Furniture Furniture is the mass noun for the movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating and sleeping. Furniture is also used to hold objects at a convenient height for work (as horizontal surfaces above the ground), or to store things. It can be made of wood, metal, plastics, stone, glass, fabrics, and related materials. It ranges from the simple pine chest or country chair to the elaborate marquetry-work cabinet or gilded console table. It is usually movable, though it can be built-in, as are kitchen cabinets and bookcases. Furniture can be a product of design and is considered a form of decorative art. In addition to furniture's functional role, it can serve a symbolic or religious purpose. Furniture can be made using a variety of woodworking joints which often reflect the local culture. Stylistically it is related to architecture and interior design. Throughout history the functional and decorative aspects of furniture have been influenced by economics and fashion. Furniture Design History Furniture has been a part of the human experience since the beginning of history. Evidence of furniture survives from the Neolithic Period and later in antiquity in the form of paintings, such as the wall murals discovered at Pompeii; in sculpture, and examples have been excavated in Egypt and found in tombs in Ghiordes, in modern-day Turkey. The excavation uncovered a range of stone furniture: from cupboards, dressers and beds to shelves and stone seats. The medieval period was a stark and somewhat crude time, and that (period) was reflected in the furniture styles of the era. The furniture of the Middle Ages was usually heavy, oak, and ornamented with carved designs. Along with the other arts, the Italian Renaissance of the 14th and 15th century marked a rebirth in furniture design. Starting in the 15th century, a similar renaissance of culture occurred in the Netherlands, Belgium and Northern France. Furniture was characterized by opulent (богатый), often gilded designs that frequently incorporated a profusion (изобилие) of floral, vegetal and scrolling ornamentation. furniture design began to develop rapidly. The century was marked by the Industrial Revolution, which caused profound changes in society. With increasing working populations in cities, the rise of a new class of wealthy of furniture buyers, together with the arrival of mass-production, the progression of furniture styles was replaced by revival styles. These revival styles, including Gothic revival, Neoclassicism and Rococo revival became easy and inexpensive to manufacture as technology developed during the industrial revolution. The post WWII Modern style used materials developed during the war including laminated plywood, plastics and fiberglass. In modern furniture the dark gilded, carved wood and richly patterned fabrics gave way to the glittering simplicity and geometry of polished metal. The use of new materials, such as steel in its many forms, moulded plywood and plastics, were formative in the creation of these new designs. They were considered pioneering, even shocking at the time especially in contrast to what came before.