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Interrelation of basic parametres of chaffinch song (Fringilla coelebs L.) in the East Europe +++

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Chaffinch song parametrers are discribed.
Interrelation of basic parameters of
chaffinch song (Fringilla coelebs L.) in
different geographical populations of the
East Europe
Astakhova O.A.
(dissertation) 2008.
Object of research
пЃ®
Geographical variability of species specific song of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) is known as
differentiation of figure of song structure on sonogramms from the territories remote from each other
(Marler, 1952; Thielcke, 1969). Distinction of geographical variants (dialect forms) of chaffinch song
can be expressed in distinguished (different), but initially the general (common) form of elements
(syllables) of song types, in different combinations of phrases (parts) of songs, in their modifications
as a whole. Thus set of types of chaffinch song (on the average 20 song types) can differ in many
respects from each other and within the limits of one local population. Therefore dialect vocal forms
of chaffinch is easier to search among the songs, concerning to one type (having all three similar
phrases or a parts – started singing, a trill, a final stroke). At comparison of such song dialects the
general (common) come to light, but the modified features in the form of syllables (elements), in song
structure, characteristic for local vocal culture (special ways of a pronunciation at singing those or
other elements, types of songs) in different geographical populations (Slater et al., 1984; Simkin,
1983; Bergmann, 1993).
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Modifications of song types in populations of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) can occur as a result of
improvisation at singing (especially at young males) and at mistakes of copying of song types in
process of song training or learning (at inexact perception (recognition) of songs or at individual
specific features of their singing). As a result of accumulation of song changes and relative isolation
of remote on the big distances (on the average 1000 km) of geographical populations, can be formed
distinguished (different) song cultures (that is set of all song types in a population) of a species
specific vocal pattern of chaffinch, which can be original (different), but partly and the general
(common), in relation to song cultures of other populations of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.)
(Mundinger, 1982; Catchpole, 1995).
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The geographical differentiation of song types of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) is interesting in their
quantitative (time-and-frequency) parameters, is especial at correlation (relations) of these
parameters – as far as correlations of the basic time-and-frequency characteristics of species
specific song of chaffinch are similar or differ in different geographical populations. In article it is
submitted not only a direct material of correlations of parameters of different song types of chaffinch,
but also some generalizations in this occasion.
Material and methods of research
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During the spring-and-summer period in 2005-2007 have been made tape recorder records of actively
singing males of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) in different geographical populations within the limits of
its species specific area: in northwest of the European Russia (Curonian spit of Baltic sea, the
Kaliningrad region) (N=153 of males), in the center of the European Russia (Moscow, Zvenigorod,
Michurinsk) (N=65 of males), in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) (N=26 of males). The given geographical
populations of chaffinch have been removed from each other on 1000-1800 km. In territory of the
European Russia the subspecies is chaffinch european (Fringilla coelebs coelebs L.) inhabit, and on the
Crimean peninsula (the south of Ukraine) allocate separate subspecies is chaffinch crimean (Fringilla
coelebs solomkoi Menz.) (Dementyev, 1954).
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Tape recorder record of songs of chaffinch males (from everyone on the average on 20 songs) was
carried out (was spent) with the help of compact tape recorder Panasonic RQ-SX95F and an additional
microphone with the purpose of increase in quality of a sound. The analysis of sonogramms of song
types of chaffinch was spent with the help of computer program Avisoft SASLab Light. As a whole has
been seen about 7000 songs of chaffinch and measured more than 400 songs of different types.
Different types of song were designated by latin letters. Correlation (relations) of time-and-frequency
parameters of the measured song types of chaffinch were established with the help of programs
Statistics 6.0 and Microsoft Excel.
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To one type carried (considered) songs of chaffinch, completely similar by two or all three parts (started
singing, a trill, a final stroke), which could be subdivided on separate phrases (knees, oscillations),
consisting of repeating similar elements (syllables). Thus in repertoire of one chaffinch male there could
be 1-6 types of song. Measurements of songs were carried out (spent) on the basic time-and-frequency
parameters: length (duration) of songs (sec), minimal frequency (РљHz), maximal frequency (РљHz),
average (median) frequency (РљHz), length (sec) of syllables, of phrases or parts of types of songs
(started singing, a trill, a final stroke), intervals (sec) between syllables (elements), phrases (parts) of
song types and intervals between songs (sec) (at singing of one male).
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Also parameter of prevalence of song types in a population (%) is included - a quantitative parity (ratio)
of different song types of chaffinch in any geographical population (revealing less widespread and
frequently met song types, with the big percent, among others).
Results and discussion
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Before to start discussion of results of the quantitative analysis of song types of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.), it is
necessary to result (to show) sonogramms some of them as a bright example (fig. 1).
пЃ®
The basic quantitative parameters of different song types of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) have been measured in three
geographical populations of a species in the East Europe (that is discussed in more detail in other article, and results of this
quantitative analysis are generalized as average values of parameters of species specific song of chaffinch: length of song
2,27В±0,36 sec, minimal frequency 1,73В±0,12 РљHz, maximal frequency 7,91В±0,58 РљHz, average (median) frequency
4,28В±0,22 РљHz, number of syllables in song 17,74В±4,04, a degree of prevalence of song types in a population 6,75В±5,54 %,
length of started singing 0,69В±0,27 sec, length of a trill 0,98В±0,43 sec, length of a final stroke 0,45В±0,15 sec, intervals
between songs 6,92В±1,46 sec (table is lower.).
