CONTENTS >> ON THE COVER Cover image by Soulby Jackson, www.skjphotography.co.za Shot on location at Alleysway Gym, Bedfordview, www.alleysway.co.za 30HOW TO SURVIVE YOUR FIRST PREP 38HUGE GUNS 50TIME UNDER TENSION 68THEACRINE VS CAFFEINEE Key points en route to shredville Grow yours the Shane Kreusch way. Are super slow reps still the rage in the gy gym? Energy without the jitters ALSO IN THIS ISSUE: 20 The Rock from Nkandla Jabulani Buthelezi shows it is never too late to pursue your dreams 28 Moving weight versus working muscle Which method is better? 34 Muscle confusion How to implement change in your routine 52 Protein is still king Science confirms protein’s vital role in building strength and size 54 Machines or free weights Biomechanics – a legitimate debate 58 Stop muscle breakdown 64 72 74 Ideal food choices for recovery 64 Claudette Renney We profile this ridiculously hot IFBB Fitness Bikini competitor 72 The hunger games Shred smart and stress less 74 Balancing act The impact that foods have on blood sugar levels Show coverage: 76 Arnold Classic USA 82 Arnold Classic Australia 86 PCA Development Show 88 Elite Athlete Extravaganza 92 PCA Conrad Nagel Xtreme Classic 95 Last rep Views on all things bodybuilding 6 Muscle Evolution 76 38 EDITOR’S LETTER at that scale and pace. So, forget about fast gains. I’ve seen people come to the gym all geared up with their bands, belts and the latest headphones. It’s great to have all that shit. I have it, but it doesn’t make you hardcore. What makes you hardcore is grinding it out for years on end, and continuing to lift after you get your ass kicked at a bodybuilding show or a powerlifting competition. Yours truly with veterans Lifting when your squat Vic Alley and Shane Kreusch sucks. Lifting when it hurts. Dealing with adversity KEEP LIFTING makes you hardcore. Leave your phone at home, put another plate train so that I can deal with life. Many on the bar and don’t expect anyone to go to gym only to stimulate. This understand your preoccupation with the is not training. A more appropriate term to best describe this practice is iron. Educate yourself and don’t just rely on maintenance. any so-called guru. If you decide to put a Real training demands a certain kind of chemical in your body, find out the impact pain that mutes everything around you. It it will have on you. makes you forget about the inconsequential Always train as if nobody is watching, things in life. All that matters is the barbell because nobody really is. People couldn’t on your back. care less about you and your deadlift You’re bullshitting yourself if you think numbers. They’re all buried in their own that you can still hear a conversation when phones and fake social media profiles and you’re training ‘hard’. cannot wait to upload their pissy workouts Train for a purpose. Don’t stop and don’t on YouTube or check their latest Instagram get discouraged just because you missed a notifications. Don’t be like them. lift. There is no secret that will add 10 kilos of Don’t satisfy your ego by sacrificing your muscle to your frame (unless you originate form for numbers. It’s better to lift less from a planet called Krypton) without weight with good form than to push hard hard work, rest, supplementation and the and get injured. Be patient – the weight will consistency of a decent meal plan. increase when you grow stronger. Over the It takes time and dedication to reach your long term, you must love what you do. If goals – be it to become super shredded, you hate every minute, hardcore is not for acquiring some muscle mass, or simply move you. Rather do something else. some heavy-ass weight. And time doesn’t preclude anyone from Werner learning things the hard way, especially Editor when it comes down to the time you spend under a ton of weight. Hardcore lifting has no expiry date... it’s a way of life. MY FAVOURITE THIS ISSUE: Today we are bombarded with info from all angles and there’s an app for everything. Truth be told, you don’t have to know everyone’s opinion on something to make a decision. The nature of the beast is that you’ll have to work extremely hard after making your initial ‘fast’ gains in your first few months as a beginner. It’s the only time in your life when you’ll experience progress I PAGE 40 You Tube 8 Muscle Evolution WIN THE ARMS RACE! PUBLISHER & EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Andrew Carruthers EDITOR Werner Beukes MANAGING EDITOR Pedro van Gaalen ART DIRECTION & DESIGN