ROOFTOP BEEKEEPING 21 | POETRY OF GRATITUDE 36 | I LOVE MY MAGNOLIA BUT ... 41 APRIL 16, 2018 A group of teens in rural India take dramatic steps to improve their village, demonstrating how to foster progress in the developing world. $4.00 GIRLS IN CHARGE BY HOWARD LAFRANCHI IN THIS ISSUE 4/16/18 Story map Covered in this issue: Cape Town and Johannesburg, South Africa; Ciudad Arce, El Salvador; Fuzhou, China; Leiria, Portugal; Moscow; Naguabo, Puerto Rico; Réunion Island; Viluppuram, India; and the US 24 COVER STORY The girls who took over a town A group of teens in rural India, tired of do-nothing men, take dramatic steps to improve their village, demonstrating how to foster progress in the developing world. BY HOWARD LAFRANCHI COVER PHOTO: HOWARD LAFRANCHI/THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR 17 BRIEFING: REAL ID: WHAT AMERICANS SHOULD EXPECT Changes are coming to identification requirements for residents of the United States. BY ASIA LONDON PALOMBA 18 MAINLAND CONTROL: BEIJING’S BID TO WIN OVER YOUNG TAIWANESE China is using some carrots so it’s easier for Taiwanese to invest, study, and work on the mainland. BY MICHAEL HOLTZ 2 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 VOLUME 110 – ISSUE 22 “The object of the Monitor is to injure no man, but to bless all mankind.” – MARY BAKER EDDY 34 FILM “Lean on Pete” is a tale of a boy and his horse. Amelia Newcomb Managing Editor Subscribe to free newsletters Owen Thomas Weekly Edition Editor http://cloud.cssubs.com/monitornewsletter Available newsletters: Marjorie Kehe Deputy Editor “Poems of Gratitude” 36 BOOKS from Everyman’s Library cherishes John Kehe Design Consultant gratitude as an act of imagination. 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Box 6074, Harlan, IA 51593-1574 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 3 overheard ‘Caravans are heading here. Must pass tough laws and build the WALL. Democrats allow open borders, drugs and crime!’ – President Trump, in a tweet April 2, one in a series about US immigration policy and border security he fired off beginning Easter Sunday. The tweets included threats to scuttle foreign aid and negotiations on the North American Free Trade Agreement with Mexico if it did not halt a group of around 1,200 immigrants, mostly Hondurans fleeing political violence, that was headed toward the US border. Mr. Trump announced a day later that he would send the National Guard to the border. ‘He’s trying to paint this as if we are trying to go ... storm the border.’ AP – Irineo Mujica, Mexico director of Pueblo Sin Fronteras (People Without Borders), which organized the refugee caravan and others in recent years. The caravans, which have taken place around Easter for the past five years, have a dual purpose: to provide safety in numbers and to draw attention to the treacherous journey many migrants face. While the most recent caravan is larger than previous ones, Mr. Mujica told the BBC that fewer than 100 of the group would try to get to the United States. By April 3, Mexico had repatriated several hundred back to Central America and were offering refugee status to others who qualified. ‘Today, our planet faces increasing challenges, [including] climate change and all its implications.’ AP – Ford Motor Company executive chairman Bill Ford (pictured) and president and chief executive officer Jim Hackett in a blog post March 27, explaining why they do not welcome the blanket rollback of auto emissions standards proposed by Environmental Protection Agency head Scott Pruitt. Mr. Ford and Mr. Hackett said they instead favor more flexibility in the rules so they could offer less-costly options. The Obama-era standards aim to have all cars and light trucks sold in the United States get 50-plus miles per gallon by 2025. California, which has authority to set its own emissions standards under the Clean Air Act, threatened to sue the EPA over the planned repeal. ‘Let me tell you something: There’s no bigger country than China, and they just changed the constitution to give the president an open term, up to life.’ – Imad Eddin Adib, an Egyptian television host, echoing the sentiment among many allies of Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, whose reelection in a landslide victory (97 percent of the vote) was confirmed April 2. The election was widely seen by outside observers as a sham in which the only other candidate was one of Mr. Sisi’s supporters. Serious challengers had been jailed or dropped out. Sisi’s backers have been pushing to alter the Constitution to allow Sisi to stay in power beyond his twoterm limit. ‘All the issues that he raised toward the end of his life are as contemporary now as they were then.’ – Taylor Branch, a Pulitzer Prize-winning historian who has written several books about Martin Luther King Jr. (pictured), speaking to The New York Times about King’s legacy on the 50th anniversary of his assassination on April 4, 1968. Mr. Branch pointed out that Americans generally focus on King’s earlier efforts, such as his crusade against the segregationist Jim Crow laws in the US South. Branch points to the deeper – and still current – issues King was tackling just before his death: income inequality, structural racism and segregation, and wars that drain funds that could otherwise be spent on a progressive domestic agenda. 4 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 AP/FILE UPFRONT INDIAN SCHOOLGIRLS SIT IN A PARK ON A FOGGY MORNING IN NEW DELHI. TSERING TOPGYAL/AP/FILE To improve the world, enlist girls, too KOUSALYA RADAKRISHNAN DOESN’T NEED OUR HELP, REALLY. What pression of opportunity, possibility, and free will, then those she most needs is for people to get out of her way. virtues will be sown more deeply into society, kindling in Like other girls in her south Indian village, Kousalya was the virtuous cycles that undergird progress. told to stay at home, marry young, and have lots of babies, Both of my children were born in India when I was a staff writer Howard LaFranchi notes in this week’s cover sto- Monitor correspondent there. When my wife was pregnant ry. If she and a number of her teenage friends had listened, with our daughter, the physician never told us if she was a her village would have worse sanitation, boy or a girl because Indian law prohibitfewer library books, and no streetlights. ed it. In some areas, many female fetuses Instead, they made a pact: They were going are aborted. BY MARK SAPPENFIELD to make their village better, even if they had Yet when my wife became pregnant EDITOR to do it alone. So they did. with our son, the attendant couldn’t help Howard’s story is about women’s rights, himself. It’s a boy! he blurted out. The but not in the way that issue is so often portrayed – as a impression was that he thought there was no chance of us power struggle. harming a boy, so why not share the good news? Yes, it is true that women’s rights crucially address a Female feticide in India can be a coldly economic calhistorical imbalance of power. But perhaps more import- culation. Boys bring wealth. Girls are just mouths to feed ant, they address an imbalance of opportunity. Expanding and, in some communities, require a dowry (though India opportunity is the fuel for greater wealth, better health, has officially banned that practice, too). Girls can be seen and more happiness for all. But how often do we talk about as economic ruin. women’s rights – or the rights of any group, for that matBut what of Kousalya, who is studying physics and wants ter – in those terms? With static or shrinking opportunity, to be a college professor? In this case, it seems relatively societies stagnate. With growing opportunity, they thrum easy to point an accusatory finger at India. But the fact is, with energy. opposition to women’s rights worldwide is simply the same Think about it. By what logic should a society present mistaken premise in other insidious forms. As opportunity, opportunity to only half its people? With mathematical cer- possibility, and free will are truly shared by all, the world tainty, that society will be half of what it could be. Without takes quantum leaps forward. As Kousalya says, “We’re the efforts of a handful of teenage girls, Thennamadevi, making things better not just for girls, but for everybody India, would be less than it is now. in our village.” Surely, at some point, marriage and child-bearing will come for most of these girls. But when that, too, is an ex- r You can reach me at email@example.com. THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 5 6 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 VIEW FINDER VICTORVILLE, CALIF. TOTAL RECALL Reacquired Volkswagen and Audi diesel cars sit in a desert near Victorville, Calif., last month. VW has paid more than $7.4 billion to buy back some 350,000 vehicles, now stored across the United States, which can’t be sold until they are fixed to meet air-quality standards. In 2015 it was discovered that the cars had illegal software allowing them to cheat on emissions tests. LUCY NICHOLSON/REUTERS oneweek WALKOUTS Teachers challenge GOP austerity Demands for spending hikes for education on rise in red states TIMOTHY D. EASLEY/AP FRANKFORT, KY: Thousands of teachers throng Kentucky’s Capitol building April 2 to rally for increased funding and to protest changes to their state-funded pension system. Schools were closed. mass walkout was the catalyst for lawmakers to pass a major revenue bill – the first in 28 years – to raise teacher salaries, which were among the nation’s lowest. At press time, teachers were asking for $75 million more for education before they go back to work. Arizona is watching closely: Thousands of teachers rallied late last month in Phoenix to demand a pay increase. In Kentucky, schools were shut for two days recently after a walkout prompted by last-minute changes to pensions for new teachers. Teacher activism in red states is challenging the tenets of Republican governance in which austerity for public employees is bracketed with tax breaks for businesses. For Republicans who took statehouses during the Great Recession, the drive to balance the books doubled as a political assault on public-sector unions. Gov. Scott Walker, who swept away collective-bargaining rights in Wisconsin, said in 2011 that “we can no A wave of teacher walkouts in Republican-run states from West Virginia to Kentucky to Oklahoma has cast a national spotlight on the states’ tax-and-spend priorities amid growing public disquiet over funding for education and other public services. Teachers have forcefully pressed their case, at times going further than union leaders by refusing to settle for less from ‘I HAVE NEVER LIVED IN A STATE WHERE I HAD TO BUY PAPER AND PENS FOR MY CLASS BECAUSE THE FUNDING WASN’T THERE.’ – Matt Deen, a schoolteacher in Oklahoma state lawmakers. In West Virginia, a nineday walkout by 35,000 school employees led to a March 6 deal that raised salaries by 5 percent for all state workers and put a freeze on rising health-insurance premiums. In Oklahoma, teachers brought their protest into the Capitol building earlier this month, closing schools across the state. The 8 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 longer live in a society where the public employees are the haves and taxpayers who foot the bills are the have-nots.” At the time, many private-sector workers were feeling the pinch, says Jake Rosenfeld, a sociologist at Washington University in St. Louis. “The message was that the public sector had too many perks. That was a message that found a receptive audience for some time but seems to be less effective now,” he says, noting that economically secure voters are more apt to sympathize with low-paid teachers. When Matt Deen moved back to Oklahoma from Oregon in 2013 to teach science at an elementary school in Norman, he and his wife, also a teacher, took a collective $15,000 pay cut. That was bad enough, he says. But the lack of basic materials and the crowded classrooms – his fifth-grade history and social studies class has 45 students – have driven home the challenge of teaching there. “I have never lived in a state where I had to buy paper and pens for my class because the funding wasn’t there,” he says. Until last month, teachers in Oklahoma hadn’t seen a raise in a decade. Over that period, enrollment grew by some 50,000, while inflation-adjusted funding fell 28 percent. West Virginia, Oklahoma, and Kentucky are all right-to-work states that ban collective bargaining. So when teachers walk out it is tricky for opponents to say that sweetheart union contracts are draining state coffers, says Joseph Slater, a law professor at the University of Toledo. “With these workers, it’s hard to use that kind of rhetoric. They aren’t highly paid and don’t have collective bargaining rights,” he says. – Simon Montlake and Story Hinckley Staff writers THE STATE, IT’S HIM? To Russians, Putin has new mantle A ‘vozhd’ is an ancient, mythic term for a transcendent leader MOSCOW – A recent Time magazine cover features Vladimir Putin with an insouciant smirk on his face and a tiny imperial crown V NEXT PAGE PRIME NUMBERS on his head. The headline: “Rising Tsar.” That represents a pretty typical Western view of the Kremlin leader’s huge reelection victory last month. Mr. Putin has labored long and hard to portray himself as a normal, modern president who wins elections and abides by constitutional rules. Few in the West are inclined to see him that way. But Russians, too, seem to increasingly view their longtime leader as something much more than a standard politician, though the image some reach for is not that of a czar. The word is vozhd, an ancient term imbued with mythic connotations that signifies a chieftain who stands above history and embodies the enduring will of a nation. The term was embraced by Joseph Stalin as the core of his adulatory “personality cult” but was eschewed by his successors. The term’s reemergence may be due to the sense of ongoing crisis brought about by the confrontation with the West, which began in earnest four years ago with Russia’s annexation of Crimea. It has escalated ever YURI KADOBNOV/REUTERS SIX MORE YEARS: Russian President Vladimir Putin speaks to supporters in Moscow just prior to his reelection by a landslide last month. since. Even as Putin was being reelected by his biggest margin ever, a war of words was raging between Moscow and London over the attempted murder of former double agent Sergei Skripal with suspected Russian-made nerve gas. “Before, he was simply our president, and it was possible to change him,” tweeted Margarita Simonyan, head of the English-language RT television network, following the election. “Now he is our vozhd. And we will not let that be changed.” A similar thought was voiced earlier by the Kremlin’s then-deputy chief of staff, Vyacheslav Volodin, as the current EastWest crisis was heating up. “Today there is no Russia if there is no Putin,” he told an assembly of Western scholars and journalists in late 2014. “Any attack on Putin is an attack on Russia.” There is even a current popular song by the rock group Rabfak titled “Putin is Our Vozhd.” As Putin looks to place Russia on a stable long-term basis when his fourth and likely final term ends – perhaps by changing the Constitution to reinvent his political role – the fact that some of his strongest supporters are adopting the vozhd label must be a distraction or perhaps a temptation. Vozhd has benign usages, signifying a preeminent leader in a field, such as a vozhd of science or literature. But in the modern political sense it is inextricably linked with THOUGH RUSSIANS BRISTLE AT THE COMPARISON, ‘VOZHD’ IS SIMILAR IN MEANING TO THE GERMAN ‘FÜHRER’ the mass “personality cult” of Stalin in the 20th century, and its echoes bring back tortured and still very controversial memories of those times. The Stalinist notion of vozhd implied an infallible leader, one who navigates the shoals of history on behalf of his people and who is to be trusted and obeyed. Though Russians understandably bristle at the comparison, the word is similar in its meaning, usage, and historical baggage to the German “Führer,” and its return to political discourse sets off alarm bells. Ominously, recent opinion polls show that, for the first time in many decades, Stalin is viewed positively by a majority of Russians. “Putin has two dimensions for Russians,” says Andrei Kolesnikov, an analyst with the Carnegie Moscow Center. “In one, he is living flesh. He is a politician who manages the executive branch.... “But the second dimension is as a national symbol. He is the portrait on the wall that can never be removed. He is an instrument of self-identification for all Russians. Since this is essentially an authoritarian regime, the tendency will always be to view the first person as vozhd,” he says. – Fred Weir / Correspondent Why White House chafes at the FBI As past presidents have found, US top cop goes its own way The chief of staff was blunt. “The FBI is not under control,” he said. The president agreed. They would need to pressure the bureau to stop its ongoing investigation. Otherwise the White House might be implicated. “Play it tough,” the president said. “That’s the way they play it, 1,300 Chinese products (worth as much as $50 billion) on which the Trump administration proposed 25 percent tariffs April 4. China responded with similar duties on major US imports. 6,100 Average pay raise (in dollars) Oklahoma legislators granted to teachers, far short of the $10,000 they had requested, resulting in a walkout April 2. More educators have been demanding higher pay since West Virginia teachers won a 5 percent raise in March. (See story, facing page.) 200,000 People evacuated from the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta where the Syrian government declared victory over rebels April 1. The offensive by Syrian and Russian forces, which killed at least 1,644 people, began Feb. 18. 200 MILLION Recovery funds for Syria put on hold by President Trump March 30. The money was earmarked for rebuilding key infrastructure. 165.90 Dollars per share that the world’s largest music streaming service, Spotify, began trading at on the New York Stock Exchange April 3, giving the company a valuation of $29.5 billion. 