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Международно-договорные обязательства Российской Федерации и их реализация в российском уголовном законодательстве

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ФИО соискателя: Фишер Анна Александровна Шифр научной специальности: 12.00.10 - международное право; европейское право Шифр диссертационного совета: Д 002.002.05 Название организации: Институт государства и права РАН Адрес организации: 119992, г.Мос
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M.Cherif Bassiouoni, Daniel P.Murphy, Maria I.F.Francisco, A.Bianchi,
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cyAoB o6uefi rcprrcAlrKrruu, perueHnr EnponeficKoro
Cylu ro rpaBaM
tIeJIoBeKa.
Hayvaun Ho6u3Ho AlrcceprarluoHHoro rrccJreAoBanufl cocroptr B ToM, rITo B
Ar.rcceprarluoHHoM nJraHe paccMorpeHa npo6JreMa r4MnJreMeHTaIIuu n poccuficKoe
yroJroBHoe 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBo
-
YroronHrrfi roAerc PO - MarepLIanbHbIX HopM
MexqyHapo.{Hbrx roHneHqufi, peryJrLrpyrcuryrx corpyAHrlqecrBo rocyAapcrB
B
rrporuBoAeitcrr,uu orAeJrbHbrM BlrAaM npecryrrJreuuit,
[plr
B pa6ore cAeJraH Ha aHaJrr,r3e MexAyHapoAHbrx
rcoHneHqItft, [ocB.tIueHHbIX
gToM ocHonHofi aKIIeHT
o6qeyronoBHbrM npecrynJreHr,rrM, TaK KaK HopMbr Marepr4€IJlbHoro [paBa
xonnenqnfi
LrccJreAoBaHbr HeAocraroqHo,
a
3THX
ocHoBHoe BHI,IMaHpIe 6uro
HanpaBneHo Ha paccMorpeHr,re HopM r43 Kareropuu yroiroBHo-[poqeccyaJlbHblx
(cu., HarrpuMep, MoHorpa$uu BorxeurnHoft 8.M., 3eluHcxofi H.A., MnluHuyx
B.B. u Ap.) 3ro rro3BoJruno AlaccepraHry:
- rrpoBecrr{ KoMrrJrerccurrfi
aHaJrH3 coAepx(aHr.It HopM MexqyHapoAHbIX AoroBopoB
Poccnficxofi (DeAepaquu
HopMaMr4
YrolonHofo
B
yroJroBHo-npanonofi
c$epe, corocraBurb krx
KoAeKca Poccuficr<ofi Oeaepauvlkr,
caM 3aKoHorBopuecrufi MexaHa3M r,rx
a raKll(e
LrMrrJreMeHTaIIuI4
B
c
rpocJIeALIrb
poccuftcxoe
HarllroHzurbHoe 3aKoHoAarenbcrBo ;
-
paccMorperb coAepxaHr{e aHaJrorurrHbrx MexAyHapoAHbIX o6rsarelrcrn
sapy6eNHbrx rocyAapcrB B yronoBHo-rpaBoBofi c$epe n Bbl.aBurb I,Ix cnequ$nxy;
-
BbrAeJrLtrb
pflr, rrpuoprrrerHbrx Hanpanneulrfi coBeprueHcrBoBaHl,It
3aKoHoAareJrbcrBa Poccr.rficrofi OeAepaquu
B oltacru
yroJloBHoro
rpaBa
ueJrbro o6ecneqeHu.s co6rroAeHLrr ero cBorlx MelKAyHapoAHbIX o6ssaremcrn.
c
llpoeedenHoe uccnedoeouue no3Borflem cQopnynuposamb
3at4umy cnedy
I.
l. IIoA
llol
ru u4ue ocHo
u
Bbruecmu Hu
Bvbte noro Jrceuun :
Poccuficrcofi QeAepaqul4
@e.qepauuu
MexAyHapoAHbrMrr o6ssarerbcrBaMlI
oof,3areJrbcTBaM?r roccurzcKolr
yroJroBHo-rrpaBoBofi c$epe cJreAyer rroHrlMarb KaK HopMbI orHoc.tI[IHXc.tI
c$epe
B
x orofi
Me)KAyHapoAHbrx AoroBopoB Pocclrficxofi @e4epaqzu, HaAJrexaulrlM
o6pa:ona paru$r,rqlrpoBaHHbrx
rrpr,rHrlr4rrbr r{ HopMbr
M
e)r(AyHap
v
ony6nzxoBaHHbrx, TaK
u
o6qenpu3HaHHble
oAHoro IIp aB a.
3axrroqaeurre rocyAapcrBaMl4
MHorocropoHHlte
AOrOBOpbr,
KoopAnHupyroque Lrx yroJroBHoe 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBo B cosl,recrHofi 6opr6e c
rrpecryrrJreln:aflv'vr KoHKperHoro Br{Aa, [prrH.rrro Ha3brBarb <KonneHqvflMvr>>.Iocne
r.rx parn$vrKarJvrv
u ouy6maKoBaHufl, craHoBrcb (cocranHofi qacrblo)) npanonofi
clrcreMbr Poccuficrofi @eaepa:qlz'ur, HX HopMbr He rBJrrrorcr o6sgareJIbHbIMLI
rrcrroJrHeHnfl.
poccr4ficruuu [paBorrpnMeHrrreJrrwtu.
/!m
AJI.fl
omozo ux ueo1xoduuo
zKJuoqumb e Vzonoeuani rcodercc Poccuticrcoil @edepotluu.
2. flonoxeHpre qacru
I crarru I
(yroJroBHoe 3aKoHoAaremcrno
rroHr{Marb roJrbKo
VrononHoro KoAeKca Pocczficxofi @e4epa\vkr
PO cocrolrT u3 Hacrotlqero KoAeKca) HyxHo
raK, a He I,IHaqe. 3ro 3Ha.rlrr, rrro B cnoefi
rrpaBorrprrMeHr,rreJrbHbre
[paKTI,IKe
opraulr Poccur{ Moryr orrlrparbc.rr roJIbKo Ha HopMbI
ee
VronosHoro KoAeKca. I4s pnMcKoro npaBa HaM u3BecreH rrpuHIII,In yroronHofi
rocrr,rrlrllr <nullum crimen sine lege> (Her npecryrrJreHur, ecJII,I ero Her e saxoue) -
B HarueM cnr{ae B
rBJrrerc.rr
ocHoBHoM yroJroBHoM 3aKoHe rocyAapcTBa, KoTopbIM
yK PO. flocne
parn$rEraqnu
n ony6nnroBannfl MelKAyHapoAnufi
AoroBop (ronnenqnx) cornacHo qacrr,r 4 crarnu 15 Koncrury\uvr P(D sKrroqaerefl
He B ee
YroronHufi roAexc, a B ee o6qyrc upaBoBylo cucreMy, qro
He oAHo I,I To
Ne. OcraBzurcb B rrpaBoBofi cucrenae Pocczr{, HopMbr 3Toro paru$nqupoBaHHoro
AoroBopa (rcouneHqzu) paccMarpunaeruofi HaMn Kareropl4l4 coxpaHtlor csofi
cTaTyc HopM MelKAyHapoAHoro npaBa kr He Moryr rlpllMeH.flTbc.f, B npaKTHKe
yfonoBHoro cyAo[polr3BoAcTBa cTpaHbr, TaK KaK, Bo-frepBbrx,
oHr4 He BKJIIoqeHbI B
yronoBHbrfi roAercc crpaHbr, Bo-BTopbrx, caMr,r no ce6e He I,IMeIor cIlJIbI np-aMoro
AeircrBnfl, ur) B-TperbHX, 3Tlr HopMbr
s
KoHneHrlr,rflx He prMeror sanepureHHofi
Qopuu.
3. B csoefi pa6ore opraHbr yroJroBHoro [pecJreAoBaHurr Moryr pyKoBoAcrBoBarbct
roJrbKo HopMaMr{
B rracrHocrrd, B
YK
ero crarbe
Orcyrcrnne 3Toro
n
PoccrEu. Ha gro rrpf,Mo yKa3brBaer orcyrcrBr4e n Ko4erce u,
I ccrrrKu Ha rroJroxeHue n.4 cr.15 KoHcruryqun P(D.
KoHcrvryrgr
noJrolr(eHu.s
q.l cr.l YK PO apyroe
roBopr.rr caMo ga ce6s,. Ero gardeH.fler
roJroxeHr,re: <Honue 3aKoHbr, rrpeAycMarpuBalorll4e
yronoBHyro orBercrBeHHocrb, rroAJrexar BKJrroqeHI{Io B Hacrotlqufi roAerc>.
3ro
o3HaqaeT, qTo rrpuMeHeHr{e HopM Me)rqyHapoAHbrx AoroBopoB paccMaTpunaeuofi
HaMLr
rlx
Kareropuu opraHaMH yroJroBHoro llpecneAoBa}Jldf, Bo3MoxHo ToJIbKo rIocJIe
rpaucSopMarluu
B
HopMbr poccnficroro
yK
rocpeAcrBoM npvHflTnr
coorBercrByrouero $eaepamHoro 3aKoHa.
