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# 2018-04-01 Click

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```Making
work easier
loser
C
s
k
oo
L
Click
Luca’s Levers
art by Mary Rojas
Luca is hungry. Lots of the tools in
his kitchen are levers or pairs of
levers. Which did he use to . . .
open a bag of
snacks?
flip a pancake?
2
art © 2018 by Mary Rojas
open a walnut?
take a hot dog
out of a pot?
Hey Jane, look
what CeCe
Hey, Jane, look
and I got for
what CeCe and
the clubhouse.
I got for the
clubhouse.
have a chair.
True, but that
chair looks heavy.
How are you going
to get it up to the
clubhouse loft?
True, but that
But there are
three of us.
Don’t worry! I
have a plan!
When I jump on this end
of the seesaw, the other
end will go up and send
the chair flying into the
clubhouse.
This I have
to see.
3
Hmm!
Something
went wrong.
You’re too light.
There needs
to be more
weight. I’ll help.
Uh-oh!
There must be a
better way to get
this chair up into the
clubhouse.
4
a ramp?
Run! It’s
sliding back!
On second
thought, maybe
not.
CLOO,
CLOO!
How does
it work?
He will know
what to do.
A seesaw is basically a big lever. It’s
a great example of a simple machine
ramp. But the best machine for this
job is a pulley.
A pulley is a wheel with a
groove that a rope can spin
around. You pull down on one end
of the rope to make the other
end go up. It’s easier to pull
down than up.
5
It can be even easier if you attach a
counterweight to your end of the rope.
Then you won’t have to pull so hard.
When the counterweight goes down,
the chair will come up.
Click, you might want
to use something else
It’s
working!
6
This is hard.
Let’s get a
counterweight.
No, this combo is
perfect. It weighs just
a bit more than the
chair downstairs.
Ta-da!
How simple
was that!
Sometimes
I really impress
myself.
You’re a
genius,
Click!
Um, Click, any ideas on
how to get the chair you
used as a counterweight
back up here?
7
e
h
t
t
e
e
M
s
e
n
i
h
Ma c
Hi, I’m Maxine.
I’m here to tell
machines.
ickstrom
art by Thor W
A machine is any tool that makes
work easier. Now when I say work,
I don’t mean jobs or chores. I’m
work: making something move.
No matter how
hard I push this box
done work unless it
actually moves.
There are six kinds of simple
machines, but each can be used in
lots of different ways. What makes
them simple? Easy, they have just
a few or no moving parts.
8
I’ve done a lot of
work! I moved ten
box into my mouth.
Come on, I’ll
show you.
ra mp
I have to push her a
longer distance, but the
work is easier to do.
A ramp doesn’t move,
but it helps you move
things. Roxy is too heavy
for me to lift straight
up from the floor. But I
can push her up a ramp
onto the table.
A ramp doesn’t have
to be straight. It can turn
around and around, like
the path up a mountain.
The longer the
ramp, the less
effort you need
to use.
This path is
longer, but it’s
easier to climb.
This is
hard work!
9
A screw is a pole with a kind of
ramp winding around it. But it doesn’t
stay still like a ramp. When I turn this
screw, it twists its way into the log.
s
c
r
e
w
Turning the screw is
easier than pushing it
straight into the log,
just like going around the
mountain is easier than
climbing straight up.
w
e
d
g
e
Screws are good for
holding things together.
It’s hard to pull them
straight out.
Try
turning it.
You probably use a wedge whenever
you cut something or make a hole. It
can be round and pointy like the tip of
a thumbtack, or long and thin like the
As I push the sharp
apart. It’s easier than
pulling the meat apart
with my hands.
10
UMPH!
Teeth are my favorite
kind of wedge.
leve r
A lever is any bar or board that tilts,
or pivots, around a point called the
fulcrum. A seesaw is a kind of lever. I
can’t lift Roxy off the ground with my
arms. But I can with a seesaw. Other
faster and farther.
When I push down here,
the other end of the
seesaw goes up.
fulcrum
If the seesaw’s
fulcrum is farther
away from me, I
don’t have to push
as hard.
fulcrum
But I don’t move
up as high.
If the seesaw’s
fulcrum is closer
to me, I have to
push harder.