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After measurement of the basic time-and-frequency parameters of song types of chaffinch in different geographical
populations, the correlation analysis of these parameters of song independently from each other and in parallel for each of
geographical populations of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) (tab. 1, 2, 3) has been lead (has been carried out).
Table. Comparison of basic parameters of song types of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.)
in different geographical populations of the East Europe.
Parameters of
song types
Average values of parameters of song types
Geographical
population
Duration
of song,
sec
Min
frequency,
KHz
Max
frequency,
KHz
Average
(median)
frequency,
KHz
Degree of
distribution
of song
type, %
Number
of
syllables
in song
Duration
of started
singing,
sec
Duration
of trill,
sec
Duration
of final
stroke, sec
Intervals
between
songs, sec
Northwest of the European Russia
(Curonian spit)
1,97
В±0,23
1,63
В±0,063
7,683
В±0,42
4,10
В±0,14
6,82
В±5
15,6
В±2,67
0,47
В±0,26
0,931
В±0,414
0,4
В±0,1
6,92
В±0,81
The center of the European Russia
(Moscow, Zvenigorod, Michurinsk)
2,59
В±0,29
1,7
В±0,17
8,06
В±0,58
4,096
В±0,29
6,83
В±6,62
20,11
В±4,6
0,88
В±0,34
0,99
В±0,32
0,62
В±0,24
7,3
В±1,9
The south of Ukraine
(Crimea)
2,26
В±0,55
1,85
В±0,14
7,98
В±0,74
4,63
В±0,23
6,6
В±5
17,5
В±4,86
0,72
В±0,2
1,02
В±0,56
0,34
В±0,1
6,53
В±1,68
Total
(the common for song of species)
В±0,36
6,75
17,74
В±4,04
В±0,27
2,27
1,73
В±0,12
7,91
В±0,58
4,28
В±0,22
В±5,54
0,69
0,98
В±0,43
0,45
В±0,15
6,92
В±1,46
The note: distance between geographical populations of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) on the average 1000 - 1500 km; in total it is
measured songs of different types (N): from samples in population of Curonian spit (the Kaliningrad region) - 279, in populations of the
center of the European Russia - 73 songs of different types, from samples in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) - 85 songs; differences of
parameters, a difference between which >0,5 РљHz in frequency and >0,3 sec in length of song parts (are allocated (distinguished) by a font)
were taken into account.
Fig. 1. The most widespread types of songs of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) in populations of the central part of the
European Russia: 1 - song type C, 2 - song type C*, 3 - song type I, 4 - song type J, 5 - song type A, 6 - song type B.
Table 1. Correlation connections of the basic quantitative parameters of European chaffinch song
types (Fringilla coelebs coelebs L.) in population of Curonian spit (the Kaliningrad region) (N=279)
Parameter
of song
type
Duration
of song,
sec
Duration
of song, sec
Frequency of song, KHz
Length of syllables, sec
started
final
trill
stroke
singing
Length of phrases, sec
started
final
trill
stroke
singing
Min
Max
Median
(average)
Prevalence,
%
- 0,21
0,00
- 0,83
- 0,12
0,71
0,29
0,63
0,01
- 0,44
- 0,38
0,35
- 0,18
- 0,22
- 0,03
- 0,03
0,42
- 0,76
0,27
- 0,05
0,27
- 0,2
0,64
- 0,05
0,15
0,86
0,07
0,47
- 0,29
- 0,47
0,28
0,56
0,07
- 0,44
0,30
- 0,72
- 0,26
- 0,67
0,00
0,17
0,14
- 0,40
0,11
0,03
0,36
- 0,31
- 0,28
0,34
0,34
0,06
- 0,37
- 0,12
0,63
- 0,31
- 0,14
- 0,43
0,78
- 0,03
- 0,24
- 0,13
- 0,02
0,43
- 0,48
- 0,05
0,49
0,18
- 0,39
0,76
- 0,35
0,32
- 0,12
0,02
- 0,37
0,51
0,33
- 0,42
- 0,30
- 0,47
Number
of syllables in song
Intervals
between
songs, sec
Frequency
of song, KHz
Min
- 0,21
Max
0,00
- 0,22
Median
(average)
- 0,83
- 0,03
0,15
Prevalence, %
- 0,12
- 0,03
0,86
0,30
Number
of syllables
in song
0,71
0,42
0,07
- 0,72
0,03
started
singing
0,29
- 0,76
0,47
- 0,26
0,36
- 0,12
trill
0,63
0,27
- 0,29
- 0,67
- 0,31
0,63
- 0,24
final
stroke
0,01
- 0,05
- 0,47
0,00
- 0,28
- 0,31
- 0,13
0,49
Intervals
between
songs, sec
- 0,44
0,27
0,28
0,17
0,34
- 0,14
- 0,02
0,8
0,32
Length of
phrases, sec
started
singing
- 0,38
- 0,2
0,56
0,14
0,34
- 0,43
0,43
- 0,39
- 0,12
0,51
trill
0,35
0,64
0,07
- 0,40
0,06
0,78
- 0,48
0,76
0,02
0,33
- 0,30
final
stroke
- 0,18
- 0,05
- 0,44
0,11
- 0,37
- 0,03
- 0,05
- 0,35
- 0,37
- 0,42
- 0,50
Length of
syllables, sec
- 0,31
- 0,31
The note: the font marks the most significant correlations (-0,5>r>0,5); italics marks the values of correlation showing presence of
weak interrelation of parameters (-0,5<r<0,5); the negative sign on values shows inverse relationship of parameters, a positive sign
(in the table it is not underlined) - direct dependence; in total it is measured N=279 songs of different types; values of correlation were
taken into account at p<0,05.