4. Kponae yKa3aHHoro B rryHKTe 2 ecm eqe oAHo o6cro.sreJrbcrBo, Koropoe caMo
ro
ce6e
rrpr,rMeHeHr4ro paccMarpuBaeMbrx HopM
[perrrcrByer
rrpaBooxpaHureJrbHbrMlr opraHaMlr. TpaanqrroHHblM
rocyAapcrBaMu KoHBeHrIufi
3aKoHoAareJrbcrBa
no KoopAr4Har\uv v
B 6opr6e c
orcyrcrBue arerKoro
Bura
crzIJIo
Aaercr o6utas peKoMeHAaIlprfl,
focy4apcrBaM npeAocraBJrrercr rrpaBo
ycraHaBnnBarb caHKrIuLt B np eAeJrax AasHo fi peKoM
B
corJracoBaHpllo I4x yroJloBHoro
B ronneHllnrx rIprIBoALITct cxeMa
cocraBa rrpecrynJrenvrfl., a orHocureJrbHo caHKrIr,rH
6rrrr.
rIoArIHcbIBaeMbIX
[pecryrrJreHr4eM KoHKperHoro
yKa3aHvrfl, Ha caHKrIHro.
xalcofi oHa AoJrlKHa
AJII
eHA
caMI,IM
arlvvr.
rr,rex4yHapoAHbrx KoHBeHrIHflx coAepxarcr JrHrrrb 3aAaHHbre napaMerpbl
caHKrILrH
3a
uMu o6rqecrseHHo-onacHbre refllnLrfl'
pefyJrr.{pyeMbre
HarIpI4Mep,
$IuureHr,re cso6oAbr)), B cB.rr3rr c qeM ueo6xoAnl,ro AorroJlHrrrb 3TI{ HopMbI 6onee
xonrpernofi canxqzefi. KoHrcperrr3arllrf,
arofi
Mepbr HaKa3aHuf, 6yaer
cuoco6crBoBarb MeHbrrreMy pacxo)r(AeHuro ucxoAHbIM
MelKAyHapoAHofi HopMbr
3
aKO H OAare Jrb CTB
a,
KaC aIO IrIH M
c
Ct
[oJIoxeHI,IflM
HopMaMLr HarlrroHuurbHoro
yC TaHO BJI
e
yroJloBHoro
HLI' IIaKa3anIVrf..
yK PO perreH Borrpoc o Ha3BaHHbIx r u.4 cr.15
Koncruryuun <o6rqeuplr3HaHHbrx [prrHrlurrax v HopMax MenqyHapoAHoro
5. Tax xe
oAHo3HaqHo
B
1.0
rrpaBa)).
B n.2 cr.l Ko.qeKca rrprMo yKa3brBaercfl,, rrro KpoMe KoucruryqrEn P(D oH
(ocHoBbrBaercfl. Ha oouenpu3HaHHbrx [prrHrlr.rnax
rrpaBa).
3ro
coAep)KaHr{e
rrro B
3Haqr{T,
rex o6unx
coAep}KaHue
H HopMax Me)rqyHapoAHofo
crareit
yK PO pre
BKrIorIeHo
nprlHur4rroB Lr o6rrqurtx HopM MexAyHapoAHoro rpaBa,
oHr{ (pacrBopeHbr) B HopMax
pocclrficroro YK PO. B ro
TaKr,rx <o6ueupu3HaHHbrx HopM) HarlJrlr BorrnorleHpre B
YK Poccuu. Hau6onee
BDKHbTM H3 3TLrx
)Ke BpeMf, orAeJIbHbIe H3
psle KoHKperHrtx crarefi
lpraHrlunoB, noJryrrlrBruux
Ha3BaHHe
cSeprr yroronHofi rocrurrlupl, B orrLIrII4e or o6rqux
npr.rHrlr,rroB MexAyHapoAHoro rpaBa, n pocclrficKoM yK P@ [ocBtIIIeHu 5 crarefi:
(ctrerlkr€urbHbre)) NTfl,
cr.3
-
cr.5
nprrHrlurr 3aKoHHocru; cr.4
rprrHrlurr Br4Hbr;
- npuHrlurr
paBeHcrBa rpDKAaH nepeA 3aKoHoM;
cr.6 rpuHrlr.rl crpaBeAJurBocru; cr.1
ryMaHH3Ma. Bxrro.{eHr,re 3THX rrprlHrlr{rroB
B cnofi Vro.nonnufi
npI4HIIur
3aKoH HyxHo
paccMarpr4Barb KaK peruu3arlurc Poccuefi MelKAyHapoAHoro o6.ssarenlcrBa nepeA
MHpoBbrM coo6ulecrnou.
I{ro Kacaercfl ApyrHX o6uenpu3HaHHblx rprIHurIrIoB
I4
HOpM Me)KAyHapOAHOfO rrpaBa, rroA KoTopbrMr,r [ocJreAHee rroHLIMaeT HopMbI
o6rrqHoro [paBa,
HanplrMep, cr.9
vx
[paBlrJra Harrurn orpaxeHlre
B prAe crarefi
Ko4exca;
- Aeficrslre 3aKoHa Bo BpeMeHLr, B coorBercrBue c KoropblM 3aKoH
He r4Meer o6parHofi crrJrbr; B To
xe
BpeMfl cr.10
yK PO rpl43Haer o6parnyro
cI{JIy
3a 3aKOHOM, yCTpaHrrOrIrrM rrpecryrrHocrb AerHur, cMrfrriloql,IM HaKa3aHI,Ie
vrlr
HHbrM o6pasorr,r cMrrqaroullrM rroJroxeHlre Jrrrqa, coBeplxl{Bllrero npecrynneHue;
cr.11 t.4
-
Borrpoc o AurrJroMarr4qecKofi HeupurcocHoBeHHocrpl ArIrInoMarI,ItIecK[IX
[peAcraBurelefi LrHocrpaHHbrx rocyAapcrB ri rrHbrx rpax(AaH,
r{MMyHr4TeroM.
rrplrHrrrlrrax
Irlnuun
cJroBaMr{, rrpaBnra, coAepxalqurecfl,
HaAeneHHbIX TaKI4M
n
o6uleupI43HaHHbIX
vr HopMax MelxAyHapoAHoro npaBa, <par6pocaHbl)) no crarbtM
YrolonHoro KoAeKca PO. Cne4yer orMerurb, qro HI{KaKoro [epeqHt
o6utenppr3HaHHbrx HopM Me)ICAyHapoAHoro npaBa He cyqecrByer.
6.
TeopenruecKr4M
vr
rrpaBoBbrM ocHoBaHLreM pezuILI3aIII4LI MexqyHapoAHbIX
o6sgarerrcrn P@ B yronoBHoM npaBe P@ .rrBJrflrorcr HopMbr qacru 4 crarsu
15
yK
P@, MexAyHapoAHo-AoroBopHble
'racru 2 crarblr 1
HopMbr, Ha Koropbre Poccuftcxofi @eaepauuefi AaHo corJracue u Koropble,
KoHcruryuuu PO
14
L1
coorBercrBeHHo, HaJrararor Ha Hee gTI4 o6gsarerbcrBa,
BeHcKoft Konnenqnv
raKlKe crarbfl 27
o rpaBe MexAyHapoAHbrx AoroBopoB, ycraHoBrrBrrrar, qro
f{acrHr{K KoHneHrlr.rr.r (Poccur rpucoe4nnvlracr
MOXCT CCbIJIATbCfl
a
HA NOJIO}KEHI'Ifl
r
Hefi 23 ua.x 1969 ro4a) <ue
B
CBOE|O BHYTPEHHEIO NPABA
KAIICCTBC
onpaBAaHnf, Nrfl HeBbrrroJrHeHlrfl r4M AoroBopD.
7.
KoHeeHTIHH B paccMarpusaerdofi
6opr6u c
c$epe nplrHr{Marorc.rr qalqe Bcero c IIeJIbIo
BHoBb rrof,BJr.rrnulr,rMr,rcf, rrpecrynJreHl{tMr{, rrogToMy
mannoft zararreir
TaKUX KOHBeHTIUU tBJrreTCr [plr3HaHr4e KOHKpeTHOIO AeflHplfl.
B
KaqeCTBe
o6ulecrneHHo-o[acHoro AJrr Ka]KAoro rocyAapcrBa B orAeJrbHocrrr. Onpe4eneHrEe
o6qecrnennofi olacHocrr{ Lr BKlroqeHue HoBoro [pecrynHoro Ae-aHHt B cBoe
yroJroBHoe 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBo Bo3MolKHo rryreM <rpaHcQopMallrlrl) HopM
B HopMbr BHyrpeHHero (HaqzoHamHoro) npaBa
rocyAapcrB, rrro 6yaer cBr{AereJrbcrBoBarb o roM, rrro rocyAapcrBo
cKoopAHHlrpoBuuro cBoe 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBo, HarIeJrr4B ero Ha 6opr6y c reM
MelrAyHapoAHoro rpaBa
rrpecryrrJreHr{eM u, TeM caMbrM, BKJrroqruocb B Me)KAyHapoAHoe corpyAHHqecrBo
rocyAapcrn n 6opr6e c npecrynneHl4.ttMrr 3Toro Bla4a.
3ro
o6yclonneuo reM, qro KalKAoe rocyAapcrBo ocraBJlfler B [peAeJlax
co6crseHHofi ropucAr,rKrlur4 HaKa3aHrre Jrurla, coBeprulrBllrero npecryrlHoe Aef,HHe
Ha ero TeppHTopuv! T.e. B cnyqae [peobrBaHHr SToro nuqa 3a ee npeAeJIaMI,I He
rrepeAaer 3aAar{y 6opr6u c 3TLrMu npecryrrnennrur ApyroMy rocyAapcrBy.