But I get
lifted higher!
fulcrum
11
wheel
and
axle
It’s hard to push or pull
Roxy. Her body rubs against
the floor and grips it. But if I
put her on wheels, it’s easy.
UMPH!
The wheels touch the floor
in just a few places. They
rubbing, so I don’t have to
push as hard.
HMPH!
A wheel is often attached to a pole
called an axle. The wheel and axle
turn together in a simple machine.
A big wheel is easier to turn
than a skinny axle. The shaft
of this screwdriver is an axle.
It’s hard to turn.
12
The fat handle
is the wheel. It’s
easier to turn.
l ey
pul
Pulling something
up can be hard.
A pulley is a wheel
with a groove that a
rope or chain can spin
around. The wheel
lets you change the
direction the rope
moves.
Or it can
be easy!
The pulley at the top of the
flagpole stays in place while
the rope and flag move.
Another kind of pulley
moves with the thing you’re
moving. The two types are
often used together.
You need a longer
piece of rope and
you have to pull it
farther, but you don’t
have to pull as hard.
Whee!
Bye!
13
Kitchen Helpers
art by Meg McLean
Everywhere you look—in drawers,
in cabinets, or hanging from the
ceiling—you’ll find simple machines.
CAN YOU FIND
staircase
broom
lightbulb
blinds cord
jar top
oven door
sink
knife
toaster handle
rolling pin
pushpin
paper towel holder
14
15
Did you find these kitchen helpers?
A pulley and
cord raise and
lower window
blinds.
The paper towel roll
spins around the bar
that goes through its
middle. It’s a wheel.
knife is a wedge.
You push the
wedge through
food to slice or
chop.
An oven door is a
lever that pivots
on a hinge.
Can you find
more simple
machines in this
kitchen?
I see lots.
16
The point of a pushpin
is a wedge. It’s easy to
push the sharp point
into a corkboard.
The bottom of
a lightbulb is
a screw.
The bottom of a sink might look
flat, but it’s really a ramp. If the
sink bottom didn’t slope down
to the drain, the water wouldn’t
flow out.
Because
it slopes
upward, a
staircase is
a kind of
ramp.
The handle
of a toaster
is a lever that
turns the
toaster on.
A broom is a lever.
When you sweep, one
hand pushes and the
other hand becomes
the fulcrum that the
long broom handle
pivots against.
A rolling pin is a tube-shaped
wheel that turns around the
handles, the axle.
A jar lid is a screw.
It screws tight onto
the grooves in the
jar neck to keep
what’s inside fresh.
17
The Great
Pyramid Mystery
art by Patrick Girouard
It’s taller then
the Statue of
Liberty!
18
art © 2018 by Partick Girouard
T
he Great Pyramid of Egypt was built
more than 4,500 years ago. Nearly
500 feet high, it’s taller than a 40-story
skyscraper. For more than 4,000 years,
it held the record for the world’s tallest
structure.
Now thousands of buildings stand even
higher, but they were built with machines
ancient Egyptians didn’t have those.
How tall?
1,000ft
500ft
300ft
200ft
Leaning Tower
of Pisa
Statue of
Liberty
Big Ben
Great Pyramid
How did they cut and move more than
2 million giant stone blocks? Most of the
blocks weigh more than 2 tons, as much
as a small car. Some weigh more than 50
tons. How did workers lift them so high
and stack them in just the right place?
Scientists and historians have lots of
ideas, but no one knows for sure. Everyone
agrees, however, that it took a lot of hard
work and a few simple machines.
Eiffel Tower
The Great Pyramid
is the oldest and
largest of the giant
pyramids found in
Giza, Egypt.
19
To cut and shape the
pyramid’s huge, heavy
blocks, workers used
sharp wedges, including
copper chisels and axes
and hard stone tools.
Most of the blocks were
carved from nearby
stone quarries, or pits.
hundreds of miles.
The ancient Egyptians did
not have wheels and axles
when they built the Great
Pyramid. Wheels would
not have rolled well across
the sandy, rocky ground
anyway. Workers probably
used levers to move the
blocks onto wooden sleds.
The sleds could be
pushed or pulled onto
boats to travel long
distances. Some experts
think workers dug
canals to get the boats
as close to the pyramid
as possible.
20
To go over land, teams
of workers might have
dragged the sleds.
Some researchers think
the workers used rollers
under the sleds.
