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Perspectives
Studies in Translation Theory and Practice
ISSN: 0907-676X (Print) 1747-6623 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rmps20
Translating motion events into typologically
distinct languages
Rosa Alonso Alonso
To cite this article: Rosa Alonso Alonso (2017): Translating motion events into typologically
distinct languages, Perspectives, DOI: 10.1080/0907676X.2017.1387578
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2017.1387578
Published online: 26 Oct 2017.
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Download by: [Florida State University]
Date: 27 October 2017, At: 11:49
PERSPECTIVES, 2017
https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2017.1387578
Translating motion events into typologically distinct
languages
Rosa Alonso Alonso
Downloaded by [Florida State University] at 11:49 27 October 2017
Departamento de Filoloxía Inglesa, Francesa e Alemana, Facultade de Filoloxía e Tradución, Universidade de
Vigo, As Lagoas, Vigo, Spain
ABSTRACT
ARTICLE HISTORY
Translation studies on the expression of Manner-of-motion in
typological different languages have raised the interest of
translators since the early work of thinking-for-speaking studies.
Semantic typology has greatly influenced research on motion
events and lies at the basis of the thinking for speaking
hypothesis, a more cautious and dynamic version of linguistic
relativity, which was applied to translation and termed thinking
for translating. It analyses the different attention given to Mannerof-motion in translation across languages. The present paper
focuses on translations of The Hobbit into a language pair
(English/Galician) that has not been explored in the domain of
motion. It analyses the possible influence of typological
differences on: a) the type of verbs used, b) the translation
strategies used to convey Manner-of-motion information, c) the
types of constructions. It also analyses the role of expertise. Six
professional translations and eight translations by in-training
translators of nine fragments of the novel were studied. Findings
revealed that the translation of Manner-of-motion information is
influenced by typological differences between English and
Galician, both in verbs and constructions.
Received 20 March 2017
Accepted 27 September 2017
KEYWORDS
Thinking for translating;
Manner-of-motion; verb
types; strategies;
constructions; expertise
1. Introduction
Recent perspectives on translation studies have not focused much on fidelity to the source
text compared to on the role of the translator as an intercultural mediator (Munday, 2001;
Pym, 2009; Samaniego Fernández, 2007). The differences in the linguistic expression of
motion events across languages require this kind of mediation, and have attracted the
interest of translation studies since the early work of Slobin (1991, 1996). They have
received renewed attention in the last decade (Cifuentes-Férez, 2013; Cifuentes-Férez
(in press); Cifuentes-Férez & Rojo, 2015; Ibarretxe-Antuñano & Filopovic, 2013; MolésCasas, 2016; Rojo & Ibarretxe-Antuñano, 2013). Research has tended to focus on the
different translation strategies used to convey Path and Manner information and on
how that information is presented in the target language compared to the source language
(Cifuentes-Férez, 2006; Ibarretxe-Antuñano, 2003; Jaka, 2009; Slobin, 1996), while, to the
best of our knowledge, few studies have turned their attention to other factors, such as
CONTACT Rosa Alonso Alonso
ralonsoalonso@gmail.com
© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
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2
R. A. ALONSO
expertise and type of text (Cifuentes-Férez & Rojo, 2015), and none also include the use of
constructions. The present study aims to fill a gap in the literature by (a) addressing
motion events in a language pair that has not been analysed in previous studies on
motion: English–Galician, (b) including not only the type of Manner-of-motion information encoded in the verb and the type of strategies used but also the type of construction, i.e. the form–meaning mapping, where the Manner-of-motion information is
included, and finally, (c) comparing the translation of motion events across two levels,
in-training translators (ITs) and professional translators (PTs). Research has tended to
include final-year translation students, but we have opted for third-year students of a
four-year course, as it will give us an understanding of the difficulties that the translation
of semantic typology causes to lower-level ITs. In other words, this study focuses on possible difficulties relating to the translation of motion events between typologically different
languages, the strategies translators use to solve these difficulties, the type of verbs and
constructions they use and the role of expertise in the choice of verbs, constructions
and strategies. The paper is structured as follows: in section 2 motion events across
languages and translation are considered, and section 3 focuses on the thinking for translating theory. Finally, the empirical study is detailed in section 4.
2. Motion events and translation
A motion event is generally defined as a situation where an entity moves or is located
with respect to another entity. Four internal components are distinguished (Talmy,
2000): Figure (the object that moves or is located), Ground (the reference object),
Path (the course followed or location that the figure occupies) and Motion (presence
of motion or locatedness). It can also involve two co-external components: Manner
and Cause. According to Talmy’s typology (1985, 1991, 2000), the languages of the
world can be divided into two main groups depending on whether they map the core
schema, in this case motion, onto the verb or onto a satellite. S-languages express the
fact of motion and a co-event (typically Manner or cause of motion) in the verb,
while Path is expressed in a satellite, as in ‘She dashed out of the office’ – Manner is conflated in the verb ‘dash’ and Path is expressed in the satellite ‘out’. This includes
languages such as Chinese and all the branches of the Indo-European family, except
Romance languages. In contrast, in V-languages motion and Path are expressed in the
verb while Manner is expressed in a satellite, as in O can saiu da casa correndo (The
dog exited the house running), where Path is encoded in the verb ‘sair’ and Manner
in a satellite, in this case a gerund ‘correndo’. V-languages include Romance, Semitic
and Polynesian languages. S-languages, like English, have a wider repertory of verbs of
motion indicating Manner that are typically combined with satellites, such as ‘up’ or
‘to’. In contrast, V-languages, such as Galician, Spanish and Portuguese, tend to indicate
directionality in the verb as in sair (exit), baixar (descend) or entrar (enter) and show a
narrower use of Manner verbs. A classic example from Talmy (2000) illustrates this
dichotomy:
La botella entró en la cueva flotando
The bottle MOVED-in to the cave (floating)
The bottle floated into the cave (Talmy, 2000, pp. 49–51)
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It can be observed that Path is expressed in the main verb in Spanish (entró) and Manner
is coded in a satellite, in this case a gerund (flotando), while in S-framed languages Manner
is conflated in the verb (floated). Talmy’s semantic typology has greatly influenced
research on motion events and it lies at the basis of Slobin’s thinking-for-speaking hypothesis, which is fully explained in section 3.