10.4 Length (in meters) of Chinese space station Tiangong-1 (Heavenly Palace 1), which burned up upon reentry to Earth’s atmosphere over the South Pacific April 2. 2 Buzzer beaters Notre Dame women’s basketball guard Arike Ogunbowale hit to win the final two games of March Madness – the semifinal and the championship game. 20 Number of colleges that offered full scholarships to Texas senior Micheal Brown of Lamar High School in Houston, including Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Stanford, and Georgetown. Sources: Reuters, The Washington Post, Bloomberg, The Associated Press, The Verge, The Guardian, NPR, ABC News V NEXT PAGE THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 9 oneweek MARK HUMPHREY/AP V FROM PREVIOUS PAGE and that’s the way we are going to play it.” No, this isn’t Chief of Staff John Kelly and President Trump talking about special counsel Robert Mueller’s investigation into Russian election hacking. It’s Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman and President Richard Nixon in 1972, trying to shut down the FBI’s Watergate investigation. This is not to compare the two probes. There’s no public evidence that Mr. Trump is connected to any collusion with Russia to influence the 2016 vote.￼ The point is that presidents have long wanted to put the nation’s top cop “under control.￼” Nixon was far from the first.￼ Trump is not likely to be the last. The modern FBI is maddeningly independent. On paper, the president may be its boss. In reality, cabinet secretaries, congressional committees, and the permanent bureaucracy have a big say in its actions. Bureau directors have become much more guarded against political interference. FBI independence may not have been what Trump expected. At a dinner shortly after his inauguration, Trump asked thenFBI Director James Comey for “loyalty,” Mr. Comey told a June 2017 Senate hearing.￼ Trump later asked the FBI to go easy on Michael Flynn after his dismissal as national security adviser, Comey says. Trump disputes Comey’s description of these conversations, saying they are “lies.” Remembering Martin Luther King Jr. PEOPLE IN MEMPHIS, TENN., HOLD SIGNS similar to those carried by striking sanitation workers there 50 years ago to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the assassination of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. April 4. King was in Memphis to support the strike when he was shot. bad faith. The top Democrat on the Intelligence panel, Rep. Adam Schiff of California, drew up his own lengthy paper meant to rebut the chairman’s charges. For FBI agents this situation can’t be comfortable. The president is charging that they’re the heart of some kind of “deep state” conspiracy to control US politics. Given the type of people who work at the FBI and what they do, though, the impact here can be overstated, says one 16year veteran of federal law enforcement. Agents are mostly interested in spending their 10-hour workday trying to solve their own cases, he says. “They don’t worry that much about the drama that is going on in D.C.... They’re all big boys and girls,” says Michael German, who specialized in domestic terrorism and covert operations at the FBI. “They realize they are involved in important matters that are newsworthy and can be used by politicians to either raise them up or lower them down,” Mr. German says. What about the broader voting public? That’s likely the real target for the president and his allies, after all. By denigrating Mr. Mueller and the FBI and Justice Department, experts say Trump is likely attempting to soften the impact of eventual Russia probe findings while pushing to cut the probe short. Continued assertions that the investigation is a “witch hunt” might even prepare the way for firing Mueller himself.￼ – Peter Grier / Staff writer FBI AGENTS ‘DON’T WORRY THAT MUCH ABOUT THE DRAMA THAT IS GOING ON....’ – Michael German, former FBI terrorism expert Since then the president has continued to publicly attack the FBI.￼ Comey, fired as FBI chief on May 9 last year, is now “lying James Comey” on Trump’s Twitter feed. The recent dismissal of deputy FBI Director Andrew McCabe for alleged lack of candor in an inspector general investigation was “a great day for Democracy,” said a Trump tweet. A cabal of corrupt FBI officials concocted the investigation into Russian meddling in the US electoral process as a way to keep Donald Trump out of the White House, claim the president and some congressional allies. That was the theme underlying much of the so-called Nunes memo, produced by Rep. Devin Nunes (R) of California, chairman of the House Select Committee on Intelligence, earlier this year. The FBI has said it has “grave concerns” about the accuracy of the Nunes memo and its bias charges. House Democrats have claimed that the memo cherry-picks bits of evidence and is misleading to the point of 10 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 WINNIE MADIKIZELA-MANDELA For many, she was the true leader In South Africa, Ms. Mandela leaves a controversial legacy JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA – As South African universities erupted in protests over the rising cost of tuition in late 2015, it was hard not to see the echoes of the country’s past in the young demonstrators’ raised fists and fearless clashes with authority. And the students themselves took that history to heart, conjuring up the names of the liberation heroes who inspired their fight.￼ It was people like Mandela, they said, who taught them that the world doesn’t always bend toward justice; sometimes you have to twist it that way yourself. But the students’ Mandela wasn’t Nelson, the peacemaker and father of their “Rainbow nation.” It was Winnie, the unapologetically angry activist to whom he was once married, who bluntly told South Africans that she believed their beloved story of racial reconciliation was a fiction.￼ “To me, it was a myth from the beginning,” she told a reporter last year. “The rainbow color does not have black.... So it VNEXT PAGE was really a facade that we were totally free. We are not.” Among young South Africans, who had grown up in an increasingly unequal society, statements like that held deep resonance. At Wits University in Johannesburg, student protesters waved signs proclaiming themselves “Children of Winnie,” and at Stellenbosch University near Cape Town, ‘SHE WASN’T SCARED OF ANYTHING OR ANYONE.’ – Sithembile Mbete, University of Pretoria activists renamed the campus administration building “Winnie Mandela House.” For those students and many others, Nomzamo Winifred Zanyiwe MadikizelaMandela, who died April 2 in Johannesburg, embodied both the rage of being a black South African under apartheid and the biting disappointment, for many, of being a black South African after it. Unlike Nelson Mandela, from whom she was divorced in 1996, Madikizela-Mandela remained publicly bitter about South Africa’s dark history and the shadow it cast over the country’s present. Meanwhile, she openly and repeatedly refused the roles that same history tried to cast her in – as the mother of a nation, as the moral compass of a liberation struggle, and, finally, as an aging hero quietly fading into the past. “She was independent. She spoke her mind. She wasn’t scared of anything or anyone,” says Sithembile Mbete, a political scientist at the University of Pretoria. “In a South Africa where black women are the lowest rung on the hierarchy, she defied white supremacy and white patriarchy, but also black patriarchy, too.” Mr. Mandela’s shadow she was not. She was already an activist when, in 1957, she met a young lawyer with kind eyes and fiery politics at a bus stop. Their whirlwind romance was built on a shared passion for revolution. But in 1964, Mandela was sentenced to life in jail for conspiring to overthrow the apartheid government, leaving Madikizela-Mandela alone to carry on their fight. SIPHIWE SIBEKO/REUTERS/FILE LEADER: Winnie Madikizela-Mandela (r.) arrives at a conference for South Africa’s ruling African National Congress in Johannesburg, Dec. 16, 2017. Mandela faded into an anti-apartheid symbol. “Ma Winnie” was its living embodiment. She was broadcast again and again into the world’s living rooms, giving impassioned speeches and tussling with police. In May 1969, she was dragged from the home she shared with her two young daughters and spent 491 days in solitary confinement. That was “what changed me, what brutalized me so much that I knew what it is to hate,” she wrote in a memoir. Later, she spent nearly a decade confined in a distant rural township. When she returned to Johannesburg in 1985, her frustration was palpable. Three years later, a group of violent vigilantes who served as her informal bodyguards murdered a 14-year-old activist named Stompie Moeketsi, who they claimed was an informer. She denied responsibility, but was convicted of kidnapping. Her sentence was later reduced to a fine. When her husband finally emerged from prison in 1990, they clasped hands as they marched, fists raised. But the chasm between the lives they had led over the preceding 27 years quickly became evident. As he preached the need for reconciliation and dialogue, she told a US talk show host she was ready to “go back to the bush and take up arms” if government talks soured. The two split two years later. – Ryan Lenora Brown / Staff writer DC DECODER u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u Why Trump’s nuclear negotiations raise concerns With two nuclear-proliferation standoffs looming with North Korea and Iran, a reality check is timely. Career policy experts – the often unheralded men and women who practice old-fashioned, nuts-and-bolts diplomacy, whether in the State Department or Defense Department, the National Security Council or the CIA – have been denigrated of late by some of President Trump’s most vocal cheerleaders, referred to as “deep state,” and depicted as somehow plotting to frustrate Mr. Trump. Many policy experts spend years studying the countries in which they specialize. They rely on a core assumption: that every major decision by the United States or other countries is likely to cause counteractions and carry consequences. That explains why many are worried about the next two months. They agree with Trump’s policy aim: to rein in the dangers posed by an oppressive, aggressive dictatorship in Pyongyang and by an increasingly well-armed, expansionist regime in Tehran. What unsettles them is the lack of attention they feel is being paid to potential implications and complications. If all goes according to plan, Trump will soon become the first US president to meet with a North Korean leader. Trump seems confident that his success in tightening international sanctions and his hints at US military action, along with his own negotiating experience as a businessman, will deliver a summit deal leading to North Korea’s nuclear disarmament. That would be a truly historic accomplishment. The concern among the policy experts is that there has been so little of the kind of diplomatic spadework that has led to past breakthroughs on similarly complex issues, for instance, President Richard Nixon’s 1972 opening to China. Only two leaders will be at the upcoming summit. But the interests and influence of South Korea, Japan, and China must also be considered. The concerns over Iran involve ripples and repercussions of a different sort. Trump has indicated that the 2015 agreement to put Iran’s nuclear program on hold will have to be hugely strengthened by May 12 or the US will pull out. Yet Russia and China are signatories. So are Britain, Germany, and France – and the European Union. They’ve all signaled opposition to withdrawing. Add to that this concern: Is US credibility in negotiating denuclearization with Kim Jong-un hurt by the threats to undo the Iran deal? – Ned Temko / Correspondent THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 11 oneweek MELANIE STETSON FREEMAN/STAFF A COMPLICATED HISTORY: Willa Boezak, a Khoi San scholar and activist, speaks in his home in Cape Town, South Africa, about the Afrikaans language, which he argues is worth preserving. SOUTH AFRICA A more complex view of Afrikaans Supporters argue the language was born of a blend of cultures When a wave of student protests began crashing over South Africa’s universities in mid-2015, it didn’t take long to reach the doors of Stellenbosch University. A stately campus nestled in the mountains near Cape Town, with a student body that was 60 percent white in a country where 9 in 10 people are not, “Stellies” was an obvious target for students angry with the educational status quo. And its protesters had one grievance in particular: language. “Being taught in Afrikaans, going to class and not understanding – these have all been part of how Stellenbosch has excluded me as a black student,” a PhD student named Mwabisa Makaluza explained to a South African paper at the time, referring to the local language that was heavily used by the apartheid government. The implication was clear: Afrikaans was for white people. But Willa Boezak didn’t see it that way. It’s crazy what apartheid did to us, Dr. Boezak, a minister and activist for South Africa’s Khoikhoi indigenous community, says he remembers thinking. It made us believe that white CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA – 12 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY people invented Afrikaans and that it’s their language. The Dutch-based creole, he knew, wasn’t simply made up by white people. It emerged in the collision between Europeans, slaves, and indigenous people in Southern Africa beginning in the 17th century. Though most of Afrikaans’s vocabulary still came from the Netherlands, that wasn’t true of the people using it. In the mid-19th century, Muslim communities in the region became the first to write down the new language, using Arabic script and teaching it in their madrassas, or religious schools. Of course, Afrikaans was the language of white power in South Africa for a long time. But it was never just that, say the language’s supporters. It has a history as vast – not to mention as diverse, as violent, ‘I WANTED TO FEEL PROUD TO SPEAK MY MOTHER TONGUE....’ – Janine Van Rooy-Overmeyer, singer and poet and as brazenly creative – as South Africa itself. And reclaiming that history isn’t just about making good on the blind spots of the past. It’s also about giving millions of South Africans reason to take pride in how they talk today. “I wanted to feel proud to speak my mother tongue – the language I dream in, the language I heard in the womb,” says Janine Van Rooy-Overmeyer, better known as the singer, poet, and cultural activist Blaq Pearl. “Once I embraced where the language came from, I started to feel liberated speaking it.” | APRIL 16, 2018 When Ms. Van Rooy-Overmeyer began her career as Blaq Pearl, she often sang and performed in English “because we were taught to see our own language as inferior.” But that began to change in 2010, when she was invited to perform in a stage production called “Afrikaaps” – the name of the dialect of Afrikaans spoken in so-called coloured communities in the Western Cape. The reaction to “Afrikaaps” was electric, Van Rooy-Overmeyer says. For many in her audiences, it was the first time they had heard Cape Afrikaans used so reverently. And for her, “it sparked a shift inside of me.” Like the majority of the 7 million South Africans whose first language is Afrikaans, Van Rooy-Overmeyer comes from a group of South Africans classified under apartheid as “coloured” – still a commonly used term today. Though she says she does not personally relate to the category, the term has long been a blanket description here for people of mixed race descended from indigenous Khoikhoi and San communities, Southeast Asian slaves, Europeans, and other African communities. Reclaiming history in contemporary South Africa is no simple task. In recent years, Afrikaans has become the flashpoint for conflict at schools and universities across the country, largely used as shorthand for South Africa’s lingering remnants of apartheid. (On average, white South Africans still earn nearly five times as much as black South Africans and more than twice as much as coloured South Africans.) Julius Malema, leader of the leftist opposition party the Economic Freedom Fighters, asserted last year that he “strongly believe[s] Afrikaans is being used to perpetuate white supremacy in South Africa.” Others argue that it is simply a minority language – taught in fewer schools, and to fewer students, than English – and doesn’t deserve the prominence it’s historically been afforded in South African society. The view that Afrikaans is the language of white power in South Africa has left many coloured and other black Afrikaans-speakers feeling marginalized, they say, even if they understand the roots of the complaint. “This was the stupidity of apartheid – forcing Afrikaans on people” and making the language feel like their enemy, Boezak says. But for him and many others, it’s still a language worth preserving. “When I perform in Afrikaans it really captures the essence of what I want to say – my culture, my identity,” says Van RooyOvermeyer. “It captures my pride in who I am, which is something I want to share.” – Ryan Lenora Brown / Staff writer WOMEN IN SCIENCE (Very) slow gains in the war on bias Despite bright spots, equity still eludes women scientists BOULDER, COLO. – Once, when Alison Coil was on a grant review panel, two applications came in from people at similar points in their career on similar topics. One was from a white male, the other from a woman of color. Dr. Coil, an astrophysicist at the University of California, San Diego, says that while the women on the panel generally liked the female applicant’s proposal, one man called it “too ambitious.” The woman didn’t get the funding. “All it takes, when funding is scarce, is one person raising one concern to knock someone out of first place,” says Coil, who was particularly disturbed at the fraught stereotypes involved in dismissing a woman of color for being “ambitious.” With movements like #MeToo and #EqualPay putting fresh attention on how women fare in US workplaces, gender equity is getting renewed attention in a wide ANN HERMES/STAFF/FILE WOMAN’S WORK: Scientists analyze DNA at the Ohio Bureau of Criminal Investigation Laboratory. range of fields. In the sciences, in which women hold between 10 and 20 percent of jobs in some disciplines, there’s been a growing recognition – backed by numerous studies – of the biases and barriers that can hinder women’s advancement. As awareness and attention have increased, so, too, have efforts to address not just sexual harassment, but also the subtle but deeply entrenched ways in which women – and minorities – find their work devalued. “The gender biases that pervade all of society can be especially extreme in all fields of endeavor where brilliance is the main idea,” says Risa Wechsler, a cosmologist at Stanford University. Dr. Wechsler cites a 2015 study in which practitioners in different fields were asked whether intrinsic ability or hard work was required for success. “The more brilliant you think you have to be, the more the field is populated by white guys,” she says. A big frustration, say many women scientists who have been involved in efforts to fight biases, is the unwillingness on the part of many men to acknowledge the problem. And almost every woman scientist has had to contend with the widespread notion that she must have been hired mostly because of her gender. But as awareness increases, things are ‘CHANGE THAT IS SUSTAINABLE AND STICKS TAKES A LONG TIME.’ – Jane Zelikova, ecologist also starting to change, some women say – maybe not broadly, but in pockets and bright spots at a range of institutions. At the University of Michigan, many faculty are now required to take workshops on unconscious bias. Among other things, search committees there now try to set out a specific list of what they’re looking for and what they want to prioritize before looking at applications. More science departments around the country are taking a hard look at how they evaluate applications and grants and making sure they don’t just solicit a token woman or minority applicant but have a significant number. The Hubble Space Telescope has started randomizing its application review process for people to use the telescope, changing the order of names so that it’s not clear who the principal investigator is and using initials rather than first names. After the 2016 election, a number of women came together to form “500 Women Scientists” – a grass-roots group whose initial goal was to get 500 signatures to an open letter reaffirming their commitment to speaking up for science as well as underrepresented groups. They passed that goal within hours, after more than 20,000 women signed. “Change that is sustainable and sticks takes a long time,” says Jane Zelikova, one of the co-founders of “500 Women Scientists,” who says she oscillates between being angry and being optimistic. “It’s a slow process.” – Amanda Paulson / Staff writer meanwhile in ... A GIANT GREEN TURTLE PETER ANDREWS/REUTERS/FILE RÉUNION ISLAND, on a beach where sea turtles were once hunted and then bred commercially, there is now a turtle sanctuary. Kélonia was founded in 1994 to care for and protect the giant creatures (they can weigh as much as 1,500 pounds), which are among the most ancient on earth. Until fairly recently, sea turtles were hunted for their meat and perceived medicinal properties. Today it is illegal in many countries to hunt sea turtles, but they remain at risk because of the rapid shrinking of their native habitats and natural breeding grounds. Réunion Island, a French territory off the eastern coast of Southern Africa, lies in the Mozambique Channel, home to five of the remaining seven species of sea turtles. CIUDAD ARCE, EL SALVADOR, employees of League Collegiate Outfitters have to go to school if they want to keep their jobs. The T-shirt-making company, which employs exgang members, people with disabilities, and others who have struggled to find jobs, offers mandatory high school courses to any of its 550 employees who haven’t graduated. The company’s factory also houses a two-year college so employees can easily move on to college once they get their high school diploma. General manager Rodrigo Bolaños told PBS, “If you don’t study, this is not the place for you.” LEIRIA, PORTUGAL, more than 3,000 volunteers came together one day last month to plant approximately 67,000 trees in central Portugal where last year wildfires destroyed more than 1.2 million acres of forest. Organizers of the planting project say the efforts were just the first step toward planting the 30 million new trees that would be needed to restore the area. “We are from this region,” one of the organizers of the project told Euronews. “We ... all used this forest, we all have good memories of this forest.... [I]t was the forest itself that cried out [to us] for help.” – Staff THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 13 POINTS OF PROGRESS Disabilities less of a jobs barrier People with disabilities in the workplace quadrupled in 2016 For years, Donald Minor says, he blamed a disability – a lack of muscle control in his arms and legs – for his unemployment. Five years ago, he almost didn’t go to an interview for a job with duties that included lifting boxes. But he went, and landed his first internship. From there he found a job in customer service with Rails to Trails Conservancy in Washington, D.C., where he’s CHANGES IN LEGISLATION, been for 2-1/2 years. “Employers need to give LEADERSHIP people with disabilities an op- SPURRED RISE portunity,” says Mr. Minor. “And OF JOBS FOR people with disabilities need to DISABLED put themselves out there, learn, PEOPLE. and grow.” People with disabilities are entering the workforce in unprecedented numbers. According to data from the Institute on Disability at the University of New Hampshire and RespectAbility, a nonprofit that advances opportunities for people with disabilities, 343,483 disabled people joined the workforce in 2016, four times as many as the previous year. “It is fantastic to see the fourfold improvement in one year,” says Jennifer Mizrahi, president of RespectAbility. Changes in legislation, leadership, and media “are starting to have a positive impact.” That jump suggests a shift in the way the United States thinks about people with disabilities, the largest minority group in the country. One in 5 Americans, or 56 million people, is classified as disabled, according to the US Census Bureau. “At the macro level, we are absolutely seeing a shift in societal attitudes towards people with disabilities,” says Philip Kahn-Pauli, director of policy and practices at RespectAbility. Experts attribute the dramatic rise in employment of this group to a host of factors: a recovering economy and tight labor market, government incentives and regulations around V SEE PAGE 16 UNITED STATES Microsoft says it has struck the biggest corporate solar deal in US history. The tech giant announced March 21 that it is buying 315 megawatts (drawn from 750,000 solar panels) from two massive new solar projects in Virginia. Microsoft currently powers 50 percent of its global data centers with renewables. With the new deal, it is aiming for 60 percent. GEEKWIRE AP/FILE PUERTO RICO A historic initiative is seeking to improve animal welfare in the Caribbean nation. The Humane Society of the United States announced March 28 that, over an 18-month period, it would work with Puerto Rican partners, including the government, to spay 20,000 cats and dogs in underserved communities to reduce the number of strays on the island. THE HUMANE SOCIETY A WEEKLY GLOBAL ROUNDUP NEPAL REUTERS/FILE CONGO A pilot program to trace the world’s first ethically sourced cobalt is under way. The program, headed by British-based supply chain auditor RCS Global, plans to electronically track cobalt from small-scale mines in Congo all the way to consumers’ smartphones and electric car batteries. If successful, the new system may allow companies such as Apple to allay growing concerns among customers that the metal in their devices involved environmental or human rights abuses, including child labor. A small hare species, long thought to be extinct, has been spotted. The hispid hare was sighted for the first (and what was thought to be the last) time in Chitwan National Park in 1984, but a conservationist recently caught one on camera. Scientists were encouraged because it is a baby, meaning there are male and female parents. SCIENCEDAILY FINANCIAL TIMES, BLOOMBERG ZIMBABWE The Southern African nation took a big step away from use of the death penalty. President Emmerson Mnangagwa in March commuted the death sentences of inmates who had been on death row for more than 10 years to life in prison. Amnesty International lauded the move, saying it was another example of how subSaharan Africa and much of the world are moving away from the death penalty. Zimbabwe has not executed anyone since 2005. AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL AP/FILE A PRISON OFFICER LOOKS OUT FROM THE WATCHTOWER AT CHIKURUBI MAXIMUM SECURITY PRISON IN HARARE, ZIMBABWE. points of progress V FROM PAGE 14 dy Deardurff, dean of career development at Macalester College in St. Paul, Minn. “Getting hired with a disability ... can be incredibly challenging.” Statistics confirm this. Some 36 percent of adults with disabilities had a job, compared with 77 percent of people without disabilities, according to the 2017 Annual Disability Statistics Compendium. Part of the problem is educational attainment. RespectAbility says 65 percent of students with disabilities finish high school and less than 7 percent complete college. The good news is that certain states and corporations offer lessons. North Dakota, for example, leads the nation with 54 percent of its people with disabilities employed, followed by South Dakota (52 percent), Minnesota, and Alaska (both 48 percent). Kahn-Pauli attributes their success to strong state leadership, a recovering economy and legislation including tax incentives for hiring or making adaptations for such people, state goals for contracting with businesses owned by people with disabilities, and mandates for accessible transportation. The private sector star: Walgreens. In 2007, the company launched bold goals for hiring people with disabilities. In 2016, more than 900 Walgreens employees identified hiring people with disabilities, more people identifying themselves as such, and more accessible technology. And on a cultural level, media is reshaping how we think of this group, says Mr. Kahn-Pauli. “Television reflects and shapes how we think about each other,” he says, pointing to shows like “Born This Way” and “Speechless.” Research shows authentic portrayals of minority characters can positively influence people’s attitudes, he says. In 1990, Congress enacted the landmark Americans with Disabilities Act, which prohibited employment discrimination on the ‘PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES DESERVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO EARN AN INCOME....’ – Jennifer Mizrahi, RespectAbility basis of disability. In 2014, President Barack Obama signed into law the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, which promotes work for disabled people that is fully integrated with colleagues who don’t have disabilities and makes sure they receive comparable wages and benefits. “However, policy change doesn’t necessarily equate to culture change,” says Min- 16 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 NATI HARNIK/AP ON THE JOB: Justin Bainbridge works at the Prairie Life Fitness Center in Omaha, Neb. themselves as such, while 1,300 people with disabilities completed retail training. What Walgreens and other corporate leaders like Starbucks, Pepsi, and IBM know is that hiring people with disabilities isn’t an act of charity. Data show this group has higher productivity, lower turnover, and a better safety record than people without disabilities. “At the end of the day, our nation was founded on the principle that anyone who works hard should be able to get ahead in life,” Ms. Mizrahi says. “People with disabilities deserve the opportunity to earn an income and achieve independence just like anyone else.” – Husna Haq / Contributor BRIEFING Real ID: what Americans should expect Preparations are under way for broad enforcement beginning in 2020 Changes are coming to identification requirements for residents of the United States. In response to a 2005 federal law, states are ramping up security measures involved in issuing driver’s licenses and other identification cards. Real ID status of states and territories In compliance Mont. N.D. Not compliant Q: Why was legislation passed? Idaho Wyo. Nev. Calif. Ariz. Puerto Rico Q: What’s happening now? Wis. S.D. Neb. Utah US Virgin Islands Colo. N.M. Vt. Maine Minn. Ore. Congress passed the Real ID Act in 2005 in response to 9/11: Some of the hijackers aboard the four flights that crashed that day used fraudulent IDs. The Real ID Act strives to make securing fake IDs more difficult. “Securing our identity documents is a crucial component to keeping the commonwealth, and the country, safe,” said Pennsylvania state Rep. Ed Neilson, a Democrat, when the state passed the Pennsylvania Real ID Compliance Act in May 2017. Received extension Wash. Kan. Okla. Texas Iowa N.Y. Mich. Pa. Ohio Ill. Ind. Mo. KY Va. N.H. Mass. R.I. Conn. N.J. Del. Md. D.C. N.C. TN S.C. Ark. La. . A Real ID can be either an identification card or a driver’s license that meets stepped-up federal standards. It will be needed to access federal facilities, enter nuclear power plants, and board federally regulated commercial aircraft. W .Va Q: What are Real IDs? Miss. Ala. Ga. Fla. Guam American Northern The beginning of this year included several deadlines as the Alaska Samoa Mariana Real ID process moves along. Jan. 22 was a key date for domesIslands Hawaii tic air travel: As of that day, any driver’s licenses used for identification at airports have to be issued by states that are either SOURCE: US Department of Homeland Security JACOB TURCOTTE/STAFF in compliance with Real ID requirements or have been granted circumstances but is likely to include a Social Security card or tax form; an extension. Also, on Feb. 5, Real ID enforcement began for states or a birth certificate, passport, or immigration form; and two proofs of territories that are not compliant and do not have an extension. state residency, such as a current utility bill. American Samoa is the only US region that is not compliant and doesn’t have an extension (see map). Thirty states are compliant, and 20 have been granted extensions. The latter states are thus in the midst Q: Will Real ID be required anytime people need proof of identity? of taking steps to meet Real ID requirements. Massachusetts, for examNot necessarily. The Real ID Act does not apply to voting or regisple, recently closed its Registry of Motor Vehicles offices for a weekend tering to vote, attending court proceedings, accessing health services so it could upgrade its computer system as part of the Real ID rollout. (at hospitals, for example), entering public areas, or even driving per se. AP Also, the law does not prohibit an agency from accepting other forms of identification such as a US passport. Q: How does this law apply to unauthorized immigrants? AP NEW LOOK: Real ID cards will look similar to current driver’s licenses, except they’ll have a gold star in the upper right corner. Q: When will Real ID be enforced? It depends on the state. For those that have been granted extensions, Oct. 1, 2020, is the hard deadline. After that date, a Real ID will be required to fly, access restricted and semi-restricted federal facilities, and enter nuclear power plants. Q: What do people need to apply for a Real ID card? Applications for a Real ID can be made at a local department of motor vehicles. The required documentation depends on personal The federal measures allow compliant states to issue driver’s licenses and identification cards to unauthorized immigrants. The cards are required to state on their face and in the machine-readable zone that they can’t be used for official federal purposes. Also, their design must differentiate them from cards that meet Real ID standards. However, several states issue noncompliant cards for various reasons, so the Department of Homeland Security cautions against assuming that holders of such cards are unauthorized immigrants. Q: How will this affect beneficiaries of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program? The law allows states to issue Real ID-compliant driver’s licenses and identification cards to those who provide valid evidence of having approved deferred-action status. They must also have employment authorization documents and Social Security numbers. These DACA individuals are allowed to hold temporary Real IDs until their expiration. – Asia London Palomba / Staff writer THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 17 FOCUS MAINLAND CONTROL China is using some carrots so it’s easier for Taiwanese to invest, study, and work on the mainland. BY MICHAEL HOLTZ / STAFF WRITER Beijing’s bid to win over young Taiwanese XIE YUJUAN/THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR ENTREPRENEUR: Wen Liwei moved to Fuzhou, China, after graduating from one of Taiwan’s top universities, eager to start his own company. O with the people’s condemnation and the punishment of history.” It was a stern warning at a fraught time for Taiwan. Relations with China have been tense since 2016, when Tsai Ing-wen from the pro-independence Democratic Progressive Party was elected president. Yet they’ve become especially hostile in recent weeks because of a new law passed in Washington that encourages official, high-level visits between the United States and Taiwan. China has never renounced the use of force to reunify Taiwan with the mainland, and on March 21, the Global Times, a state-run nationalist newspaper, went as far as to urge Beijing to “prepare itself for a direct military clash in the Taiwan Straits.” Wen, who’s in his late 20s, prefers not to think about the rising tensions. He’s more concerned with