Tanja Schmitz Christian Nel ADMINISTRATION Leoni Needham ADVERTISING firstname.lastname@example.org 011 791 3646 PHOTOGRAPHERS Gary Phillips, Soulby Jackson, Ben Myburgh, Slade @ Pure Studio, Cindy Ellis, Isaac Hinds, Naco Rautenbach CONTRIBUTORS & ADVISORY Anthony Roberts, Sean Johnson, Joe Pietaro, Justin Maguire, Roy Butterton, Stehan Schoeman THE PUBLISHER Postnet suite 99, Private Bag X8 North Riding, 2162 Head Office: +27 11 791 3646 Fax: 086 660 4761 E-mail: email@example.com Unit 7, Ground Floor, Boskruin View 181 Girdwood Road, Randpark Ridge, 2169 DISTRIBUTION ENQUIRIES RNA DISTRIBUTION, Tel +27 11 473 8700 SUBSCRIPTIONS Tel 011 791 3646; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org No liability is assumed by The Maverick Publishing Corporation, Muscle Evolution Magazine nor any of the authors of the information provided in this publication. The Maverick Publishing Corporation cannot be held liable for any advice provided in this publication. The information published in this magazine should not be considered as medical advice, please consult a registered doctor. The Maverick Publishing Corporation shall not be liable for any unsolicited material, nor photographs or manuscripts submitted to our publication office. The Maverick Publishing Corporation reserve the right to reject any advertising without notification, and will not publish any editorial material nor advertising that we feel does not comply with our readership audience. FOLLOW US ON TWITTER @muscleevomag | TAG YOUR PHOTOS ON INSTAGRAM #teamME & #MEpeople | BEHIND THE SCENES ON INSTAGRAM @muscleevomag | VIDEOS ON YOUTUBE: muscleevolutiontv | FACEBOOK www.facebook.com/muscleevomag Since the first Pak can rolled off a Jersey assembly line in ‘83, we’ve prided ourselves in leading by example. Not content to follow, we’ve blazed our own trail in the iron underground for close to four decades. We’ve been out in front of the trends, the fads and the flashes in the pan. Being on the frontline in defending the nutritional regimens of the hardest training athletes in the world, as the “True Original” training multivitamin, we’ve won the trust of the bodybuilders and powerlifters who lead the pack. In the front of their minds, at the top of their lists, when the time came to put in the work, it was Animal Pak that they called upon. Since day one, Pak has been the one they could count on, the one who stood the test of time, the one to lead from the front. Today, the original Animal Pak is also available in powder. youtube.com/animalpak | @animalpak | email@example.com | 800.872.0101 | www.animalpak.com PUBLISHER’S LETTER FROM THE PUBLISHERS OF THE NEXT EVOLUTION I almost didn’t take a trip down to the coast shortly before this magazine’s deadline. Work usually gets too chaotic, which makes it hard to leave. But if there’s one thing I’ve come to understand, it’s the need to make time for what’s important in life. I guess you could say that in my older years I’ve come to understand the value of spending time with family and the people who are most important in my life. Just the other day I heard that someone I knew really well had suddenly and unexpectedly fallen critically ill. This once thriving and healthy individual was now in hospital fighting for their life. That type of news really puts life into perspective. Suffice to say, I’m embracing every moment and I’m glad I took the trip. I also haven’t been able to train or get to the gym as much as I used to. As PAGE MACHINES VS 54 FREE WEIGHTS eager as I am to get my strength back up to where it once was, I’ve had to put that aspect of life aside for a few weeks to focus on more important and pressing issues. I’ve never been able to focus on too many tasks at a time, and the thing about training properly is that it demands your absolute and total attention, all of the time. I’ve never been that guy who does things half-arsed. I’ve always focused 110% on whatever it was I’ve wanted to pursue at that point in time. With that said, I’ve come to appreciate balance. I guess that’s one of the reasons why I never did more than two bodybuilding shows in my career. I was always more interested in my business and forging ahead as an entrepreneur. Don’t get me wrong, I truly respect anyone who competes, because when I last stood on stage it took everything I had inside me to display the best physique I could. I can certainly say it wasn’t great for business, though. I still love promoting the sport and those who have chosen