Motion is a universal concept and languages vary in their conceptualization of
motion events. It may seem obvious that translation between typologically different
languages implies the use of different verbs, constructions and strategies. However,
cross-linguistic differences in the expression of motion are relevant for translators
as they must adapt the rhetorical style of the source text in the target text. This relevance has also been highlighted in previous studies (Cifuentes-Férez, 2006; Filipovic,
2007). Moreover, differences in the conceptualization of motion have also been found
to affect languages that are typologically similar, indicating that there are intra-typological differences in languages showing similar lexicalization patterns (IbarretxeAntuñano, 2003). It has also been found that other factors alongside typological
differences can explain why the use of Manner tends to be avoided in V-languages,
such as lexical availability (Kopecka, 2010; Slobin, 2004) or constituent status (Filipovic, 2007). Therefore, it is interesting to conduct a study on a language pair (English–
Galician) that is typologically distinct and has not been analysed in the literature
about motion.
Moreover, research on the translation of motion events has tackled the issue of identifying the translation strategies used to convey Manner and Path information in the
target language, compared with the source language. Strategies have focused on the
degree of fidelity to the expression of Manner and Path. Both Slobin (1996) and Ibarretxe-Antuñano (2003) have provided translation strategies that have been used in
various research on the translation of motion events, such as the study by CifuentesFérez (2006). Manner strategies tend to include the following (Ibarretxe-Antuñano
and Filopovic 2013): omission of any Manner information; translation of the same
type of Manner information, in the verb or in a separate expression; substitution of a
Manner-of-motion verb for a Path verb; substitution of a Manner-of-motion verb for
a motion verb; substitution of a motion verb for any verb; translation of a portion of
Manner information and translation of a different type of Manner information. In
2009, Jaka added another strategy regarding the translation of Manner information:
substitution of a Path verb for a Manner verb. All these strategies show how translators
face the difficult task of translating motion events. It is interesting to observe how translators behave in their use of strategies, and whether they will show preferences for the
use of one type or another in the translation of motion events from English into Galician. Studies have shown that translators of S-languages to V-languages tend to omit
Manner descriptions and prefer to add Path verbs.
This is closely related to rhetorical style, as translators use different strategies to
cope with the problems arising from differences in the expression of motion events.
Several studies have explored the differences in rhetorical style in the translation of
Path and Manner in languages that do not belong to the same typological group
(Cifuentes-Férez, 2006; Slobin, 1991, 1996, 1997). In English, the expression of
motion is dynamic, as S-languages usually focus on Path description while the physical
settings tend to be inferred, while V-languages like Galician use more specific
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R. A. ALONSO
descriptions for settings and Path is inferred. Slobin (2000) also observed that Vlanguages show a smaller lexicon of Manner-of-motion verbs and speakers of Slanguages use Manner information more often than V-language speakers do. Thus,
each type of lexicalization pattern engenders a specific style type. Comparing translations allows us to observe the stylistic consequences of lexicalization patterns. In
the translation of Manner, translators of V-framed languages usually omit it while
translators of S-framed languages, where Manner is more salient, tend to add
Manner descriptions to the original. Translators into V-framed languages can also
keep Manner information in an adverbial clause. In V-framed languages, such as
Galician or Spanish, Manner seems to require an additional element, while in
English it is part of the verb. Thus, in V-framed languages more adverbial and more
descriptive locative elements are used, such as adverbial phrases, prepositional
phrases, relative clauses and coordinate clauses. Both the typological and the discourse
frame must be considered in the translation between V and S-framed languages. As
Slobin (1996) mentioned, the differences in rhetorical style, especially the amount of
locative detail in English, can lead to difficulties in translations in Spanish. In his
analysis of the translations of four English novels into Spanish and three Spanish
novels into English, Slobin focused on fidelity to Path-ground and Manner descriptions. In both cases, English appeared to lose more in translation.
As has been observed, most studies on the translation of motion events have not
considered the role of expertise. As far as we know, only Cifuentes-Férez and Rojo
(2015) have examined the effect that the translator’s level of expertise may exert
upon the translation process in the transferring of Manner-of-motion verbs, as well
as the influence of type of text, using a pilot think-aloud protocol. Five teachers
and five students from a translation and interpreting degree participated in the
study. Three translation tasks were used: an excerpt from a novel, an excerpt from
a children’s book and an excerpt from video games instructions. Their findings
regarding the role of expertise show that the translation of Manner-of-motion information is mainly influenced by typological differences between English and Spanish,
but expertise also affects their choice of strategies. Although the level of translation
expertise showed no significant differences in the use of translation strategies, a
small difference (6%) was found in the strategies of total inclusion and omission of
Manner information, and the strategy of total inclusion was higher in the children’s
book and in the video instructions excerpt, probably due to students’ focus on
meaning while professional translators also paid attention to other textual constraints.
In fact, the authors pointed out that professional translators focused more on higherorder textual factors while students concentrated on lower-order textual aspects.
As regards the results of the think-aloud protocol, students produced more
comments for all types of texts, as they faced more translation problems than
professional translators did.
3. From thinking for speaking to thinking for translating
The thinking for speaking hypothesis is a more cautious and dynamic version of linguistic
relativity that focuses on the mental processes that take place during verbalization. It is
defined as ‘a special kind of thinking that is called into play, on-line, in the process of
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PERSPECTIVES
5
speaking a particular language’ (Slobin, 1991, p. 7). Evidence for this hypothesis comes
from a series of studies (e.g. Berman & Slobin, 1994; Slobin, 1991, 1996; Strömqvist &
Verhoeven, 2004) on narratives elicited by means of the picture book Frog, where are
you by Mayer (1969) from speakers of different languages. Thinking-for-speaking can
be applied to narrative retellings, as well as all forms of linguistic reception, such as listening, reading and production activities that include, for instance, speaking or translating. Cognitive processes are also involved in remembering or understanding. When it is
applied to translation, this theory analyses the different attention that is given to Manner
in translation across languages, and is known as thinking-for-translating. Thus, Slobin’s
(2003) thinking-for-translating theory focuses on the consequences that differing attention to Manner can exert on the translation process of both typologically similar and distinct languages (cf. Cifuentes-Férez & Rojo, 2015). From this perspective, Slobin (1996)
analysed motion events in five English novels and five Spanish novels, focusing on the
motion of the protagonist from one place to another. Twenty motion events were analysed in each novel. It was observed that English writers tended to refer to two or more
ground locations, while Spanish authors did not refer to more than two. In the translation of Manner, as it is more salient in English, Spanish translators usually omitted
it while English–Spanish translators tended to add Manner descriptions to the original.
In other cases, translators into Spanish kept Manner information in an adverbial clause.
Manner seemed to require an additional verb in Spanish, while in English it was part of
the verb.
