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Song organization of chaffinch in Ukraine (Crimea)

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Chaffinch song in Crimea (Ukraine)- structure, evolution
Features of song organization of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) in a population of the south of Ukraine (Crimea)
O. A. Astakhova
Moscow state university of M. V. Lomonosov
biology faculty, department of vertebrate zoology
Russia, Moscow
e-mail: chaffinch@bk.ru
Abstract
The purpose of the given work is discussion of formation of local song traditions of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) in a local population of the Crimean peninsula (the south of Ukraine), feature of it's organization, similarity and difference to song types in other neighbour and remote populations of chaffinch (in its local vocal cultures) at quantitative and qualitative aspects.
Keywords: species-specific song of chaffinch, subspecies chaffinch Crimean, different song types, song cultures at different populations.
Introduction
Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) - the small bird, in size as a sparrow, and relates to group of Finches (Fringillidae) in order of Sparrow (Passeriformes) (Figure 1). The species-specific area of chaffinch is wide enough, also passes through the European plain (including continent of the Great Britain) to Siberia up to Krasnoyarsk region (wood and forest-steppe zones), but can wintering (migration) in southern areas of the Earth - Asia (the north of Kazakhstan, Turkey, Caucasus), the Mediterranean, Southern Europe (Crimea, Bulgaria, Romania), northwest Africa, Canary islands, where some independent subspecies and species of chaffinch are formed [1, 2, 3, 4].
Figure 1. Representatives of one group or genus of Finches (Fringilla): A - chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.), B - Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla); 1 - female, 2 - male.
In territories of the Crimean peninsula (the south of Ukraine) allocate (distinguish) separate subspecies of chaffinch from many its existing subspecies in different parts of a species-specific area - chaffinch Crimean (Fringilla coelebs solomkoi Menz.). Usually subspecies of chaffinch European (Fringilla coelebs L.) poorly differ on color of feathers (distinctions only in its intensity) [5] and in song cultures - in ways of singing of a species-specific vocal pattern (a characteristic trill and a final stroke at the end) [6], while different species of chaffinch can have various color of covers (for example, blue chaffinch - Fringilla teydea, on Canary islands) and the distinguished (different) vocal traditions, expressing in other vocal structure of species-specific song (different ways of its differentiation on a part, the phrases, the distinguished forms of a pronunciation of sound elements).
Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) is one of some species of birds, who has social traditions of song learning, and it is capable to support a constancy of species-specific vocal patterns on the basis of their genetic determination and imitation (copying) of species-specific song by young individuals, which also are capable to alter (modify) vocal types by improvisations and mistakes of copying [7]. Vocal variability of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) in different local and geographical (located on the big distances) populations is already for a long time the found out fact and widespread enough subject of studying in bioacoustics [8, 9, 10, 11]. Thus different geographical populations of chaffinch can be characterized by the certain features in the organizations of local vocal cultures [12], that has been revealed and in territory of the Crimean peninsula (the south of Ukraine), interesting by the intermediate position between southern Europe and northwest of Caucasus, and thus it is not lost connection with populations of the European Russia. Probably, therefore vocal cultures (ways of singing of species-specific vocalizations) of chaffinch here appeared somewhat generalized, combined, but also original (distinguished), reflecting combination of populations of birds both with adjacent (neighbour), and with geographically remote territories, probably, as a result of migrations of individuals in species-specific populations. Material and methods In May, 2007 in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) have been made tape records of singing males of chaffinch, concerning (relate) to separate subspecies is chaffinch Crimean (Fringilla coelebs solomkoi Menz.) - sample contained approximately 26 males, from which we tried to fix full song repertoire of each individual, capable to include 1-6 (10) song types of species-specific vocal pattern - distinguished (different) from each other in song structure (syntax), phonetics or a pronunciation of vocal elements, but similar in beat, duration, a way of differentiation on a part, phrases, in the general (common) frequency range (which appeared it is stable and, most likely, is genetically determined in all populations of a species of chaffinch). A variety of vocal types in repertoire of an individual is frequently reached (achieved) by young males by means of song improvisations at singing or mistakes of copying of species specific songs at song learning (training) in sensitive period, probably, as a result of individual functioning of song centers of a brain (so-called individual vocal variability). In more advanced age, vocal repertoire of chaffinch males and making it song types (variants of species specific vocalization) are usually fixed in memory, there are stable and poorly changed (changeable) in structure after the period of crystallization of species-specific song at an individual and its establishments in the certain local vocal culture, where there is a transfer of vocal variants of a species to the subsequent generation by song learning (training) [13].
