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Statistical processing of chaffinch song +

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Statistical processing of
generalizing given
in european chaffinch song types
(Fringilla coelebs coelebs L.)
Astakhova O.A.
(dissertation) 2007.
Average values of parameters of european chaffinch songs
(Fringilla coelebs coelebs L.)
On the literary data the length (duration) of chaffinch song (Fringilla coelebs L.) is approximately
equal 1,5 - 2,5 sРµc (Thorpe, 1958; Nottebohm, 1968), seldom there were songs less 1,5 sРµc and it
is more 2,5-3 sРµc.
From samples in population of Curonian spit of Baltic sea (the Kaliningrad region) we have calculated
average length (duration) of chaffinch songs (N = 279)
(Fringilla coelebs L.) different types:
1,97 В± 0,23 sРµc.
Frequency of chaffinch songs (Fringilla coelebs L.) represents approximately
1,5-7 РљHz (Thorpe, 1958; Nottebohm, 1968). By our calculations in population of Curonian spit of
Baltic sea average value of chaffinch song frequency (Fringilla coelebs L.) represented (N = 279) :
min = 1,63 В± 0,063 РљHz;
max = 7,683 В± 0,42 РљHz;
median = 4,10 В± 0,14 РљHz.
Average prevalence of song types in population of Curonian spit
(the Kaliningrad region): 6,82 В± 5 %.
Intervals between chaffinch songs (Fringilla coelebs L.) on the average appeared are 6,92 В±0,81
sРµc, but can be and more - 10-20 sРµc (Thorpe, 1958). Probably, this parameter depends from
density of a population and a season of singing. On Curonian spit chaffinch had high density
and record of songs it was made in the spring during, the breeding period.
m e d ia n fre q u e n c y, K H z
m a x fre q u e n c y, K H z
m in fre q u e n c y, K H z
d u ra tio n o f s o n g , se c
in te rv a ls b e tw e e n so n g s, s e c
le n g th o f fin is h s tro k e , se c
le n g th o f trill, s e c
le n g th o f s ta rt sin g in g , se c
n u m b e r o f s ylla b le s in s o n g
p re va le n c e , %
s ta tistica l va lu e s
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
M ean
В±S E
В±S D
par am eter s of song types
Fig. 1. Values of average arithmetic and a standard deviation of key quantitative
parameters of chaffinch song types (Fringilla coelebs L.) on Curonian spit of Baltic sea
(the Kaliningrad region)
-1
in te rv a ls b e tw e e n s o n g s , s e c
le n g th o f fin is h stro ke , s e c
le n g th o f trill, se c
le n g th o f s ta rt s in g in g , s e c
m e d ia n fre q u e n c y , K H z
m a x fre q u e n c y, K H z
m in fre q u e n cy, K H z
d u ra tio n o f s o n g , s e c
s ta tis tica l v a lu e s
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
M ean
В±S E
В±S D
par am eter s of song type
Fig. 1. Values of average arithmetic and a standard deviation of key quantitative
parameters of chaffinch song types (Fringilla coelebs L.) on Curonian spit
(the Kaliningrad region) (briefly)
On the literary data the length (duration) of chaffinch song (Fringilla coelebs L.) is approximately
equal 1,5 - 2,5 sРµc (Thorpe, 1958; Nottebohm, 1968), seldom there were songs less 1,5 sРµc and it is
more 2,5-3 sРµc.
From samples in populations of the central part of the European Russia (Zvenigorod, Moscow,
Michurinsk) we have calculated average length (duration) of chaffinch songs (N = 73) (Fringilla
coelebs L.) different types:
2,59 В± 0,29 sРµc.
Frequency of chaffinch songs (Fringilla coelebs L.) represents approximately 1,5-7 РљHz (Thorpe,
1958; Nottebohm, 1968). By our calculations in populations of central part of the European Russia
average value of chaffinch song frequency (Fringilla coelebs L.) represented (N = 73) :
min = 1,7 В± 0,17 РљHz;
max = 8,06 В± 0,58 РљHz;
median = 4,096 В± 0,29 РљHz.
Average prevalence of song types in populations of central part of the European Russia
(Zvenigorod, Moscow, Michurinsk):
6,83 В± 6,62 %.