The Hobbit, a novel by Tolkien (1978), has been used in a series of studies on the translation of motion events (Ibarretxe-Antuñano, 2003; Lewandowski & Mateu, 2016; Slobin,
1997, 2005). Slobin focused on The Hobbit for two reasons: it has been translated into
many languages and it contains a large number of motion events. In Slobin’s words, ‘it
is full of vivid motion events’ (2005, p. 3). Chapter 6 in particular depicts many of
these and, as such, has generally been an object of study.
Slobin (2005) examined the translations of this novel into Germanic and Slavic Sframed languages (English [original], Dutch, German, Russian and Serbo-Croatian) and
in Romance, Semitic and Turkic V-framed languages (French, Portuguese, Italian,
Spanish, Hebrew, Turkish). In the translation of Path and Manner, as in the example
‘Dori climbed up the tree’, S-framed languages tended to use a Manner verb with a
Path satellite or used a verb meaning ‘descend’, eliminating Manner of movement to
encode direction. Apparently, in target languages that matched the source language typologically Path satellites were kept, however they were replaced with Path verbs when the
target language was of the opposite type. Moreover, when the verb required to encode
Path, Manner verbs were omitted.
On the other hand, as S-framed languages are Manner salient, and strong differences
were found regarding Manner-of-motion information between S-framed and V-framed
languages. Translations in S-framed languages used more Manner verb types and resorted
to more Manner expressions, such as adverbials. Moreover, regarding lexical diversity, Sframed languages showed significantly more diversity. All these findings point to the fact
that V-framed languages pay less attention to Manner-of-motion and tend to break Paths
into various segments, as each language views reality in a different way and directs speakers’ attention to different issues.
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R. A. ALONSO
Subsequent studies of this novel have been conducted by Ibarretxe-Antuñano (2003)
into Basque and Spanish, and by Lewandowski and Mateu (2016) into Polish and
German. The former focused on contrasting translation on possible intra-typological
differences between these two V-framed languages (Spanish and Basque). In the translation of Manner verbs into Basque and Spanish, it was observed that Manner-ofmotion was frequently omitted and substituted by Path verbs. As regards the translation
of complex Paths by means of Manner verbs, translators tended to omit Manner information, insert new Path verbs or omit some Path information. Intra-typological differences between Basque and Spanish were observed in the type of motion verbs used to
replace Manner verbs. Basque translators, in contrast to Spanish, replaced the Manner
verb with other motion verbs and other types of verbs. Lewandowski and Mateu (2016)
also found intra-typological differences between Polish and German, i.e. in Polish there
were less diversified Manner and Path descriptions than in German.
The studies that have been conducted on translations of this novel have not yet considered the constructions used to convey Manner-of-motion information. Constructions
are basic units of language, which reflect the embodiment of learners’ communicative purposes. They are conventionalized form-meaning mappings used for communication; thus,
language is formed from a structured inventory of constructions, a network of form–
meaning mappings used for communication (Ellis & Cadierno, 2009). This implies a consideration of language knowledge as a structural inventory of form–meaning pairings, as
mentioned by Langacker (1987). From this perspective, no separation is considered to
exist between lexis and grammar. Along this line, language knowledge is a continuum
of linguistic constructions, which show different levels of abstractness and complexity.
They can be concrete (such as words and idioms), abstract (such as word classes) or
both (such as mixed constructions). They can be stored in multiple forms and can exist
independently of particular verbs. In the present paper, we include the analysis of the
different types of constructions used to express motion events in the source text and in
the translations with the aim of finding out whether typological differences affect the
types of constructions used.
4. The study
Typological differences between S-framed and V-framed languages, as established by
Talmy (1985, 2000), and the differences found in translations of The Hobbit in other
language pairs (Ibarretxe-Antuñano, 2003; Lewandowski & Mateu, 2016; Slobin, 1997,
2005) indicate that inter- and intra-typological differences can have an effect on the
types of verbs and strategies used. Moreover, recent studies on motion constructions
used by second language learners (Ellis & Ferreira-Junior, 2009a, 2009b) have revealed
differences between first language and second language speakers in the use of some constructions. In addition, a study by Cifuentes-Férez and Rojo (2015) revealed that differences in the translators’ level of professional expertise have an effect on some of the
strategies translators use. The present study aims to analyse these four issues from a
descriptive approach: (a) the possible difficulties in the types of verbs used in the translation of motion events between two typologically distinct languages, English and Galician,
(b) the strategies translators use to cope with these difficulties, (c) the possible different
PERSPECTIVES
7
constructions they use and (d) the role of expertise in the choice of verbs, constructions
and strategies. Thus, the study will attempt to answer into following questions:
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(1) Will typological differences between English and Galician influence the type of verbs
used?
(2) Will typological differences have an effect on the types of translation strategies used to
convey Manner information?
(3) Will typological differences affect the types of constructions used?
(4) Will translation expertise influence the types of verbs, strategies and constructions
used to convey Manner information?
4.1. Participants
Six PTs and eight ITs participated in this study. Since there is only one existing translation
of the novel into Galician, both the published translation (Rodríguez Barcía, 2000) and five
translations produced by PTs were analysed. The author of the published translation has
been coded as PT 1. Six professional translations were used. Eight ITs also volunteered to
participate in the study. PTs are native speakers of Galician, who are also proficient in
English (female: 3, male: 3), their average age is 39. They have been working as PTs for
an average of 17.5 years, two of them are full-time translators and four of them are
part-time translators. ITs are third-year students in the Degree of Translation and Interpreting at the University of Vigo (female: 7, male: 1) and their average age is 20. Their level
of English is B2 according to the Common European Framework for Languages, and they
have no professional experience as translators.
4.2. Materials and procedures
Nine fragments from chapter 6 of the novel The Hobbit were selected as the research
material (cf. appendix 1). This novel was chosen since it has proved to be an effective
text in studies on the translation of motion events (Slobin, 1997, 2005). The passages
were selected because they have been used by other researchers due to their rich elaboration of motion events (Ibarretxe-Antuñano, 2003; Lewandowski and Mateu, 2016;
Sugiyama, 2005). Besides, the translations of these passages into Galician have not been
analysed in any other studies.
Both ITs and PTs were sent the fragments by email and were told to report on the
material they had used for the translation, as well as how long it took them to do the
task. Students reported having spent an average of 1.30 hours to translate the fragments
and used online resources (dictionaries). PTs reported devoting an average of 2 hours
to the task. They reported using both paperback dictionaries and online resources.
4.3. Data coding
For the analysis of the data, we focused on (a) the type of motion verb used to convey
Manner-of-motion information, (b) the translation strategies used, and (c) the type of
construction. All the examples analysed focus on expressing the hobbit and the other protagonists’ Manner-of-motion information.