sales plans than geopoli- FUZHOU, CHINA n a recent Tuesday morning, as President Xi Jinping delivered a speech at the closing of China’s annual legislative session in Beijing, Wen Liwei was at work in this coastal city 1,000 miles away. He was too busy meeting with business partners, discussing market strategies for his health food company, to pay any attention to it. Besides, his office doesn’t have a television. Had Mr. Wen watched the address, he would have heard Mr. Xi issue a thinly veiled threat against his homeland, Taiwan, the democratically governed island that Beijing views as a breakaway province. “Any actions and tricks to split China are doomed to failure,” Xi said before the nearly 3,000 members of the National People’s Congress, adding that any such attempts “will meet 18 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 WHY IT MATTERS Beijing’s military might is a key tool in its quest to reunite Taiwan with the mainland. But Taiwanese views of the mainland matter, too, and young people’s attitudes about China may matter most of all. tics. But that doesn’t mean he isn’t affected by the decisions made in Beijing. Chinese officials consider young Taiwanese a key demographic to win over as they seek to bring the island under the mainland’s control, a mission for which attitudes and income may be as powerful as intimidating fighter jets and naval drills. With Xi having recently tightened his grip on power, some experts warn that he V NEXT PAGE H Wen isn’t entirely new to Fuzhou. He lived here as a child, when his parents owned a textile factory in the city. But when he returned in 2016, after being away 24 years, he barely recognized it. China’s economic boom had transformed Fuzhou into a modern city of more than 7 million people, complete with gleaming skyscrapers, a subway line, and rush-hour traffic jams. “When I was young, the streets were full of tricycles and rickshaws,” Wen says. “It now feels like a different city.” Wen arrived after graduating from Tamkang University, one of Taiwan’s top schools, with a degree in public administration. Having grown up in a business family, he was eager to start his own e-commerce company, but not in Taiwan. The island’s economy was stagnant, and its online shopping industry far less developed than China’s. Then there were the financial incentives on the mainland: about $1,500 for business supplies and two years of free office rent. It didn’t take long for Wen to find an office. Over the past three years, more than 50 start-up bases have opened across China to serve Taiwanese entrepreneurs. There are at least 17 in Fuzhou alone. The incubators are also open to ‘There is more space for development on the mainland. There are just more opportunities here.’ A S TA IW AN C IL IP PI NE Taipei PH Mainland appeal Taiwanese native who has lived in Fuzhou for 25 years. She is a strong advocate for young people like Wen who move to the mainland. “Living in Taiwan is waiting for death,” she says. “Going to the mainland is looking for a chance to live.” Ms. Chen’s grim assessment is based on the fact that China’s economy is growing – Luo Yujie, who moved from Taiwan to more than twice as quickly as Taiwan’s. Fuzhou, China, last year Also, starting salaries for graduates in Taiwan have remained stagnant since the late 1990s. Rather than waiting for Ms. Tsai to mainland companies, but they offer the most fulfill her promise of creating more opportuincentives to those from Taiwan. In addition nities for young people on the island, many to free office space, many provide housing have chosen to leave. More than 420,000 Taiwanese now work on the mainland, subsidies and tax breaks. Wen ultimately settled on the Fuzhou Tai- where they can earn much more than they wan Youth Startup Base. Located in a non- would in Taiwan. Many of the 31 new measures revealed descript office building in one of Fuzhou’s many industrial zones, the Startup Base in February by China’s Taiwan Affairs Ofis home to 83 Taiwanese companies that fice are meant to make it easier for entresell everything from cosmetics to car parts. preneurs by lowering costs and allowing Chen Xiurong, the incubator’s founder, is a greater access to the mainland market. An Fengshan, a spokesman for the office, told reporters that the measures would provide “targeted solutions for the benefit of Taiwan Shanghai society.” Wen says he would have come to China regardless of the incentives, but he admits that they do make life easier for him. Not that he has found it that difficult to adjust to the mainland. In many ways, Wen prefers living here. East There are the small things, like China having the ability to pay for alSea most anything with a smartphone Fuzhou app. Then there are the big things, like the mainland’s fast-paced Taipei economy. When Wen’s friends back home tell him they’re considering moving to China, he tells them to Guangzhou South come see for themselves before Hong Kong China they decide. One of his closest Sea friends, Luo Yujie, moved to Fuzhou in July after doing exactly that. “There is more space for development on the mainland,” Mr. Luo says. “There are just more opportunities here.” Beijing IN could press harder for the return of the island. Others predict that he will play the long game. With the help of lawmakers voting overwhelmingly last month to abolish presidential term limits, Xi can rule for as long as he wants, and his government can try to shift the young Taiwanese generation’s view of their next-door neighbor. To that end, Beijing has introduced a growing number of policies aimed at making it easier for Taiwanese to invest, study, and work on the mainland. It announced the latest ones – 31 altogether – on Feb. 28. Wen, who has already qualified for tens of thousands of dollars in government subsidies, is sure to benefit from some of them. But whether they’re enough to buy his political loyalty appears to be a long shot. “I’m Taiwanese,” Wen says. “I think my identity is hard to change.” JACOB TURCOTTE/STAFF Brain drain While Beijing has long targeted business interests in Taiwan as a way to shore up support, it didn’t appear to give much thought to the THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY V NEXT PAGE | APRIL 16, 2018 19 FOCUS MAINLAND CONTROL V FROM PREVIOUS PAGE ‘One could argue that the direction [President] Xi Jinping has taken China will make Taiwanese much more loyal to their own democratic system, for all its problems.’ island’s young people until 2014. That year, a group of protesters broke into Taiwan’s Legislature and occupied it for 23 days to block the passage of a new trade pact with the mainland. The youth-led protest became known as the Sunflower Movement, and it made Chinese officials sit up and take notice. If unification were still to happen peacefully, then they needed to get young people on board. “The mainland government started to care more about Taiwanese youth in 2014,” says Zheng Zhenqing, an associate professor of Taiwan studies at Tsinghua University in Beijing. “It was a turning point.” With Taiwan struggling to jump-start its sluggish economy, Beijing has resorted to one of its most common tactics: trying to use its economic clout to buy influence. And it’s not only going after budding entrepreneurs. Last year, China’s Education Ministry said it would relax entrance rules for Taiwanese at mainland universities, and Fujian province, where Fuzhou is located, announced plans to recruit 1,000 Taiwanese academics to teach at its universities by 2020. The mainland’s campaign has started to raise alarms in Taipei. Nearly 60 percent of Taiwanese working overseas were employed in China in 2015, according to statistics released by the Taiwanese government last year. Desperate to stem the flow of talent, – Richard Bush, senior fellow at the Brookings Institution Tsai’s administration is pushing back. “Some council members said that young people in Taiwan set great store on democracy and freedom, which is exactly what the environment in mainland Chinese society cannot provide,” Taiwan’s Mainland Affairs Council said in a statement released March 23. “The government can strengthen and show off Taiwan’s advantages, and help young people understand the possible risks.” On top of the brain drain, Taipei has struggled to compete with an increasingly powerful China in diplomacy. Only 20 countries still formally recognize Taiwan, which is officially known as the Republic of China. Panama ended its relationship with Taiwan last year. The Vatican could be next, as the Holy See and Beijing move closer to a historic deal on the appointment of bishops in China. Since separating from the mainland at the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, Taiwan has become a vibrant democracy. The island is functionally independent, and many of its 23 million people want to keep it that way. Opinion polls conducted last year show that 70 to 80 percent of Taiwanese prefer autonomy over unification. Tsai has said that she wants to maintain the status quo, despite her party’s long history of favoring formal independence. Yet Chinese leaders remain suspicious of Tsai, who has refused to endorse the “one China” principle under which Taiwan is considered a part of China. As relations between the two continue to sour, some experts warn that Beijing’s economic campaign and growing hostility could backfire. Richard Bush, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution and former head of the American Institute in Taiwan, says Xi’s authoritarian tendencies have disheartened young Taiwanese. “The general social and political environment in China is bound to affect the way they think about any sort of political union between Taiwan and the mainland,” Mr. Bush says. “One could argue that the direction Xi Jinping has taken China will make Taiwanese much more loyal to their own democratic system, for all its problems.” Liu Zongxin, a Taiwanese golf instructor in Fuzhou who’s in his late 20s, doesn’t consider himself to be very political. When asked about China-Taiwan relations, he says he just wants the status quo to stay in place. He sees no other option. Mr. Liu moved to the mainland in 2016 to open a golf school with his older brother. He says adjusting to life here hasn’t been too difficult. His biggest complaint is when locals try talking to him about unifying Taiwan with China. Unfortunately for him, such conversations are happening more and more frequently. It’s the same every time. “First they talk about our president, then ask about my position, and then they talk about unifying Taiwan by force,” Liu says. “When I hear that, I want to leave.” IN FUZHOU, CHINA: Liu Zongxin, a Taiwanese golf instructor, takes a swing at the training center he opened with his older brother. Mr. Liu moved to the mainland in 2016. 20 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | XIE YUJUAN/THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR APRIL 16, 2018 r Xie Yujuan contributed to this report. SCIENCE&NATURE In San Francisco, hotels find beekeeping to be good for business – and community. BY BAILEY BISCHOFF / STAFF Hotels host bees as honored guests A SAN FRANCISCO t the Fairmont San Francisco, the wellheeled visitors arriving through the lobby aren’t the five-star hotel’s only guests. On the hotel’s rooftop terrace, above the rush and bustle of San Francisco’s city streets, a fainter hum can be heard – the buzz of bees. Beekeeper Spencer Marshall pries open a white, wooden box that houses thousands of bees and pulls out a frame that vibrates with life. The hive sits nestled among garden boxes overflowing with lavender and rosemary, a delicate contrast to the jagged skyscrapers that loom in the distance. Bees have become more commonplace residents at hotels, especially in San Francisco, where 10 hotels maintain terrace or rooftop hives. Urban beekeeping allows hotels to market sustainability, harvest honey, and raise awareness about the challenges bees face. Rooftop apiaries have been popping up across the United States in the past decade, from mysterious phenomenon known as colony San Francisco to Chicago to New York. collapse disorder, in which bees were seen “When companies have honeybees, it leaving hives in devastating numbers. helps in a few different ways ... by bringing Bees are an essential element of agriawareness to the fact that our bees need cultural economies, especially in Califorflowers that are clean and free nia, which produces one-third LIVING of pesticides in order to feed and of the vegetables in the US and TOGETHER that our bees need habitat,” says two-thirds of its fruits and nuts, Becky Masterman, extension eduaccording to the California Decator and program director of the University partment of Food and Agriculture. At of Minnesota Bee Squad in St. Paul. pollination time, commercial beekeepers Urban beekeeping has been on the rise provide truckloads of European honeybees, for the past decade, says Dr. Masterman. Apis mellifera, which are not native to North “The popularity has been growing ever since America. Wild bee species play a significant the news started reporting high numbers role in this process, but the US agricultural of bee losses in 2006,” she says. That year, industry has come to rely on commercial commercial honeybee losses increased bees for much of its pollination needs. Perdramatically, as much as 30 to 90 percent sistent losses of these commercial hives of each hive, because of mite infestations, could eventually be felt at the grocery store. harmful pesticides, declining habitat, and a Mr. Marshall has served as the Fair- PHOTOS BY BAILEY BISCHOFF/THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR PENTHOUSE SUITE: Beekeeper Spencer Marshall (above) checks the health of the Fairmont San Francisco’s hives. San Francisco’s Clift hotel (left) introduced bees to its 16-story-high roof in 2016. mont’s bee whisperer since 2010. Initially doubtful that the urban location would offer enough resources to sustain the bees, he says he has been pleasantly surprised. Each year he harvests 1,000 pounds of honey at the Fairmont, which currently hosts nine hives and as many as half a million bees. The bees offer hotels more than honey. A growing number of guests actively seek out hotels that are committed to sustainability and locally sourced menu options, says Melissa Farrar, director of marketing communications for the Fairmont. The hotel chain plays host to 40 honeybee apiaries and wild bee hotels around the world. At the Fairmont San Francisco, harvested honey adds flavor to salad dressings, ice cream, and honey madeleines at the hotel. Beekeeping also offers hotels a chance to work together. The Clift, another San Francisco hotel, is part of a partnership of nine hotels that share beekeeping resources, best practices, and a beekeeper. “On the street level, all the hotels are competing with each other,” says Clift manager Michael Pace. “But then on the rooftop we’re all sharing resources ... and we help each other out.” r Questions? Comments? Email the science team at firstname.lastname@example.org. THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 21 in pictures 1 1 SHOCKING At Boston’s Logan Airport on Sept. 11, 2001, Erica Ferencik learns that American Airlines Flight 11 to Los Angeles was hijacked and crashed into the World Trade Center. She and her husband would have been on Flight 11 had she not decided to sleep in and take a later flight. MELANIE STETSON FREEMAN/STAFF/FILE Meeting drama in airports I have always been fascinated by airports. You can stand in one and watch as a whole array of stories plays out. People sleep, run, eat, get massages, get mad, fall in love, buy things, and eventually board planes. Emotional goodbyes, happy reunions, and human drama of every kind are all on display. Monitor photographers have touched down in airports all around the world. Most of the time, waiting in an airport is simply a dreaded hurdle to be cleared. But on occasion the airport itself is the venue for the story. These photos from our archives depict those moments in which an airport became something more than a waiting room for the next adventure. – Alfredo Sosa / Director of photography 2 TOUCHING Kay Lebowitz, with Maine Troop Greeters, hugs a US 2 22 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 Army soldier as he leaves Bangor Airport on his way home from Iraq in 2005. JOHN NORDELL/TCSM/FILE 3 AFTERMATH Workers begin to clean the passenger terminal at Suvarnabhumi Airport in Bangkok, Thailand, on Dec. 3, 2008. The People’s Alliance for Democracy left the airport after a Thai court ruled against Prime Minister Somchai Wongsawat, forcing him from office. ANDY NELSON/TCSM/FILE 4 ADIOS Juan Miguel González and his 3 son, Elián González, wave to a throng of reporters as they board a plane for the trip back to Cuba from the United States on June 28, 2000. Elián spent several months in the US after his mother drowned in an attempted escape from Cuba. After a protracted legal battle, Elián was returned to the custody of his father. ANDY NELSON/TCSM/FILE 4 5 6 5 UNEASY BEDFELLOWS Travelers stuck for days inside Cairo International Airport rest wherever they can on Jan. 30, 2011. In the early stages of the Arab Spring – when large numbers of people were trying to leave the country – many flights were grounded and a curfew was imposed, virtually trapping people in the airport. ANN HERMES/STAFF/FILE 6 HOLDING PATTERN People wait for their bags to go through a security check at the small airport in Gode, Ethiopia, on May 19, 2017. MELANIE STETSON FREEMAN/STAFF/FILE APRIL 16, 2018 23 Girls club president Kousalya Radakrishnan (l.) and club secretary Malarvizhi Pandurangan (r.) lead members on a march through the Indian village of Thennamadevi. HOWARD LAFRANCHI/THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR THE GIRLS WHO TOOK OVER 24 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 R A TOWN A group of teens in rural India, tired of do-nothing men, take dramatic steps to improve their village, demonstrating how to foster progress in the developing world. THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 25 BY HOWARD LAFRANCHI / STAFF WRITER G in our village.” And maybe, she might have said, for the world’s largest democracy. VILUPPURAM, INDIA irl power is blooming across India. Clubs intended to boost adolescent girls’ sense of worth are sprouting in remote villages. Women feeling empowered in local politics are acting as mentors and making a priority of improving the future for one of India’s most long-neglected populations. But there’s girl power, and then there’s Thennamadevi. In Thennamadevi, a village sheltered by banana trees and nestled amid rice paddies and sugar cane fields in India’s southern Tamil Nadu state, girls have moved beyond discussions of the challenges they face in India. They’re taking action. Bold action. Frustrated by the many do-nothing men who seemed more interested in turning sugar cane into moonshine than in improving village life, the teenage girls have organized around their professed goal of making Thennamadevi the best community in their district. The result is that in less than two years the girls have done everything from creating a 150-book library to successfully lobbying local authorities for a bus stop. The objective there: to cut down on the time girls (and boys) have to spend walking through dark and sometimes dangerous fields to get to and from school. “After going to our club, I know my rights as a child and as a girl, but it seems what’s different about our village is that we didn’t stop there,” says Kousalya Radakrishnan, the Thennamadevi girls club president. “We now understand our role in our community, and we are acting on that.” Young Kousalya, even though still in high school, already sounds like a seasoned politician. She sums up her role in the local girls’ movement with clarity and simplicity: to figure out how to deliver on the hopes and dreams that bubble up from the two dozen 14- to 18-year-olds in the club. All of which has also helped make her into a minor celebrity and role model here. As she steps out of a cramped community center and onto a dirt street to lead one of the club’s signature rallies, dramatically standing out in a sea-green dress, she is swarmed by young girls with pigtails and wide grins. “We’re making things better not just for girls,” she says, “but for everybody 26 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY Around the world, development experts are increasingly focusing on girls as the key to fostering progress in developing countries. For more than two decades, aid groups and international nongovernmental organizations have centered their efforts on trying CAROLYN KASTER/AP/FILE ‘When girls learn to replace time-honored limitations with “I can be whatever I want to be,” it opens new paths forward....’ – Geeta Rao Gupta, United Nations Foundation to reduce poverty and improve global health for women. The rationale has been that by unlocking a rural woman’s entrepreneurial spirit – helping her, for example, to not just tend her field but to sell her own produce – the woman’s entire family will receive a boost. Similarly, improving maternal health and helping a woman space out her pregnancies will enhance prosperity. Numerous African and South Asian countries have seen extreme poverty rates fall and national health standards improve as a result of a focus on women. But more recently development experts have honed their efforts even further, zeroing in on girls as the linchpin of sustained economic and | APRIL 16, 2018 social progress in developing countries. “We know that if girls stay in school, if they don’t marry and have babies early, and if they are empowered to pursue dreams their mothers never could have imagined, they improve not just their own lives but are a force for growth and progress in their communities and more broadly in their countries,” says Geeta Rao Gupta, a senior fellow at the United Nations Foundation and an international expert in women’s empowerment. “When girls learn to replace time-honored limitations with ‘I can be whatever I want to be,’ it opens new paths forward for the girls and for everyone around them.” In many developing countries, girls face two starkly divergent paths: one fettered by gender inequality and cut short by early childbearing and the other offering personal fulfillment and economic improvement that benefit families and nations. If the second path is closed off, experts say, that’s a large chunk of a country’s economic growth potential that will never be tapped. “Countries cannot end poverty if girls are unable to make a safe and healthy transition from adolescence to adulthood and become productive members of their communities and nations,” the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) said in its 2016 “State of World Population” report. The UNFPA report focused on the world’s 60 million 10-year-old girls, noting that the educational and other opportunities available to pre-adolescent girls and the “flurry of life-changing events” on their horizon will go a long way in determining many developing countries’ prospects. “We’ve seen that intervening with girls around 10 years old makes a great deal of sense, because they still have many options before them and they aren’t yet facing the pressures that come in many cultures with adolescence,” says Dr. Gupta. “Reversing a girl’s trajectory after 13 is often very difficult, especially if she’s had little education and she’s married early and will soon be expected to have babies.” Pointing out that worldwide 32 million girls of primary-school age are not in school, the report noted that “without quality education the 10-year-old girl will not acquire skills to earn a better income and find decent work.” The ability of countries to ensure access to a primary and secondary eduVCONTINUES ON PAGE 28 Girls make their way to school through a vegetable field in New Delhi. AHMAD MASOOD/REUTERS/FILE AMIT DAVE/REUTERS/FILE Schoolgirls practice martial arts during an event in Ahmedabad, India, to mark an anniversary of the fatal gang rape of a woman on a Delhi bus in 2012 that made international headlines. THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 27 VFROM PAGE 26 cation and to tackle stubborn problems such as gender discrimination, it concluded, “will shape the degree to which this generation [of girls] is able to maximize its potential and become drivers of positive change at the local and global levels.” Some countries are embracing the girl-power movement – at least on paper. Count India among them. Under Prime Minister Narendra Modi, the country has launched a visible public awareness campaign under the slogan “Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao” – “Save the Girl, Educate the Girl.” Around New Delhi and in cities across the country, billboards feature girls wearing school uniforms or playing carefree games outdoors, with slogans such as “Every girl is precious” or to educate a girl is to “strengthen the nation.” The campaign is part of national efforts to end female infanticide and child marriage and to stress the importance of keeping girls in school. Yet slogans are one thing; changing a culture is another. “All of this activity and national communication around the girl child is pretty robust, and that’s certainly positive,” says Gupta. “But implementation of the programs behind the slogan remains a challenge, and then there’s the underlying issue that is more important than any of the rest of it: that girls are just valued less, largely because they carry less economic value.” Not in Thennamadevi, though. Not for a handful of idealistic and indomitable teens. Students perform a play explaining the consequences of child marriage at a meeting of a girls club in Lamba Kalan, a remote village in a conservative state in northern India. Kousalya was like many of the young girls in the village. She was headed down a path with tightly prescribed expectations and boundaries. Her father, a fruit seller who like many other fathers in the village was prone to drinking, didn’t want her to go to school after age 12. A daughter should be at home, he said, not going off to a new school that would to convince parents that it was a good idea to let their daughters come out in the evenings to meet with other girls,” says Kousalya, standing before rows of purple-draped tables in Thennamadevi’s activity center. “Experiencing that progress has shown all the girls that they can do a lot with their lives.” Others confirm that the can-do spirit of AHMER KHAN/SPECIAL TO THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR ‘We’re making things better not just for girls, but for everybody in our village.’ – Kousalya Radakrishnan, president of the local girls club be “mixed,” where she’d be around boys. But her father died an alcoholic, and Kousalya insisted on going to school, enlisting the support of a women’s nongovernmental organization in nearby Viluppuram, the district capital. Now she’s studying physics, wants to go to college, and plans to eventually become a college professor. “We’ve come a long way from the first days of the club when we went door to door 28 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY the club has taught them that the future is boundless. Bharati Murugan grew up hearing “You are a female. You are not for studying and working,” she says. But that made her all the more determined to avoid her mother’s fate as a child bride. When the club was formed, she was one of the first to join and is now the treasurer. Standing alongside the bicycle she cherishes because it gives her an exhilarating | APRIL 16, 2018 sense of independence, Bharati says that working to improve life in the village has taught her that girls really can accomplish a lot, especially when they collaborate. Her involvement with the club has also strengthened her determination to one day join India’s civil service, the Indian Administrative Service (IAS). “I made a sign for my house that says ‘Bharati IAS!,’ and every morning I proclaim those words aloud. My family laughs at me, but I don’t care,” she says, pulling on one of her two long braids. “I’m going to make it come true, just as the girls of Thennamadevi are making true our dream of building a model village!” Indeed, the girls have been bringing about civic improvements with a speed that would make any government bureaucrat envious. They badgered district leaders with letters and meetings until lighting was provided for the village’s two unpaved streets. Tired of confronting village men loitering and drinking around the community toilet when they needed to use it, the girls started VNEXT PAGE a campaign to install commodes in individual homes. That effort aims to address two issues at once: the village’s chronic problem of drunken and sometimes harassing men and the broader national health challenge of ending “open defecation.” They’ve also targeted issues specific to them as adolescent girls. They persuaded district health officials to stock modern sanitary napkins in the nearest clinic as a replacement for traditional cloth rags. In a country where child marriage remains a national scourge (despite a law prohibiting the marriage of girls under age 18), club members have publicly pledged not just to renounce the practice for themselves but to come to the rescue of anyone they know being pushed into an early union. Through all the activism, the girls are developing vital leadership skills. Malarvizhi Pandurangan says the girls club’s successes have taught her that organizing and speaking up works, so she’s taken her advocacy to her technical secondary school, where she’s deepening her math skills and learning about electrical circuitry. “I tell the girls in my class about all the services our club has brought to my village, and I say we can improve our school in the same way if we work together,” says Malarvizhi, standing in one of the spare classrooms of the Thiruvalluvar Technical Institute. Outside, separate classes of girls and boys assemble on the dusty ground under the shade of thin-leaved trees to study for upcoming exams. Inside, girls whisper and giggle as Malarvizhi shares with a visitor how she’s organizing her classmates to lobby local businesses to provide the school with better equipment. Thiruvalluvar’s principal, Vazha Jayachandran, attests to Malarvizhi’s leadership, and adds that all 40 girls at the institute are helping to infuse the school with more energy and academic rigor. “Five years ago we didn’t even have girls here,” he notes, “and now they are almost always the strongest in our subjects and produce the best results.” What’s remarkable about the girls of Thennamadevi isn’t just what they’ve accomplished. It’s what they’ve accomplished given where they’re from. The Viluppuram district, with its HOWARD LAFRANCHI/THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR ‘I’m going to make [my career goal] come true, just as the girls of Thennamadevi are making true our dream of building a model village!’ – Bharati Murugan, treasurer of the local girls club web of rail connections, is a hub of child trafficking and sex trafficking. The district records some of India’s highest levels of child abuse, according to local officials and NGOs. “People don’t easily talk about these problems, making addressing them all the more difficult,” says Sathiya Babu, managing trustee of Viluppuram’s office of Scope India, which shelters runaway and trafficked kids and works with local communities to improve children’s living conditions. “But we’re finding that the kids, and the girls especially, are determined to build better lives and are no longer accepting the traditional limitations their communities, even their own parents, are putting on them,” he says. In many ways, Thennamadevi is a typical village for the area, Dr. Babu says, but in others – both good and bad – it stands out. “Most of the men there are alcoholics – that’s not so unusual – but one result is that 90 families in the village are run by widows. That’s a situation that aggravates existing challenges in the area,” he adds, “from child abuse and runaways to child marriage. A mother who can’t support all her children may see the girls as either a financial burden or even as a source of income” – for example through a dowry, even though dowries are outlawed in India, he says. Still, Babu notes, Thennamadevi’s girls are unusual because in less than two years they have taken their club from a venue for discussing problems to one for taking action. “Last year the girls there requested that the club organize a meeting where they could learn how to petition the government,” VNEXT PAGE Bharati Murugan, treasurer of the Thennamadevi girls club, stands next to her coveted bicycle, which she cherishes because it gives her a sense of independence. She says she wants to join India’s civil service, an unheard-of dream for a girl from a poor rural village. THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 29 HOWARD LAFRANCHI/THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR VFROM PREVIOUS PAGE he says. “These are girls who want change.” Yet for all the national focus on girls and the district’s efforts to improve their lives, there’s evidence that the long-held prejudices against girls remain strong. S.K. Lalitha, Viluppuram’s social welfare director, notes that the district’s female-tomale birth ratio actually declined over the past decade, despite sustained national and state campaigns against sex selection and female infanticide. The 2016 family health survey showed that in the previous year 819 girls were born for every 1,000 boys – 777 girls for every 1,000 boys in rural areas. “Those numbers are alarming, but they back up what I hear so many mothers say, that there is no security today for girls and that life for girls is getting harder,” Ms. Lalitha says. “That’s one reason the positive example of girls like those in Thennamadevi is so important.” ill and the family needed money. Both girls pledge to “never allow my daughter to marry as a child!” Then several girls put on a play whose story line in their area remains more fact than fiction: It’s about an impending child ‘Five years ago we didn’t even have girls here, and now they are almost always the strongest in our subjects and produce the best results.’ – Vazha Jayachandran, principal of Thiruvalluvar Technical Institute Other clubs are being set up, too. Across the country in the northern Indian state of Rajasthan, UNFPA and UNICEF have teamed up with local NGOs to create a network of hundreds of “kishoris,” or adolescent girls clubs, in some of the conservative state’s most remote areas. On a sunbaked day in the village of Lamba Kalan, girls from 10 to 19 years old hear from one of the older members of her marriage at age 5. Another tells of being married off when she was 9 because her father was 30 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY marriage. After the teacher in the play tells a mother that marrying off her daughter before she’s 18 is illegal, the mother confronts her husband: “I want our daughter to be a teacher or a doctor, not to get married and have babies so young as I did!” The father’s retort is one many of Lamba Kalan’s girls say rings familiar: “If our daughter gets too much education, we will have trouble later finding her a suitable hus| APRIL 16, 2018 Malarvizhi Pandurangan (c.), secretary of the Thennamadevi girls club, stands with other members of the group after a meeting in their village. band,” he says. “A girl’s place is at home, and then marrying and going to live in her husband’s home.” Then comes the closing line from the mother, a line that draws enthusiastic applause from the girls club members: “No, that’s no longer true. Life for our daughters is changing!” The enthusiasm of mothers for their daughters’ accomplishments is in fact no longer just theater, at least in places like Thennamadevi. Standing on the stoop of her home on a village side street, Maragatham Radakrishnan hugs her daughter Kousalya and marvels at her confidence and determination. “I never could have imagined a daughter of mine accomplishing even half of what Kousalya has done,” she says, beaming. Having never been to school herself, Ms. Radakrishnan says her biggest dream had always been that her daughter would be able to get some education. And now here’s Kousalya getting that education – and leading a movement. “I see her doing things for the village and helping the younger girls, and it makes me so proud,” she says. “That she can speak up like she does, it’s amazing to me. She’s becoming a leader.” r WHAT THE WORLD PRESS IS TALKING ABOUT THE IRISH TIMES / DUBLIN, IRELAND Time for an international tax overhaul for digital multinationals “As the recent scandal over Facebook and the company Cambridge Analytica has shown, many companies operating in the new ‘digital economy’ are, essentially, extractive industries,” write Eva Joly and Sorley McCaughey. “They mine and sell data on an immense scale. The ephemeral nature of this digital activity makes it hard to pin down where activity is actually taking place and where ‘value’ is being created.... It is increasingly clear that digitalisation has exacerbated the unsuitability of current international tax rules.... [T]he EU is moving towards the ‘unitary’ taxation of multinationals (treating them as a single global body with a single set of global profits).... These moves could be a game-changer in tackling tax-avoidance....” SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST / HONG KONG Facebook data: Why China and the West diverge sharply on privacy “The privacy debate has again gained momentum with the latest Facebook row that exposed the social media giant as mishandling personal data of up to 50 million users,” writes Luisa Tam. “In this ultraconnected era, many people have unknowingly become used to surrendering their individual details.... People in the West place considerable emphasis on privacy and often go to great lengths to defend it.... But when you talk about privacy to Chinese, a common reaction you get is: ‘What privacy?’ In my traditional Taiwanese Chinese family, privacy was an alien concept.... Chinese are bent on dismissing privacy as a bad thing.... In Chinese, ‘si yen’ means seclusion and implies secrecy.” AL JAZEERA / DOHA, QATAR We need a more nuanced understanding of Pakistan’s anti-Malala sentiment “Malala [Yousafzai] ... returned [March 30-April 2] to Pakistan for the first time after she was shot almost six years ago,” writes Shenila Khoja Moolji. “While many, including state officials, have welcomed her, there are also some who remain suspicious, even celebrating ‘anti-Malala day’. It seems she has as many detractors as she does fans.... In Western contexts, such anti-Malala sentiments are read as representing the pre-modern sensibilities of Pakistanis.... We, therefore, find articles ... in Western media outlets, that traffic in ideas about Pakistanis being conspiracy theorists, jealous, and/or inhospitable toward women/girls. What is needed, instead, is a nuanced engagement with anti-Malala sentiment.... Significantly, understanding anti-Malala sentiment provides opportunities for us to become more astute about the politics of her representation in Anglophone media cultures, which I believe drives much of this sentiment in Pakistan.” THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD / SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA The US and Britain have struggled to deal decisively with Russia “[Australia’s] Coalition government and the Labor opposition are in close agreement in clearly seeing and naming Russian outrages and resisting them...,” writes Peter Hartcher. “Compared to the countries that it has looked to for leadership traditionally, Australia stands out as robust and cohesive. The political systems of the US and Britain are staggering under the pressure of Russia’s roguery.... The Russians meddled with the American political system yet the US President refuses to confront the problem.... British Prime Minister Theresa May has firmly named Russia as the culprit in the nerve agent attack on Sergei Skripal.... [E]xpelling Russian diplomats ... is a ‘message’ to Moscow.... But it is not a deterrent....” THE NEW TIMES / KIGALI, RWANDA Winnie Mandela was Africa’s Rosa Parks or Joan of Arc “America had Amelia Earhart and Rosa Parks, Europe had Joan of Arc and in Africa it was Winnie Mandela, the controversial but equally inspiring iconic figure of the apartheid era,” states an editorial. “She passed away [April 2].... Those were women who helped prove wrong the old myth that women were the weaker sex, clueless and hopeless in the absence of males. Winnie was the epitome of strength and defiance despite her questionable moral issues that haunted her and nearly ruined her liberation posterity.... A true feminist fights on the side of every gender, the same kind of fight Winnie Madikizela-Mandela fought.” THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 31 THE MONITOR’S VIEW Founded in 1908 by Mary Baker Eddy The Arab nation that embraces liberty of conscience EDITOR: Mark Sappenfield CHIEF EDITORIAL WRITER: Clayton Jones A ny hope of the Arab world embracing democracy has long focused on its most populous country, Egypt. Yet despite a burst of freedom after the 2011 Arab Spring, Egypt has again dashed those hopes in a sham election designed to keep military strongman Abdel Fattah al-Sisi in power. The one opposition figure allowed to run in the March 26-28 election barely campaigned. Only about 40 percent of voters, who were largely ordered to go to the polls, cast a ballot. The mirage of democracy was easy to see through. To be sure, Mr. Sisi remains popular for ousting the other extreme on the political spectrum from his own secular authoritarianism. In 2013, he led a coup against the Muslim Brotherhood’s Mohamed Morsi, who was duly elected but quickly started coercing democratic opponents. The Middle East can’t seem to shake its three governing models: nationalist dictators, radical Islamists, and reigning monarchs. But notice this. All three have something in common, the denial of the liberty of conscience. All three believe it is their sole right to determine which, if any, of its opponents can participate in governance. To really track progress in Arab politics, it is far better to focus on Tunisia. For three years after ousting a dictator in the Arab Spring, Tunisians held a debate while crafting a constitution. The most difficult part was defining liberty of conscience. No Arab constitution until then included such a phrase. Many Islamists in Tunisia as well as the elite remnants of the former dictatorship opposed the notion of individual freedom in faith, speech, and other areas of life. None- “First the blade, then the ear, then the full grain in the ear.” A JEWISH CANDIDATE IN TUNISIA’S ISLAMIST PARTY and towns. By law, political parties must include candidates from three groups: women, youth, and people with disabilities. As a result, nearly 50 percent of those running are women, while more than 50 percent are under the age of 35. One in 10 has a disabil- Unliking Facebook O ne way to get the attention of a company is to knock $90 billion off its market value. That’s what investors did to Facebook after news broke in March that the social network had allowed the misuse of personal data from millions of users. Many investors dumped their Facebook stock on prospects the company might soon be regulated and lose much of its business. At the same time, however, many equity firms that specialize in ethical investing, such as BetaShares, also dropped the stock. As the giant of “surveillance capitalism,” Facebook had met its match with another force: social capitalism. Facebook is under scrutiny on many fronts for its breaches of privacy. From Congress to the European Union to the Federal Trade Commission, Facebook must answer for breaking the trust of its more than 2 billion consumers. And millions of Facebook users have weighed whether to delete or deactivate their accounts. THE BREADTH OF CANDIDATES RUNNING FOR OFFICE – WOMEN AND YOUTH – SPEAKS TO TUNISIA’S UNDERSTANDING OF INDIVIDUAL FREEDOMS. theless, the idea was enshrined in the 2014 Constitution. And it has begun to sink into the thinking of this North African nation. On May 6, Tunisia will hold its first municipal elections since the Arab Spring. The campaign has yet to officially start. Yet the enthusiasm is hard to miss. In the one Arab country that most firmly embraces individual rights, more than 57,000 people have signed up to run for offices in 350 cities 32 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY REUTERS ity. But what really surprised observers was the high number of independents. That is viewed as a sign of disgust among youth toward traditional parties as well as frustration over a stagnant economy. Such a breadth of representation speaks to Tunisians’ understanding of the liberty of conscience. “Religion should not divide the society,” says Rachid Ghannouchi, head of the moderate Islamist party. After the local elections, the central government is expected to take up a bill that would grant more powers to municipalities. Tunisia could be about to see a new flourishing of its democracy, which would serve even more as an example for the region. r Putting money where one’s conscience is But regulation of big data collectors such as Facebook may be far off. And consumer boycotts can be fleeting. That is not the case with many of today’s investors who put their money where their conscience is. They | APRIL 16, 2018 expect long-term profits based on whether a company is operating under select social and environmental criteria, such as privacy standards, a reduced carbon footprint, and gender fairness on corporate boards. In fact, meeting such criteria is considered a “sustainable” way to do business. The market pressure on Facebook from “sustainability funds” probably helped in pushing chief executive officer Mark Zuckerberg to speed up plans to simplify privacy controls and better safeguard the governance of personal data. Facebook users will be able to more easily choose not to reveal certain traits that can mark them for advertisers, foreign hackers, or political campaigns. Not all investors agree on the criteria for sustainability, often called “environmental, social, and governance,” or ESG. Should a company, for example, be punished for creating a genetically modified crop seed that can prevent famine but might alter natural crops? Still, ethical investing is now a looming presence over companies. And many “impact investors” are beating the market in profits. They are also challenging the idea that companies must be predatory and exploitative to earn money. Facebook may be learning that lesson very fast. r READERS WRITE Author Steve Coll’s work The Feb. 7 CSMonitor.com book review of Steve Coll’s “Directorate S” was excellent. A previous book written by Coll, “Ghost Wars,” was one of the finest ever written. He is thorough and informative. FLOYD STONE Burr Ridge, Ill. US and world relations JOE HELLER © 2018 GREEN BAY PRESS-GAZETTE Regarding the Jan. 19 Monitor Daily article “ ‘America First’ at one year: what the rest of the world thinks now”: I understood and appreciated the article. I’d like more insight on and support for how future administrations might restore respect for the United States and its role in world relations. I agree that regaining lost ground will not be easy but is possible. JULIE HARTLE Mountain Home, Ark. Connections across cultures When reading the Jan. 22 cover story “My return to China,” I was brought to tears by the connection writer Ann Scott Tyson made with the Chinese journalist in Ritan Park. Encounters with others, especially from other countries and cultures, bring some of the most memorable times in one’s life. The Monitor Weekly and the Daily offer moments of joy and humanity in what can otherwise be troubling times. Keep up your mission! JOHN WEGMANN Port Angeles, Wash. The comfort of books GARY VARVEL/THE INDIANAPOLIS STAR © 2018 CREATORS.COM The Feb. 19 Mix column, “In bookstores, volumes of refuge – and resistance,” was a very good article concerning the revival of reading. Although I have my Kindle, the touch and nature of the hardcover or paperback provide one with a sense of gratification and comfort. The accumulative feeling as people glance at their books piling up on the shelves, however, can have questionable adverse side effects. LEONARD HOFFMAN London JOE HELLER © 2018 GREEN BAY PRESS-GAZETTE SEND COMMENTS about issues and topics in this publication to: email@example.com or Readers Write, 210 Massachusetts Ave., Boston, MA 02115. Comments are subject to editing and may be published on CSMonitor.com, other editions of the Monitor, or through the Monitor’s licensees (see “Postings and Submissions” Terms on CSMonitor.com for more details). For verification, your comments must include the article’s headline, and your full name, address, email address (if applicable), and telephone number. Also find us on Twitter and Facebook! THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 33 THE MIX M O V I E S . M U S I C . T V . B O O K S . C U LT U R E . T R E N D S CHARLIE PLUMMER STARS IN ‘LEAN ON PETE.’ SCOTT PATRIK GREEN/COURTESY OF A24 ON FILM ‘Lean on Pete’ is a tale of a boy and his horse DIRECTOR ANDREW HAIGH HAS A REAL FEELING FOR PEOPLE. By Peter Rainer / Film critic Haigh initially appears to be priming us for a generic fable about a lonely boy who befriends a gruff but kindly father figure, discovers his equine soul mate, and wins the racing sweepstakes. Thankfully, it doesn’t quite work out that way. Del may harbor a grudging sympathy for the boy, but he’s also a cheater who, with his accomplice and jockey, Bonnie (Chloë Sevigny), juices his horses with “vitamins.” When the horses stop winning, they get unceremoniously transported to Mexico – i.e., they get sold for horse meat. This is the predicament that Charley and Pete find themselves in. When a violent turn of events renders Charley essentially homeless, he attempts to rescue both Pete and himself by taking to the road. He hopes to find his way to Wyoming, where a fondly remembered aunt lives whom he has not been in touch with for years. Haigh is British, and his outsider’s eye probably accounts in part for the film’s lyrically askew vision of working-class fringes – the trailer homes, run-down fairgrounds, and homeless encampments. Once Charley At its simplest, “Lean on Pete” is about a boy and his horse. Writer-director Andrew Haigh, adapting a novel by Willy Vlautin, has a principled reticence that serves the story well. I was afraid at first that I would be watching a sobfest. I needn’t have worried. Nothing very grand is being attempted here, but there’s a core of feeling to what we are witnessing that keeps the sentimentality in check. Fifteen-year-old Charley Thompson (Charlie Plummer) has recently relocated with his itinerant single father, Ray (Travis Fimmel), to Portland, Ore. It’s summer break from high school, and Charley, wanting to do more than mope about, begins to frequent the local quarter horse track. A scruffy trainer and owner, Del Montgomery (Steve Buscemi), gives the boy part-time work cleaning the stable and transport trailer where Del houses his horses, and pretty soon Charley has bonded with Lean on Pete, a 5-year-old quarter horse who has seen better days (and even those days were none too good). 34 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 and Pete hit the road, the vistas open up, and yet the effect is more stifling than expansive. In the vast countryside, the pair seem closed in by their aloneness, and their serial misadventures only emphasize their vulnerability. Charley continually seeks to reassure Pete by saying to him, “Don’t worry; it will be OK,” but he could just as well be talking to himself. Pete is rather knobby and distracted-looking, and Haigh doesn’t attempt to frame him in a heroic light. In classics like “The Black Stallion” or “National Velvet,” horse and rider are spiritually aligned. “Lean on Pete” is far more modest. The movie is really about Charley and his attempt to hold on to his youth even as it is being rudely wrested from him by the rough circumstances of his life. His road trip is a series of comeuppances, starting with his disillusionment with Del and extending to an interlude with some knockabout war veterans and then with a homeless man (Steve Zahn), who is as kindly when sober as he is enraged when drunk. Plummer made a sharp impression last year as John Paul Getty III in the misbegotten “All the Money in the World,” and, in a very different vein, he impresses here again. He’s playing a kid who at first seems gangly and awkward, but he has a wariness that allows him to persevere. He’s deceptively resilient. Buscemi’s performance is likewise marvelous. In his scenes with Charley, there’s a lifetime of scrounging and connivance reflected in Del’s gimlet eyes. (Buscemi can also be seen, as Nikita Khrushchev, no less, in the recent terrific political satire “The Death of Stalin.” What a versatile actor he is!) Haigh, whose previous films include the touching gay romance “Weekend” and the resonant marital drama “45 Years,” works in the same intuitive, humanist tradition as Kelly Reichardt, the director of such films as “Certain Women” and “Night Moves.” “Wendy and Lucy,” her 2008 movie about a young woman and her dog, set partially in the outskirts of Oregon, probably influenced “Lean on Pete.” Like Reichardt’s films, Haigh’s sometimes drift off into a desultory nothingness, but he has a real feeling for people – not to mention horses. At his best, he can strike more emotional notes from silence than most directors can with a full chorus of sound. r Rated R for language and brief violence. ART Protest art is preserved in libraries, museums 1 BAILEY BISCHOFF/THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR Amanda Charles (l.) and her mother, Beatrice, look at political posters at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art’s ‘Get with the Action’ exhibition. WHEN THE 2017 WOMEN’S MARCH concluded, what remained behind, stuck on fences and piled on sidewalks, were the thousands of posters that served as the visual expression of the marchers’ ire. Museums, universities, and libraries across the United States collected signs from the march sites and put out a call on social media. Now these artifacts are being placed in archives and displayed in exhibitions. At the Sutro Library, located on the campus of San Francisco State University, professors also use posters from the march as teaching tools. For