to use bodybuilding to build their careers. I also have a very deep respect for those who commit to competing in shows and endure what’s needed to step on stage. Having said that, the way we continue to promote bodybuilding and fitness is going to change. Our online portal, for instance, is going to be focused more around the athletes. No matter how many athletes we feature in the magazines, we still don’t get to promote as many as we’d like. But that’s all about to change. Stay tuned to our websites and online channels for more on how we’re going to take athlete promotion to the next level. It’s important that we keep creating and evolving our platforms to continue to grow our sport locally and promote those who sustain it – the athletes. This will be the next evolution in our business and the core of our purpose going forward – to promote more athletes and profile the huge swathes of up-and-coming local talent through both our web and printed platforms. I’m excited about what is to come. Enjoy this issue. Andrew Editor-In-Chief OVER 73 000 MAGAZINES PRINTED (COMBINED) 10 Muscle Evolution NEWS MUSCLE NEWS NPL PRO-GAINS An ultra-premium sports supplement scientifically-formulated to promote muscular hypertrophy. The nutrient-rich formula delivers 55g of quality protein via a multistage protein release mechanism, along with 10g of naturally occurring BCAAs and 10g of L-glutamine. This ensures optimised nitrogen retention, and promotes lean muscle mass and strength gains, while aiding optimum muscle recovery. A precise ratio of fast-digesting whey protein isolate, whey protein hydrolysate, and whey protein concentrate has been included for rapid amino acid uptake. Calcium caseinate, soy protein isolate and egg albumin provide a slower release of amino acids to create the optimal anabolic environment for hypertrophy and recovery. Also contains complex carbohydrates designed for individuals or hard-gainers who are seeking to maximise lean muscle gains. This ensures rapid post-workout muscle glycogen replacement for optimal muscle recovery. In addition, Pro-Gains provides a sustained energy release by utilising a multi-stage carbohydrate release system. ANIMAL FURY Anim mal Fury is a no-nonsense pre-workout pow wder keg that could help serious lifters stay y locked in the zone. The special formulation com mbines proven pre-training staples like Citru ulline Malate, Beta Alanine, L-Tyrosine and Cafffeine Anhydrous, all in efficacious doses, with 5g o of Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAA). Fury also o tastes as good as it works, with crisp and refre eshing Green Apple and Watermelon flavours. USN LAUNCHES NEW RASCALS FLAVOURS USN’s popular BCAA Amino + intra-workout and Amino Ener-G products are now available in innovative Rascals flavours. Amino Ener-G products can now be bought in tasty Rascals Blueberry and Rascals Raspberry Soda flavours, while BCAA Amino + is offered in the Blueberry variant. BCAA Amino + contains a branched chain amino acid ratio of 2:1:1, to aid muscle recovery, maintenance, and endurance. The formulation also contains 2000mg of glutamine per serving. Amino Ener-G is an all-day energising, sugar-free amino acid drink that contains TeaCrine™ to help increase focus, stamina and energy levels, without the crash. 12 Muscle Evolution CORRECTION: JAN TANA, NOT PRO TAN AT ARNOLD CLASSIC AFRICA In the March/April 2018 edition of Muscle Evolution we incorrectly stated that Pro Tan is the exclusive tan provider to the Arnold Classic Africa. We regret the mistake and would like to apologise unreservedly for our error. It is Jan Tana that has secured the exclusive rights as the official onsite tanning service provider for this year’s Arnold Classic Africa, which takes place from 18 to 20 May at the Sandton Convention Centre in Johannesburg. As the exclusive tanning, hair and makeup provider at the Arnold Classic Africa, Jana Tana will provide professional airbrush tanning, hair and makeup services to ensure competitors look their absolute best on the day of the competition. Jan Tana is also the official tanning, hair and makeup sponsor for the IFBB Elite Pro show at the Arnold Classic Africa. The Jan Tana Team has tanned thousands of competitors all over the world for the past 35 years. Please book your tanning time for the day before you go on stage at the Arnold Classic Africa. If you have any questions, email the Jan Tana Team at firstname.lastname@example.org. Follow Jan Tana on Instagram @jan_tana_international or visit www.jantana.com for more information. ‘THE BEAST’ SUFFERS INJURY SETBACK IFBB Pro bodybuilder Earl ‘The Beast’ Abrahams tore his left quad while performing unilateral leg presses as part of his off-season training regimen. It happened on Earl’s second warm-up set, when he was pressing 4 20s a side (160kg). “I don’t think I will do unilateral presses again anytime soon,” says the 122kg Capetonian juggernaut, who competed in three Arnold Classic Pro competitions in 2017, placing 7th at the Arnold Classic Australia, 6th at the Arnold Classic South America and 8th at the Arnold Classic Africa. ‘The Beast’ was using the leg press to pre-exhaust his legs for squats later in the workout. “Well, it’s fair to say I never gott around d to squatting. This is my third pull performing this particular movement – the two previous pulls were both on my hammies. I have really been hammering my legs to get them to match the size of my upper body. I think because of this continuous beating they were overtrained and just caved in under the pressure. I have had numerous pulls and tears over the years. Last year I also pulled my right pec and left lat on different occasions, but no tear has been as painful as this one!” Despite the excruciating pain, the bodybuilder from Worcester says his recovery has been nothing but astonishing. “This “Thi was a major j ssecond degree tear on both the rectus femoris and vastus medialis heads. I had massive bleeding, swelling and pain, but with the assistance of my physician Christo van Dyk, physiotherapist Engela Cardosa, and biokineticist Helena Rousseau and her brilliant air jet therapy, I was walking unsupported within two weeks after the incident. Thank you also to all my friends and family for their incredible support.” Earl plans to compete in shows from September onwards with the aim of making a huge impact on the Pro circuit as he feels that he has improved immensely over the past year. We all wish you a full recovery and we hope to see ‘The Beast’ in action soon! RIMAL LUTAMINE 000 exercise the body loses significant During e s of glutamine. A high quality amounts L-glutam ine supplement is therefore ideal for als looking to maintain lean muscle individua his all important amino acid also plays mass. Th a critical role in protein synthesis, further g its role as an anabolic agent. Primal stressing ne 5000 contains 5000mg of pure Glutamin mine per serving. It is a versatile, plain L-Glutam and can also be added to pre- and powder a post-worrkout drinks, as well as protein shakes es for added benefit. and juice NEWS MUSCLE NEWS NPL MICELLAR CASEIN PROTEIN A slow-digesting milk protein high in musclebuilding amino acids, perfect for nighttime use. Consuming Micellar Casein before bed elevates musclebuilding amino acids in your bloodstream for prolonged periods of up to 7 hours, enhancing your body's muscle tissue repair and rebuilding processes while you sleep. Contains 21g of high quality casein per serving and is further fortified with 5g of L-Glutamine, 1.5g of GABA and 600mg of ZMA. These key ingredients provide optimal muscle growth support by increasing natural growth hormone levels and improving sleep, as well as supporting muscular recovery and boosting the immune system. ONE STEP CLOSER TO THE OLYMPICS Formulated with NPL Maxcise®, an approach that ensures the precise therapeutic dosages and a combination of ingredients to maximize results. PCA’S H&H CLASSIC MOVED TO JULY The Physical Culture Association (PCA) South Africa is expanding at a phenomenal rate. The H&H Bodybuilding and Fitness Classic, in it’s eleventh year and a bodybuilding institution in Gauteng, now falls under the PCA and will be hosted on 6 and 7 July 2018 at the Kaleideo Auditorium in Kempton Park. Hennie Kotze, H&H show organiser and one of only a few South Africans who attained IFBB Pro Status, recently decided to join the ranks of the rapidly growing PCA South Africa. Kotze follows in the footsteps of PCA Pro’s Wiehann Mentz (former NABBA/WFF) and Cobus van der Merwe (former IFBB). The PCA was formed in the United Kingdom in 2015 with the objective of putting athletes first and improving the spectator experience at bodybuilding and fitness contests. Be the first to know the most current PCA SA information by contacting Kevin on 072 447 7520, or following PCASAarmy on Facebook. Visit the new website at www.pcasouthafrica.co.za or check out the latest photos on Instagram @pcasa. 