Table 2. Correlation connections of the basic quantitative parameters of chaffinch song types
(Fringilla coelebs coelebs L.) in populations of central part European Russia (N=73)
Parameter
of song
type
Duration
of song,
sec
Duration
of song, sec
Frequency of song, KHz
Min
0,62
Length of syllables, sec
started
final
trill
stroke
singing
Length of phrases, sec
started
final
trill
stroke
singing
Max
Median
(average)
Prevalence,
%
-0,66
- 0,44
- 0,03
-0,63
-0,04
0,03
-0,30
- 0,02
0,65
0,12
0,03
- 0,13
- 0,28
0,20
0,47
- 0,08
0,47
- 0,40
0,10
- 0,08
0,62
- 0,28
0,44
0,28
-0,39
0,11
0,50
0,40
0,47
-0,53
0,26
- 0,28
0,63
- 0,73
0,76
- 0,23
0,30
0,09
-0,36
0,35
-0,53
-0,70
0,86
- 0,06
0,52
0,58
-0,30
0,82
- 0,92
- 0,72
0,34
- 0,60
- 0,25
0,43
-0,31
0,65
- 0,17
0,37
0,48
-0,12
0,54
- 0,69
-0,26
0,67
- 0,19
0,23
0,09
0,53
0,06
0,22
- 0,48
0,08
0,46
- 0,37
-0,53
0,25
Number
of syllables in song
Intervals
between
songs, sec
Frequency
of song, KHz
Min
0,62
Max
-0,66
- 0,13
Median
(average)
-0,44
- 0,28
0,44
Prevalence, %
-0,03
0,20
0,28
0,63
Number
of syllables
in song
-0,63
0,47
-0,39
- 0,73
-0,70
started
singing
-0,04
- 0,08
0,11
0,76
0,86
- 0,72
trill
0,03
0,47
0,50
0,23
- 0,06
0,34
- 0,17
final
stroke
Intervals
between
songs, sec
Length of
phrases, sec
started
singing
-0,30
- 0,40
0,40
0,30
0,52
- 0,60
0,37
-0,26
- 0,02
0,01
0,47
0,09
0,58
- 0,25
0,48
0,67
0,53
0,65
- 0,08
-0,53
-0,36
-0,30
0,43
-0,12
- 0,19
- 0,06
-0,08
trill
0,12
0,62
0,26
0,35
0,82
-0,31
0,54
0,23
0,22
0,46
- 0,53
final
stroke
0,03
- 0,28
- 0,28
-0,53
-0,92
0,65
- 0,69
0,09
- 0,48
- 0,37
0,25
Length of
syllables, sec
- 0,75
- 0,75
The note: the font marks the most significant correlations (-0,5>r>0,5); italics marks the values of correlation showing presence of
weak interrelation of parameters (-0,5<r<0,5); the negative sign on values shows inverse relationship of parameters, a positive sign
(in the table it is not underlined) - direct dependence; in total it is measured N=73 songs of different types; values of correlation were
taken into account at p<0,05.