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R. A. ALONSO
The following method was developed to categorize the types of verbs used by Galician
translators to describe motion events: Manner, i.e. verbs that describe the Manner of
motion, such as ‘run’; Path, i.e. verbs that indicate the direction of the movement, for
instance ‘exit’; verbs that indicate motion, such as ‘go’; and non-motion, i.e. verbs that
do not indicate motion, such as ‘break’; the translation strategies were divided into
eight groups, adapting the classification summarized in Ibarretxe-Antuñano and Filopovic
(2013): translation of the same type of Manner information (TS1), translation of a portion
of Manner information (TS2), translation of a different type of Manner information (TS3),
omission of any type of Manner information (TS4), omission of the motion event (TS5),
translation by a Path verb (TS6), translation by a motion verb (TS7), translation by a nonmotion verb (TS8)
Finally, constructions were categorized into the type of construction produced by both
groups of translators: constructions with Manner verb, Path verbs, motion verbs and nonmotion verbs.
4.4. Data analysis and results
4.4.1. Type of verb
As Table 1 shows, while only Manner verbs were used in the source text, translators produced four verbs types: Manner, Path, motion and non-motion, although Manner verbs
Table 1. Types of verbs.
Manner
Path
Motion
Non-motion
Professional translations
In-training translations
Abanearse (swing), abrirse paso/
camiño (make one’s way
through), agatuñar (scramble),
andar (walk), arrastrarse (creep),
arrolicarse (swing), balancearse
(swing), bater (crash), botar
(throw), caer (fall),
Camiñar (walk), correr (run),
corricar (run),
Dar voltas (spin around)
deambular (wander), escapar
(escape), escorregar (slide),
eslimar (slide), esvarar (slide),
fuxir (flee), gabear (scramble),
marchar (march), ranquear
(limp), reptar (crawl) revolverse
(roll over), rubir (go up)
Saltar (jump), trenquear (walk
from left to right), trepar
(scramble), trotar (trot)
Atravesar (cross) avantar
(advance), avanzar (advance)
baixar (descend), chegar (arrive),
cruzar (cross), descender
(descend), entrar (enter), pasar
(pass), sair (exit), subir (go up)
Meterse (go into)
Ir (go)
Acubillarse (shelter), espantar
(scare), estar (be) apartar
(separate) escorrentar (scare),
estomballarse (lie on)
Abrirse paso (make one’s way
through), agarrarse (grab), andar
(walk), arrastrarse (crawl),
balancearse (swing), botar
(throw), camiñar (walk),
columpiarse (swing), correr (run),
coxear (limp), deambular
(wander), deslizarse (slide),
empurrar (push), empuxar (push),
envorcallarse (wallow)
Escalar (climb), escapar (escape),
escorregarse (slide),
Esnafrarse (crash), esvarar (slide),
fuxir (flee), gatear (crawl),
lanzarse (throw yourself),
levantarse (get up), marchar
(march), perseguir (prosecute),
rodar (roll),trepar (scramble),
trotar (trot),
Vagar (wander)
Ascender (ascend), atravesar (cross),
avanzar (advance), baixar
(descend), descender (descend),
entrar (enter), sair (exit)
Ir (go)
Escorrentar (scare), espantar (scare),
estar (be), investigar (investigate),
impulsar (boost), irrumpir (burst),
presentarse (show up) romper
(break)
English source text
Climb, creep, chase, dash,
dodge, flee, limp, march,
push, roll, run, scramble,
slide, stand, swing, trot,
wander
PERSPECTIVES
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Table 2. Number of occurrences of the different translation strategies (TS).
Its
PTs
TS1
TS2
TS3
TS4
TS5
TS6
TS7
TS8
Total
51.2 (65)
49 (47)
3.1 (4)
6.3 (6)
20.5 (26)
17.7 (17)
3.1 (4)
0.8 (1)
12.6 (16)
20.8 (20)
2.4 (3)
2.1 (2)
6.3 (8)
4.2 (4)
127
96
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were the most frequently occurring. ITs produced the following types of verbs: Manner
(30), Path (7), motion (1), non-motion (8). PTs produced the following: Manner (30),
Path (12), motion (1), non-motion (6). Both groups produced similar occurrences of
verbs types.
4.4.2. Translation strategies
Tables A1 and A2 (cf. appendix 2) show the strategies used by ITs and PTs, indicating the
type of strategy, the translator and the fragment. Table 2 shows the percentage of occurrences produced by both groups of translators for the different translations strategies (TS)
used, with raw figures in brackets.
Four main strategies tend to be used in translating Manner-of-motion information to a
target language (Cifuentes-Férez & Rojo, 2015; Ibarretxe-Antuñano & Filopovic, 2013);
translation of only a portion of the Manner information, translation of a different type
of Manner-of-motion, translation of the same type of Manner-of-motion or omission
of any type of Manner-of-motion. In this study, three main translations strategies were
used in both groups: translation by the same type of Manner (TS1), translation by a different type of Manner (TS3) and translation by a Path verb (TS6).
4.4.3. Constructions
There seems to be a clear typological difference in the use of constructions between the
source text and the translations. Apparently, typology influences the choice of construction. However, no relevant differences were found in the number of constructions used
by both groups of translators, except for motion verbs in the IT group, which were
more frequent than in the PT group. Table 3 indicates the percentages of occurrence of
constructions used in the source text and by ITs and PTs, with raw figures in parentheses.
It is interesting to point out that in the constructions produced by Galician translators
with motion and non-motion verbs, the Manner expression is usually expressed by means
of a subordinate clause, mostly an infinitive or a gerund. These types of constructions are
known as ‘verbal periphrases’, i.e. verb + (preposition) + verb constructions that express a
specific meaning. The first verb is typically a motion or non-motion verb and the main
verb is a motion verb (Path, Manner or motion) and they can indicate time, mode or
aspect. Those produced by both ITs and PTs are summarized below. Translator group
(IT or PT) and fragment are indicated in parentheses:
.
Ir + gerund (go + gerund): foron avanzando (IT7, 6/1), ían apartando (PT1, 7/2)
Table 3. Number of occurrences of constructions in the source text and in the translations.
Source text
Its
PTs
Constructions including
Manner verbs
Constructions
including Path verbs
Constructions including
motion verbs
Constructions including
non-motion verbs
100 (16)
60.2 (53)
52.6 (41)
13.6 (12)
15.4 (12)
5.7 (5)
1.3 (1)
20.5 (18)
30.8 (24)
10
.
.
.
.
.