Intervals between chaffinch songs (Fringilla coelebs L.) in central part of the European Russia on
the average appeared are 7,3 В± 1,9 sРµc, but can be and more - 10-20 sРµc (Thorpe, 1958).
inte rva ls b e tw e en so n gs, se c
len g th o f finish stroke , se c
len g th o f trill, se c
len g th o f start sin g in g , se c
n um be r of syllab le s in so ng
p re vale n ce , %
m e d ian fre qu e ncy, K H z
m a x fre qu e ncy, K H z
m in fre q ue ncy, K H z
d ura tio n o f so n g, sec
sta tistical valu es
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
Mean
В± SE
В± SD
p a ra m e te rs o f s o n g ty p e
Fig. 2. Values of average arithmetic and a standard deviation of key quantitative parameters of
chaffinch song types (Fringilla coelebs L.) on population of central part European Russia
0
in te rva ls b e tw e e n s o n g s, s e c
le n g th o f fin is h s tro k e , se c
le n g th o f trill, s e c
le n g th o f s ta rt s in g in g , se c
m e d ia n fre q u e n cy , K H z
m a x fre q u e n c y, K H z
m in fre q u e n cy , K H z
d u ra tio n o f s o n g , s e c
s ta tistic a l v a lu e s
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
M ean
В±SE
В±SD
par am ete rs of song type
Fig. 2. Values of average arithmetic and a standard deviation of key quantitative parameters of
chaffinch song types (Fringilla coelebs L.) on population of central part European Russia (briefly)
Table 1. Correlation connections of the basic quantitative parameters of European chaffinch song
types (Fringilla coelebs coelebs L.) in population of Curonian spit (the Kaliningrad region) (N=279)
Parameter
of song
type
Duration
of song,
sec
Duration
of song,
sec
Frequency of song, KHz
Length of syllables, sec
started
final
trill
stroke
singing
Length of phrases, sec
started
final
trill
stroke
singing
Min
Max
Median
(average)
Prevalence,
%
- 0,21
0,00
- 0,83
- 0,12
0,71
0,29
0,63
0,01
- 0,44
- 0,38
0,35
- 0,18
- 0,22
- 0,03
- 0,03
0,42
- 0,76
0,27
- 0,05
0,27
- 0,2
0,64
- 0,05
0,15
0,86
0,07
0,47
- 0,29
- 0,47
0,28
0,56
0,07
- 0,44
0,30
- 0,72
- 0,26
- 0,67
0,00
0,17
0,14
- 0,40
0,11
0,03
0,36
- 0,31
- 0,28
0,34
0,34
0,06
- 0,37
- 0,12
0,63
- 0,31
- 0,14
- 0,43
0,78
- 0,03
- 0,24
- 0,13
- 0,02
0,43
- 0,48
- 0,05
0,49
0,18
- 0,39
0,76
- 0,35
0,32
- 0,12
0,02
- 0,37
0,51
0,33
- 0,42
- 0,30
- 0,47
Number
of syllables in song
Intervals
between
songs, sec
Frequency
of song, KHz
Min
- 0,21
Max
0,00
- 0,22
Median
(average)
- 0,83
- 0,03
0,15
Prevalence, %
- 0,12
- 0,03
0,86
0,30
Number
of syllables
in song
0,71
0,42
0,07
- 0,72
0,03
started
singing
0,29
- 0,76
0,47
- 0,26
0,36
- 0,12
trill
0,63
0,27
- 0,29
- 0,67
- 0,31
0,63
- 0,24
final
stroke
0,01
- 0,05
- 0,47
0,00
- 0,28
- 0,31
- 0,13
0,49
Intervals
between
songs, sec
- 0,44
0,27
0,28
0,17
0,34
- 0,14
- 0,02
0,8
0,32
started
singing
- 0,38
- 0,2
0,56
0,14
0,34
- 0,43
0,43
- 0,39
- 0,12
0,51
trill
0,35
0,64
0,07
- 0,40
0,06
0,78
- 0,48
0,76
0,02
0,33
- 0,30
final
stroke
- 0,18
- 0,05
- 0,44
0,11
- 0,37
- 0,03
- 0,05
- 0,35
- 0,37
- 0,42
- 0,50
Length of
syllables, sec
Length of
phrases, sec
- 0,31
- 0,31
The note: the font marks the most significant correlations (-0,5> r> 0,5); italics marks the values of correlation showing presence of
weak interrelation of parameters (-0,5 <r <0,5); the negative sign on values shows inverse relationship of parameters, a positive sign
(in the table it is not underlined) - direct dependence; in total it is measured N=279 songs of different types ; values of correlation
were taken into account at p <0,05.