Table 3. Correlation connections of the basic quantitative parameters of chaffinch song types
(Fringilla coelebs solomkoi Menz.) in populations of the south Ukraine (Crimea) (N=172)
Parameter
of song
type
Duration
of song,
sec
Duration
of song, sec
Frequency of song, KHz
Length of syllables, sec
started
final
trill
stroke
singing
Length of phrases, sec
started
final
trill
stroke
singing
Min
Max
Median
(average)
Prevalence,
%
- 0,32
0,58
0,25
- 0,31
0,78
0,28
0,01
0,08
0,18
0,4
0,78
0,27
- 0,28
- 0,02
0,2
-0,35
0,03
-0,13
- 0,09
0,21
- 0,19
-0,27
0,02
0,72
-0,25
0,5
-0,1
0,24
- 0,4
0,23
0,07
0,59
0,2
-0,15
0,04
- 0,06
0,24
0,51
0,06
-0,12
0,3
0,18
-0,56
0,25
0,16
- 0,44
0,07
-0,14
0,03
- 0,52
0,18
-0,27
- 0,18
0,21
0,15
0,72
0,3
- 0,71
- 0,48
0,29
0,35
0,09
0,02
0,55
-0,23
- 0,08
0,11
- 0,17
0,08
0,11
Number
of syllables in song
Intervals
between
songs, sec
Frequency
of song, KHz
Min
- 0,32
Max
0,58
- 0,28
Median
(average)
0,25
- 0,02
0,72
Prevalence, %
-0,31
0,2
-0,25
-0,15
Number
of syllables
in song
0,78
-0,35
0,49
0,04
-0,56
started
singing
0,28
0,03
-0,1
- 0,06
0,25
0,18
trill
0,01
-0,13
0,24
0,24
0,16
-0,27
- 0,71
final
stroke
0,08
- 0,09
0,4
0,5
-0,44
- 0,18
- 0,48
0,55
0,18
0,21
0,22
0,06
0,07
0,21
0,29
-0,23
0,08
0,4
- 0,19
0,07
-0,12
-0,14
0,15
0,35
- 0,08
0,11
0,08
trill
0,78
-0,27
0,59
0,3
0,03
0,72
0,09
0,11
-0,01
0,44
- 0,02
final
stroke
0,27
0,02
0,2
0,18
- 0,52
0,3
0,02
- 0,17
0,33
- 0,16
- 0,08
Length of
syllables, sec
Intervals
between
songs, sec
Length of
phrases, sec
started
singing
0,08
- 0,33
0,44
- 0,16
-0,02
- 0,08
- 0,07
- 0,07
The note: the font marks the most significant correlations (-0,5>r>0,5); italics marks the values of correlation showing presence of
weak interrelation of parameters (-0,5<r<0,5); the negative sign on values shows inverse relationship of parameters, a positive sign
(in the table it is not underlined) - direct dependence; in total it is measured N=172 songs of different types ; values of correlation
were taken into account at p<0,05.
In separate tables of correlation of parameters of song types of chaffinch on different geographical populations it is difficult
to be guided, what connections of time-and-frequency parameters are significant and stable for species specific song of
chaffinch and what from them - are less significant and more variability. Therefore the comparative analysis of the given
correlations of parameters in geographical populations of the European Russia (located on 1000 km from each other) (tab.
1, 2) has been lead (has been carried out) and within the limits of subspecies is chaffinch european (Fringilla coelebs
coelebs L.) similarities in significant correlations have come to light:
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The length of songs (sРµc) decreased at increase in their average (median) frequencies (РљHz).
Minimal (min) frequency of songs (РљHz) could increase with increase of number of syllables in songs, lengths
of a trill (sРµc) and lengths of elements (syllables) of a trill (sРµc).
Maximal (max) frequency of songs (РљHz) increased with increase of a degree of prevalence of song types in a
population (%) and with increase in intervals between songs (sРµc); at increase in length of final stroke (sРµc),
maximal (max) frequency (РљHz) decreased.
Average (median) frequency of songs (РљHz) increased with increase of a degree of prevalence of song types in
a population (%); but with increase in average (median) frequencies of songs (РљHz) could decrease values of
length of songs (sРµc), number of syllables in songs, length of syllables (elements) of a trill (sРµc).
With increase of prevalence of song types in a population (%) increased maximal (max) frequency of songs
(РљHz), average (median) frequency (РљHz), intervals between songs (sРµc), the length of syllables (elements)
in started singing (sРµc), but decreased length of final stroke (sРµc).
With increase in number of syllables in songs raised minimal (min) frequency of songs (РљHz) and length of
syllables (elements) of a trill (sРµc) , but decreased average (median) frequency of songs (РљHz) and length of
elements in final stroke (sРµc).
The length of elements (syllables) in started singing (sРµc) increased at more widespread song types in a
population (%).
With increase in length of syllables (elements) of a trill (sРµc) could increase minimal (min) frequency of songs
(РљHz), number of syllables in songs and length of a trill (sРµc) , but decreased average (median) frequency of
songs (РљHz).
With increase in length of elements of final stroke (sРµc) could decrease number of syllables in songs and
length of final stroke (sРµc), but the increase in intervals between songs (sРµc) is possible.
At the big intervals between songs (sРµc) could increase maximal (max) frequency of songs (РљHz), a degree of
prevalence of song types in a population (%), length of elements in final stroke (sРµc), the length of a trill
(sРµc), but decreased length of final stroke (sРµc) as a whole.
With increase in length of started singing (sРµc) could decrease the length of a trill (sРµc).
With increase in length of a trill (sРµc) increased minimal (min) frequency of songs (РљHz), length of syllables
(elements) of a trill (sРµc), intervals between songs (sРµc), but the length of final stroke (sРµc) decreased.
With increase in length of final stroke (sРµc) decreased intervals between songs (sРµc), length of a trill (sРµc), a
degree of prevalence of song types in a population (%), length of elements (syllables) in final stroke (sРµc).