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R. A. ALONSO
Estar a + infinitive (be to + infinitive): estaban a empurrar (IT2, 7/2), estaban a andar
(IT4,7/3), estaban a rodar (IT2/IT4, 9/1)
Dar en + infinitive (give in + infinitive): deron en esvarar (PT3, 6/1)
Ir + infinitive (go + infinitive): foron dar (PT2, 6/2)
Ter que + infinitive (have that + infinitive): tiñan que abrirse camino (PT2, 7/2), tiñan
que atravesar (PT4, 7/2), tiñan que abrirse paso (PT6, 7/2),
Comezar a + infinitive (begin to + infinitive): comezar a dar voltas (IT6, 9/1)
Acabar por + infinitive (end up by + infinitive): acabou por baixar, acababan por fuxir
(PT 6, 8/1, PT 3,9/1)
These constructions can be divided into two groups according to the meaning they
express: (a) mode: ter que + infinitive indicates obligation and; (b) aspect: estar a + infinitive indicates duration, ir + infinitive indicates demarcation, ir + gerund shows slowness,
dar en + infinitive and comezar a + infinitive indicates the beginning of an action.
Finally, acabar por+infinitive is resultative.
5. Discussion
The first research question interrogated whether typological differences between English and
Galician would influence the type of verbs used. It seems that these differences can lead to the
translation of different verb types from English into Galician. Galician translators substituted
Manner verbs by other verb types. Similar results were found by Ibarretxe-Antuñano (2003)
in the translations into Basque, compared with those into Spanish. Moreover, in her study
Spanish translators used fewer Manner verbs, for example only using the verb ‘deslizar’ to
refer to ‘slide’, while in our study Galician translators resorted to more synonyms (esvarar,
eslimar, escorregar), which also seems to indicate inter-typologial variation. It must also be
said that ITs used two Spanish verbs (columpiarse, deslizarse) that are not actually used in
Galician, due to the influence of Spanish on Galician. As Slobin (1991, 2004, 2005) mentioned, the differences in the expression of motion across typologically distinct languages
leads to different narrative styles. This seems to be the case between English and Galician.
In fact, while in the source text only Manner verbs were used to describe motion events in
the fragments analysed, in Galician, translators also used Path, motion and non-motion
verbs. Moreover, English possesses a richer lexicon of Manner-of-motion verbs and descriptions are more dynamic, while in Galician descriptions are more static. For example, while in
example (1) in Galician translators used a Manner verb, followed by several trajectories, a
Path verb (baixando) is needed to indicate the final state of the motion event; in English a
Manner verb is used, followed by several trajectories: ‘He still wandered on, out of the
little high valley, over its edge, and down the slopes beyond.’
(1) Estivo deambulando, fóra xa do pequeno e alto val, por riba do seu bordo, e baixando
polas encostas.
[He wandered on, out of the little high valley, over its edge and descending by the slopes.]
The second research question focused on whether typological differences would have an
effect on the types of translation strategies used to convey Manner information. As mentioned above, three main translations strategies were used in both groups: translation by
PERSPECTIVES
11
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the same type of Manner (TS1), translation by a different type of Manner (TS3) and translation by a Path verb (TS6).
Although Galician translators resorted to varied Manner verbs, not all of those verbs
conveyed the same Manner-of-motion information expressed in the source text. For
example, the verb ‘wander’ in English, as defined in the Cambridge English Dictionary,
means ‘to walk around slowly in a relaxed way or without any clear purpose or direction’.
As the following examples show, in fragment 1 Galician translations used the verb ‘deambular/vagar’, which includes the same type of Manner information, but they also used verbs
such as ‘andar’ (walk) and ‘camiñar’ (walk), which are all Manner-of-motion verbs but
convey a different type of the Manner information from the one expressed in English.
The translator’s group (PT or IT) has been indicated in brackets; for example, PT1
stands for Professional Translator 1.
(1) Estivo deambulando, fóra xa do pequeno e alto val, por riba do seu bordo, e baixando
polas encostas (PT1)
[He wandered on, out of the little high valley, over its edge and descending by the slopes]
(2) Continuou a andar para saír do pequeno val das terras altas, pasando os seus límites, descendendo polas abas (PT4)
[He kept walking to get out of the little valley in the high lands, passing its limits, descending
by the slopes]
(3) Seguiu camiñando sen rumbo costa abaixo traspasando os límites do pequeno val (PT2)
[He kept walking aimlessly down the slopes trespassing the limits of the little valley]
(4) Continuaba deambulando, fora da pequena e alta montaña; (IT 5)
[He continued wandering, out of the little and high mountain]
As can be observed in the examples above, translators actually transferred the Mannerof-motion information from English into Galician; the verbs used in Galician indicate
translative motion as in English, but do not convey the Manner-of-motion information
of ‘any clear purpose or direction’; in other words, they do not contain the characteristic
of walking with no specific aim. In other cases, as in example 3, Galician translators used
an adverbial expression such as ‘sen rumbo’ (aimlessly) to indicate the ‘no specific goal’
meaning in the original text, which cannot be indicated by the verb in Galician, or they
resorted to non-motion verbs like ‘continuar/seguir (keep)’ to indicate that motion is actually in progress – that is to say, to show the meaning of continuity.
The translation of a different type of Manner can be observed in the verb ‘dash’ in fragment 3. It implies a sudden action, and is defined as ‘to go somewhere quickly’ by the Cambridge English Dictionary. However, in examples 5 and 6 the meaning of ‘quick and sudden
impetuosity’ was not included, instead the Manner expression ‘abrirse paso’ (make one’s way)
or a verb conveying different Manner information ‘lanzarse’ (throw oneself) was used:
(5) Como ben sabes, non houbo tempo para contar até que nos abrimos paso entre os gardiáns, saímos pola porta inferior e baixamos até aquí atropelándonos uns os outros (PT6)
[As you know quite well, there was no time to count, till we made our way through the gateguards, we went out of the lower door, and descended here running over each other]
12
R. A. ALONSO
(6) Non había tempo para contar, cando vostede sabe bastante ben, antes de que nos lanzaramos polos guardas da porta, da porta inferior, e atolondradamente baixou aquí (IT5)
[There was no time to count, when you know quite well, before we threw ourselves at the
gate-guards, at the lower gate-guards, crazily I descended here]
In other cases, translators used the same type of Manner information as in the source text.