14 Muscle Evolution Rafael Santonja, President of the International Federation of Bodybuilding and Fitness (IFBB), has announced that bodybuilding will form part of the 2018 South American Games in Bolivia this year. Classic Bodybuilding, Men's Physique, Bikini Fitness and Women's Fitness are due to appear for the first time at the South American Games, scheduled to run from 26 May to 10 June 2018. Bodybuilding was also added to the list of sports at the 2019 Pan American Games, taking place in Lima. Santonja, who has led the Madrid-based IFBB since 2006, believes the inclusion of the four disciplines will have a significant impact in raising bodybuilding's profile and widen its links within the sporting world as it aspires towards eventual inclusion at the Olympic Games, the world's greatest sporting stage. He is positive about achieving International Olympic Committee recognition: “I am sure we are going to have good news soon." For bodybuilding to be included as an Olympic sport the IFBB must work hand-in-hand with the IOC to determine weight categories, rules for judging and disqualification, drug testing and other technical procedures. The IFBB Anti-Doping rules are in full compliance with the latest World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Code. Drugs that are tested for will include anabolic steroids, growth hormone, diuretics and any other substances that are on the banned list for the Olympics. The IFBB in South Africa has also prioritised this code with the recent presentation of anti-doping seminars in Johannesburg, Cape Town and Durban. The seminars were open to IFBB judges, officials, athletes, trainers and coaches. Bodybuilding will join 35 other sports at the 2018 South American Games, a regional multi-sport event held between nations from South America, organised by the South American Sports Organisation. CHECK OUT WWW.STEELFITSA.CO.ZA, STEELFITSA, STEELFITSA OR CALL 011 070 7630 FOR MORE INFORMATION COMING TO SA MARCH 2018 EVENTS CALENDAR APRIL/MAY/JUNE APRIL 28 MAY IBFF KLERKSDORP CLASSIC DEVELOPMENT SHOW IFBB- - The International Bodybuilding and Fitness Federation (IBFF) will host a development show for novice athletes in the Klerksdorp Auditorium in the North West Province. Those who have received a top 3 placement on an IBFF stage previously cannot enter this show. As this is a development/novice competition, the IBFF encourages athletes to enter into more than one category. Make sure not to miss this golden opportunity as R5000 in cash will be up for grabs for the Overall winners. A special category, Best Poser, will allow all the rookies to compete in a proper posing showdown. Come show the IBFF what you’ve got! Q VENUE: Auditorium Hall, City of Matlosana, Klerksdorp. The main show kicks off at 18:00. Contact Ida on 082 890 4312 or visit www.ibffafrica.co.za 28 SA XTREME 12 18-20 ARNOLD CLASSIC AFRICA Amateur and professional bodybuilding will take centre stage at the third edition of the Arnold Classic Africa, which forms part of the Arnold Sports Festival, a large multi-sporrt extravaganza that attracts a multitude of athletes from all over the world. As the biggest sports event on the continent the ACA will be an IFBB Elite Pro Qualifier and open to all athletes from the IFBBaffiliated national federations. There will also be a fitness and lifestyle expo for the health-conscious. Q VENUE: Sandton Convention Centre, JHB Visit www.arnoldclassic.africa.com IFBB- - SANCTIONED SHOW ARNOLD CLASSIC AFRICA QUALIFIER Muzi Maluleke Marcelle Collison NABBA/WFF BLOEM CLASSIC Athletes will be vying for a top spot at the Bloem Classic, a contest hosted at the annual Bloem Show, under the dual federation banner of the National Amateur Body Builders’ Association (NABBA) and the World Fitness Federation (WFF). Each federation seeks a different ‘look’ from competitors, with NABBA catering for the muscular physique and WFF focusing on the more toned and aesthetic appearance. Q VENUE: Coca Cola Stage, Bloemfontein Showgrounds. Registration takes place from 09:00 till 11:00, 28 April. Contact Hende-Mari on 082 562 9262 or visit www.nabbasa.com CHECK OUT MUSCLEEVOLUTION.CO.ZA FOR THE COMPLETE LIST OF SHOWS FOR 2018! 