 172
chronic 172
hyperpigmentation 172
lichenoid reactions 173
photoonycholysis 173
pseudoporphyria 173
Subject Index
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Infliximab
rapid drug desensitization 227
Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal
necrolysis management 159, 160
Interstitial granulomatous drug eruption
biologic agent induction 213
exanthema 93
histopathology 69
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)
drug reaction with eosinophilia and
systemic symptoms management 134,
135
Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal
necrolysis management 158, 159
Iodine contrast media, see Radiocontrast
media
Radiation recall dermatitis, histopathology 66
Radiocontrast media (RCM)
classification of reactions 181
clinical presentation of hypersensitivity
reactions 182–184
diagnosis of hypersensitivity reactions 52,
53, 186–188
epidemiology of hypersensitivity
reactions 181
overview 180, 181
pathophysiology
immediate hypersensitivity 184, 185
iodine role 186
non-immediate hypersensitivity 185,
186
prevention of hypersensitivity reactions 189
Rapid drug desensitization (RDD)
antibiotic desensitization 222–224
Subject Index
chemotherapy agent desensitization
monoclonal antibodies 227, 228
platins 225, 226
taxanes 225
efficacy 229
management of reactions during
desensitization 229, 230
overview 218
principles and mechanisms 218–220
protocols and agents 220–222
safety 228, 229
Rituximab, rapid drug desensitization 227
Sclerodermoid drug reactions,
histopathology 77
Sorafenib, side effects 194, 195, 198
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)
acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis
differential diagnosis 143
acute phase 151–153
allergological testing 160, 161
clinical features 3, 151–153
diagnosis 49, 156
differential diagnosis 143, 156
epidemiology 5–7, 150, 151
etiology 8–13, 155, 156
genetic susceptibility 154
histopathology 65
late phase and sequelae 153
overview 149, 159
pathogenesis 154, 155
prognosis 161
treatment
acute stage
corticosteroids 158
cyclophosphamide 160
cyclosporine A 159
drug withdrawal 157
infliximab 159, 160
intravenous immunoglobulin 158,
159
plasmapheresis 160
severity scoring 157
supportive care 157, 158
thalidomide 158
sequelae 160
Subcorneal pustular dermatosis, acute
generalized exanthematous pustulosis
differential diagnosis 143
Sunitinib, side effects 194, 195, 198
Sweet’s syndrome, exanthema 93, 94
239
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telangiectasia 173
differential diagnosis 177, 178
evaluation 176, 177
histopathology 65, 173, 174
management 178
pathophysiology 171
Pityriasis rosea-like drug eruption
exanthema 91, 92
histopathology 68
Plasmapheresis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome/
toxic epidermal necrolysis
management 160
Platinum salts
hypersensitivity diagnosis for antineoplastic
drugs 53
rapid drug desensitization of chemotherapy
drugs 225, 226
Pseudoporphyria, see Phototoxic reactions;
Pseudoporphyria cutanea tarda
Pseudoporphyria cutanea tarda,
histopathology 76
Psoriasis, drug-induced
acute generalized exanthematous
pustulosis differential diagnosis from
generalized acute pustular psoriasis
142
biologic agent induction 204, 207
exanthema 92
histopathology 74
Pustular vasculitis, acute generalized
exanthematous pustulosis differential
diagnosis 143, 144
T cell
acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis
pathogenesis 145
delayed drug hypersensitivity reaction
mediation 38, 39
drug reaction with eosinophilia and
systemic symptoms pathogenesis 131–
133
fixed drug eruption pathogenesis 116–118
Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal
necrolysis pathogenesis 154, 155
Telangiectasia, phototoxic reactions 173
Thalidomide, Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic
epidermal necrolysis management 158
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)
acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis
differential diagnosis 143
acute phase 151–153
allergological testing 160, 161
clinical features 3, 151–153
diagnosis 49, 156
differential diagnosis 156
epidemiology 5–7, 150, 151
etiology 8–13
genetic susceptibility 154
histopathology 65
late phase and sequelae 153
overview 149, 159
prognosis 161
treatment
acute stage
corticosteroids 158
cyclophosphamide 160
cyclosporine A 159
drug withdrawal 157
infliximab 159, 160
intravenous immunoglobulin 158,
159
plasmapheresis 160
severity scoring 157
supportive care 157, 158
thalidomide 158
sequelae 160
240
Trastuzumab, rapid drug desensitization 227
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, rapid drug
desensitization 224
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), antagonists
diagnosis of hypersensitivity 57
lichenoid eruptions 207, 208
psoriaform eruptions 204
Type A adverse drug reaction
characteristics 19, 20, 33, 34
pathogenesis 34, 35
Type B adverse drug reaction
characteristics 19, 20, 33, 34
drug allergy
contact dermatitis 40
delayed-type hypersensitivity in skin
after systemic drug administration
cross-reactivity 42
flare-up reactions 42, 43
genetic factors 43
overview 40–42
immune complex deposition 38
immunoglobulin E-mediated
reactions 37
immunoglobulin G-mediated
cytotoxicity 37
sensitization 37
T cell-mediated delayed drug
hypersensitivity reactions 38, 39
pathogenesis
cytokine dysbalance 35
enzyme deficiencies 35
inflammatory mediator dysbalance 36
mast cell degranulation 36, 37
Urticarial drug reaction, histopathology 62
Vancomycin, rapid drug desensitization 224
Vasculitis, see also Hypersensitivity vasculitis;
Pustular vasculitis
biologic agent induction 208, 209
Vemurafenib, side effects 198, 199
Subject Index
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Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and
flexural exanthema (SDRIFE), clinical
features 68
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