Ilpuxmuaecwan rHuttuMocmb puyJrbmamor uccnedoeflHun o6ycroueua
HeAocraro.rHofi paspa6oraHHocrbro upo6nenru peuurpr3arluu MenqyHapoAHblX
o6.agarenlcrs Pocczficrofi
Oe.qepaqnr.r
3aKoHoAareJrbcrBe. CoaepNaqrrecr
B
poccr,rHcKoM
yroJroBHoM
B pa6ore [peAJrox(enur, kr BbIBoAbI Moryr
6lrrr ucnoJrb3oBaHbr npn coBepIxeHcrBoBaHI,IrI
Oe4epaquu
B
yronoBHo-npanonofi cSepe,
3aKoHo,rlareJrbcrBa Poccnficxofi
a TaKXe IIpu
3aKJrroqeHI,Iu
MelxAyHapoAHbrx AoroBopoB B AaHHofi o6nacru.
Anpo6a4un pesyJtbmumos uccnedoeaHu.n.,{nccepraqzr noAroroBJreHa
ceKrope Me)KAyHapoAHo-rpaBoBbrx r,rccJreAoBauui,r l4ucruryra rocyAapcrBa
B
vl
L2
rrpaBa
PAH. OcnonHrre
noJroxeHr4.rr uccneAoBanufl, 6l';'ttu orpalreHbr
B
rr.rrrr{
crarbrx, ony6nuroBaHHbrx aBTopoM.
Cmpyxmypa duccepmaqau o6ycnorneHa
rleJrfl Mr4
v 3aAaqaMu r.rccJreAoBanv6.,
KOTOpOe COCTOITT I43 BBeAeHHfl, AByX rJraB, 3aKIIOqeHrzfl Vr CfiVrCKa r4CrrOJrbgOnaHHOfi
nr{reparypbr.
COAEPXAHI,IE PAEOTbI
Bo
ooocHoBbrBaercf, arcyiulbHocrb
eeedeHuu
reMbr Aucceprarll,,.H,
xapaKTepr{3yercr crerreHb ee parpa6oraHHocrrr, o6ocnonbrBaercfl npaKTnqecKoe
3HarreHr.re
pa6orrr,
rleJrr,r
v
3allarru r4ccneAoBaHvrr,, Qopuynupyrorcf, ocHoBHbIe
rIoJIOXeHrr.fl , BbTHOCUMbIe Ha 3aIIIUTy.
Ilepeuil napazpuQ anasu nepeoit duccepmaqua nVroronHoe rpaBo Poccun
KaK cpeAcrBo peaJrr{3arluu v o6ecue.reH[q ee o6qrarerbcrB
Me?r(AyHapoAHbrM AoroBopaM o
o6uero
rlo
6opr6e c rpecryrrHocrbro>> rocBrlrleH Bonpocy
B3ar,rMoAeitcrnus. Mex(AyHapoAHoro r4 Haur4oHanbHoro yroJloBHoro [paBa
rocyAapcTB KaK AByx caMocrofreJrbHbrx, Ho B3aI,IMocBt3aHHbIX vr
B3ar,rMoAeficrnyroqr4x npaBoBbrx clrcreM. CaruocrorreJrbHocrl
Ar4HaMnrIHo
raxAofi
pI3 orl4x
cucreM o6yclouena, KaK orMerr4Jr F.JI.3urvnreHKo, <cy6rexrHlrrvr cocraBoM,
oobeKToM rrpaBoBoro peryJrHpoBaHrrr, MeroAoM ycraHoBJreHvrf, B3aLrMHbrx npaB
o6.flgaHHo
creirt,
I4
3JreMeHTaMr4 perynupyeMbrx orHorrreHnr4>>3, oAHaKo
caMocTorTeJrbHocTb kr He3aBucr,rMocTb 3Tlrx upaBoBbrx crIcTeM He ucKJlloqaeT
83 ar4M
oAe
itcrsufl,
M
exAy
HI,IM I4.
Terr,rofi AaHHoro Ar{cceprarluoHHoro uccneAoBanvrfl tBJl.gerct Aeftcrsne HopM
MexAyHapoAHoro
rpaBa Ha
Poccuftcxofi (Delepaquu
BHyrprrfocyAapcrBeHHoe 3aKoHoAareJlbcrBo
ro reM AoroBopaM, B Koropblx paccMarpnBalorct
yronoBHo-rrpaBoBbre HopMbr. Ocnonnofi arrIeHT B Hacrorrqefi pa6ore cAeJIaH Ha
aHaJrr,r3e MexqyHapoAHbrx AoroBopoB, rrocBflrrleHHblM o6uleyzonoeHbut4
npecmynJteHufll4, rrocKoJrbKy paccMoTpeHl{e AaHHoro Borlpoca fBilfleTcfl
'
3nuneHno E.JI. MeNnyuapoAHoe npaBo rr rpaBoBatr npnpo.qa Pocclrficnofi @eaepaqnn. M.:
PAII; Crary,2006-
c.13.
13
lpe4lorrruTeJrbHbrM, 6oree HHTepecHbrM, BeAb n cnoefi noBceAHenHofi rIpaKTHKe
cyAaM nepnofi uHcraHrIHLr, paOornurau rpoKyparypbr,
cJreAoBareJI.rIM
14
coTpyAHHKaM rroJrrrquu [pnxoAr,rTcr cTulJrKr,rBaTbc.rr r{MeHno c <o6uIeyroJIoBHbIMI4))
vilv
B caMl{x *o""e"q""*t.
rrpecryrrJrouuflvrkr (common lawa). TepuuH <o6uqHrre>>
rrpecryrrJr e'vrfl. HepeAKo HcnoJlb3yerct
B
<o6rqeyroJloBHble))
rIeJroM, npecrynHbre Aertlnlafl, Mo)rffio rroApa3AeJrnrb Ha ABe 6omruue
ocHoBHbre rpyrrrrbr.
flepnyro rpynny cocraBJrf,ror raK
Ha3bIBaeMbIe
<ueacdyuapoduute npecmynJteHufl)), rroA KoropbrMrr rroHr,rMaror (rrpecry[JleHl,It,
Bbr3brBaroque osa6or{eHHocrb Bcero MexAyHapoAHoro cooOuecrna, yrpoxarouue
nceo6qeuy Mupy, 6esonacHocrn vr 6raronorfrurc) (npearr,r6yna Puucxoro
craryra Mex4yuapoAHoro yroJroBHoro cyAa). CoruacHo crarbe 5 Craryra x
raKr,rM rrpecryrrJreHlr.rrM
orHocrrc.r: a) npecryrrJreHr4e reHollrrAa; b) npecrynJleHu{
rrporuB qeroBerrHocrn; c) noeHHlre rpecryrrrrenufl,; d) npecryrrJreHr,re arpeccpll4.
Bropyro rpynny cocraBJrflror o6uleyronoBHbre rpecryrlJleHvIfl.,
Koropble
rBJrrrorcfl npeAMeroM Hacrorrqero Ar{cceprarlnoHHoro r4ccJreAoBaHnfl.. Yqeulrtr,tnMelr(AyHapoAHHKaMLr
6ur
orMeqeH
rarofi Sarcrop, no6yrumurrafi
3aKJrroqarb KoHBeHrIr{I{ rro 6opr6e c orr,rMr4 AeflHuflMr4, KaK HoBpI3Ha
(Hanpnru ep, ( c aM oJrerHbr
e
) rp e crynJl eH.ufl. )
rocyAapcrBa
ux [otBJIeHVr
.
focy4apcrBa paHee He ycMarpuBuru coqnarrbHofi onacHocrl,I B TaKoro pola
rrpecTy[Hbrx AeflHr4.f,x, Ho IIocJre Toro, KaK cT€uII4 rrpo,rBJr.rrTbc.fi nocJIeAcTBI4fl vx
6egHaxasaHHocrr{, Heus6eNHo Bo3HLrKaJr Borrpoc
o
3aKJIIorreHuu KoHBeHuI4fi no
6opr6e c upecryrrJreHr{rMu AaHHoro BHAa. Ynenu.reHue coqna[rHofi oflacHocrl,I
6uno upnunuofi
LrHHrIHHpoBaHvrfl, 3aKJrroqeHlrfl KoHKperHoro MexAyHapoAHoro
AoroBopa MexAy rocyAapcrBaMn. HanprEnaep, Borrpoc o 3aKlloqeHuu XeHencxofi
KoureHrlnr4 rro 6opr6e c rroAAeJrrofi Aenelr(Hbrx 3HaKoB
Bo3HnK
B 20-e
HecKoJrbKo cJry
r-oAbr nporuJroro croJrerr,rfl, KorAa
raeB
rroAAeJrKLr AeHe)ffibrx 3HaKoB
or 20 anpent 1929 rom
6rrro
3aperucrpllpoBaHo
Apyrux rocyAapcrB,
a
o
Convention internationale relative a la repression du faux-monnayage et protocole annexe. Article 3: Doivent etre
punis comme infraction de droit commun;
u
Ha.tpr"ep, cr.3 MeNayHapo4Hofi KoHaeHrluu no 6opr6e c nogerxofi AeHelKHbrx 3HaKoB (XeHera, 20 aupeu
1929 roaa) rJracrrr o HaKa3yeMocrlr <o6rr.rubr$) yronoBHbrx, r.e. o6ueyroJroBHhrx npecryn:reHnft.