For example, the verb ‘creep’ is defined as ‘to move slowly, quietly, and carefully, usually in
order to avoid being noticed’. The verb ‘arrastrarse’ in Galician conveys the same meaning of
slow, quiet and careful movement, as in the following examples from fragment 2:
(7) Parecíannos trasgos, de modo que se arrastrou con moito coidado cara diante.Se arrastrou
con moito cuidado (IT 1)
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[They looked like goblins to us, so he crept carefully forward. He crept very carefully]
(8) Non parecían trasgos; entón arrastrouse cara adiante con coidado (IT 2)
[They did not look like goblins; then he crept forward carefully]
(9) Non soaba coma os goblins, de modo que se arrastrou con tento cara a adiante (PT 3)
[It did not sound like goblins, so he crept carefully forward]
Another option found in the translations was the use of Path verbs. In the following
example, both ITs and PTs used a Path verb instead of a Manner verb, except in one
case where the IT used the verb ‘escalar’ (scrape) in fragment 8. Examples 10 and 11
were produced by ITs and examples 12 and 13 by PTs
(10) Así que Dori saiu da árbore e deixou que Bilbo se levantara e se puxera detrás del. Xusto
nese momento os lobos entraron no claro trotando e ouveando. (IT2)
[So Dori exited from the tree and let Bilbo stand up and stand behind him. Just at that
moment the wolves entered in the clearing trotting and howling.]
(11) Así que Dori realmente saiu da árbore e deixou que Bilbo levantárase e se puxera detrás
del. Xusto nese momento os lobos entraron no claro trotando e ouveando. (IT4) [So Dori
really exited from the tree and let Bilbo stand up and stand behind him. Just at that
moment the wolves entered in the clearing trotting and howling.]
(12) De maneira que Dori acabou por baixar da árbore para que Bilbo puidese agatuñar polo
seu lombo. Xusto nese momento, os lobos irromperon no claro ouveando. (PT6) [So Dori
ended up descending from the tree so that Bilbo could scramble up his back. Just at that
moment, the wolves burst in the clearing howling.]
(13) Así que, en efecto, Dori descendeu da árbore e permitiulle a Bilbo rubir e acomodarse no
seu lombo. Xusto nese instante, os lobos presentáronse ouleando no clareiro (PT3).
[So, in fact, Dori descended from the tree and let Bilbo scramble and sit on his back. Just at
that moment, the wolves showed up howling in the clearing.]
As can be observed, the original Manner verb ‘climb’ in fragment 8 has been replaced by
the Path verbs ‘sair’ (exit), ‘baixar’ (descend) and ‘descender’ (descend) – i.e. verbs that do
not contain Manner-of-motion information. In Galician no verb is equivalent to ‘climb
down’; the same applies to most verb-framed languages, leading translators to substitute
it with the Path verb ‘sair’ (exit) or ‘descender’ (descend) and to omit Manner information.
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13
Manner-of-motion information is omitted in other cases and only a Path verb (sair ‘exit’,
subir ‘go up’) is used, as in fragments 8/1 and 8/2, respectively:
(14) Dori saiu da árbore (IT 2)
[Dori exited from the tree]
(15) Deixou que Bilbo subise (IT 3)
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[He let Bilbo go up]
Although translation by the same type of Manner (TS1), translation by a different type of
Manner (TS3) and translation by a Path verb (TS6) were the most frequently used strategies, translators also used the strategies of translation by a motion and a non-motion verb
and omission of Manner information and/or motion event. For example, when using a
motion verb, PTs opted for two motion verbs, ‘ir’ (go) and ‘meterse’ (go into). The only
motion verb ITs used was ‘ir’ (go), which a more general verb. It did not occur frequently;
in fact, only five cases were found in the corpus:
(16) Moito pronto todo o claro dos lobos foi rodando repentinamente (IT 4, F9/1)
[Very soon all the wolves’ clearing went down rolling suddenly]
(17) Foise silenciosa e coidadosamente (IT6, F2)
[He left quietly and carefully]
(18) As veces ían por un mar de fentos (IT7, 7/2)
[At times they went through a sea of bracken]
(19) As veces ían apartando un mar de fentos (PT1,7/2)
[At times they pushed away a sea of bracken]
(20) Foron dar a beira dun piñeiral trepador (PT2, 6/2)
[They ended up at the slopes of a climbing pine forest]
In examples 17 and 18, ‘ir’ is the main verb; in 17, Manner-of-motion is expressed by
means of two satellites (silenciosa e coidadosamente), while in 19 Manner is omitted. In
the rest of the examples, the verb ‘ir’ is used as an auxiliary, followed by either a
gerund or an infinitive.
As regards translation by means of a non-motion verb, in examples 21–22 translators
resorted to the verbs ‘querer’ (want) and ‘romper’ (break), although in the source text the
Manner verbs were ‘wander’ and ‘dash’. These three examples were produced by ITs. It
seems that their proficiency level was not good enough for them to fully understand the
source text. In fact, IT 3 confuses the verbs ‘wander’ and ‘wonder’ (desire to know something, feel curious). The sentence ‘we had dashed through the gate-guards’ also appears to
be explained by the lack of proficiency of the translators, as they interpreted it as ‘break/
crash the door/protective valve’, making ‘dash’ and ‘crash’ synonyms.
In examples 24 to 29, translators replaced Manner verbs with the non-motion verbs
‘estar’ (be), ‘espantar’ (scare), ‘agarrarse’ (hold), ‘acubillarse’ (shelter) and ‘presentarse’
(show up), and the expression of Manner-of-motion is omitted.
14
R. A. ALONSO
Finally, in examples 30 and 31, Manner verbs have been replaced by a construction with
a non-Manner verb + Manner verb/Manner expression: the constructions ‘comezar a dar
voltas’ (start spinning around) and ‘estar a rolos’ (be rolling over).
(21) Él ainda quería investigar (IT3, 1/1)
[He still wanted to investigate]
(22) Ata que rompemos a válvula de protección (IT 3, 3)
[Until we broke the protection valve]
(23) Ata que rompemos o portón dos gardas (IT 4, 3)
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[Until we broke the guards-gate]
(24) Ao mesmo tempo estaban nun mar de fentos e prantas (IT6, 7/2)
[At the same time they were in a sea of bracken and plants]
(25) Os seus propios amigos os espantaron (IT6, 9/3)
[Their own friends scared them away]
(26) Algúns agarráronse as polas máis baixas (PT7, 6/3) [Some held the lower branches]
(27) acubilláronse nun pequeño piñeiral (PT4, 6/2)
[They sheltered in a small pine forest]
(28) Os seus propios compañeiros os espantaban (PT3, 9/3)
[Their own colleagues scared them away]
(29) Os lobos presentaronse ouleando (PT3, 8/3)
[The wolves showed up howling]
(30) Os lobos comezaron a dar voltas (PT3, 9/1)
[The wolves started spinning around]
(31) todos os lobos que había no clareiro estaban a rolos no chan (PT 4,9/1)
[all the wolves in the clearing were rolling over on the floor]
Finally, the strategy of omission of Manner information and/or motion event can be
observed in cases such as example 32, where the motion event ‘climb down the tree’
was omitted: the translator used the adverb ‘de supeto’ (suddenly) to indicate a narrative
change, but the reference to ‘climbing down the tree’ was not included.