Table 4. Results of the correlation analysis of basic parameters of song types of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) in different
geographical populations of the East Europe
Parameters of song
types
Duration
of song,
sec
Frequency of song, KHz:
Min
–n –s
Duration of
song, sec
Max
+s
+c
Median
(average)
+s
–c
– n –c
Prevalen
ce of
song
types, %
Number
of
syllables
in song
–s
Length of syllables, sec:
Intervals
between
songs,
sec
started
singing
trill
final
stroke
+n+s
–c
+n +s
+n
–c
+s
+c+s
–s
+n +c
–n
+n+c
–c
+n +s
–s
+s
–n
Length of phrases, sec:
started
singing
trill
final
stroke
+c+s
–n
+ n +s
+s
–n
Frequency of song,
KHz:
Min
–n –s
+s
Max
–c
+s
Median
Prevalence of song
types, %
Number of
syllables in song
–n –s
+c
–n –c
–s
–n –s
+
–c
+n+c
–c
+n +c
+n+c
–s
+s
–s
–c
+n+s
–c
+n +c
+
+c +s
+n+s
–c
+c
+
+s
–s –c
+c
– n– s
–n
–c
–n –c
+s
–n
–s
+s +c
–c
–n –s
+c
–
+n +c
+n
+s
–n
–c
+n +c
–c
+n +c
+s+c
+c+s
–c
+n
–s
+s
+n
+
+s
–n
–n–c
+n +c
–n–c
–n–c
+n
–s–n
–n –c
+s
–c
–n
–
+c
–c
+n+s
–c
+s +c
+s +c
Length of
syllables, sec:
started singing
+n +s
–n
trill
+n
+n +c
final stroke
–c
–c
Intervals between
songs, sec
+n
+ c+s
–n
+c
+s
–n
+ c +s
–n
+s
+
–s
+s
–n –c
+s +c
–n
–n
+
+n +c
–n –s
+n
+n +c
–c
+n
–c
+c
–c
+c
+s
–s
+n+s
–
–s
–
+c
+s
+
–
–c
+s+c
+ n+ s
–c
–s
+n +c
+s +c
+s +n
–s
+n +c
–n–c
+n +c
+n +c
–n
+c
+n +c
+c
+n
–c
–n –s
+s
–n –c
–
+
Length of phrases,
sec:
started singing
+s+c
–n
–n –s
trill
+
+n+c
–s
final stroke
+s
–n
–c
+s
–n
+ c +s
+s
–c
+c +s
–n
+s
–n –c
–n
+c
–
+c +s
–n
+n+s
–c
+s +c
+ n+ s
–n
+c
–c
–n –c
+n +c
–s–n
–n
+n
+c
+s
–n –c
+
–
–n
–c
–c
–n
+c
–n
+c
–n –c
–n –c
The note: values of correlation -0,2>r>0,2 were taken into account at p <0,05; in total it is measured N=424 songs of different types in three geographical
populations of chaffinch; "+" - positive correlation of values of time-and-frequency parameters of songs (directly proportional connection), "-" - negative
correlation of values (inversely proportional connection); "n" - northern population of chaffinch (Curonian spit, the Kaliningrad region) (N=279 songs), "c" - a
population in the center of the European Russia (Moscow, Michurinsk) (N=73 songs), "s" - a population of chaffinch in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) (N=172
songs); one sign in a cell of the table ("+" or "-") without the letter means the same character of correlation in all three geographical populations.
But for revealing similarities and distinctions of correlation connections of parameters of song types of chaffinch in all
three researched geographical populations of the East Europe, it was necessary to make the general (common)
correlation table (tab. 4). It is necessary to remind, that distance between the European Russia (the north and the
center) and the south of Ukraine (Crimea) is 1500-1800 km.
In result, similar correlations of parameters of species specific song of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) in all three
geographical populations, having the same character (positive or negative) represent:
Р°) with increase in one parameter can increase in values and other parameter - positive correlation (+) (directly
proportional connection), where Г— - a sign of correlation (all n=10, 6,5 % from the general (common) number of
correlations) (+ + +):
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Min frequency, РљHz Г— Intervals between songs, sec
Max frequency, РљHz Г— Median (average) frequency, РљHz
Max frequency, РљHz Г— Intervals between songs, sec
Median (average) frequency, РљHz Г— Max frequency, РљHz
Length of started singing elements, sec Г— Prevalence of song types, %
Intervals between songs, sec Г— Max frequency, РљHz
Length of a trill, sec Г— Intervals between songs, sec
Prevalence of song types, % Г— Length of started singing elements, sec
Intervals between songs, sec Г— Length of a trill, sec
Intervals between songs, sec Г— Min frequency, РљHz
b) with increase in one parameter can decrease in values other parameter - negative correlation (-) (inversely
proportional connection), where Г— - a sign of correlation (all n=8, 5,2 % from the general (common) number of
correlations) (- - -) :
пЃ®
Prevalence of song types, % Г— Length of final stroke, sec
пЃ®
Number of syllables (elements) in song Г— Length of final stroke elements, sec
пЃ®
Length of started singing elements, sec Г— Length of started singing elements of a trill, sec
пЃ®
Length of elements of a trill, sec Г— Length of started singing elements, sec
пЃ®
Length of final stroke elements, sec Г— Number of syllables (elements) in a song
пЃ®
Intervals between songs, sec Г— Length of final stroke, sec
пЃ®
Length of final stroke, sec Г— Prevalence of song types, %
пЃ®
Length of final stroke, sec Г— Intervals between songs, sec
Particularly to define (determine) character and a degree of correlations of the certain time-and-frequency parameters of
song types of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) in geographical populations of the East Europe, table 5 (which proceeds from
table 4) has been made. Quantity (amount) of the same signs (character) of correlation in the table ("+" - positive connection
or "-" - negative connection) confirms unambiguity and stability (importance) of connection of parameters for all species
specific songs of chaffinch, or on the contrary, the combination of different signs (character) of correlation, their
heterogeneity « + – », shows the big variability and insignificance of correlations of parameters of chaffinch songs in
different geographical populations (tab. 5).