T4
HarluoHutrrbHbre 3aKoHbr nplr3HaBaJrr4 HaKa3yeMofi ToJrbKo rroAAeJrKy co6cTBeHHbIX
AeHexHbrx 3HaKoB, TeM caMbrM He o6ecne.ruBa.rr AoJrlKHofi s$Sexruuuoctr.ru.
llyuxr I cr.l yK
P@ ycraHaBJrnBaer,
qro (yroJroBHoe 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBo
Poccuftcr<ofi Oelepaqrur cocror,rr r{3 Hacro.rrulero KoAeKca).
3ro
3HaqI4T, tITo
4eficrnyroune r{ npr{MeHreMbre Ha reppr{Topr{rr Pocclrur HopMbr yroJroBHoro rpaBa
ucqep[brBarorc.fl HopMaMn roJrbKo 3Toro yroJroBHoro KoAeKca u HrIKaKr4e Apyrue
HopMbr rrpuMeHrrbcr He
npuHrlurax
u
Moryr, Aaxe ecJru peqb uAer o6
<o6ue[pI,I3HaHHbIX
HopMax MexAyHapoAHoro [paBa, MexAyHapoAHbIX AoroBopax
Poccuficrofi @eAepaquu>, craBrxux rracrbro ee nparorofi cr4creMbl LIx
KoHcrnryquu Poccuu, coBceM
o6 SToM roBopplTcfl B cr.15 q.4
He o3Haqaer, qro oHlr crilrrl4 qacrblo yroJloBHoro
3aKoHoAareJrbcrBa Pocczficxofi
@eaepa\vvr.9ro6u 3To rrpou3orrrJro,
BKrroqeHr4e B npaBoByro crrcreMy Pocczn, xax
rrpr4Hrrb
Ha
3aKoHoAareJrbHoM
Heo6xoAurrao
ypoBHe noerrfi QeaeparrrHnfi
3aKoH,
rrpeAycMarpuBaroulr4rr yroJroBHyro orBercrBeHHocrb 3a 3To rrpecryrrJleHHe, HopMbI
Koroporo lr rroAJrexar BK[roqeHr,rro
B
Hacrorrqnfi xoAerc
llprvroe npr{MeHeHue cyAbrMu vrrn
B BI4Ae
ero crarefi.
r4HbrMpr npaBonpuMenvreJrf,Mn HopM
MexAyHapoAHoro AoroBopa HeBo3Moxuo. CroxHo rrpeAcraBrrrb crrryallurc, KorAa
ayrbfl, caMocro{TeJrbHo AoJr}KeH 6rrn
6rr olpeAeJrnTb craryc
MexAyHapoAHoro
AOrOBOpa, rroAJrex[T lrkr oH rrpr.rMeHeHr,rrc B AaHHoM yronoBHoM AeJIe, a floroM,
cocnaBrrrr4cb
Ha Hero B Morr4Blrposo.rnofi qacTur, BblHecru pe[reHlre. 3ro
HeocyulecTBlrMo rro HecKoJrbKHM [pHrrr4HaM, cpeAI4 KoTopblx Mo]KHo oTMeTI,ITb,
Bo-uepBbrx, orcyrcrBr4e
qerroft caHKrlr,rl,t
B Mex(AyHapoAHoM AoroBope, [ocKoJIbKy
coAepx(arquecfl. B AoroBopax caHKrILrr4 rrpeAcraBJr.rrror co6ofi, no 6omureit uacru,
peKoMeHAar\r4vr
HaxoAlrrc.fl
Nrfl. rocyAapcrB, a ycraHoBJreH[re KoHKperHbIX
Bo nHyrpenHefi KoMrrereHrllrn caMoro rocyAapcrBa;
HeAocraro.rHrrfi ypoBeHb noAroroBKr4 cyAeficrcoro Kopnyca;
caHxIluft
Bo-BTopbIX,
B-TperbHX,
orcyrcrBpre eArlHoolpasun cyle6Hofi [paKTr{KLr Lr pa3HotITeHVfl B ToJIKoBa^
r'
6
PoAnoHoB K.C. Yro:rosHaflrogrurrrrfl: upo6leurr MexAyHapoAHoro corpyAHr{qecrBa. MexqA}rlapoaHltfi HayvHorccneAoBarenrcxxfi upoeKr. l{fll PAH. I4s.q.EEK. M.,1995. C.229.
' Egnnoo6pa3r.re AoJDKHo 6rrrr naH B qpr.rMeHeHr{r{ HopM, TaK n Hx roJrKoBaH[u. Cu.: ArroHolton A. C. n ap.
CraHgapru Congra Enponu n o6nacru upaB r{eJroBeKa np[MeH[rerbHo K noiroxexuslr KoHcrnryunlr Pocclrficx.ofi
@eAepaquu: H:6p. npara I ll;r.-t [paBa r{ rry6lx.r. rroJrnrr.rKr{;- M.: Zn-r rpaBa r{ ny6nlrv. IIoJII.ITLIKLI, 2002. C.86.
15
MenqyHapoAHbrx AoroBopoB
KaK
Her,r36exGbre nocJreAcrBr,rfl TaKoIo
(rrpaBorrpr{MeHeHr,rr). Moxuo yrBepxAarb, rrro YrorosHHfi xoAexc P@ snr.f,ercr
ocHoBHbrM
vr
eAr4HcrBeHHbrM aKToM, KoropbrM cJIeAyeT pyKoBoAcrBoBarbcf,
rrpaBorrpuMeHuTeJr.rrM
(cyArrnr, pa6orHuxau rpoKyparypbl
u r.a.) v
ceroAHrrxnnfi AeHl rrpeAcraBJr.rrer co6ofi Aocrofiurrfi vapnanr yroJloBHoro
Bmopoil napazpaQ rocBflrrleH
Poccr.rfi
crofi
Oeaep
arJLrLr
Me)rqyHapoAHbIM
Ha
3aKoHa.
OO.'BATEJIbCTBAM
n c$epe yroJroBHoro cyAonpor.r3BoAcrBa, [oA KoropbIMI,I
cJreAyer froHrrMarb, noMLrMo ooueilpu3HaHHbrx IpI{HIII4TIOB
vr
HopM
MelxAyHapoAHoro upaBa, Bce Mex(AyHapoAHbIe AoroBopu PO, Aaxe re, qro elqe
He BcryrruJrr4 B crrJryt,
corJracr4e, oAHaKo
or
"o
nu
Koropbre 6rrno AaHo Pocczficxofi @eaepaIluefi ceoe
HLrx cJreAyer orJrurrarb o6qgarerbcrBa
(B rIoJIHotu o6reiue>,
KOTOpbre, [peAcTaBJr.fleTcr, MoryT Bo3HrrKHyTb ToJrbKo rrocJre BcTyrIneHHfl B cvrily
Me)qyHapoAHoro AoroBopa.
llo
rpa4rarlur4, qarqe Bcero AJrr yperyJrr.rpoBaHnr BonpocoB Melr(AyHapoAHoro
peryJrr{poBannfl.6opr6u c [pecrynHocrbro r4crlonb3yercs, KoueeHqun, [ocKoJIbKy
AanHrrfi AoKyMeHT rBJuercr MHorocropoHHrrM AoroBopotrr. EesycnoBHo, 6opr6a c
rrp
ecTyrrHocTbro
Mo
)KeT rrp oBoAHTb c.fl rrocp eAcTB oM 3 aK[IoqeHufl,
AoroBopoB, vurvr AoroBopon
c
v ABy cTopoHHI,IX
He6oJrbrrrrrM KoruqecrBoM yrIacrHI,IKoB, Ho KorAa
peqb prAeT o BHoBb rroflBr{Brrlr4xcfl, npecTyureHr,I{x, BHI4MaHue K HI,IM AOI}KHO
6rtrr
rpuBreqeHo co cropoHbr Bcex rocyAapcrn. floeroMy tIeM 6onrure rocyAapcrB
craHer yrracrHuKaMu KoHKperHoro AofoBopa, TeM e$$exrurnee 6yaer
ocyqecrBJrrrbc.r 6opl6a c [pecryrrJreHlreM. flolupruo groro, cJleAyer orMerl4Tb,
TITO
B
ABYCTOPOHHI4X AOIOBOPAX IIPEAMETOM PETYJILTPOBAHI,'fl,
qAIqE
BCCIO
Bbrcryrraror Borrpocbr rrpoueccyzlJrbHoro xapaKTepa, Bolpocbl rcnanu$raxa\uv
[pecryrrJrenufi He paccMarpr{Barorefl,, a rpocro KoHKperrl3rlpylorcfl Mepbl 6opn6u
C HLIMI4.
t TnyHor O.I4. Cornacue Poccun Ha o6rsarenrHocrb MexAyHapoAHbrx AoroBopoB rr Bonpoc o6 lrx ncrymeHull n
cnlry. PffY Hucruryr gKonoMrrKn, ynpaBJreHrrr rr [paBa. MypoMqescKle .rreHrlt <IOpugnrecxat HayKa B
rrpaBoBoM nole Poccnu. I]euxocrHrre opuerrrrrpbr t,t nepcneKrunu. Marepnanu XII Haylxofi ttout[epeHqua or 05
anpeJrf, 2012 r., Mocxna.
16
9ro xacaercn o1uqenprcHaHHux npuHqunor u Hop.M
To He cJreAyer sa6Hsarr,
Me)KAyHapoAHoro rrpaBa,
qro peqb HAer o rrplrHrln[ax u HopMax MexAyHapoAHoro
rrpaBa, aApecoBaHHhrx NTfl. vrx [plrMeHeHr.u rocyAapcrBaMn,
Jrr,rrlaMr,r.