(32) De súpeto Dori, que agora outra vez corría á cola levando a Bilbo, foi aferrando
por detrás na escuridade. Nese preciso momento os lobos irromperon ouveando no
claro. (IT 1)
[Suddenly Dori, who was again running at the end of the queue carrying Bilbo, was holding
behind in the dark. Just at that moment the wolves burst howling in the clearing.]
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PERSPECTIVES
15
Omission of the Manner information was a more frequently used strategy than omission of the motion event. For example, in fragment 8/3, two IT translators (IT 6, 7) preferred to omit the Manner information in the translation of the verb ‘trot’, simply resorting
to ‘os lobos aullaron/ouvearon’ (the wolves howled). These examples support Slobin’s
findings in that Manner information in V-languages can be omitted. Moreover, as
explained below, when Path, motion and non-motion verbs are used, Manner-ofmotion can be expressed in a satellite or it can be omitted.
As mentioned above, the most commonly used strategies in this study were translation
by the same type of Manner (TS1), translation by a different type of Manner (TS3) and
translation by a Path verb (TS6). In Cifuentes-Férez and Rojo’s (2015) study, translation
of all Manner was also the most frequently used strategy in all text types (children’s
book, video instruction and novel); however, the translation of only a portion of
Manner was more frequently used than translation by a different type of Manner in the
children’s book and in the excerpts of a novel. It may be the case that with a different
type of text results could vary. Yet, in both studies results are similar to those obtained
by Slobin in that all Manner information was kept in more than 40% of cases. In addition,
two studies about intra-typological differences in the translation of motion have pointed
out that translators use different strategies when transferring Manner information into a
typologically similar language. Ibarretxe-Antuñano (2003) indicated that Spanish and
Basque showed similar strategies to cope with the translation of Manner information;
nevertheless, Basque translators showed a tendency to omit Manner information and
Spanish translators tended to include a different Manner-of-motion verb more frequently
than Spanish translators did. Lewandowski and Mateu (2016) observed that in German the
strategy of using the same or similar Manner information is kept to a higher extent than in
Polish, where the strategy of using less specific Manner information was more common –
i.e. intratypological differences in the use of strategies were found. In fact, Polish translators
had to resort to varied translation strategies more frequently, such as using a less specific
Manner verb. Therefore, not only typologically distinct languages require the use of different translation strategies, differences are also found in typologically similar languages.
The third research question aimed to discover whether typological differences would
affect the type of constructions used in translation. In the source text only two types of
constructions were used: Manner verb + Path in satellite (e.g. wander on) and Manner
verb + subordinate clauses (e.g. trot howling). In contrast, both ITs and PTs produced
the following types: Manner verb (e.g. esvarar), Manner verb + Manner expression (the
Manner expression can be expressed by means of an adverb ‘marchar tranquilamente’,
an adjective ‘esvarar aconchegados’, or a subordinate clause ‘abanearse pendurándose’),
Manner verb + Path (e.g. caer na entrada dun bosque); Path verb + Manner expression
(the Manner expression can be an adjunct [e.g. cruzar a toda velocidade] or a subordinate
clause [e.g. baixar ranqueando]), Path verb + prepositional phrase (e.g. sair da árbore);
non-motion verb (e.g. espantar), non-motion verb + prepositional phrase (e.g. estar nun
mar de fentos), non-motion verb + Manner expression (e.g. facer fuxir). To sum up, it
seems that the typological difference between English and Galician can lead to the use
of more varied types of constructions, and although constructions with Manner verbs
are more common, other construction types were also used.
Finally, the fourth research question focused on whether the translators’ level of professional expertise would have an effect on the types of verbs, strategies and constructions
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16
R. A. ALONSO
used. With regard to the number of verbs used, both groups produced a similar number of
verbs to convey Manner-of-motion information by means of Manner verbs, motion and
Path verbs, but PTs tended to use slightly more non-motion verbs. The types of verbs used
were similar but the IT group used verbs that do not frequently occur in formal registers,
such as ‘esnafrarse’ (IT 6, fragment 3), and verbs that are used in Spanish but not in Galician: ‘columpiarse’, ‘deslizarse’. Another difference was observed in the erroneous choice
of verbs. For instance, in fragment 3, the verb ‘dash’ is translated as ‘romper’ (break) by ITs
2, 3, 4. This does not reflect the meaning in the original text, nor does it convey Mannerof-motion information. With regard to the types of strategies used to convey Manner
information, they did not show relevant differences except for the omission of Manner
information, which was more common in the IT group (3.1%). Similar results were
found by Cifuentes-Férez and Rojo (2015) in that no remarkable differences were observed
between students and PTs; however, in their study professionals omitted Manner information to a greater extent than did students, as the former paid more attention to
lower-order textual constraints. In this study, students possibly omitted Manner information more often as they were in the third year of their translation and interpreting
degree, and were not as proficient as the final-year students that took part in CifuentesFérez and Rojo’s study. Finally, in the comparison between the constructions produced
by ITs and PTs, a difference was observed between ITs and PTs: PTs only used the construction motion verb + subordinate clause (e.g. ir apartando), while ITs also used motion
verb + prepositional phrase (e.g. ir por un mar de fentos). It was also found that the same
types of constructions were used in both groups, but the IT group used more constructions
including motion verbs. This is possibly due to the fact that they used the general verb ‘ir’
(go) more often, while PTs used more specific verbs.
6. Conclusion
Typological differences across English and Galician seem to influence the type of verb used
to describe Manner of motion. In the source text only Manner-of-motion verbs were produced, while in the Galician translations four different types of verbs were used: Manner,
Path, motion and non-motion. Moreover, the most commonly used translation strategies
involved translation of the Manner component but also substitution of the Manner component by a Path verb, showing the tendency of V-languages’ rhetorical style to use more
Path verbs to express motion. Typological differences also seemed to influence the choice
of constructions. Only two types of constructions were used in the source text; Manner
verb + Path in satellite (e.g. wander on) and Manner verb + subordinate clause (e.g. trot
howling), while translators used more varied construction types. Additionally, translators
used verbal periphrases. Finally, expertise did not seem to have a strong effect on the types
of verbs used, but the lack of proficiency in English of the IT group seemed to influence the
appropriate choice of verb and register, resulting in translations that do not reflect the
meaning of the original texts. In addition, the IT group used the strategy of omission
and produced more examples with constructions including motion verbs.