Table 2. Correlation connections of the basic quantitative parameters of chaffinch song types
(Fringilla coelebs coelebs L.) in populations of central part European Russia (N=73)
Parameter
of song
type
Duration
of song,
sec
Duration
of song,
sec
Frequency
of song, KHz
Min
Max
Median
(average)
Prevalence, %
Frequency of song, KHz
Min
0,62
Length of syllables, sec
started
final
trill
stroke
singing
Length of phrases, sec
started
final
trill
stroke
singing
Max
Median
(average)
Prevalence,
%
-0,66
- 0,44
- 0,03
-0,63
-0,04
0,03
-0,30
- 0,02
0,65
0,12
0,03
- 0,13
- 0,28
0,44
0,20
0,28
0,47
-0,39
- 0,08
0,11
0,47
0,50
- 0,40
0,40
0,10
0,47
- 0,08
-0,53
0,62
0,26
- 0,28
- 0,28
0,63
- 0,73
0,76
- 0,23
0,30
0,09
-0,36
0,35
-0,53
-0,70
0,86
- 0,06
0,52
0,58
-0,30
0,82
- 0,92
- 0,72
0,34
- 0,60
- 0,25
0,43
-0,31
0,65
- 0,17
0,37
0,48
-0,12
0,54
- 0,69
-0,26
0,67
- 0,19
0,23
0,09
0,53
0,06
0,22
- 0,48
0,08
0,46
- 0,37
-0,53
0,25
Number
of syllables in song
Intervals
between
songs, sec
0,62
-0,66
- 0,13
-0,44
- 0,28
0,44
-0,03
0,20
0,28
0,63
-0,63
0,47
-0,39
- 0,73
-0,70
started
singing
-0,04
- 0,08
0,11
0,76
0,86
- 0,72
trill
0,03
0,47
0,50
0,23
- 0,06
0,34
- 0,17
final
stroke
Intervals
between
songs, sec
Length of
phrases, sec
started
singing
trill
final
stroke
-0,30
- 0,40
0,40
0,30
0,52
- 0,60
0,37
-0,26
- 0,02
0,01
0,47
0,09
0,58
- 0,25
0,48
0,67
0,53
0,65
- 0,08
-0,53
-0,36
-0,30
0,43
-0,12
- 0,19
- 0,06
-0,08
0,12
0,62
0,26
0,35
0,82
-0,31
0,54
0,23
0,22
0,46
- 0,53
0,03
- 0,28
- 0,28
-0,53
-0,92
0,65
- 0,69
0,09
- 0,48
- 0,37
0,25
Number
of syllables
in song
Length of
syllables, sec
- 0,75
- 0,75
The note: the font marks the most significant correlations (-0,5> r> 0,5); italics marks the values of correlation showing presence of
weak interrelation of parameters (-0,5 <r <0,5); the negative sign on values shows inverse relationship of parameters, a positive sign
(in the table it is not underlined) - direct dependence; in total it is measured N=73 songs of different types ; values of correlation were
taken into account at p <0,05.
Results of the correlation analysis of European chaffinch songs (Fringilla coelebs
coelebs L.) in northwest and central parts of the European Russia
Similarities of correlation connections of parameters of chaffinch songs in two geographical
populations (on distance of 1000 km from each other)
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The length of songs (sРµc) decreased at increase in their average (median) frequencies (РљHz).
Minimal (min) frequency of songs (РљHz) could increase with increase of number of syllables in songs, lengths of a
trill (sРµc) and lengths of elements (syllables) of a trill (sРµc).
Maximal (max) frequency of songs (РљHz) increased with increase of a degree of prevalence of song types in a
population (%) and with increase in intervals between songs (sРµc); at increase in length of final stroke (sРµc),
maximal (max) frequency (РљHz) decreased.
Average (median) frequency of songs (РљHz) increased with increase of a degree of prevalence of song types in a
population (%); but with increase in average (median) frequencies of songs (РљHz) could decrease values of
length of songs (sРµc), number of syllables in songs, length of syllables (elements) of a trill (sРµc).
With increase of prevalence of song types in a population (%) increased maximal (max) frequency of songs (РљHz),
average (median) frequency (РљHz), intervals between songs (sРµc), the length of syllables (elements) in started
singing (sРµc), but decreased length of final stroke (sРµc).
With increase in number of syllables in songs raised minimal (min) frequency of songs (РљHz) and length of
syllables (elements) of a trill (sРµc) , but decreased average (median) frequency of songs (РљHz) and length of
elements in final stroke (sРµc).
The length of elements (syllables) in started singing (sРµc) increased at more widespread song types in a
population (%).