Tape recorder record of songs of chaffinch males (from everyone on the average on 41,4±18,4 songs) was carried out (was spent) with the help of compact tape recorder Panasonic RQ-SX95F and an additional microphone with the purpose of increase in quality of a sound. The territory was in a zone of the mixed woods and represented large city parks (more than 1 km2) in Melitopol (the Zaporozhye region), Jankoy (the Crimean region) and Simferopol (the regional center of Crimea), located from each other approximately on 100 km. The analysis of sonograms of song types of chaffinch was spent (carry out) with the help of computer program Avisoft SASLab Light, has been seen about 2500 songs, N=172 songs of different types are measured on different quantitative parameters. Different song types were designated by latin letters. To one type of song of chaffinch considered songs, which are completely similar by all three or two parts (started singing, a trill, a final stroke), which could be subdivided into separate phrases (a knee, fluctuation), consisting of repeating similar elements (syllables). At record, songs of one type met in different points of territory (was considered, that belong to repertoires of different males), therefore alongside (equally) with the letter were designated by numbers in ascending order (for example, А1, А2, А3, etc.). Results and discussion
The average size of song repertoire of chaffinch in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) is approximately 2,52 ± 0,75 types of songs at average sample of songs from one male n>20 (minim - 1 song type, max - 4 song types). Very seldom there were the repertoires consisting of 1 type of songs - 1 male (4,8 %), repertoire from 4 types of songs also was rare - 2 males (9,5 %), the often phenomenon - 2 types of songs in repertoire, which had 10 males (47,6 %), the repertoire from 3 types of songs met enough frequently - 8 males (38,1 %) (Table 1). Repertoires of 4 song types (4,9 %) and of 2 song types (56,1 %) at chaffinch had similar percentage parities (ratio) in populations of northwest (Curonian spit, the Kaliningrad region) and the center of the European Russia (Moscow, Zvenigorod, Michurinsk - the Tambov region), remote on 1500-1850 km. But in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) the song repertoire of chaffinch of 3 song types was more often, than in populations of the European Russia (9,76 %). Table 1. A percentage parity (ratio) of the song repertoire size of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) in different geographical populations of the East Europe
Geographical
populationsQuantity of song types in repertoire123456Northern population
(Curonian spit, the Kaliningrad region)n=7
24,1%n=16
55,2%n=3
10,3%n=1
3,4%n=2
6,9%The center of the European Russia
(Moscow, Zvenigirod, Michurinsk)n=11
23,4%n=30
63,8%n=5
10,6%n=1
2,1%Southern population
(the south of Ukraine, Crimea)n=1
4,8%n=10
47,6%n=8
38,1%n=2
9,5%The general (common) for populations of a speciesn=19
19,6%n=56
57,7%n=16
16,6%n=3
3,1%n=1
1%n=2
2,1%
The note: in the table quantity of males with the certain song repertoire size (n) and their percent from the general (common) number of song types is specified in sample in the certain geographical population; repertoires of those males of chaffinch, from which it has been recorded on the average n=20 songs were taken into account; on the literary data the maximal size of chaffinch repertoire - six types of species specific songs, but could meet and the big chaffinch repertoires on the size (to 10-11 types of songs), achieved by song improvisations and combinations of phrases (parts) different song types (on Curonian spit).
As a result of the qualitative analysis of vocal forms of chaffinch song (Fringilla coelebs L.) from sample in a population (N = 26 males) in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) have been revealed 16 different types species-specific songs (Table 2), from which only one song type (В) were completely similar (general (common)) with populations of the European Russia, and the majority of them - 15 types of songs (93,75 %) appeared modified (dialect) on the basis of the general (common) (similar) species-specific vocal structure in relation to similar types of songs of individuals of subspecies of chaffinch European (Fringilla coelebs coelebs L.) in populations of the European Russia, remote on 1500-1850 km. Similar modification of vocal cultures of chaffinch in its different subspecies - chaffinch Crimean (Fringilla coelebs solomkoi Menz.) and chaffinch European (Fringilla coelebs coelebs L.), can speak about species-specific songs of birds as an exponent of generalization and division (separate) of its geographical populations, and as criterion of the species-specific status of many species of birds (Table 3). Six song types of chaffinch (37,5 %) in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) appeared poorly similar (original) in qualitative aspect in relation to song types in the European Russia (song types MI (N), MI (B), ME (I) (A), O*I, M (O) I, CME) and are named on phrases (parts) or as a whole of those song types, which "reminded" in the structure (the form of elements).