Table 5. A degree of correlation of different time-and-frequency parameters of specific songs of chaffinch
(Fringilla coelebs L.) in three geographical populations of the East Europe
Parameters
of song types
Duration
of song, sec
Character of correlation
only in one population
+
Length of
trill elements,
sec
–
1..Prevalence
of song
type, %
2. Length of
finish stroke
elements, sec
Character of correlation in two populations
+ +
1. Length of
started singing
elements, sec
2. Length of
trill, sec
+ –
– –
Character of correlation in all three populations*
+ + +
1. Max
frequency,
KHz
2. Intervals
between
songs, sec
3. Length of
finish stroke,
sec
+ +
–
– –
1. Number of
syllables in
song
1. Min
frequency,
KHz
2. Length of
started singing,
sec
2. Median
frequency,
KHz
+
Frequency of
song, KHz:
1. Median
frequency,
KHz
2. Length of
started
singing
elements, sec
3. Length of
finish stroke
elements, sec
4. Length of
finish stroke,
sec
Min
1. Prevalence
of song type,
%
1. Length of
started
singing, sec
2. Length of
trill elements,
sec
2. Max
frequency,
KHz
1. Duration
of song, sec
Max
Length of
started
singing
elements, sec
Length of
trill, sec
2. Number of
syllables in
song
3. Length of
started
singing, sec
Min
frequency,
KHz
Intervals
between
songs, sec
1. Number of
syllables in
song
Duration
of song, sec
2. Length of
trill, sec
1. Median
frequency,
KHz
1. Prevalence
of song type,
%
1. Length of
finish stroke,
sec
2. Intervals
between
songs, sec
2. Length of
trill elements,
sec
2. Length of
finish stroke
elements, sec
– – –
Table 5. A degree of correlation of different time-and-frequency parameters of specific songs of chaffinch
(Fringilla coelebs L.) in three geographical populations of the East Europe (continuation)
Parameters
of song types
Median
(average)
Character of correlation
only in one population
+
Intervals
between
songs, sec
–
1. Min
frequency,
KHz
2. Length of
started
singing, sec
Character of correlation in two populations
+ +
1.Prevalence of
song type, %
2. Length of
finish stroke
elements, sec
1. Min
frequency, KHz
Prevalence of
song type, %
Length of
trill, sec
Duration
of song, sec
2. Median
frequency, KHz
+ –
1. Length of
started
singing
elements, sec
2. Length of
finish stroke,
sec
1. Length of
trill elements,
sec
2. Length of
started
singing, sec
1. Max
frequency,
KHz
Number of
syllables in song
Length of
finish stroke,
sec
2. Length of
started
singing
elements, sec
3. Interval
between
songs, sec
Character of correlation in all three populations*
– –
+ + +
Number of
syllables in
song
Max
frequency,
KHz
Number of
syllables in
song
1. Median
frequency, KHz
2. Prevalence
of song type,
%
1. Length of
started
singing
elements, sec
2. Intervals
between
songs, sec
+ +
–
– –
+
– – –
1. Duration
of song, sec
Length of
trill, sec
Max
frequency,
KHz
1. Duration
of song, sec
2. Min
frequency,
KHz
3. Length of
trill
elements, sec
4. Length of
started
singing, sec
5. Length of
trill, sec
2. Length of
trill
elements,
sec
Length of
finish stroke
elements, sec
Length of
finish stroke,
sec
Length of
finish stroke
elements, sec
Table 5. A degree of correlation of different time-and-frequency parameters of specific songs of chaffinch
(Fringilla coelebs L.) in three geographical populations of the East Europe (continuation)
Parameters
of song types
Character of correlation
only in one population
+
–
Character of correlation in two populations
+ +
+ –
– –
Character of correlation in all three populations*
+ + +
+ +
–
– –
+
– – –
Length of
syllables, sec:
1. Duration
of song, sec
started singing
Max
frequency,
KHz
Min
frequency,
KHz
2. Interval
between
songs, sec
3. Length of
started
singing, sec
trill
final stroke
Intervals
between songs,
sec
1. Min
frequency, KHz
Duration
of song, sec
Length of
trill, sec
1. Median
frequency,
KHz
2. Length of
started
singing, sec
2. Length of
trill, sec
1. Duration
of song, sec
1. Median
frequency, KHz
2. Min
frequency,
KHz
2. Interval
between songs,
sec
1. Min
frequency, KHz
2. Prevalence
of song type,
%
3. Length of
started singing
elements, sec
4. Length of
finish stroke
elements, sec
1. Median
frequency,
KHz
2. Length of
finish stroke
elements, sec
3. Length of
trill, sec
4. Length of
finish stroke,
sec
5. Number of
syllables in
song
Prevalence of
song type, %
Length of
trill
elements,
sec
Prevalence of
song type,
%
1. Max
frequency, KHz
2. Number of
syllables in
song
3. Length of
finish stroke
elements, sec
4. Interval
between songs,
sec
1. Length of
started
singing, sec
2. Length of
finish stroke,
sec
Length of
started
singing
elements, sec
Length of
trill elements,
sec
1. Duration
of song,
sec
1. Max
frequency,
KHz
2. Number
of
syllables in
song
2. Length
of trill, sec
Length of