K rorr,ry xe, o6Iqe[pI{3HaHHbIe
a He $nsuuecxnrun
HopMbI Me}KAyHapoAHoro IrpaBa
-
3To
o6rruan, Koropbre raKlre cJronstJrr,rcb B rrpaKTlrKe MexAyHapoAHoro o6ulenz.a
rocyAapcrB
tr
rrpeAHa3HarreHbr AJrr peryJrlrpoBaHr.rfl, vrx B3aHMHbrx orHolrleuuit,
rro3ToMy Lr3 rrr.rcJra 3Tr{x rpLrHrlr,rrroB
rrpecrynHocrbro Moryr
rrr,rcro HeBeJrLrKo . B
6urr
u
HopM
B cSepe 6opr6u c yroronHofi
uc[oJrb3oBaHbr roJrbKo HeKoropbre r{3 HI,IX, vI vIX
n2 cr.1 YK PO yxasuBaercr, rrro Hacroyrgtuit
Koucruryuuu Poccuficxofi Oe4epaquu, (ocHoBbrBaerc.fl Ha
rrprrHrlr,rlax
v
HopMax MexAyHapoAHoro rrpaBa).
KoHcrnryrlrroHHoe rroJroxeHr,re qacrr.r
orpaxeHr{e
B
4 crarru
o6qenpr.r3HaHHblx
Tarurr,t
o6pasou,
15 Koncrrnryunu P(D HAIIIJIO
cr.l YrorosHoro KoAerca PO. Wnue orAeJIbHbIe
KoHcruryuuu PO raKlre rrp.rrMo ulru KocBeHHo BonJIoIrIeHbI
poccnficxoro YroroBHoro KoAeKca, (pacrBopeHbl))
To.rHo
KoAeKc, KpoMe
B
CBOE
TIOJIOX(EHH.'I
Prle
HopM
B HI,Ix.
raK )Ke HarrrJrr{ cBoe BorrJrouleHple B HeM v
HeKoropble
llo HaIxeMy
MHeHr,rro, ToJrbKo raK cJreAyer noHLIMarb coAepx(aHne n.2 cr.l yK P@:
(Hacroflrqufi roAerc ocHoBbrBaercf, na Koncrnryrruu P@ lr o6qenpu3HaHHblx
rrprrHrlr,rrax r HopMax MexAyHapoAHoro rpaBa).
o6rqenpn3HaHHbre nplrHrlr{rbr
B qelou,
H HopMbr
Me}KAyHapoAHoro npaBa.
[prrHrlr4rrbr Me]KAyHapoAHoro npaBa Mo)KHo rloApa3AeJlurb Ha ABe
rpyrrrbr: o6rqze, Koropbre yKa3aHbr n Ycraee OOH (7 upuuqunon), n ,,{ercnapallurl
o rrpr{Hrlkrnax Mex(AyHapoAHoro rpaBa 1970 roAa (re Ne 7 npumgunon), a raKx(e
10 npr,rHrlr,rrroB B
3aruro.rureJrbHoM
Axre
corpyAHprrrecrBy n Enpoue (XenrcraHru,
I
CoseulaHr.{.f,
rro 6esonacHocru v
aBrycra 1975 ro4a) u crequaJlbHble.
LIz qucra o6rqnx lprrHrlr{noB K TeMe Haruero
uccJreAoBannfl, orHoctrc.tl: 1)
rrpr{Hrlu[ HeBMerrrareJrbcrBa Bo BHyrpeHHr{e AeJra, 2) upnuuun yBax(eHllfl rlpaB
rreJroBeKa 14 ocHoBHrrx cno6oA, BKJrroqa.s
cro6oAy MIIcJII{, coBecrv, peilvrvul.
14
y6eN4eHnfi, 3) rplrHrlur corpyAHr{qecrBa MexAy rocyAapcrBaMl{, 4) nplaHqnn
4o 6p
oc
onecrHoro
Bbr rroJrne lalr,fl. o 6 rrsareJl
bcrB no
M
ell(AyHap oAHoMy [paBy.
t7
C
roqrn 3peHr{.lt [paKTr.rtrecKux pa6orHrlxoB
ocHoBHofi nonpoc 3aKrrroqaercf,
B
ToM, flBJrrrorc.fl JrH 3Tr{ HopMbr AeficrnureJrbHo o6rueupra3HaHHbrMrr. 3auacryro
ADKe
CIIerIHUIJrkrCTbr-MeXAyHapOAHr{Krr
rrpr43HaBarb
ror
3arpyAH.flroTc.rr OTBerr4Tb, MOXHO rrn
url.u unoir o6rrqafi o6rqeupnsHaHHoft uopuofi MexAyHapoAHoro
rpaBa, B cBfl3v c qeM 3aKoHoAareJrro HeAorrycrlrMo rrepeHocr4Tb Ha
rpaBonpuMeHnreJrr (cy.ulro, cJreAoBareJrr, rpoKypopa
3aAaqy rro olpeAeJreHuro, [pr4roAHa rru
ra
v r.a.) 3Ty HeJIerKyIo
vrl.v vHafl o6rqenprcHaHHat HopMa
(o6uuafi) Mex(AyHapoAHoro rpaBa K ee rrpr4MeHeHrlro.
fonopr o MelrAyHapoAHbrx o6rsarerbcrBax Poccnficxofi @elepa\Lrr4 n c$epe
yroJroBHoro [paBa, ueo6xoAr{Mo rrpocrreAuTb soKoHomaopqecrcuil npoqecc, T.e.
B
KaKr{M o6pasonr 9Tr,r o6sgarelbcrBa nperBop.rrrorc.rr
}rsr3Hb, KaKoB npoqecc
(BHeApeHI1If>> VX B pOCCr.rHCKOe yTOJTOBHOe npaBo,
Hoprr,ru MelrAyHapoAHoro AoroBopa 6yayr paOorarr roJIbKo rIocJIe
co3AaBrrrlrit
ux AoroBop npofi4er
roro,
KaK
qepe3 3aKoHorBopuecnzfi MexaHu3M, BKJIIot{iur
focyaapcrBeHHyro Ayrnry, Coser (De4epaqvrvr, vt B KaqecrBe HopMbr SeaeparnHoro
s yK POe. Taxat rpaHcsopMar\vrfl,
rrpoBoArlTc.tl c
fleroM
rrocrpoeulrf, npanonofi cucreurr P@ H ee 3aKoHoAareJrbHbrx HopM (n
Haruen,t
3aKoHa 6yaer BK[roqeH
cJrf{ae B cSepe yroJroBHoro
npana). llpoueaypofi, rocpeAcrBoM xoropofi
KaxAoe rocyAapcTBo noATBepr(Aaer cBoe oor3aTeJrbcTBo rro
BbInoJIHeHI4Io
rroJrolKeHlrfi urex4yHapoAHoro .qoroBopa, flBrflercfl, parLr$nxaqu.a. focyAapcrna,
parraSuuupoBrxve
ry
ulrur rrHyro KoHBeHrIruo, c MoMeHTa BcrytIJIeHut ee B cl4rly
Ha ce6s. o1nsametbcmgo
paccMarpr{B€lrorct KaK focyAapcTBa, npHHtBIxI,Ie
BbrrroJrH.rrrb Bce ee noJrHoMoqu-fl
(pacta servanda sunt).
Heo6xoAurvro pa3npltlarb (BcrynJreHne
(BcrylJreHue B clrny KoHseuqvv
B
cI{JIy
cauofi KonneHuun>
Anfl, KoHKperHoro rocyAapcrBa)).
vr
Bo nropov
cnfrae rocyAapcrBa, parvr$uqraponaBrrrue KoHBeHrIuro, Moryr cpa3y xe Har{arb ee
r,rcnoJrHeHr,re,
xorr caua Konnenqnr Moxer errle B cI{JIy He BcryrII,ITb. Taxuna
o6paaorrr, oHu caMlr 4rl.s, ce6s nprr3Haror ee Aeficrnyrorqefi. Canra )Ke KoHBeHIIHt
o
C'r.l'l @eAepamHoro
3aKoHa <O uexAyHapoAHbrx Aoronopax Poccr.rficxofi
// <Poccuftcnas ra3erD),
J"lb
140, 21.07.1995.
@eaepaqnr) or 15.07.1995 Ne l0l-tD3
MOXeT BCTyrrHTb B CLIJTy
HaMHOTO
rro3AHee. Haupuuep, corJracHo crarbe 25
MeN4yHapoAnofi KonneHrluu ro 6opl6e
c
noAAenrofi AeHexHbrx
3HaKoB
(XeHena, 20 anpetrs 1929 ro4a)10 oHa Aonx(Ha 6ura BcrynnTb B cprJry Jrr{rrrb rorAa,
trflTu rureHoB
lInru Harlefi
r
Hefi [prrcoeAprHflTcfl, or
r{MeHr4
r{JrH rocyAapcrB, He tBJr.firourrixct ee qrreHaMn.
.{arofi
KorAa oHa 6y.uer paruSnqlrpoBaHa
LrJrr{
KorAa
BcrynJreHnfl B cr4rry 6un AeBflHocrrrfi 4enr, xoroprrfi [ocJreAoBiIJr 3a rrpI4HtrI,IeM
feHepalrurru ceKperapeM fluru Haqr.rfi n.flrofi parn$urcaguu prilu
Sarcra
IlpucoeAuHeHr,rf,.