many students, the preservation of artifacts from the Women’s March signals a shift toward preserving women’s history. “To me, it means that the voices of women are no longer going to be silenced,” says Scarlett Arreola-Reyes, a junior at the university. “It means that future generations can see the efforts of women throughout history.” The New-York Historical Society and the Museum of the City of New York also sent out a call for posters, which are now on display in current exhibitions. Faculty from Northeastern University in Boston collected thousands of signs from the local march and added them to an online display titled “Art of the March.” At the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the “Get with the Action” exhibition explores “the medium of the political poster as a way to communicate pressing ideas and organize and inform a wide audience,” writes Joseph Becker, associate curator of architecture and design for SFMOMA, in an email. “Get with the Action” displays political posters from the 1960s to the present. For exhibition visitor Beatrice Charles, placing a Women’s March poster alongside posters from previous decades gives the march a historical context, she says, and shows that “we’ve learned so much, and we’re still fighting some of the same things we all were fighting a long time ago.” – Bailey Bischoff / Staff writer 2 STAFFPICKS PINNACLE OF HER ART In this time of the ubiquitous auto-tuned vocal, what a pleasure it is to hear a truly gifted vocalist at the pinnacle of her art. Melody Gardot Live in Europe finds the pop/ jazz chanteuse from Philadelphia thrilling her rapturous audiences from London to Vienna, backed by a soloist-rich band stretching the very boundaries of jazz. Listen to Gardot’s L’ÉCLIPSE elastic alto effortlessly channel the best elements of Barbra Streisand, Edith Piaf, and Nina Simone, and you’ll wonder why she isn’t a household name. BUG ALERTS The WeatherBug app can be a good go-to whether you’re still trying to keep track of snow in the forecast, wondering whether lightning will strike in your area, or wanting to see the Doppler radar map. WeatherBug is available free of charge for iOS and Android. AP 4 5 COUCH TO MUSEUM Some of the works at the Uffizi Gallery, a museum in Florence, Italy, known for its pieces from the Italian Renaissance, can now be viewed from your couch via the gallery’s virtual tour. Check it out at http://bit.ly/ uffizigallery. POST STORIES The Post, the story of how The Washington Post fought to release the Pentagon Papers during the 1970s, stars Meryl Streep and Tom Hanks and is available on DVD and Blu-ray. Monitor film critic Peter Rainer praised Streep’s performance as Post publisher Katharine Graham, writing, “In inexorable increments, she transforms what might have been just another feminist standard-bearer into something far more complex. Her hesitations, rue, and ultimate valor are soul-deep.” PIZZA CELEBRATION Dan Bransfield’s Pizzapedia is a lovely celebration of pizza’s creation, ingredients, and variations explored through 80 playful watercolor illustrations. The book details pizza’s origins in the Persian Empire during the 5th century BC as well as the various cheeses, toppings, and crusts of pizzas from Rome to New York to Chicago. Fun and wacky trivia about ambitious inventions, failed pranks, and world records peppers the pages and is sure to put a smile on your face. THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 35 BOOKS FOR GLOBAL READERS So many ways to say ‘thank you’ THIS GLORIOUS COLLECTION OF POEMS CHERISHES GRATITUDE AS AN ACT OF IMAGINATION. By Danny Heitman with your one wild and precious life? Don’t judge Poems of Gratitude by its cover. The dust jacket of Everyman’s Library’s anthology of poetry about thankfulness In Oliver’s vision, gratitude becomes has a distinctly autumnal theme, with lots something more than a passive piety. The of earth tones and a sumptuous feast on poem’s reference to death underscores the the front and a snowbound scene featuring sense of loss that makes life itself such a turkeys on the back. Despite its nod toward wonder worthy of thanks. “The Summer November and Thanksgiving, though, the Day” ends with a call to action, too, suggestcollection’s abiding message is that ing that gratitude involves a sense POETRY gratitude isn’t merely about bowing of obligation. one’s head over a holiday table. The poems That kind of emotional complexity is a here honor gratitude throughout the year, hallmark of the collection. Despite its theme and their themes extend into every season. of thankfulness, “Poems of Gratitude” isn’t The book includes “The Summer Day,” all sweetness and light. One of its recurring for example, an iconic poem by Mary Oliver. themes is the struggle to see goodness in Instructively, the poem doesn’t include the spite of, rather than because of, existing cirwords “thanks” or “gratitude.” Oliver reflects cumstances. In “Those Winter Sundays,” on the subject more circumspectly: Robert Hayden recalls a less-than-perfect childhood in which he would “rise and dress, I don’t know exactly what a fearing the chronic angers of that house.” In retrospect, despite the tensions of those prayer is. years, the adult poet comes to understand I do know how to pay attention, that his father, though flawed, nevertheless how to fall down rose early on Sundays and started a fire to into the grass, how to kneel down warm the house, then polished his son’s in the grass, best shoes: how to be idle and blessed, how to stroll through the fields, which is what I’ve been doing all day. Tell me, what else should I have done? Doesn’t everything die at last, and too soon? Tell me, what is it you plan to do Speaking indifferently to him, who had driven out the cold and polished my good shoes as well. What did I know, what did I know of love’s austere and lonely offices? A number of the poems here involve a TODAY, LIKE EVERY OTHER DAY, WE WAKE UP EMPTY Today, like every other day, we wake up empty and frightened. Don’t open the door to the study and begin reading. Take down a musical instrument. Let the beauty we love be what we do. There are hundreds of ways to kneel and kiss the ground. – Jalal al-Din Rumi, translated by Coleman Barks and John Moyne 36 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 THANKS we are saying thank you faster and faster with nobody listening we are saying thank you thank you we are saying and waving dark though it is – W.S. Merwin, from ‘Thanks’ backward glance, underscoring the degree to which gratitude often doesn’t come into focus until the object of our affection is gone. In other words, as the popular observation goes, we don’t fully appreciate something until we lose it. But what of those souls who savor grace in its actual moment? In “Wild Gratitude,” the collection’s opening poem, Edward Hirsch hints that such visionaries are often dismissed as daft. He writes of the 18thcentury English poet Christopher Smart, arguing that Smart’s passion for gratitude was misread as manic obsession, getting him locked in an asylum: With his sad religious mania, and his wild gratitude, And with his grave prayers for the other lunatics, And his great love for his speckled cat, Jeoffry. All day today – August 13, 1983 – I remembered how Christopher Smart blessed this same day in August, 1759, For its calm bravery and ordinary good conscience. Hirsch concludes that gratitude isn’t just an exercise in bland serenity, but also indulges abandon, the risk of getting carried away. True to that reality, many of the selections in “Poems of Gratitude” embrace ecstasy, as in Anne Sexton’s “Welcome Morning”: There is joy in all: in the hair I brush each morning, VNEXT PAGE SHORT TAKES in the Cannon towel, newly washed, that I rub my body with each morning, in the chapel of eggs I cook each morning, in the outcry from the kettle that heats my coffee each morning, in the spoon and the chair that cry, “hello there, Anne” each morning, in the godhead of the table that I set my silver, plate, cup upon each morning. Sexton’s poem artfully outlines the tension between daily routine and the sense of intention required to notice what’s good while harnessed to habit. In this way, true gratitude becomes an act of imagination, an enterprise particularly suited to poets. “Gratitude is a cherishing of what is, contrasted with what has been or could be,” the book’s editor, Emily Fragos, tells readers. “It is both an emotion and a practice, and it necessarily includes keen awareness of the sorrow and pain that give pleasure its value.” “Poems of Gratitude” is a tonic for the times – a reminder that the present, so fraught with the complications and conflicts of the human condition, just might be the best moment of all. r Danny Heitman, a columnist for The Advocate newspaper in Louisiana, is the author of “A Summer of Birds: John James Audubon at Oakley House.” EYE LEVEL By Jenny Xie Chinese-born, US-raised Jenny Xie was awarded the 2017 Walt Whitman Award by the Academy of American Poets for her verse straddling two worlds. In Eye Level, she writes of the Lunar New Year (“Make what you will out of ritual/ the relative with the steadiest hands cuts the hair of her cousins”) soon to be interrupted by a call to other lands (“Envelopes arrive from a university overseas,/ a new life activated”). Xie uses language that is powerful and precise not only to explore the pains of cultural assimilation (“The new country is ill fitting/ lined with cheap polyester, soiled at the sleeves”) but also other frustrations of the human experience (“If only the journey between two people/ didn’t take a lifetime.”) – Marjorie Kehe COLLECTED POEMS By Galway Kinnell Galway Kinnell, the Pulitzer Prize-winning poet who died in 2014 at 87, had many ostensible subjects, but his preoccupation was mortality. His poems often bear a reminder that any moment, however grand, is also bittersweet since nothing lasts. In “A Walk in the Country,” where his companion sees lovely grass, Kinnell remembers that at some point, most of us will rest underneath it. Like the elegiac Thomas Hardy, he’s a beautifully lucid poet best sampled in small doses. Collected Poems is a book to dip into, with wistful pleasure, again and again. – Danny Heitman YESTERDAY I WAS THE MOON By Noor Unnahar INVOCATION, 1926 Bless the laborers whose faces we do not see – like the girl my grandmother was, walking in the rails home; bless us that we remember. – Natasha Trethewey, from ‘Invocation, 1926’ Pakistani blogger Noor Unnahar has won hundreds of thousands of fans worldwide as an Instagram poet. Yesterday I Was the Moon, her first book, hums with youthful energy and bemused attempts to make sense of the world around her. Unnahar mixes simple sketches with pithy verse as she ponders ways to communicate (“my homeland gifted me/ a language with soft corners”), miracles (“this world isn’t as/ generous as it appears”), and reasons for joy (“last night I whispered/ a thank you note to the universe/ for it made oceans and stars/ equally beautiful and accessible/ for all of us”). To read Unnahar is to love her. – Marjorie Kehe THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 37 BOOKS FOR GLOBAL READERS Poems that blend culture and nature CARL PHILLIPS CAPTURES THE SUBTLE JOYS OF BEAUTY THAT CANNOT LAST. One isn’t quite sure what engages Phillips more, the real woods or the idea of them. The question arises again in “Musculature,” which begins with a discussion of his dog and then digressIn “Coin of the Realm,” a collection of es into a discussion of language and critical essays that he published in 2004, mortality, the canine itself never quite Carl Phillips outlined a literary sensibil- coming into focus. ity that’s helpful to keep in mind while That’s an abiding challenge with reading his poems. “For me, to write is Phillips’s poems, which can become so a form of prayer, however secular the immersed in intellectual disquisition subject of the writing at hand,” he told that they sound aridly abstract. readers. “Writing is as private as At his best, though, Phillips POETRY prayer – it contains, as prayer has a keen eye for what’s trandoes, an implicit faith in there being sitory – for those things made all the somewhere a listener and at the same more beautiful because they can’t last. time a sober realization that prayer is In “Swimming,” he artfully compares wind-swept trees to a kind of star that finally one-directional.” That vision rests at the heart of Wild a helmsman might steer by, then wistIs the Wind, Phillips’s new collection of fully asks, “Do people, anymore, even poems. His verse often seems like an in- say helmsman?” What results is a poignant moment terior monologue on which the reader is – the poet using language to preserve casually eavesdropping. The title “Wild Is the Wind” refers to a memory, then wondering if language an old jazz standard, but it also neatly itself, a cherished instrument for passchimes with Phillips’s interest in nature. ing what’s precious from one age to The double meaning of the title under- another, is also vulnerable to time. scores his equal fascination with both It’s a problem perhaps only a poet culture and the outdoors. would be anguished by, though anothHis poems casually quote Lucretius er poem, “Brothers in Arms,” shows or Marcus Aurelius while touching on Phillips coming to terms with the ocwind and water, woods and bonfires, cupational hazards of his vocation: coyotes and storms. In the title poem, “I’ve always thought gratitude’s the Phillips recalls a time when he lived “at one correct response to having been the forest’s edge – metaphorically, so it made, however painfully, to see this life can sometimes seem now, though the for- more up close.” est was real, as my life beside it was....” – Danny Heitmen WHAT THE LOST ARE FOR Here, before these shadows that, in their disappearance, returning, then falling as softly again elsewhere, have sometimes seemed the first and last lesson left on the nature of power, though they are not that, I bow my head, I bend my knee. I hardly care, I think, anymore, who goes there, only let me pass – however flawed – among them, my fears not stripped from me, but kept hidden as, more often than not, just beneath stamina, somewhere grace, too, lies hidden. Nobody speaks to me as you do. Nowhere water-lit do the leaves pale faster. – From ‘Wild is the Wind,’ by Carl Phillips GOLD LEAF To lift, without ever asking what animal exactly it once belonged to, the socketed helmet that what’s left of the skull equals up to your face, to hold it there, mask-like, to look through it until looking through means looking back, back through the skull, into the self that is partly the animal you’ve always wanted to be, that – depending – fear has prevented or rescued you from becoming, to know utterly what you’ll never be, to understand in doing so what you are, and say no to it, not to who you are, to say no to despair. From ‘Wild Is the Wind,’ by Carl Phillips 38 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 PEOPLE Hurricane Maria upended Puerto Rico – and its fishing industry. Raimundo Espinoza Chirinos is helping in an innovative way. By Whitney Eulich / Correspondent MAKING A DIFFERENCE R NAGUABO, PUERTO RICO aimundo Espinoza Chirinos leans over the side of a fishing boat and points at a dark blur rising up slowly beneath the choppy water. “Here he comes. He’s got something,” Mr. Espinoza says, as fisherman Julio Ortiz breaks the surface of the water. Mr. Ortiz, wearing a short-sleeved wet suit and small circular mask, treads water as he heaves up a contraption made of red plastic milk crates fastened together with rope. It’s a fish trap – an illegal one given that it’s made of plastic – that was lost when hurricane Maria tore across Puerto Rico last year. The estimated hundreds of traps that were swept out to sea in September are not only capturing and killing lobster and fish but also potentially seeping chemicals into water and the seafood people eat. “There are no markings on the surface [for these lost traps], which means only someone under the water every day is likely to find them,” says Espinoza, founder of Conservación ConCiencia, a nonprofit supported by The Ocean Foundation that works on sustainable fisheries and climate resilience here. When hurricane Maria crashed into Puerto Rico the morning of Sept. 20, 2017, the entire population suffered. Six months later, tens of thousands of families are still without electricity, and evidence of the homes and livelihoods swept away by the rain and ferocious winds litters communities – and the ocean floor. Espinoza launched Conservación ConCiencia in 2016, first leading a trip to Cuba for Puerto Rican fishermen to focus on conservation and fishing practices, and later starting Puerto Rico’s first shark research and conservation program. But in the aftermath of the storm, he realized he needed to change gears. “Everyone kept asking, ‘How’s the ocean? What’s the damage?’ ” Espinoza recalls. “And it became clear that no one knew. Everything was in crisis [on the island], and no one was looking” at the fisheries. He received funding from a Puerto Rican organization to help replace lost fishing gear, although only items that are considered sustainable and safe for local fisheries. He also teamed up with the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to ALFREDO SOSA/STAFF CLEANUP MISSION: Raimundo Espinoza Chirinos, founder of the nonprofit Conservación ConCiencia, stands on a boat as fishermen dive to retrieve lost traps off the coast of Puerto Rico. launch an emergency relief project. That’s what he is doing out on the water today with Ortiz, the fisherman. The project taps into the skill sets of fishermen here and offers added benefits such as economic support and the building of relationships between fishermen, scientists, and government officials. Its premise is simple: When fishermen go out diving for lobster and conch, a common practice here, and see a trap on the ocean floor or in a coral reef, they take note of the GPS location and send it to Espinoza. He then returns with them, documents the removal, and pays them for their time. A potential example for future disasters AREA OF DETAIL Atlantic Ocean Naguabo San Juan PUERTO RICO KAREN NORRIS/STAFF It’s a unique project and could set an example for future coastal disasters around the world. Ortiz and his two sons, Jonathan and Orlando Ortiz Pobon, are all working together on today’s cleanup mission. They were skeptical when they first heard that someone was offering money to help remove lost traps after the storm. Maybe they’d drive a scientist or official around, but surely they wouldn’t be paid, Ortiz recalls thinking. Soon after Maria, Espinoza started showing up in fishing ports like Naguabo, bringing food and water from San Juan, the island’s capital. “This was some of the first aid we saw,” says Ortiz, referring to the weeks following the storm. His home in nearby Punta Santiago flooded. The top floor of a neighbor’s home was washed away. The storage lockers on the dock in VNEXT PAGE THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 39 How to take action important for the future of our work and for the health of our fish,” Ortiz says. “I found 60 lobsters in a [lost] trap,” Jonathan adds. “They were all basically dead. Wasted,” he says. Earlier that morning, he had surfaced from the water to ask Espinoza to pass him a hammer. He dived back down to whack on a trap wedged in the rocks below. V FROM PREVIOUS PAGE Naguabo, like those in other fishing towns across Puerto Rico, were washed out to sea, taking with them the fishing gear – and work – of many families here. Espinoza began meeting fishermen and telling them about his project. Today he’s working with about 25 individuals in five communities. “We need to change the system that’s always asking favors of fishermen but doesn’t treat them as a valuable resource,” Espinoza says as he adjusts an action camera on Jonathan’s wrist. Jonathan tips backward into the water to look for traps with his father. The camera is a small but key step in the project. It documents the ocean floor, creating a record of sea-grass growth, coral reefs, and other aspects of the fisheries’ health post-Maria. It also records the process the fishermen use to remove the traps and can be used as a teaching tool for other fishermen joining the project. Hailing from a landlocked city The water is choppy, and Espinoza mentions he’s feeling a little queasy. Despite his dedication to the sea, this wasn’t the environment he grew up in. Born and raised in the landlocked Andean city of Quito, Ecuador, he became fascinated with marine life following a family trip to the Galápagos Islands when he was in fifth grade. He went on to earn degrees in environmental studies and sustainable development and conservation biology in the United States, eventually moving to Puerto Rico, where his father had moved for work. It was during a semester researching sea turtles in Baja California, Mexico, when he realized the importance of social connections in conservation efforts. Outside of his fieldwork, he tutored local children in English with a focus on vocabulary about the environment. After he talked about protecting endangered sea turtles one day, one of his students told him excitedly that his uncle had given him one for his birthday. EspiALFREDO SOSA/STAFF noza thought the child was confused: Sea turtles are proNEW WORK: Puerto Rican fisherman Julio Ortiz brings an illegal tected. He probably meant a lobster trap to the surface. Hurricane Maria swept many traps out to sea last year. snapping turtle. But sure enough, several Espinoza reports that he and his collab- weeks later the student came in with his sea orators removed 155 lost traps from the turtle – and his extended family. ocean floor between Jan. 29 and March “Just the connections we made talking 13. The fishermen are paid $100 per trap, about sea turtles and their importance in a which comes out to roughly $500 per trip. basic English class led to its release,” EsToday, Ortiz and his sons recovered 10 traps pinoza says. from a small underwater cave about 55 feet “It made me realize the strong ties bebeneath the water’s surface. tween our ecosystem and community inIt’s a vital economic boost at a moment volvement,” he says. “It can’t just be scienwhen gear is damaged and the ecosystem is tists talking about conservation; locals need in flux. Ortiz says he earned between $150 to be invested, too.” and $180 per day fishing before Maria, and His project working with fishermen after that since the storm, key species like conch Maria is true to that philosophy. And it’s aren’t where they used to be. gone beyond fishing communities helping But it’s more than money that motivates him efficiently clean polluting debris from the men to participate. “A clean ocean is the ocean. They’ve also opened a window 40 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 UniversalGiving (www.universalgiving .org) helps people give to and volunteer for top-performing charitable organizations around the world. All the projects are vetted by UniversalGiving; 100 percent of each donation goes directly to the listed cause. Below are links to three groups whose efforts dovetail with the issues discussed in the accompanying story: r Miracles in Action (http://bit.ly/ MirAction) provides Guatemalans living in extreme poverty with opportunities to help themselves through sustainable development projects. Take action: Make a donation so a family can learn how to fish or grow food (http://bit.ly/ GrowFoodM). r Osa Conservation (http://bit.ly/ OsaCons) applies scientific and other expertise to protecting the biodiversity of the Osa Peninsula in Costa Rica. Take action: Finance the planting of trees to help restore a rainforest (http://bit.ly/ TreesRF). r UniversalGiving (http://bit.ly/ UniGiv) responds to crises by identifying top-performing nonprofits that are well positioned to lend assistance. Take action: Contribute to UniversalGiving’s Crisis Relief Fund (http://bit.ly/CrisisRF). into the realities of fishing in Puerto Rico, realities that even government agencies tasked with overseeing the practice weren’t aware of. Espinoza estimates that some 95 percent of the traps they’ve uncovered are illegal. “We knew people used illegal traps, but we didn’t know the extent of it, and it’s quite big,” says Ricardo López, director of commercial fisheries at Puerto Rico’s Department of Natural and Environmental Resources. “I think this project ... will not only help clean the waters but better integrate fishermen” into formal environmental protection efforts, he says. It could inform future oversight efforts as well. After about an hour of diving, the back half of the boat is packed with rectangular plastic traps in red, yellow, black, and white. “We need to work directly with the fishermen to transition into legal gear,” Espinoza says. “They have a vast knowledge of the water here. Together, I’m confident we’ll see change.” r For more information, visit conservacionconciencia.org. And for a Monitor video about the cleanup of fish traps, go to http://bit.ly/MariaCSM. HOMEFORUM ESSAY Making peace with my magnolia IT CROWDS THE HOUSE. IT SHEDS All that, and our magnolia blooms In the front yard of my grandmother’s house in LEAVES. IT BLOOMS ONCE. AND YET ... only once a year. I have created a monster, I thought, Hattiesburg, Miss., there was a giant as I looked up at this icon of the American South, distant cousin tree. My cousin Judy and I played beneath it as children. We to that old giant in Mississippi, and wondered if I could bear couldn’t have been more than 3 and 4 years old, respectively. It to cut it down. I wondered what my grandmother would think was the first tree we ever climbed. about that. In my memory it is a magnolia, with a massive trunk and smooth, thick branches low enough for us to sit on and dangle And then I saw it – the first blossom of the season, close and our legs under a canopy of leaves that inspired the beginnings of low, huge by flowering-tree standards, just opening, as if to infinite possibilities. It was as if the big green leaves were tenour world of make-believe. When my husband and I retired and built our cottage by the sea tatively holding out a peace offering, a most precious treasure, pure and white and perfectly formed, hinting at a beauty of the after 30 years of living in a dry western climate filled with scrub spirit untouched by age or time. oak and ponderosa pines, I had to have a magnolia. The landscapI thought about how the magnolia provided the shade that er asked where I wanted it placed, and I naively replied, “Where I cooled our porch and kept the sun out of our eyes in the aftercan see it.” They planted it about five feet from our back porch, in noon, how its branches housed the birds that sang in the suma bed of azaleas. It was just a stick then. But in the past 15 years it mer night. There was safety in those branches for the mockinghas grown to almost four stories high and 20 feet across. bird and the whippoorwill. I could hear the rustle of those leaves We had to prune the lower limbs because they were invadin the wind, which, by their constant falling, signal constant ing the house. It has big, shiny dark-green leaves that fall off renewal. They were leaves like the ones that had once sheltered in great numbers during every month of the year. They fall on little girls sitting on the precipice of a lifelong sisterhood. the grass and the walks and the flower beds. They are thick and As the scent of that perfect blossom filled the air, I realized that pointed, and they get stuck in the azaleas (which don’t bloom anymore because the magnolia shades them) and must be anything that brings such beauty into this world deserves to live clawed out by hand. in it. A pearl of wisdom revealed itself to me: Some things in life One time last spring we decided to just let the leaves build are messy, but sometimes, they are worth it. So I stood there and made my peace with that magnolia. I knew that I would go on up, hoping they would eventually disintegrate, but when they raking its leaves – without complaint, and perhaps even joyfully. got knee-deep after a couple of weeks we relented and raked I believe my grandmother would be pleased. them into a pile the size of a Volkswagen Beetle. They filled nine trash bags, which we hauled to the curb. – Joy Thompson Dingee MAGNOLIAS BLOOM IN BOSTON’S BACK BAY. JOHN NORDELL/TCSM/FILE I have created a monster, I thought, as I looked at the tree. But could I bear to cut it down? HOMEFORUM Words in the news Bolded clues are linked to current events. What former French president faces a corruption trial? By Owen Thomas Across Down 7. Also known as mare’s-tail clouds 1. The way one used to call 8. Hosts 3. His internet access was cut off recently by his hosts at their embassy in London 9. NASA craft will get seven times closer to this object than any previous probe 10. Last month’s “moon” won’t occur again until 2020 11. Arab market 2. Damon, to Pythias 4. Checked with 5. President Trump took it to task for its tax payments 6. Mexican state on Gulf Coast 12. Mozart, for one 10. Clobber 14. Eat quickly (slang) 16. Topic for debate 18. Former French president has been ordered to stand trial for corruption 22. Story, in song 13. Star of this revival of an eponymous TV show got a congratulatory call from Trump 15. New head of the Department of Veterans Affairs 17. Release 23. Chanel of fashion 25. Conditions 19. Extra-point expert 26. United Nations agency for children 21. Enlighten 20. With “hoo” 24. “Deputy first dog” for Gov. Jerry Brown in California (give yourself extra credit if you know this one) 27. Too Sudoku How to do sudoku Difficulty: A monthly feature. Questions? Comments? Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Fill in the grid so the numbers 1 through 9 appear just once in each column, row, and three-by-three block. CROSSWORD AND SUDOKU SOLUTIONS 42 THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 When plump was a pleasing word narrative holds that in the past, fatness Recently, I finished a route in the was culturally appreciated. It was a rock climbing gym and someone sign that you were healthy and wealthy said to me, “That’s pretty stout!” I was enough to eat three meals a day. It was confused and maybe a little insulted. Was only at the turn of the 20th century that he, out of the blue, calling me fat? a high enough proportion My reaction had a lot to do of Westerners had so much with how fraught the issue of “fat” is in American society food that thinness resulting from self-denial became the today. On one hand, we have standard of beauty. very negative attitudes about Do the terms we used it. Obesity is considered a in the past to talk about “fatgrave health concern, and By Melissa Mohr ness” support this story? standards of beauty skew very In the 19th century, doctors advocatmuch toward the thin. But on the other, ed “plumpness.” Dr. T.C. Duncan’s 1878 there is a growing “body positive” moveguide, “How to Be Plump,” describes this ment that encourages people of all sizes state as beneficial both to one’s health to see their bodies as beautiful. and to one’s looks and is filled with adThe word thick, which we looked at vice about how to “get fleshy.” last week, goes along with this movePlumpness, though, was a state of ment; it is a wholly positive term that celmoderation. If you got too fleshy, you beebrates “bigger” bodies. Fat, in contrast, came corpulent, and this was considered is a word that is inherently stigmatizing. A commonly accepted historical to be unhealthy and unattractive. Universal womanhood It was my first time traveling in a particular country where sexual harassment of foreign women was not uncommon. Our group wanted to respect the customs of modesty for women in this country, so even though it was quite hot during that season, we wore clothing that completely covered our arms and legs. Nevertheless, the harassment occurred. I have always found prayer to be reliable in addressing challenges, so I turned to God. I wanted to understand more fully the purity of all women and men – a quality that’s within everyone’s real identity as God’s spiritual idea, or child. In the Bible’s book of Genesis, we read, “Male and female created he them” (1:27). This helped me see that all of God’s children include all the masculine and feminine qualities of our Father-Mother God by virtue of being God’s complete reflection or expression. There’s no conflict between these qualities. In “Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures,” Christian Science discoverer Mary Baker Eddy describes man (a generic term for all of God’s children) in part as “the compound idea of God, including The word fat itself combined these dual senses from its very first uses. A 13th-century historian praised King Henry I, describing him as a “fair man ... and fat also,” while the ideal early medieval woman was “fat, tender, and beautiful.” Yet fatness was also moralized, associated with the sin of gluttony. As these words show, we have always been of two minds about fatness. In the 20th century, though, its positive aspects largely dropped out of the picture. The body positive activists who fight “fat-shaming” are in a way restoring the balance we have lost. As for stout, I had forgotten that it isn’t just a negative term for “short and fat.” It also means “brave,” “determined,” “strong,” and “vigorous,” as in “a stout defense.” King Henry I could have been stout as well as fat. Among climbers, a stout route is a tough one. It was a compliment. r all right ideas;... that which has not a single Love and Truth, we are all inherently receptive to truth and love. quality underived from Deity” (p. 475). When we entered the shop, at first I hesI was so reassured by this view that God’s pure and perfect creation includes itated to say anything, but then quietly and everyone. Since we reflect Him, our real firmly I told the man that what he had said identity is Godlike, as holy as God is holy to my friend had upset her greatly. Then I and as valued by each other as completely said: “We are here visiting your country beas God values all His, Her, sons and daugh- cause we love your people and the beauty ters. This gave me a conviction that even if of your culture, and we want to understand someone isn’t being reyou better. But we also spectful or appropriate, hope you will learn to unA CHRISTIAN SCIENCE derstand us better, and there is a solid basis for PERSPECTIVE we want you to know that a change in course and we are good women who hope for progress. Within a day, my prayers were put to deserve your respect and honor as much as the test. A young woman in our group had your wives and daughters do.” The man looked right at my friend gone to purchase a blouse, but while the shop owner was measuring her, he had and apologized for what he had said. He made some sexual comments that so up- thanked her for coming back to pay for the set her she left shaking in fear. The next day blouse. And we left on good terms. she told me what had happened and asked While I don’t know what broader impact if I would go with her to pick up the blouse. this experience may have had on the man, Part of me wanted to simply tag along to me it illustrates how each individual can to help her feel safe, but as I held to my be a part of forwarding progress in how we prayers from earlier, something in me knew think of both women and men. We can all that I needed to speak up to challenge take a mental stand for the expression of the man’s misconception of womanhood. universal womanhood and manhood in all I needed to have the courage of my spiri- of us – the right of everyone everywhere to tual convictions that the correct message express strength, goodness, and purity. Bewould be heard in a way that would bless, cause that is how we are made! because as the children of God, infinite – Susan Booth Mack Snipes THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WEEKLY | APRIL 16, 2018 43 70% DE R BY A P 30 off Taught by Neil deGrasse Tyson DIRECTOR OF THE HAYDEN PLANETARIUM, AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY LECTURES RI L LIM D TIME OF R FE O R E IT The Inexplicable Universe: Unsolved Mysteries 1. History’s Mysteries Take a closer look at mysteries of physics that were once unexplainable but, thanks to quantum physics, are now better understood. 2. 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