Table 2. A percentage parity (ratio) of song types of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) in a population of the south of Ukraine (Crimea)
Song type (designation)The south of Ukraine (Crimea)Quantity of song types
in samplePercent from the general
(common) number of song types in populationB34,91 %В*(BF)34,91 %GС*34,91 %E*23,27 %O*23,27 %T*23,27 %V*23,27 %Y*23,27 %MI* (N)69,84 %MI (В*)813,11 %ME(I)(А*)1219,67 %O*I46,56 %M(O)I*23,27 %CM*711,47 %CME*23,27 %CB11,64 %Volume of sample of individuals (n)26Volume of sample of song types (n)61
The note: the volume of sample includes all records of males in populations (the bottom line); a percentage parity (ratio) proceeds from the general (common) number of song types in samples of populations in the south of Ukraine - 61 types of song (that is repertoires of males with small samples have been taken into account also); thus it is necessary to understand, that songs of one type from everyone male had sample on the average n>15; the most widespread (frequently met) song types in populations are allocated (signed) by a bold font; * - the dialect (modified) types of song in relation to song types in populations of the European Russia; in brackets are song types from the European Russia, which are most similar. In a population of chaffinch in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) also it has been marked a number (line) of features in local vocal culture, in its organization, which, probably, can be to some extent characteristic and for other local populations of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.), them song cultures. Many analyzed song types in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) smoothly (gradually) pass (transition) each other in vocal structure. Probably, such big similarity of different song types speaks about "youth" of these types in the south of Ukraine (Crimea), their recent differentiation in independent types. In a population of the south of Ukraine (Crimea) there were many cases of similarity of song variants at chaffinch, probably, "related" by proceeding from the general (common) "ancient (ancestor)" vocal form, but already differentiated in separate vocal types or patterns (Figure 2).
Table 3. Degree of a generality of different song types of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L. in geographical populations of East part of the Europe
Geographical population
Type of song (token)
АBCDEFGIJMNORHSTUVWYBFCMGCOE(I)Northwest of the European Russia (Curonian spit)++++++++++++++++++o
o
o
o
o
o
The center of the European Russia (Moscow, Zvenigorod, Michurinsk)+
+
±
+
±±o
×±±±±±±o
o
o
±
*
±
*±±
+
+
++++The south of Ukraine
(Crimea)*
+
*o
×o
±o
o
o
×o
o
×o
*
±
*o
o
o
±
o
±
o
±±±±
±
*
The note: + - presence of song type, which can be the general (common) or similar to analogous song type in other geographical population;
± - the modified (dialect) song type in relation to similar song type in other geographical population;
* - poorly similar (original) song type, having only insignificant similarities in the form of elements with analogous song type in other geographical population;
× - the song type is absent, but has separate similar phrases (parts) in other allocated (different) types of songs of the given geographical population;
o - the song type is absent in the given geographical population.
The cells of the table containing two symbols designate, that in the given geographical population the certain song type can be different character (in relation to other geographical population), i.e. different variants of song type (or to the full (or partly) it (he) at all is absent - if sign ×, o) are found. Originally sample of chaffinch songs has been taken on Curonian spit, therefore comparison of types of songs was conducted first of all with a reference point on the first geographical population. The general (common), similar (or poorly modified) song types of chaffinch in all three geographical populations are marked by a fat font (letter). Original song types (not having analogues) of chaffinch (their letters) are designated by italics.
In the south of Ukraine (Crimea) allocate (distinguish) other subspecies - Chaffinch Crimean (Fringilla coelebs solomkoi Menz.), while in northwest and in the center of the European Russia the subspecies - Chaffinch European (Fringilla coelebs coelebs Linn.) inhabit; species specific song of chaffinch considerably differ at different subspecies in the typological structure (song culture), in the general (common) song structure (in different geographical populations many the modified or "dialect" types of songs, their separate parts (phrases); also meet original (poorly similar) song types, but there are also general (common), similar types of songs in different geographical populations.