trill elements,
sec
Median
frequency,
KHz
1. Prevalence
of song type,
%
2. Length of
finish stroke,
sec
3. Max
frequency,
KHz
Length of
started
singing
elements,
sec
Number of
syllables in
song
Length of
finish stroke,
sec
Table 5. A degree of correlation of different time-and-frequency parameters of specific songs of chaffinch
(Fringilla coelebs L.) in three geographical populations of the East Europe (continuation)
Parameters
of song types
Character of correlation
only in one population
+
–
Character of correlation in two populations
+ +
+ –
– –
Character of correlation in all three populations*
+ + +
+ +
–
– –
+
– – –
Length of
phrases, sec:
started singing
trill
Interval
between
songs, sec
1. Median
frequency,
KHz
2. Length of
finish stroke,
sec
Length of
started
singing
elements, sec
1. Max
frequency,
KHz
1.Prevalence
of song type,
%
2. Length of
trill elements,
sec
2. Length
of finish
stroke
elements, sec
2. Length
of started
singing
elements,
sec
2. Prevalence
of song type,
%
Length of
started
singing
elements,
sec
1. Min
frequency, KHz
Number of
syllables in
song
2. Median
frequency,
KHz
3. Length of
started
singing, sec
1. Duration
of song, sec
2. Length of
trill elements,
sec
2. Number of
syllables in
song
3. Length of
trill, sec
1. Length of
finish stroke,
sec
2. Length of
started singing,
sec
1. Duration
of song, sec
1. Min
frequency,
KHz
final stroke
1. Max
frequency,
KHz
1. Length of
trill elements,
sec
2. Length of
trill, sec
1. Min
frequency, KHz
Interval
between songs,
sec
2. Median
frequency, KHz
3. Number of
syllables in
song
1. Max
frequency,
KHz
1.Prevalence
of song type,
%
2. Length of
finish stroke,
sec
2. Interval
between
songs, sec
The note: values of correlation -0,2>r>0,2 were taken into account at p<0,05; in total it is measured N=424 songs of different
types in three geographical populations of chaffinch; "+" - positive correlation of values of time-and-frequency parameters of
songs (directly proportional connection), "-" - negative correlation of values (inversely proportional connection); those
parameters of chaffinch songs are specified in cells of the table, which have significant correlations with those quantitative
parameters which are in the first row В«Parameters of song typesВ»; the quantity (number) "+" or "-" means, in what number of
populations of chaffinch there were significant correlations of parameters; * - the strongest displays of correlation of parameters
species specific songs of chaffinch as mentions all three geographical populations.
Thus, the certain quantity (amount) (N=154) significant correlations of parameters of songs
(-0,2>r>0,2 at p<0,05, r - factor of correlation) was found out from all researched geographical
populations of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) (tab. 5):
Р°) in any one of three geographical populations of chaffinch has come to light n=28 correlations of
values of parameters (that makes 18,2 % from the general (common) number of significant
correlations - both positive, and negative);
b) in anyone two of three geographical populations has come to light n=70 the general (common) ("+"
and "-") correlations of parameters (45,5 % from the general (common) number of significant positive
and negative correlations);
c) in all three geographical populations of chaffinch has come to light n=56 correlations of values of
parameters (36,4 % from the general (common) number of significant correlations).
Concurrences of the certain correlation connections of song parameters of chaffinch within the limits of
-0,2>r>0,2 at p<0,05 more frequently met in two any geographical populations, less frequently - at once
in three populations, less often - in one any population (tab. 4, 5).
Correlations of song parameters of chaffinch are more significant and are stable in the displays, if are
found in all three geographical populations of chaffinch at the same character of correlation - positive or
negative (these stable correlations of parameters make n=18, 11,7 % from the general (common)
number of correlations), are submitted higher.
Similar correlations of parameters of species specific song in any two of three geographical populations
of chaffinch show relative stability and the smaller importance of these connections at variability (these
less stable correlations of parameters - both positive, and negative - make a lot n=80, 52 % from the
general (common) number of significant correlations) (tab 4, 5, 6).
For clearer representation of a parity (ratio) of character of correlation connections of the basic
quantitative parameters of chaffinch song (Fringilla coelebs L.) has been made is table 6, which grows
out as generalizations of table 5 .