With increase in length of syllables (elements) of a trill (sРµc) could increase minimal (min) frequency of songs
(РљHz), number of syllables in songs and length of a trill (sРµc) , but decreased average (median) frequency of
songs (РљHz).
With increase in length of elements of final stroke (sРµc) could decrease number of syllables in songs and length of
final stroke (sРµc), but the increase in intervals between songs (sРµc) is possible.
At the big intervals between songs (sРµc) could increase maximal (max) frequency of songs (РљHz), a degree of
prevalence of song types in a population (%), length of elements in final stroke (sРµc), the length of a trill
(sРµc), but decreased length of final stroke (sРµc) as a whole.
With increase in length of started singing (sРµc) could decrease the length of a trill (sРµc).
With increase in length of a trill (sРµc) increased minimal (min) frequency of songs (РљHz), length of syllables
(elements) of a trill (sРµc), intervals between songs (sРµc), but the length of final stroke (sРµc) decreased.
With increase in length of final stroke (sРµc) decreased intervals between songs (sРµc), length of a trill (sРµc), a
degree of prevalence of song types in a population (%), length of elements (syllables) in final stroke (sРµc).
Distinctions of correlation connections of parameters of chaffinch songs in two geographical
populations (on distance of 1000 km from each other)
• In the center of the European Russia with increase in length of songs (sеc) raised their minimal (min) frequencies
(РљHz), but in northwest (Curonian spit) - the tendency of decrease minimal (min) frequencies (РљHz) with increase in
length songs (sРµc). Also in the center of the European Russia the number of syllables in songs could decrease at
increase in duration of songs (sРµc), but in northwest of the European Russia longer on time songs contained also a
number of syllables (elements). The length of started singing (sРµc) increased in the center of the European Russia at
increase in length songs (sРµc), but decreased in northwest of the European Russia (i.e. at long songs started singing
frequently could be short).
• In the center of the European Russia with increase in length songs (sеc) raised minimal (min) frequency (КHz),
but in northwest of the European Russia with increase in length songs (sec) minimal (min) frequency (РљHz) could
decrease.
• In the center of the European Russia maximal (max) frequency of songs (КHz) decreases at increase in length of
started singing (sРµc), but with reduction of length of syllables (elements) of a trill (sРµc) and elements of final
stroke (sРµc); while in northwest of the European Russia these parameters are inversely proportional (that is reduction
maximal (max) frequencies (РљHz) is possible at increase in length of elements of a trill (sРµc) and elements of final stroke
(sРµc), but at reduction of length started singing (sРµc)).
• In the center of the European Russia with increase in average (median) frequencies (КHz) length of syllables
(elements) in started singing (sРµc) and length of a trill (sРµc) increase, while in northwest of the European Russia
these parameters decrease with increase of average (median) frequencies (РљHz).
• In the center of the European Russia with increase of prevalence of song types in a population (%) the length of
started singing in songs (sРµc) could decrease, and in northwest of the European Russia on the contrary - the
tendency on increase in length of started singing (sРµc) at more widespread song types (%).
• In the center of the European Russia length of songs (sеc) and length of a trill (sеc) can decrease with increase in
number of syllables in songs, and the length of started singing (sРµc) - to increase; while in northwest of the
European Russia on the contrary - with increase in number of syllables in songs the length songs (sРµc) and length of a
trill (sРµc) increases, but the length of started singing (sРµc) can decrease.
• In the center of the European Russia with increase in length of syllables (elements) in started singing (sеc)
increases average (median) frequency (РљHz) and length of a trill (sРµc), in northwest of the European Russia on the
contrary - with increase in length of syllables (elements) in started singing (sРµc) decrease average (median) frequency
(РљHz) and length of a trill (sРµc).
•
In the center of the European Russia with increase in length of syllables (elements) of a trill (sРµc) increases
maximal (max) frequency of songs (РљHz), and the length of elements of final stroke (sРµc) can decrease, and in
northwest of the European Russia on the contrary - with increase in length of syllables (elements) of a trill (sРµc)
reduction maximal (max) frequencies of songs (РљHz) and increase in length of elements of final stroke (sРµc) is
possible.
•
In the center of the European Russia with increase in length of syllables (elements) of final stroke (sРµc)
increases maximal (max) frequency of songs (РљHz) and a degree of prevalence of song types in a population
(%) , but the length of elements (syllables) of a trill (sРµc) can decrease; in northwest of the European Russia on the
contrary - with increase in length of syllables (elements) of final stroke (sРµc) can decrease maximal (max) frequency of
songs (РљHz) and a degree of prevalence of song types in a population (%), but elements (syllables) of a trill (sРµc)
increase.