Others think they
poured water or
oil on the ground
to make it more
slippery.
Most people think the
Egyptians built ramps
to help workers move
the blocks up the
pyramid. But no one
agrees on what type.
It’s
all still
a mystery!
21
? ? What
O
You’re so clever
you know I’m a lever
’cause I have a handle you swing.
My name can mean noise,
but all you’ll hear, girls and boys,
is a soft thud when a ball hits my strings.
What am I?
22
Cup drops.
Top pops.
Sigh.
Drop me.
You’ll see
My
Strong screw
Keeps you
Dry.
g?
Am I? b
What am I?
I’ve a wedge at one end
to cut into the ground.
But to lift heavy dirt
and throw it around,
A lever works better,
and I have that too.
It’s just one of the jobs
my long handle can do.
What am I?
23
Not So Simple
A tool made of not one but
many simple machines
working together is called a
complex machine. A bicycle
is a complex machine.
Here’s a look at some of the
simple machines it uses.
A screw is used to raise
or lower the seat.
Screws hold
the pieces of
the bicycle
frame together.
A gear is a wheel with
sharp points called
teeth around its edge.
A bike may
not be simple,
but it sure is
fun!
The bicycle chain goes
around one pulley
wheel on the pedals
and another on the
back wheel.
24
Machine
The handlebars are
levers.
On this bike, you pull these
levers to put on the brakes.
Do you know which
simple machines
make up
a can opener?
scissors?
a wheelbarrow?
Can opener:
lever, wedge, wheel and axle
Scissors:
lever, wedge
Wheelbarrow:
lever, wheel and axle
And screws hold all the pieces
together!
A wheel and axle
make a bicycle roll.
25
Operation:
Rescue Possum
by Charnan Simon
O
art by John Nez
ne day when Jakey went outside to play, he
found a possum in the window well.
“Hello, possum,” Jakey said. “You look stuck.
How did you get down there, anyhow?”
The possum hissed at Jakey.
“Whoa, possum,” said Jakey. He backed away.
This possum didn’t look cozy and friendly like the
possums in his picture books.
Jakey’s big brothers came around the corner of
the house. “Whatcha got there, Jakey?” they said.
“A stuck possum,” Jakey said.
“We’ve got to get that possum out!” Artie and
Danny said. “Time for Operation: Rescue Possum!”
They hurried to their workshop in the barn.
26
When Jakey followed, Artie and Danny were
already hard at work drawing up plans.
“We don’t want to touch the possum,” Artie
said. “It might bite. Besides, it looks too big to
just lift.”
Artie showed Jakey their plan. “First we’ll build
a framework over the window well. Then we’ll
build a pulley system on the framework.”
Danny took over. “We’ll need levers and
pulleys and a really long rope.” He made some
more sketches. “If we stand almost all the way
to the vegetable garden, we should have enough
leverage to pull that big furball up.”
27
Jakey looked at the plan. “How will you get the
possum to stay on that platform?” he asked.
Artie and Danny looked at each other.
“We’ll have to make a harness,” Artie decided.
“We’ll clip the harness to a hook screwed into
the platform, so it won’t come loose,” Danny said.
“Then we’ll lower something possums like to eat
on a pole, and use it as bait to get that possum to
walk right into the harness.”
“Right!” said Artie. He pulled half of an old
bologna sandwich from his pants pocket. “This
ought to work as bait.” He looked at Danny’s plan.
“We might need some counterweights,” he said.
“Yes!” said Danny. “Counterweights are good!”
Jakey looked at Artie’s bologna sandwich. It was
greenish around the edges and looked disgusting.
Any possum who ate that sandwich would get sick.
28
Jakey poked around the barn until he found
a nice long board. Artie and Danny were so
busy with their plans, they didn’t even notice.
Jakey dragged the board around the side of
the house. He slid the board into the window
well. He wiggled it around until it was slanted
against the corner next to the possum.
The possum didn’t seem to like sharing the
window well with a board. It growled at Jakey.
“Oh, pipe down,” Jakey said.
29
Jakey climbed up into his treehouse and
waited. The possum sniffed the board, then
poked it with one foot. Then it waddled up
the board and out of the window well and
into the woods behind the barn.