3lecr Moxer
Bo3Hr,rKHyrb
Bolpoc, c KaKoro MoMeHTa rocyAapcrBy cJreAyer
paccMarpuBarb AaHHrrfi AoroBop B Kaqecrne o6.flsarerncrna? flpe4cranrflercfl,,
.{ro
o6.f,gareJrbcrBo
o6leue
rro
3aKJrroqeHHoMy Me}KAyHapoAHoMy AoroBopy
Bo3HprKztror roJrbKo rrocJre
B
Bcry[neHrlr ero B cr4Jry. C eroro
TIoJIHoM
MoMeHTa
rocyAapcrBo KaK rroJrHo[pasHHfi )rqacrHr4K 3aKrroqeHHoro AoroBopa Hecer rlpaBa
r
o6.asaHHocrlr
AOTOBOpaM
y
ro HeMy (pacta servanda sunt). llo
rOCyAapCTBa eCTb Jrr4rrrb oof,3aHHocTb
He Bcryrrr,rBruHM B
cr{Jry
(He Jrl,IIIIarb AofoBop efo
o6rexra r4 rIeJrLr Ao BcryrrJreHlrfl AoroBopa B cI4JIy)), orpaxeHHafl. B crarbe
Bencxofi KoHseHrII4I{ o [paBe Me]KAyHapoAHbIX 4orouopout
Tarnu
cuny)
y
18
t.
o6pasona, rro oAHr{M Me)KAyHapoAHbrM AoroBoparr,r (ne BcrynI4BIIrIlM
B
rocyAapcrBa Bo3HprKaer o6rgaHnocrr He Hapywamb rroJroxeHl{t rro
AoroBopy, a
ro
ApyrI{M (ncrynunrll{M e cuny)
-
He roJIbKo He Hopyaomb, Ho
lunorHflmb, rrocKoJrucy o6rsareJrbcrBa Bo3HuKaIor B rroJIHoM o6beMe c
BcTyrrJreHr,rr AofoBopa B
I4
MoMeHTa
cnily.
IlapazpaQ mpemuil znorbt nepeoil rocBrrqeH aHzuru3y peurvsalllau
MexAyHapoAHbrx o6.flsarerbcrB B c$epe yroJroBHoro rpaBa B rIpaBoBbIX cllcreMax
HeKoropbrx sapy6ex(Hbrx crpaH (OpaHIIkIu, fepuaHuu, KHP, rocyAapcrn
crpaH Fanrrau).
rlreHu MlrpoBoro coo6rqecrBa,
CHf
ra
lpr,rHrrMzur Ha ce6.f, o6sgaremcrsa
rro 3aKJrroqeHHbrM I,IM Mex(AyHapoAHbrM AoroBopaM, (cBf,3blBalor)> ce6r uMI,I c
rlenbro [pr,rBecTu B cooTBercTBr,re c HprMrr cBoe BHyTpeHHe 3aKoHoAaTemcrso. Ha
to C6opHnn
aeficrrl'rouux AoroBopoB,
ll
HonseHqufi, 3ax.uovenHblx CCCP
corJrarueHr.rfi
rocyAapcrBaMu. Bun. VII.- M., 1933. C. 40 - 53.
" C6opHnr< MexAlrrapoAHbrx AoroBopor CCCP. Brm. XLII.- M., 1988. C. 17l - 197.
c
rrHocrpaHHbIMI4
19
ocHoBe KoHcrLtryuufi kr yroJroBHbrx 3aKoHoB HeKoTopbrx 3apy6elGbrx crpaH
rrpoaH€IJrH3r{poBaHbr rroJro}KeHlrr,
KacarcI]Ilrecfl orrpeAeJleHu.fl
Mecra
MexlyHapoAHbrx AoroBopoB B Lrx [paBoBbIX cl{creMax.
ITapazpaQ qemaepmutil znaeu nepeoit nocBrrrleH aHzlJrlr3y co6ruoAenufl npaB
rreJroBeKa B
[poqecce
B poccuficxour
pe€urH3arryrkr
MexqyHapoAHo-AoroBopHbrx o6.sgarentcrn PO
Mnponrtu coo6ulecrnou
cta"4apt"rtt B srofi c$epe, npeAcraBn.arcque
yroJroBHoM 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBe.
nupa6oraHu Me)KAyHapoAHbre
co6ofi (HopMarr4nuufi
MHHHMyM, orrpeAer.srouufi ypoBeHb rocyAapcrneHHofi
peHraMeHTarIHH c AorrycTr{MbrMH orcryrueHr{rMrr B ToM LrJrpr LIHOM rocyAapcrBe
B
Qoprue ero [peBbrrrreHr,rr r4JrH KoHKperu3arlur.rrrt'. oHlr coAepxarcfl, KaK rIpaBI,IJIo,
B AOTOBOpHbTX HOpMaX, A TaKXe B HOpMaX, rr0JryrrrrBrrrlrx
craryc MelKAyHapoAHoro
o6rrqa.fl. I4ccre4yrorcr Borrpocbr 3arrrr4Tbr rrpaB uerouenato kr
ero
ocHoBHbIX
cno6o4, 3aKpenJreHHbre KaK B aKrax o6urero xapaKrepa (Vcran OOH 1945 r.,
Bceo6qa.q Aercnaparlprf ilpaB qeJroBeKa 1948
r.,
KoHneHrlr4fl
o
3aIIILITe rlpaB
I4
1950 r., Mex4yHapoAurtfi rIaKT o rpalKAaHcKI,IX H
rorrlrr{rrecKlrx npaBax 1966 r., Mex4yHapoAHrrfi rraKT o6 oKoHoMI{qecKLIX,
ocHoBHbrx cno6oA
r.),
v
corlr4zlrrbHbrx
vr
KoHBeHrIr{rx
rro 6opr6e c o6qeyrolosHofi [pecryrrHocrbto,
KyJIbrypHbIX
[paBax 1966
rrpeAMeroM AlrcceprarluoHHoro LIccJIeAoBaHVfl
aHaJrH3 MexaHra3Ma o6ecnerreHr4.rr yKa3aHHbrx
TaK
HerlocpeAcrBeHHo
B
flBJI{IouIIlxct
($3 ru.2). TarNe rpoBoAllrct
[paB, npeAycMorpeHHrtfi B
caMHX
MexAyHapoAHbrx aKTax nocpeAcTBoM co3AaHldfl cooTBeTcTBytoqux KoHTpoJIbHbIX
opfaHoB.
I rllranrl 2 <<Pearlrraquq Me)KAyHapoAHbrx odqsarerbcrB
Poccuficrcofi (DeAepaquu B poccuficrcovr yroJroBHoM 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBe)>
B
napazpaQte
ananpatrpyercr rroHflTrie n 3HaqeHue peanwrcarluu MelKAyHapoAHbIX o6ssarenrcrs
Poccufi
t'
crofi
Mro.tr.nepcoH
Oeaep
a\w
n c$epe yroJloBHoro 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBa.
P.A. Ilpara qeroBeKa: rqerr, HopMbI, peaJlbHocrb. M.,1991. C. 13.
rlpaBo: yre6Hnn/orn.pe,r.HrHarenro u O.Z.Trrysor.-5-e ruA., repepa6. H .qon.-M.: Hopua,
t' MeNgyHapoAHoe
2009. c.466.
to
Cu.: ArroHoMos A.C. tlpana rreroBeKa, rlpaBo3aulurHar lt [paBooxpaHnreJlbHuul AerreJlbHocrs.M.,2009. C.42.
20
B
rIeJroM, rroA pearrr43arluefi MexAyHapoAHbrx o6xsarerncrs Poccuficrofi
B cSepe yroJroBHoro 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBa cJreAyer IIoHLIMaTb
ucnonHeHue rocyAapcrBoM cBor,x oor3areJrbcrB, 3aKperrJreHHbIX B
Oe4epaqr.rz
MelKAyHapoAHbrx AoroBopax, cropoHofi roropbrx .rrBJrrercs Poccur. lloAnvcbrBas.
Me)r(AyHapoAnrrfi AoroBop
B cSepe 6opr6u c yronoBHbIMLr rpecryIrJIeHutMI,I,
rocyAapcrBo, TeM caMbrM, HaKrraAbrBaer Ha ce6s. ob.ssarenbcrBo rlpu3Harb
orrp eAeJreHHbr e B AoroB op ax
3a vx
orBercTBeHHocrlr
3aKoHoAareJrbcrBy,
re
fllnkrfl, rrp
e
crynHbrMra r4 o 6 e cue.rurb
He
orBparl{M o crb
coBeprrreHlre cofJracHo cBoeMy HaIII4oHanbHoMy
T.e. [peArrprrHr{Marb Bce Heo6xo.quMble, B ToM ullcre
yKa3aHHbre B AoroBope, Mepbr
uo 6opr6e c
AaHHbrMLr [pecrylrrleHu.aMll, BKJIIoqUUI
Borrpocbr ycraHoBJreHlafl ropHcAHKrIuu, oKa3aHpll upanonofi IroMoluu,
3KCTpaAr4rlrrlr, co3llaHvrfl KoHTponbHoro MexaHI{3Ma. MeN.qyHapoAHoe rlpaBo He
ycraHaBJruBaer KoHKperHbre
cuoco6u peaJrr{3arlLtu Nrr rocyAapcrB
o6rsarelrcrn, 3a rlcKrroqeHr.reM
cJry
{aeB, KorAa
B
cBot4x
KoHBeHIIu.tx [ptMo
rrpeAycMorpeHa, HarrpuMep, o6.asaHHocrb rocyAapcrBa rl3Aarb coorBercrnyrounfi
3aKoH, BHecrH H3MeHeHr,rfl B 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBo r.r Ap.