•
In the center of the European Russia with increase in length of started singing (sРµc) could increase length
of songs (sec), number of syllables in songs and length of final stroke (sРµc) , but decreased maximal (max)
frequency of songs (РљHz), a degree of prevalence of song types in a population (%) , in northwest of the
European Russia on the contrary - with increase in length of started singing (sРµc) decreased length of songs (sРµc),
number of syllables in songs and length of final stroke (sРµc) , but increased maximal (max) frequency of songs (РљHz),
a degree of prevalence of song types in a population (%).
•
In the center of the European Russia with increase in length of a trill (sРµc) could increase average (median)
frequency of songs (РљHz) and length of syllables (elements) of started singing (sРµc), but could decrease
number of syllables in songs and length of started singing (sРµc); while in northwest of the European Russia with
increase in length of started singing (sРµc) decreased average (median) frequency of songs (РљHz) and length of
syllables (elements) of started singing (sРµc), but the number of syllables in songs and length of started singing (sРµc)
increased.
•
In the center of the European Russia with increase in length of final stroke (sРµc) could increase the length
of started singing (sec), while in northwest of the European Russia with increase in length of final stroke (sРµc) the
length of started singing (sРµc) frequently decreased.
T re e D ia g ra m fo r V a ria b le s
C o m p le te L in k a g e
E u c lid e a n d is ta n c e s
7
6
Linkage D istance
5
4
3
2
1
0
J
O
C
R
W
N
H
G
T
S
E
B
V
F
M
D
U
I
A
S o n g ty p e
Fig. 3. A degree of similarity of different song types of European chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs coelebs L.)
under the basic forms of elements (syllables) in populations of European Russia
Lines of vocal development (vocal lines) - a number of types of the songs, similar on the structure,
being "related" on origin, probably, generated (formed) at change and transition of one song type in
other song type, can represent result of differentiation (modification) of one initial ("ancestor") song type
(on figure 3 is vocal lines of chaffinch - types of songs close on similarity - U I A, V M F D, T S E B,
W N H G R, J O C).
The analysis of chaffinch song types (Fringilla coelebs coelebs L.) on similarity
elements (syllables) of phrases
Designations
Parts of songs:
The basic form of elements (phrases) :
started singing - 1
trill - 2
final stroke - 3
Arch-similar (U, ∩) – 1, U – 1,1
∩ – 1,2
Angular-similar (V, Λ) – 2, V – 2,1
Λ – 2,2
Point-similar (•)
-5
Zigzag-similar (Z, � ) – 3, Z – 3,1
� – 3,2
Stick-similar (/, –) – 4, I – 4,1 – - 4,4
/ - 4,2 \ - 4,3
Song
type
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
M
N
O
R
S
T
U
W
V
J
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
5
2,1
1,1
5
2,1
2,1
2,1
3,2
5
4,4
2,1
2,1
2,2
1,1
1,1
4,3
2,1
2,1
2,1
3
2,2
2
2
4,3
2
4,3
4,3
2
2,2
3,2
2,2
2
2,1
2
2
2
2
4,3
4,3
4
2
4,3
1,1
2
3,1
2
2
2,1
2
2
2
1,1
2
2,1
4,3
1,1
3,1
2
2
5
3,2
3,1
2,1
5
3,2
5
3,2
4,1
3,2
4,3
3,1
3
1,1
2,2
2
3
3
4,3
1,1
6
3
3
1,2
2,2
3
2,2
4,3
4,2
4,3
2,2
4,3
3,2
4,3
3
4,3
2,2
4,3
2
1,1
7
5
4,1
4,3
3
1,2
3
2,2
3,2
2,2
3
3,2
5
3,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
4,3
3
8
1,2
2,2
3
4,4
4,3
4,2
3
3
3
2,2
3
1,2
3
2,2
3
4,3
3
2,2
9
1,2
2,2
1,1
1,1
4,3
4,3
2,2
3,1
2,2
3,2
4,3
2,2
4,3
2,2
3,1
1,2
10
4,3
2,2
3,1
1,2
5
4,3
4,3
2,2
2,2
3,2
11
4,3
4,3
3,2
1,2
4,3
12
2,2
1,2
1,2
Constructed on the data tree diagram of similarities in chaffinch song types on the previous page
Program Statistics 6.0 (StatSoft. Inc)
Автор
Olesya Astakhova
Документ
Категория
Образовательные
Просмотров
8
Размер файла
53 062 Кб
Теги
song, statistics, chaffinch, processing
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