In Simferopol (Crimea) in one population there were two dialect (modified) forms of song type GС (Figure 2). The song type GC*2 (Figure 2.4) is similar to completely other song type V (Figure 2.5). And the dialect song type GC 3 (Figure 2.3) differs from similar song type GC* 2 (Figure 2.4) only by absence second phrases in a trill and some modified of final stroke, and elements of started singing in both cases is zigzag-similar. It is interesting, that similar song forms (G and GC, V) (Figure 2.1, 2.2, 2.6) met and in geographically remote populations of the European Russia on 1500-1850 km (the Kaliningrad region, the Moscow and Tambov region). Probably, these types of songs submit one of many vocal lines at chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.).
Figure 2. A combination of individual and geographical vocal variability of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.), representing the general (common) line of development of vocalizations: 1 - song type G 2 (record on Curonian spit, the Kaliningrad region), 2 - song type GC 2 (record in Michurinsk, the Tambov region - the center of the European Russia), 3 - song type GC 3 (record in Simferopol, the Crimean region), 4 - song type GC*2 (Simferopol, the south of Crimea), 5 - song type V (Simferopol, the south of Ukraine), 6 - song type V 1 (Curonian spit, northwest of the European Russia).
Probably, between populations of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) in the south and in the center of Europe exist many general (common) communications (connections) (first of all, migratory) so, that song cultures of these geographical populations to some extent constantly mix up [14].
Lines of vocal development (vocal lines) - a number (line) of song types, similar on the structure, "related" vocal forms by origin, probably, generated (formed) at change and transition of one song type in other song type, can represent result of differentiation (modification) of one initial ("ancestor") song type.
It is possible to compare quantitative measurements some of time-and-frequency parameters of these similar, but separate song types of chaffinch in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) (Table 4) and to analyze a degree of their distinction in quantitative aspect as differentiated vocal patterns of one "phyletical" (evolutionary) line of species-specific vocalization of chaffinch. Many such vocal lines can exist in species specific vocal culture at chaffinch (in its species-specific populations). At the comparative analysis of song types G (Figure 2.1) and GC (Figure 2.3 and 2.4) the interesting results are revealed (Table 4) - song variants of one vocal line at chaffinch can differ more, being together in one local population and to make one local vocal culture, than song types of same vocal line, but in the different geographical populations, located on 1500-1850 km from each other. Similar distinguished character of a parity (ratio) and a combination of individual and geographical vocal variability of chaffinch was observed and in populations of the European Russia [15], that can speak about unity and combination (mix up) of individuals of different populations of a species of chaffinch European (Fringilla coelebs L.).
Within the limits of song types of one line also can be completely various length of songs (sec), number of syllables in a song and intervals between songs (sec). Distinguished in equally (identical) extent there were all other parameters of the given types of songs (Table 4).
Transition of one song type in other song type in vocal culture of a chaffinch population meets enough frequently. Similar cases are especially interesting between different vocal lines at chaffinch, which are made or formed by similar song types, but in a different degree remote "in relationship (as relatives)" from initial "ancestor" song pattern, which once at differentiation has created these lines of development of vocalizations. So, different lines of song type CM (from song type C) and song type OI (from song type O) (Figure 3) can adjoin (contact) in the development and, probably, to have the general (common) types of songs between their "evolutionary" vocal branches (lines). It can be judged on similarity of their song types, but also distinctions in vocal structure and phonetics (pronunciation), characteristic for their separate vocal lines. Probably, it is result of evolution as "net" of vocal lines of chaffinch at formation its song traditions (when converge and divergence, again and again, different lines of vocalizations at song training or learning at separate individuals).