3ro ssrserct
(cyBepeHHbIM
B nrrbope
cpeAcrB,
MeroAoB Toro, KaK Jrfrrue (Mexq)rHapoAHbre o6.rsarerbcrBa nepeBecrr.r
n c$epy
npaBoM rocyAapcruarr,tt KorAa (rocyAapcrBa cso6oAHlt
15
Aeficrnu.fl HarluoHuurbHoro [paBa)'". llpouecc peuIJrH3arIHLr Moxer HMeHoBarbcfl,
ro
HMrlJleMeuraqueft> '",
rrpocro LrMrrJreMeHTaquefi'-17' (HarluoH[IlrbHo-rrpaBorofi
<rpanc$opuaquefi>le,
MelKAyHapoAHoro
rryreM
,
Ho, ro eyrv, npeAcraBJlfler co6ofi euedpeuue HopM
lpaBa B HarlrloHuurbHo-[paBoByto cl{creMy rocyAapcrn, rn6o
npnHflTkrfl. 3aKoHoAareJrbHoro aKTa,
nu6o [yreM
H3MeHeHIlt
cyqecrBylolrlHx HopM.
15
3nuHeHro E.JI.MeNayHapoAHoe npaBo r.r npaBoB:ur crrcreMa Poccnficrofi OeAepaqnu. O6ulaf, vacrr: Klpc
,u-exuufi .
<Craryr>, (PAIb,
20 10.
'o Akehurst's Modern introduction to International Law: seventh revised edition / red. by P. Malahczuk. London,
Taylor and Francis Group, 2004.
lTfanepAorcxnfi A. C. I4unreuenraullt HopM MexAyHapoAHoro rpaBa. Knes, 1980. C.62.
tt E.I.3ru"enno. MexAynapoAnoe rrpaBo n rpaBoBrur crrcreMa Poccuficnofi <Deaepauuu> O6uat vacrr. Kypc
rrenurfi. M., 2010. C.25.
tt Tpytua"au"fi IO.B., I{nerHon A.A. Cuoco6br r,rHKopnopauur.r Men(AyHapoAHo-npaBoBblx HopM B poccuficxofi
yro.nonHoft crrsreMe // MeNayuapoAHoe ny6rlrvHoe u qacrHoe npaBo, 2005, J',1b2; 9epuuvemo C.B. Teopur
MexAltapoAHoro upaBa. B 2-x rouax. Tou 1: Conpeuenurre reoperruecKue npo6renart. - M.: H3A. <HI4MII>,
1999. Crapue r.r HoBbre reoperl{qecKne npo6rreuu. C.26.
2t
Bo nmopoM napazpaQte
HccneAyrorcfl upo6neurt, Koropble
rroApa3AeJruTb Ha ((TexHuqecKue) r,r ((TaKTlrr{ecKrie), a
MolKHo
raKxe Qoprvrr peiulrl3alluu
n c$epe
MexqyHapoAHbrx AoroBopHrrx o6sgareJrbcrB Poccuficxofi @eaepaIIHLI
yroJroBHoro 3aKoHoAareJrbcrsa. (TexHlrqecKLre)) upo6nentlr cB.rr3aHbl c orBeroM Ha
Borrpoc, KaKr4M rlMeHHo o6pasorra ocyrqecTBJr.rrrb
LrMrrJreMeHTaIIHIo
MexAyHapoAHbrx HopM: B3rTb JrH HopMy rIeJrI4KoM An.'I BKJIIOqeHVfl, B yfOnOBHOe
3axoHoAareJrbcrBo,
r,rJrr4
)Ke nepepaOorarb ee,
qro6u
xapaKTep Honofi snoALIMofi
HopMbr coorBercrBoBaJr rpaArrquoHHofi Soprr,re, B Koropyro
YrorosHoro KoAeKca Poccuficrofi
Atn
(De.qepaqeru.
o6reratorcfl
Poccuu
HopMbI
xaparcrepHa
crepepaooTKa) HopM MexAyHapoAHofo rlpaBa c IIEJIbIO BKIIOqEHU' VX
B
poccraficroe yroJroBHoe 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBo, T.e. 6eperc.a AoroBopHat HopMa
B
KarrecTBe
MarepuallHofi MoAeJrH, vr ee coAepx(aHple nepeHocllTcf, B yK PO.
<TaxrnqecKue) upo6nerrau 3aKrloqarcTct
B ToM, rITo
trpu I,IMnnete"taur"'o
HOpM
MexqyHapoAHoro AoroBopa n poccuftcKoe yroJroBHoe 3aKoHoAareJlbcrBo cJleAyer
crpeMLrrbcr
K
ToMy,
qro6u oH 6rrr [prrroAeH, JreroK Ailfl
tIoHI4MaHrIt v
npuMeHeHnr Ha npaKrlrKe, Bo zs6exaHue cnln{aeB aHaJroruu B rrpuMeHeHvrvl
fipyrurrara cJroBaM]r,
npu
(BHeApeHHI,I) HopM MexqyHapoAHoro
rpaBa
B
poccraficrufi yrolonHlrfi 3aKoH Heo6xoAnrvro aHufi43vrpoBarb Kanqyrc HoByIo
HopMy, 6yaer JrLr oHa [pr4MeHuua, co6rloAeH Jrr4 (Ayx) nocrpoeHu.s
YK
PO,
neo6xoAlrMo nporHo3npoBarb rrocneAcrBr4f, r{MrrJreMeHTarIr4H TaKHX HopM. @opua
pearr{3arlnrr MexAyHapoAHbrx o6.flgarerucre Poccuficxofi @e4epaqnu B c$epe
yronoBHoro
3AKOHO,ITATEJIbCTBA
Poccuficlcofi @elepaunn (u.1
VroronHuu
rrpeAycMoTpeHa
Ko,4eKcoM
cr.l yK PO) n ilpeAcraBJr{er co6ofi rpI,IHtrI,Ie
HOBOTO 3aKOHa, rrpeAyoMarpLtBarorqero yroJroBHyro orBercrBeHHocrb 3a
coBeprrreHrie perJraMeHTr{pyeMoro [pecrynJreHufl H BKrIoqeHIle
ero n Hacrosulufi
KoAerc. Oopruofi, [ocpeAcrBoM Koropofi nosHe.qopa6oraHHble HopMbI, B3.urble
coorBercrByroqux Melr(AyHapoAHbrx xouneHIlIafi
B
cQepe yronoBHoro rpaBa,
)ru{acrHltKoM Koropbrx .rrBJrrercs Poccr4.f,, AoJIXHII BBoArITbc.fl B
2o
A.B.Hapron. llpo6ner'rbr
npo6.ueun
u
nepcneKrlrsH.
Haplor A.B. MexaHn3M
LI3
yK
PO, tBJrf,erct
r VK P@. Vronosxoe npano Poccr.u.t:
PAH non pe.q. C.B.EopoAr{Ha n C.l.KennHofi. M.,2004. C. 139. Cu.raxxe:
rrMrrJreMerrrarlrrr.r HopM Mex4)'HapoAHoro npaBa
HflI
yroJroBHo-rrpaBoBoro peryJrrrpoBaHnx. KpuunuoJrorr{rrecKne H yroJroBHo-npaBoBble IIAeI{
PAH, 1996.
6opr6u c rpecryrurocrrto. M.,
I{fn
22
Seaepalrnufi gaxos. Cavr YK P(D upe4craBJrrer co6ofi $eaepanrunfi
3aKoH, r.{ HopMa HoBoro BBoAlrMoro 3aKoHa AoJrxHa 6rtrr raxofi xe.
roJrbKo
B napazpaQe mpembeu4
zJtonbt emopoti qpoBoAr.rrcfl anarwr3 coorHorueHllt HopM
VrorosHoro KoAeKca Poccnficxofi (DeAepaqun
v
MelI(AyHapoAHbIx HopM
B
o6lacru 6opr6lr c o6qeyroronHofi rpecryrrHocrbro (Konnenqz.q OOH o 6opn6e
[porlrB He3aKoHHoro obopora HapKoruqecKux cpeAcTB
I4
1988 roAa; MeN4yHapoAHrur KoHBeHrIr{.fl rro 6opr6e
3HaKoB 1929 roAa; MoHpeanbcKa.rr KouneHrlur
HarrpaBneHHbrMz
ncuxorporlHblx BeulecrB
c
o 6opr6e c
rroAAeJrKofi AeHexHrtx
uesaKoHHbIMLt aKraMI{,
rrporuB 6egouacHocrlr rpax4ancxofi aBuar\ukr
l-aarcxa.q KoHneHqrar o
6opr6e c He3aKoHHhrM 3axBaroM
l97l
roAa;
Bo3AyIrrHbIX cyAoB 1970
u Apyrrlx }KecroKlrx, 6ecueroBeuHblx IIJIH
Br,rAoB o6parqeHux v HaKa3aHI,Ifl 1984 roAa;
roAa; KoHreHqu.f, rrporr{B rrbrroK
yHulxarouux Aocror,rHcrBo
Enponeficxa.q KoHeeHrIu.rI o rpeceqeHlll4 reppopl{3Ma 1977 ro4a).