Jakey watched the possum disappear
into the trees. Then he lay on his back
and smiled up at the clouds. Operation:
Rescue Crabby Possum was a success.
30
photographs by Tanya Moran
A seesaw, a door, a baseball
bat—they’re all levers, but
each belongs to a different
class. These classes aren’t like
they tell you where the lever’s
Try these activities to see
what the differences are.
The fulcrum
is the
place the lever sits and pivots.
It doesn’t move.
You supply the effort at the
place you push or pull the lever.
gets moved.
is the thing that
You need:
• ruler (the lever)
• marker (the fulcrum)
• can or block
• rubber bands (to
rolls, try wrapping
a rubber band
around it.
31
1
In a first-class lever, the
fulcrum is always between
When you push the empty
end of the ruler down, you
supply the effort, and the
can is lifted.
fulcrum
2
effort
In a second-class lever, the
fulcrum and the effort.
The wheel is
the fulcrum.
Click supplies
the effort. And
When you lift the empty
end of the ruler, you
supply the effort, and
the can is lifted.
fulcrum
3
effort
It takes more effort
to lift the can with
the third-class lever,
but the can moves
farther and faster.
In a third-class lever, the
effort is always between
When you lift the middle
of the ruler, you supply the
effort, and the can is lifted.
fulcrum
32
effort
• What happens if you put the marker closer
to the can or closer to your hand?
• Is it easier or harder to push the ruler down?
• How high does the can get lifted?
• Is it easier or harder to lift the
ruler when your hand is closer
to the can?
• What about when the can is
farther away from the marker?
• A door’s hinges are its fulcrum.
Is it easier to push a door open
near its hinges or far away?
Pretend the can is a baseball, and the ruler
is a bat. When you swing, your bottom
hand is the fulcrum and the other supplies
the effort. A bat doesn’t reduce your effort,
but it moves the ball farther and faster than
you could by just throwing the ball.
33
Luca’s Levers
Luca used . . .
scissors to open
the bag of snacks.
art by Mary Rojas
a spatula to flip
the pancake.
tongs to take the hot
dog out of the pot.
art © 2018 by Mary Rojas
a nutcracker
to open walnuts.
Grateful acknowledgment is given to the following publishers and copyright owners for permission to reprint selections from their publications. All possible care has been taken to trace ownership and secure
permission for each selection. “Meet the Machines” art © 2011 by Thor Wickstrom; “Kitchen Helpers” art © 2011 by Meg McLean; ”What Am I?” art © 2011 by JoAnn Adinolfi; ”Operation: Rescue Possum” text
Cover art © 2018 by Christine Schneider.
Photo acknowledgments: 16 (RT) photo25th/Shutterstock.com; 16 (LT) Joanne Blanchard/Shutterstock.com; 16 (RC) a_v_d/Shutterstock.com; 16 (CC) sinicak/Shutterstock.com; 16 (BC) Baloncici/Shutterstock
.com; 16 (RB) DenisNata/Shutterstock.com; 17 (LT) Christopher Ewing/Shutterstock.com; 17(TC) Joe Gough/Shutterstock.com; 17 (RT) Calek/Shutterstock.com; 17 (RC) Michael C. Gray/Shutterstock.com;
17 (RB) Hurst Photo/Shutterstock.com; 17 (RB) ericlefrancais/Shutterstock.com; 17 (BC) RTimages/Shutterstock.com; 17 (LB) Joe Belanger/Shutterstock.com; 18–19 (DPS) Pakhnyushchy/Shutterstock.com; 19 (RT)
Artit Fongfung/Shutterstock.com; 24 (DPS) Tatuasha/Shutterstock.com; 24 (LB) Tompet/Shutterstock.com; 25 (RT) greenland/Shutterstock.com; 25 (RC) terekhov igor/Shutterstock.com; 25 (RC) IB Photograph
/Shutterstock.com; 25 (RB) Infomages/Shutterstock.com; 37–38 (TC) Bonita R. Cheshier/Shutterstock.com; 37–38 (CC) kampolz/Shutterstock.com; 37–38 (BC) Bonita R. Cheshier/Shutterstock.com; back cover (LC)
Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock.com; back cover (LB) Suchan/Shutterstock.com.
34
Art © 2015 by Jean Kim, photo: Bakhtiozin Alexey/Shutterstock.com
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