There are song types in figure 6, belong (relate) to different vocal lines: song types СМ5 (Figure 3.2), СМ3 (Figure 3.3), СМ4 (Figure 3.4) belong (relate) to one vocal line CM, probably, originating from song type C (Figure 3.1); and song types OI*3 (Figure 3.5), OI2 (Figure 3.6), M (O) I (Figure 3.7), concerning (belong) to vocal line OI, probably, representing a combination of lines of song types O (Figure 3.8). At the quantitative analysis of vocal lines CM and OI, met (recorded) in one population of the south of Ukraine (Crimea), microgeographical variability (in territory of different cities) of song types at chaffinch have been found out both inside these lines of vocalizations, and between them (Table 5). At comparison of song types of chaffinch from different vocal lines, the most stable in variability appeared minimal and average (median) frequency (КHz), length of syllables of a trill (second phrase), it is probable, as in the greater degree genetically determined features, but capable to change during time. In other parameters distinctions were observed, as before, both between types inside a vocal line, and in song types between the given vocal lines, at a similar (equally) parity (ratio) of these differences of time-and-frequency parameters. But from all song variants of chaffinch, dialect types of songs OI*2 (Figure 3.6) and M (O) I (Figure 3.7) most differed - it is especial in values of length of syllables in started singing, trill, a final stroke (Table 5). Table 4. The basic time-and-frequency parameters of variants of one song type at chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) in the south of Ukraine (Crimea), concerning (relate) to one vocal line
Type of song (token)Sample size (songs)The name of record placeThe length of song, secMin frequency, КHzMax frequency, КHzMedian (average) frequency, КHzNumber of syllables
in song type
Length of syllables of start singing, secLength of syllables trill, sec*Length of syllable of final stroke, sec*Intervals between songs,
sec1
phrase2
phraseG 3
(Figure 2.1)28Curonian spit (Kaliningrad region)2,46
±0,021,58
±0,0778,23
±0,63,72
±0,09417
±00,12
±0,0140,067
±0,0020,15
±0,0040,12
±0,0068,64
±0,8GC 3
(Figure 2.3)3Simferopol
(Crimean region)2,21
±0,081,49
±0,18,9
±0,264,94
±0,219,7
±0,60,12
±0,040,04
±0,0040,11
±0,0080,11
±0,0064,78
±0,03GC* 2 (Figure 2.4)5Simferopol
(Crimean region)1,87
±0,072,07
±0,248,027
±0,34,72
±0,1516
±0,70,072
±0,0070,046
±0,0040,2
±0,015,1
±0,46 The note: average value and a standard deviation of parameters of song types are specified from statistical calculations for all songs of one type, which were at singing of males of chaffinch in the given points of record; the strongest differences considered a difference of parameters is >0,5 КHz in frequency and is > 0,02 sec in length (are allocated or signed by a bold font); * - the trill of song type consist of two phrases.
Table 5. The basic time-and-frequency parameters of song types of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) in the south of Ukraine (Crimea), concerning (belong) to different vocal lines Type of song (token)Sample size (songs)The name of record placeThe length of song, secMin frequency, КHzMax frequency, КHzMedian (average) frequency, КHzNumber of syllables
in song type
Length of syllables of start singing, secLength of syllables trill, sec*Length of syllable of final stroke, sec*Intervals between songs,
sec1
phrase2
phraseCM 5
(Figure 3.2)16Simferopol
(Crimean region)1,9
±0,262
±0,188
±1,044,44
±0,1514,5
±2,10,11
±0,02 0,055
±0,030,11
±0,0396,06
±2,49СM 3
(Figure 3.3)33Melitopol,
(Zaporozhye region)2,14
±0,181,92
±0,217,15
±0,54,41
±0,1916,8
±1,330,145
±0,0160,19*
±0,020,05
±0,010,097
±0,0157,68
±2,87СM 4
(Figure 3.4)4Jankoy
(Crimean region)1,66
±0,141,96
±0,0956,91
±0,534,65
±1,2711,8
±1,480,11
±0,018 0,042
±0,0020,127
±0,034,74
±2,32OI*3
(Figure 3.5)9Simferopol
(Crimean region)1,92
±0,171,89
±0,177,6
±0,554,36
±0,2414,4
±0,530,11
±0,0150,13*
±0,040,037
±0,0020,11
±0,016,94
±0,91OI 2
(Figure 3.6)5Simferopol
(Crimean region)1,65
±0,142,032
±0,147,92
±0,534,72
±0,113,2
±1,30,037
±0,0050,11*
±0,010,1
±0,0060,17
±0,0074,76
±0,5M(O)I
(Figure 3.7)7Simferopol (Crimean region)1,98
±0,091,65
±0,178,07
±0,274,43
±0,1316,43
±1,50,032
±0,0060,17*
±0,010,12
±0,010,2
±0,0385,22
±1 The note: average value and a standard deviation of parameters of song types are specified from statistical calculations for all songs of one type, which were at singing of males of chaffinch in the given points of record ; the strongest differences counted a difference of parameters >0,5 КHz in frequency and >0,02 sec in length (are allocated or signed by a bold font); * - on sonograms this phrase (stick-similar horizontal element) concerns (belong) to started singing (Figure 3), but for comparison is brought in a trill; in brackets are song types (letter) from the European Russia, which are most similar.