Table 6. A percentage parity (ratio) of different characters of parameters correlation of chaffinch
songs (Fringilla coelebs L.) in three geographical populations of the East Europe
Categories of
generalization
Separate
correlations
Character of correlation
only in one population
The importance
and similarity
of correlations
Character of correlation in all three populations*
+
–
+ +
+ –
– –
+ + +
7,9%
n=12
10,5%
n=16
17,1%
n=26
18,4%
n=28
10,5%
n=16
6,58%
n=10
Correlations
in different
populations
Character of
correlation
Character of correlation in two populations
18,4 %
n=28
+
+ +
15,6%
n=24
46%
n=70
–
36,8%
n=56
+ –
+ +
–
– –
+
– – –
9,1%
n=14
5,3%
n=8
+ + +
– – –
36,8%
n=56
+ +
34,2%
n=52
–
– –
– –
+
18,4%
n=28
11,8%
n=18
The note: together with percent the quantity (amount) of separate correlations (n) is specified, the general (common) number
of significant correlations within the limits of -0,2>r>0,2 at p<0,05 makes N=154; * - the strongest (significant) displays of
correlation of parameters species specific songs of chaffinch as mentions all three geographical populations; last line of the
table of correlation are incorporated on similarity of character - positive or negative, and on a degree of the importance,
stability of display of connections of parameters species specific songs of chaffinch in different number of geographical
populations (that reflects quantity of signs "+" and "-").
Thus, the species specific song of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L.) is capable to be:
• most precisely certain (determined) in parameters (their correlations) (it is possible, genetically
determined) in all three geographical populations only on 11,7% (n=18) (in the table - the sum + + +, – – –);
• more or less stable in parameters (their connections), but also changing, to 70,1% (n=108) (it is possible,
at maintenance song learning social traditions of chaffinch in populations) (in the table - the sum + +, + + –,
+ –, – – +, – –);
• a little (poorly) certain (determined) in the parameters, their connections (correlations) also on 18,2 %
(n=28) (in the table 6 - the sum +, –).
That is precise determination (definiteness) of parameters correlations of species specific songs of
chaffinch both their significant uncertainty and a variation make extreme small shares (11,7% Рё 18,2 %),
while В«the average partВ» of parameters correlations of species specific the songs, combining definiteness
and variability of parameters songs (their connections), represents the majority (70,1%).
Thus, as at distribution of the general (common) frequencies of genes (determined on frequencies of
different phenotypes) in a population (under theory of Hardy and Vineberg about genetic structure of a
population) as are distributed in species specific populations of chaffinch genes (phenotypes) of song types
in the form of their quantitative parameters (correlation relations).
That is extreme cases of stability of parameters specific songs of chaffinch, and extreme cases their
variability make smaller percent (11,7% Рё 18,2 %) in relation to the mixed character and average display of
parameters species specific songs of chaffinch (their correlations), their average variability and stability in
populations of species and which are made with the majority (70,1%).
Conclusion
пЃ®
As a result of the quantitative analysis of species specific song of chaffinch (Fringilla
coelebs L.) in three geographical populations of the East Europe, come to light some
correlation connections of the basic time-and-frequency parameters of different song
types of chaffinch is steady (homogeneous on character and significant in all three or
in two researched geographical populations). Such precise (certain (determined),
stable) correlations of parameters of chaffinch song in all three geographical
populations appeared in the majority, that can confirm genetic determination of song
structures of chaffinch, and his (its) strict social vocal traditions based on song
training (learning) of different types of a species specific vocal pattern by young
males (including antiphonal singing or countersinging of mature males in
В«communicative groupsВ») and, thus, maintenance concerning stable song cultures of
a species, which, nevertheless, is capable and to change in due course (on time) and
in space (at formation distinguished (different) local song cultures in different local
populations).
пЃ®
The orientation of evolutionary development of species specific song of chaffinch has
been revealed at definition of character and a degree of interrelations of the basic
quantitative song parameters: a level of stability, the importance of the certain
connections of parameters of chaffinch song at maintenance of species specific vocal
tradition; and a degree of variability, uncertainty of some connections of parameters
of song of chaffinch in species specific populations (in their vocal traditions
(cultures)).
Literature
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Simkin G. N. 1983. The typological organization and populational philogenes of
bird songs. – Bulletin of Moscow community investingators of nature. Separation
of biology., V. 88, issue.1. M.: 15-27.
Bergmann H.-H. 1993. Der Buchfink: Neues Über einen bekannten Sänger /
Hans-Heiner Bergmann [Zeichn.: F. Müller]. – Wiesbaden: Aula-Verl. - 142 p.
Catchpole РЎ. K. 1995. Bird song: biological themes and variations. Cambridge:
Cambridge Univ. Press. 248 p.
Marler P. 1952. Variation in the song of the Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs // Ibis. в„–
94. 458-472.
Mundinger P. C. 1982. Microgeographic and macrogeographic variation in
acquired vocalizations of birds // Acoustic communicaition in birds / Eds. D.E.
Kroodsma, E.H. Miller. New York. P. 147-208.
Slater P. J. B., Clement F. A., Goodfellow D. J. 1984. Local and regional
variations in chaffinch song and the question of dialects // Behaviour. в„– 88. 7697.
Thielcke G. 1969. Geographic variation in bird vocalizations // Bird Vocalizations /
Eds. R.A. Hinde. London, New York. P. 311-340.
I wait for a meeting!
Автор
Olesya Astakhova
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