Ha upuuepe yKa3aHHbrx KoHBeuqufi aHalrtr3upyrorct u
YrorosHHN{ KoAeKcoM
cpaBHl'rBullorcfl c
PO coAepx€rqveefl. B HLrx noJIox(eHI,It orHocI,ITeJIbHo
o6rerra [pecryrrJrenvtfl, cy6rexra, o6rerrunuofi
flpone4eHHufi aHalrvr3 tloKa3blBaer,
KpuMprHaJrr,r3r{poBaHbr MHorrle cocTaBbr
u
cy6rerrnsHofi cropoHbl.
tITo B yK PO ocralorct
rrpecryureHzfi, .nBJlalouluecfl
He
TaKoBbIMH
corJracHo MelKAyHapoAHbrM KouneHrlyrflM, )n{acrHLIKaMLI Koropblx flBlrflercr
Poccuq. O paaluuHbrx rroAxoAax raKxe MolKHo cyAI{Tb rI rro ycraHoBJIeHHbIM
caHKrlrrrM, T.K. B KoHBeHrIHflx t4x [epeqeHr 6oree o6unpeH, rIeM n poccuficKoM
V|OJIOBHOM 3AKOHE.
OrAemuoe BHlrMaHLre yAeJIeHo Borlpocy
npucOurcryuu,
3aKperrJreHHe
Koroporo, B rreJroM, n 6oruruI,IHcrBe yHI.{BepcuubHbIX Me)KAyHapoAHbrx AoroBopax
ro
6opr6e
c
o6ureyronosHofi npecrynHocrblo,
KoHseHqru OOH
o 6opr6e rporrrB He3aKoHHoro
cpeAcrB H rrclrxorporrHbrx BerrlecrB 1988
oAVHaKoBo
o6opora
(nanp.,
cr.4
HapKorI,IqecKHX
r.) Ha rpllMepe BbllxerepeqllcreHHblx
KoHBeHrIufi nccneAoBaHa Bo3MorrHocrr rcouQucKaquu AoxoAoB Ir co6crneHHocrl,I,
rroJrfreHHbrx
B pe3yJrbrare
rrpaBoHapyureHnfi. OrAemnoe BHHMaHIIe yAeJIeHo
23
uHcmumymy sbtdoqu (extradition) Jrr,rq Nrr, yfoJroBHoro npecJreAoBanufl vrrtr
rrcrroJrHeHr{.fl rrpnroBopa.
Bo ncex uccneAyeMbrx
ocydu
cctM>>
KoHBeHrIr{rx 3aKperrJrrerc.fl rrpuHrlr{[ <<Badail uttu
(<Aut dedere aut judic are>r)", corJracHo KoropoMy rocyAapcrBo
B
cJrrrae orKa3a B BbrAaqe rpecryrHr.rKa ApyroMy rocyAapcrBy AoJrlrffio npr4Breqb
ero K orBercrBeHHocrrr rro cBoeMy yroJroBHoMy 3aKoHoAareJrbcrBy (B ToM xe
lop.rrAKe, KaK ecJru 6rr Aeficrnue
Aaxe
B
Tex
cryqarx, KorAa
6uro
coBeprrreHo Ha r{x reppr.ITopvvI, vI [pIlToM
BuHoBHhrfi upno6peJr rpar(AaHcrBo nocJre coBeprrreHl,It
npaBonapyureHur) (u.1 cr.8 KoHneHrluu o SanbIIrI{BoMoHerHLIqecrne 1929 r.)
Ecrn B
coBeprrreHr{n rpecryruIenkrfl. [oAo3peBaercr, rpax.qanl,IH
r,rHocrpaHHoro rocyAapcrBa,
To y crpaHbl ero npe6unanur ecrb
rlpaBo
rrpr,rMeHlrrb, oopa3Ho roBopr, (Mepy [peceqeHr{.f,), T.e. 3aAepxaTb 3To JII,Iqo
I4JII{
(rrprrHrrb Apyrne Mepbr, ooec[eq[B€lrouve ero nplrcyrcrBr{e)), tITo coorBercrByer
crarre
9l yIIK
PO (<OcHoBaHr,rr
3aAeplKaHur rroAo3peBaeMoro>). OanaKo or
(3aAepxaHrlr) neo6xoArauo orJrrlrrarb 3aAepxaHrre Jrl{qa
HerrocpeAcrBeHHo Bbr/larrv,
prl^fl,
ocyuecrBJleHut
Koropoe ocyqecrBlrflercfl, rlo
3arrparulrB€troulero rocyAapcrna (<npeA3KcrpaAuuuronHbrfi apecr>).
apecTa cneqlr€urbHo ycTaHaBnnBaeTcf,
rocyAapcTBaMr,r
crpaxeft
ro
u
B
upocroe
Cpor raKoro
AoroBopax, corJlarueHl4tx MelKAy
oTlHqaeTcr oT nepBoHaqalrbHoro cpoKa coAeplKaHH.tI rIoA
HarluoHurJrbHoMy yroJroBHo-[poqeccyzlJrbHoMy 3aKoHoAareJlbcrBy
3aAeplKr.rBaroqero f ocyAapcTBa.
[na
o6ec[er{eHufl AeficrseuHocrr,r nro6oro Me)KAyHapoAHoro AoroBopa,
B
ToM rrr.rcre yr KoHBeHuLur, neo6xoAnuo He roJIbKo rlepeHecrrl o[peAeJIeHHbIe
crarblr vrg ronneHrlufi B yronoBHoe
3aKoHoAareJrbcrBo rocyAapcrBa,
Ho u
ux BbrrroJrHeHr,rr, a rarcKe [peAycMorperb xaxofi-nu6o
uexaHrr3M 3a HX ncrroJrHeHlreu. 3ro Moryr 6rtrr xoH$epen\r4r4 c
o6ecueqnrb MexaHu3M
KoHTponbnrrfi
y{acrneM rrpeAcraBureleft
rleHTp€rJrbHbrx
sMLrccraoHHbrx
nnacrefi (cr.15
6aHron v
3aI{HTepecoBaHHbIX
Xeuencxofi KoHreuqnu
o
tt Bnepoue [prrnrtr.m <B*rr'(afi unu ocyAr.r cau> 6lu o3B]nreH fyro fpouueM B KHr{re <<O npane sofiHhr u unpa>>. //
fpouufi f. O npane sofiHlr n Mupa: Penpnrrr c usa. 1956 r. - M.: Jlagounp, 1994. - Knnra Bropilrl. fmsa 21.
$amurunoMoHerHurrecrBe 1929 r.), MeNayHapoAHblfi t<ouurer no KoHTpoJIIo HaA
HapKorHKaMV vr
Kouuccnr rro
HapKorr,rqecKlrM cpeAcrBana 3xonoMl,IqecKoro u
CoquanrHoro Conera Opranv3a\vLr O6reruaneHHbrx HarIHfi (cr.22 KoHneHqpru o
6opr6e
c
He3aKoHHbrM
BerrlecrB 1988
o6oporou HapKorurrecKllx cpeAcrB Lr rrcllxorporlHblx
roaa); Coser MeN4yHapo.qnofi
aBua\uu (cr.11 faarcxofi KoHneHrluefi
Bo3AyrrrHbrx cyAoB
IlapazpaQ
or 16 4exa6pr
o
opraHH3aIIurI
6opn6e
c
fpaxAaHcKoH
He3aKoHHbIM 3axBaroM
1970 ro4a).
4 enaeut emopotit rocBrrrleH HeKoropbrM
BonpocaM nparonofi
noMorrlu no yronoBHbrM AeJraM, HarueArrruM orpaxeHrre B KoHBeHIII,If,x lro 6opr6e
c o6rqeyroronHofi rpecrynHocrblo.
llparonaa rroMorrlb Moxer oKa3brBarbc.r B BLrAe npoqeccyulJlbHblx (o6ucx,
BbreMKa, ocBuAereJrbcrBoBaHue,
aoupocrr)
n
HerrpoqeccyiurbHblx Aeftcrnufi
(npe4ocraBJreHlre pa3rurrHbrx c[paBoK o 3aKoHoAarenbcrBe crpaHbl, AoKyMeHToB
o cyAr{Mocrr4 Jrrrqa r{ Ap.) flpanonar noMorrlb rro KoHBeHIrrItM,
HaTIpaBJIeHHbIM Ha
6opr6y c o6uqeyronoBHbrMlr npecryrrJreHvrflMvr,, npeAycMarpl4Baer Bce vlrr4
HeKoropbre r43 TaKoro poAa Aeficrsuir, Ho B To )Ke BpeM.rr coAep)KrlT HeKoropble
Aeitcr:nu4 orJrlrqarourrrecr or o6utefi upanonofi rroMoullr rro yroJIoBHbIM Aenarrl. B
TaKr,rx KoHBeHrIr{rx SKcTpaAHqr4,r
He
paccMaTpHBaeTc.fl
KaK Bl/lA nparonofi
rroMorqu, a yKa3blBaeTcf, orAeJrbHo.
Iponognrcr cpaBHenrle loroxeuufi poccuftcxoro 3aKoHoAareJlbcrBa
o6reuou nparonofi rloMolqu, yKtBaHHbIM B KoHBeHIIutx rro 6opr6e
c
c
o6ueyroloBHbrMr{ rrpecryrrJreHlr.flMrr, rrccJreAyeMblMlt B uacro-rqefi pa6ore, a
raKxe c Erponeficxofi KonneHuzefi o nganunofi npanonofi noMoIIII4 ro
yroJroBHbrM AeJraM
(Crpac6ypr,20 anpeJrfl 1959 ro4a), MzHcrofi Konneuquefi
npanonofi noMorrlu
yroJroBHbIM AeJIaM
OrAelruoe
u [paBoBbrx orHorueHrlrx rro rpa]IqaHcKLIM,
o
ceuefiHuu n
or 22 flHBapr,1993 roaa.
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