Figure 3. Song types of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.), making (forming) different vocal lines, but passing (transition) each other: 1 - song type С*11 (record on Curonian spit, the Kaliningrad region), 2 - song type CM 5 (Simferopol, the Crimean region), 3 - song type CM 3 (record in Melitopol, the Zaporozhye region), 4 - song type CM 4 (Jankoy, the north of Crimea), 5 - song type OI*3 (Simferopol, the south of Crimea), 6 - song type OI 2 (record in Simferopol, the Crimean region), 7 - song type M(O)I (Simferopol, the south of Ukraine), 8 - song type O (Curonian spit, northwest of the European Russia).
Most likely, it is extreme phonetic variants of similar vocal lines. Therefore at big distinction in structure and phonetics (pronunciation) of songs of one types (or "related as relative") the difference increases in distinctions of their quantitative parameters. Conclusions
It is necessary to note, that the territory of researches of chaffinch songs (Fringilla coelebs solomkoi Menz.) in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) was in a zone of the mixed woods and represented large city parks (more than 1 кm2) in Melitopol (the Zaporozhye region), Jankoy (the Crimean region) and Simferopol (the regional center of Crimea), located from each other approximately on 100 km. And geographical populations of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) - the south of Ukraine (Crimea) and populations of the European Russia (the north and the central part) are on distance of 1500-1850 km.
It is necessary to tell, that signal element (rain call or voice) of chaffinch ("ryu-ryu") frequently meets in a population of the south of Ukraine (Crimea) in structure of songs - and half in vocal culture of chaffinch population can represent as "gnash or creaking" sound and more powerful sound trace on sonogram (as well as in European Russia), and on other half in a population can be as a thin sound trace and as whistle on perception on hearing (at the south). That is combination (mix up) with its different vocal forms.
The average size of song repertoire of chaffinch in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) is 2,52±0,75 types of songs. At the quantitative analysis it was found out, that average (median) frequency (КHz) in a population of chaffinch in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) higher, than in the north and in the center of the European Russia, that it is possible to explain by the big power (energy) expenses of chaffinch on singing (realization of song types) in a southern population, than in northern.
In repertoire of one male of chaffinch there could be together two and more dialect (modified) variants of one song type that reflects also similar population structure of vocal culture of chaffinch, its combination (mix up) of lines (row, number) of "dialect" vocal types, probably, changed in other local populations.
Many analyzed song types in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) smoothly (gradually) pass (transition) each other in vocal structure. Probably, such big similarity of different types of songs speaks about "youth" of these types in the south of Ukraine (Crimea), their recent differentiation in independent types.
All considered song types of chaffinch from samples in a population of the south of Ukraine (Crimea) to some extent are modified (dialect) (except for song type В) in the general (common) structure or separate phrases (song parts) in relation to song types in chaffinch populations in northwest and in the center of the European Russia (where inhabit the subspecies - chaffinch European - Fringilla coelebs coelebs L.). It can justify occurrence of separate subspecies of chaffinch in Crimea (the south of Ukraine) - chaffinch Crimean (Fringilla coelebs solomkoi Menzbier).
While between populations of chaffinch in northwest and in the center of the European Russia was more the general (common), not modified (or less modified) types of songs, phrases (song parts) (A, Е, Т, C, S, F, I, etc.) and subdialects (small phonetic changes) (B, D, G, M, S, V, U), than dialects (the established phonetic norms) of certain song types (C*, F, I, J, N). It can confirm unity of the given populations of chaffinch, and them more or less close communications (connections) at migrations, that can prove unity of subspecies is chaffinch European (Fringilla coelebs coelebs L) on an area (territory) of distribution of a species. It is possible, that separate subspecies of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) can have original (distinguish) song cultures in the local and geographical populations, characteristic only for them and modified (dialect) in the types of songs in relation to song types of other populations, subspecies of chaffinch and to their song cultures (in an original or different set and character of song types in local and geographical populations), as it has come to light (revealed) for populations of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) in the south of Ukraine and in the European Russia.
The song of chaffinch develop in process of evolution on the special laws, is differentiated (changes on the basis of initial "ancestor" song forms and "related (as relatives)" lines in time and space), creates separate steady song norms (set of the most widespread types of songs), consisting of lines (row, number) of similar, but also distinguished (more or less different) song variants of one type, forming certain typological vocal polymorphism, from which proceed many other polymorphic branches (lines) of more distant or more close "on relationship" lines of song cultures (a variety of song types, manners or ways of execution (performance) at singing their structure, separate elements, phrases or song parts). References
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Olesya Astakhova
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crimea, ukraine, song, chaffinch, organization
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