A Huge Bowl of "Frog" soup. Mini Lesson Plan Presentation Montana State University Albina Nikhorosheva, Russia TEA Program, Fall 2010 1. Exposition a. An apple presentation: an apple - Earth; 1/4 - land; 3/4 - water. Drinkable water is 1 percent of all the water. Only 1/4 of the land is a more or less comfortable and safe place to live in. b. An experiment with frogs conducted by French scientists: if we put a frog into boiling water, it will immediately jump out. If we put a frog into cool water being slowly warmed up, it will swim about until it will get boiled. Why does it happen? (If changes are happening slowly, animals and people get used to them.) 2. Elicitation a. And what about the humanity? Don't you think that we are similar to the second frog and the world is slowly turning into a huge bowl of "frog" soup? Look through the text and underline the facts which support this idea. b. (Feedback.) Now share your findings with the class. Give one example at a time. 3. Structured Practice a. As you see the situation is really serious. However, the majority of people think that it's neither their fault nor their concern, but it's not true. Now I want you to work in pairs and interview each other to find out how "green" you are. b. Now count the points. Each a answer is "0" points, b - "1" point, c - "2" points, d - "3" points. See the key to the questionnaire. c. (Feedback) - Raise your hands those who have 15 to 18 points. (Register the number on the board) - Raise your hands those who have 10 to 14 points. (Register on the board) - Raise your hands those who have 0 to 9 points. (Register on the board) 4. Free Practice a. Now let's see what any of us can do to prevent the situation from growing worse. Work in 4 groups. Come up with your ideas how to behave in an environmentally friendly manner in different places (at home, at school, outdoors, in supermarkets). b. (Feedback) Now let's see what advice to follow can you give to everybody to become "green". What should we do at home? Group 1 What should we do at school? Group 2 What should we do outdoors? Group 3 What should we do while going shopping? Group 4 5. Reinforcement (at home) Work individually, in pairs or in groups of three to make a poster or a leaflet "Do it now before it's too late!" Be sure to include facts, pictures and advice in your posters and leaflets. We will place the posters on the walls and we will multiply the leaflets and hand them out to the students of our lyceum. Options 1. You can work in collaboration with other English teachers and ask them to get some sort of a feedback on the posters and leaflets during their class. 2. You can launch a campaign "Go Green". Try to have students follow the advice on the posters and leaflets for two weeks or a month. Work out a questionnaire and at the end of the settled period and have a survey how the campaign was going. You should put a poster on the wall telling what the students did during that period and how it helped the environment, inviting more people to join the campaign. Hand-outs: 1) The text. Environmental problems such as depletion of natural resources, water pollution and global warming have all resulted mainly from human activities. Many people do not realize the importance of looking after this fragile environment of ours. They take many things for granted and never think of conserving some of the natural resources we have today. Every single day, tons and tons of domestic waste ranging from fish bones to huge pieces of rubbish such as unused refrigerators are thrown away. A large amount of rubbish is neither burnt nor recycled but is left in certain areas marked by the government as dumping grounds. With the rising standards of living, we throw away more things and there is an increase in the quantity of solid waste. This has given rise to problems as new dumping grounds have to be found. However, it often takes a long time before litter from the environment disappears. For example, cigarette butts - 1-5 years, aluminum cans - 500 years, plastic bags - 10-30 years, plastic photo-film containers - 20-30 years, nylon fabric - 30-40 years, rubber boots - 50-80 years, gum - 20-25 years, six pack bottle wrapping - 450 years. To increase the amount of food produced, farmers use large amounts of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The excess chemicals not used by the plants are washed by the rainwater into rivers, lakes and seas, polluting both surface water and underground water. A new report of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) says almost 500,000 tonnes of old and unused toxic pesticides have been abandoned on sites. Factories and industries often release poisonous chemical substances into seas, rivers or lakes. An example of industrial sea pollution happened in Japan in the 1950s. A local factory had poured waste water containing mercury into the Minamata Bay for 20 years. Tuna fish in the bay absorbed the mercury and people ate the tuna. Many children were hence born with birth deformities, people lost their hearing and sight and thousands eventually died. Waste products from the washing of clothes, dishes and lavatories, if untreated and discharged into the sea, promote the growth of algae which destroys marine life. Infectious diseases may also spread if sewage is not treated before it is discharged into the sea. Air pollution refers to the discharge of harmful gases and dust into the atmosphere. When these harmful substances enter the air around us, they may cause irreversible damage to humans and to our environment. They are responsible for acid rain. They enter the blood stream and reduce the delivery of oxygen to the body's organs and tissues. Elevated levels of CO may result in impairment of visual perception, work capacity, manual dexterity, learning ability and performance of complex tasks. According to the World's Health Organization, each year about tens of thousands of people die in the world's major cities due to the breathing in of poor quality air. When acid rain hits the earth, nutrients essential for the trees in the soil are washed away and toxic metals are freed. If the trees absorb these toxic metals, they would die as they are deprived of their vital nutrients, such as calcium and magnesium. Some of the sulphur dioxide in the leaves also may clog up the stomata in the leaves, causing them to eventually fall off. Acid rain lowers the pH value of lakes and rivers, making them more acidic. When the water becomes too acidic, the fishes begin to die. In addition to that, other plants will also disappear. It is said that when the pH value of the water gets to 4.5, pretty much everything in the lakes and rivers are dead. Acid rain frees the toxic metals which are present in the ground and washes them into water sources. The water eventually gets to our drinking water supply and contaminates it. Toxic metals which are absorbed from water by fruits, vegetables, and in the tissues of animals indirectly affect humans. Studies have shown that mercury that accumulates in the organs and tissues of animals has been linked to with brain damage in children, nerve disorders, heart problems and even death. Ozone depletion is caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFC). They are compounds containing the elements carbon, fluorine and chlorine. CFCs are widely used as propellants for aerosols and as coolants in refrigerators and air conditioners. They are also used in the manufacture of packing foam. They can remain in the atmosphere for a very long time. Over years, they slowly diffuse through the air and up to the stratosphere, where they react with ozone and destroy the ozone layer. The thinning of the ozone layer results in an increased exposure to UV rays from the sun. In humans, this can cause diseases like skin cancer and cataract and may also result in a reduced resistance to diseases. Global warming refers to an average increase in the Earth's temperature, which in turn, causes climate change. A warmer earth may lead to changes in rainfall patterns, a rise in sea level and a huge impact on plants, wildlife and humans. 2) The questionnaire. 1) How often do you use sprays?a. oftenb. sometimesc. rarelyd. never2) How often do you leave the light on when you actually don't need it?a. oftenb. sometimesc. rarelyd. never3) How often do you put your buys in plastic bags provided by supermarkets?a. oftenb. sometimesc. rarelyd. never4) How often do you use disposable tableware (dishes, glasses, forks and knives)?a. oftenb. sometimesc. rarelyd. never5) How often do you drop litter in the street?a. oftenb. sometimesc. rarelyd. never6) How many trees have you planted?a. noneb. 1 - 2 c. 3 - 4 d. 5 and more 3) Key to the questionnaire. If your score is 15 - 18 points, you are rather "green". You don't add much to the pollution. Nevertheless, you can still do more to protect the nature. For example, you can launch a campaign in your school. If your score is 10 - 14 points, you from time to time forget that we should take care of the environment. Try to follow "green" rules on a regular basis. If your score is 9 - 0 points, you are sure that one person can't harm the environment much. You live as if the world was created only for you. It's high time you changed your behaviour!