Some pedagogical implications can be drawn from this study. For instance, students in
translation and interpreting degrees would benefit from some training in the differences in
the expression of motion across languages. It could be useful to teach translation strategies
PERSPECTIVES
17
that can be used to cope with translation difficulties derived from these differences, and
make them aware of variations in rhetorical style in the expression of motion events.
Acknowledgements
I would like to acknowledge both the professional and the in-training translators that agreed to participate in this study. My thanks also go to Paula Cifuentes and Gale Stam for their comments on a
previous draft of this paper. I would like to acknowledge Antón Palacios for his comments on verbal
periphrases in Galician, as well as the editor and two anonymous reviewers. Their comments helped
to improve this paper. All remaining errors are mine.
Disclosure statement
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No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author.
Funding
This work was supported by Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation: [Grant Number FFI201564057-P].
Notes on contributor
Rosa Alonso Alonso is an associate professor at the University of Vigo. Her research interests
include second language acquisition, academic writing, thinking-for-speaking and motion events.
She is currently the editor of Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics.
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PERSPECTIVES
19
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Appendix 1. Translation fragments
(1) He still wandered on, out of the little high valley, over its edge, and down the slopes beyond; but
all the while a very uncomfortable thought was growing inside him.
(2) He stopped and listened. It did not sound like goblins; so he crept forward carefully. He was on
a stony Path winding downwards with a rocky wall on the left hand; on the other side the
ground sloped away and there were dells below the level of the Path overhung with bushes
and low trees.
(3) There was no time to count, as you know quite well, till we had dashed through the gate-guards,
out of the lower door, and helter-skelter down here.
(4) O yes! lots of them: but I dodged’ em. I got stuck in the door, which was only open a crack, and
I lost lots of buttons
(5) We have gone miles and miles, and come right down through the heart of the mountains, and
are now on the other side – quite a short cut. But we are not at the point to which our pass
would have brought us; we are too far to the North, and have some awkward country
ahead. And we are still pretty high up.
(6) They found themselves at the top of a wide steep slope of fallen stones, the remains of a landslide. When they began to go down this, rubbish and small pebbles rolled away from their feet;
soon larger bits of split stone went clattering down and started other pieces below them slithering and rolling; then lumps of rock were disturbed and bounded off, crashing down with a dust
and a noise. Before long the whole slope above them and below them seemed on the move, and
they were sliding away, huddled all together, in a fearful confusion of slipping, rattling, cracking slabs and stones. It was trees at the bottom that saved them. They slid into the edge of a
climbing wood of pines that here stood right up the mountain slope from the deeper darker
forests of the valleys below. Some caught hold of the trunks and swung themselves into
lower branches, some (like the little hobbit) got behind a tree to shelter from the onslaught
of rocks.
(7) They limped along now as fast as they were able down the gentle slopes of a pine forest in a
slanting Path leading steadily southwards. At times they were pushing through a sea of
bracken with tall fronds rising right above the hobbit’s head; at times they were marching
along quiet as quiet over a floor of pine-needles; and all the while the forest-gloom got
heavier and the forest-silence deeper.
(8) So Dori actually climbed out of the tree and let Bilbo scramble up and stand on his back. Just at
that moment the wolves trotted howling into the clearing.
(9) Very soon all about the glade wolves were rolling over and over to put out the sparks on their
backs, while those that were burning were running about howling and setting others alight, till
their own friends chased them away and they fled off down the slopes crying and yammering
and looking for water.
Appendix 2
Tables A1 and A2
Table A1. Strategies used by ITs.
Translation of the same type of Manner information
(verb or separate expression)
T1
2
6/2
6/3
7/3
9/1
T2
1/1
6/1
6/2
6/3
8/1
T3
6/2
6/3
8/1
8/3
T4
1/1
2
6/1
6/2
6/3
T5
1/1
2
6/1
6/2
6/3
T6
1/1
6/2
6/3
7/1
8/2
T7
9/1
9/2
9/3
9/4
T8
2
6/1
6/2
6/3
7/1
(Continued )
20
R. A. ALONSO
Table A1. Continued.
Translation of a portion of Manner information
Translation of a different type of Manner-of-motion
Downloaded by [Florida State University] at 11:49 27 October 2017
Omission of any type of Manner
Omission of the motion event
Translation by a Path verb
T1
9/2
9/3
9/4
T2
8/3
9/1
9/2
1/1
3
7/3
8/2
8/3
7/2
7/3
8/2
9/3
8/1
6/1
7/1
Translation by a motion verb
Translation by a non-motion verb
8/1
8/3
3
T3
9/1
9/2
7/1
2
6/1
7/2
7/3
8/2
9/1
1/1
3
9/3
T4
7/1
7/2
7/3
9/1
9/2
9/4
T5
7/1
7/2
7/3
8/2
9/1
9/2
9/4
T6
9/2
9/4
8/2
9/3
3
9/3
8/3
3
6/1
7/3
9/1
8/3
8/1
8/1
8/1
8/3
2
7/2
9/3
3
T7
T8
7/2
9/1
9/2
9/4
1/1
2
6/1
7/1
8/3
7/3
1/1
8/2
9/3
3
6/2
8/1
8/2
7/2
6/3
3
8/1
8/3
7/3
Table A2. Strategies used by PTs.
Translation of the same type of Manner information
(verb or separate expression)
T1
1/1
2
6/1
7/3
8/2
9/1
9/2
9/3
9/4
T2
6/1
6/3
7/3
8/2
9/1
9/2
9/3
9/4
T3
2
6/1
6/2
6/3
7/3
8/2
9/2
9/4
T4
6/1
7/3
9/2
9/4
1/1
1/1
3
6/2
6/3
7/2
3
7/2
9/3
1/1
3
8/2
7/2
9/3
7/1
8/1
8/3
2
3
7/1
8/1
8/3
6/2
7/1
8/1
2
6/3
7/1
8/1
8/3
8/3
9/1
6/2
9/1
Translation of a portion of Manner information
Translation of a different type of Manner-of-motion
Omission of any type of Manner
Omission of the motion event
Translation by a Path verb
Translation by a motion verb
Translation by a non-motion verb
7/2
T5
1/1
6/1
6/2
6/3
7/1
8/2
9/1
9/2
9/3
9/4
3
T6
1/1
2
6/1
8/2
9/1
9/2
9/3
9/4
7/2
7/3
8/3
3
6/2
6/3
7/2
8/3
8/1
2
7/1
7/3
8/1
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