16 WFF PRO AM PRETORIA CLASSIC The local chapter of both the National Amateur BodyBuilders’ Association and the World Fitness Federation will present this show, an international contest for Professional and Amateur athletes. A total of 28 WFF Pro Cards will be up for grabs and a team will be selected to compete at the WFF Universe competition hosted in Singapore on 1 July 2018. Q VENUE: Unisa, Preller Street, Muckleneuk, PTA Contact Alet on 079 377 4350 or Bev on 082 374 7227 Cape Town What originally started as a women only show in 2000 now also offers categories for men. Contact Nina on 082 440 0410 or email email@example.com 28 5 IFBB SHAMEEN CLASSIC Named after one of South Africa’s best bodybuilders, Shameen Adams, this popular muscle fest in Cape Town annually attracts athletes in pristine condition from all over South Africa, who are eager to showcase what they have to go through to compete in the prestigious Arnold Classic. Visit the www.ifbbsa.co.za for updates. SANCTIONED SHOW ARNOLD CLASSIC AFRICA QUALIFIER Muscle Evolution JUNE The month of June will see a string of shows hosted by the PCA (Physical Culture Association) in South Africa. First formed in the United Kingdom in 2015 with the objective to offer bodybuilding and fitness athletes an improved competitor experience, the PCA expanded internationally and quickly set a new standard for bodybuilding, physique and fitness events. Contact Kevin on 072 447 7520 or check out www.pcasouthafrica.co.za to find out more. 2 PCA NELSON MANDELA BAY CHAMPIONSHIPS 9 PCA GARDEN ROUTE CASINO CLASSIC Q VENUE: Fairview Sports Centre, Willow Road, Lorraine, PE Contact Steve on 073 200 0009, firstname.lastname@example.org Q VENUE: Mossel Bay Contact Johan or Deseray on 072 762 6959/082 419 0729, email@example.com 16 PCA QUEENS GRAND PRIX Q VENUE: Queenstown Contact Chris on 071 686 2566, firstname.lastname@example.org 22-23 PCA BATTLE OF THE TITANS VI (The show will also include PCA Pro divisions) Q VENUE: HS Durbanville Auditorium, Langenhoven Street, Durbanville, CT Contact Damian on 076 849 2529, email@example.com SAVE ON SUPPS DISCHEM DISCOUNT DEALS R50 OFF R50 OFF GRENADE THERMO DETONATOR 100 CAPS Ofer valid from 23 April to 24 June 2018 at all Dis-Chem stores. Coupon not valid for products already on promotion. Only one coupon per product may be redeemed. This coupon is not exchangeable for cash. 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The Body Glove Lite and Lite Plus ear buds are compact, light and Bluetooth® Version 4.1-compatible, allowing users to stream music while they train, but without compromising on sound quality. With talk time and music playback time of up to four hours, they are the ideal workout companion. The Lite Plus ear buds feature ear hooks to keep the buds securely in place. The Lite offers up to 60 hours standby time and the Lite Plus up to 100 hours on standby. Both boast a working distance of up to 10m and take two hours to fully charge. Distributed locally via Gammatek and available across South Africa in leading retail outlets. BMW M3 CS Only 15 of BMW’s first four-door CS model will arrive in South Africa in May. In the M3 guise, the new limited edition CS boasts software upgrades to the engine and chassis, with its 3.0-litre inline-six engine bumped up to 453 horsepower at 6250 rpm, surpassing the stock M3’s performance figures of 425 horsepower. Max torque also gets a boost, peaking at 443lb-ft. The CS is also 50kg lighter than the standard M3, according to BMW, with weight saved on components such as a carbon-fibre bonnet and roof which come as standard. Power is transferred to the wheels via the standard seven-speed dual-clutch automatic transmission. This propels the M3 CS to 100km/h in just 3.9 seconds, with the CS topping out at an electronically limited top speed of 280km/h. Exposed carbon fibre is used for the front splitter and the decklid spoiler, and the rear diffuser is borrowed from the M4 GTS. INSPIRATION PROFILE THE ROCK Everywhere he goes KZN-based JABULANI BUTHELEZI draws monikers like ‘The Rock’ and ‘Grootman’ from fans who admire his enthusiasm for bodybuilding. Jabulani’s late venture into the sport first started off as a hobby before it evolved into a full-blown passion. Now the 53-year-old is living proof that it is never too late to pursue your dreams. Where are you originally from? I was born in Nkandla but moved to Pinetown where I work. What sparked your interest in bodybuilding? I decided to compete at the age of 40 after watching my first show. Back then I had no idea that I would compete internationally one day and be afforded the opportunity to inspire others. Isn’t it supposed to be harder when you get older? I follow a schedule which involves five to six weight training sessions per week and I focus on different body parts per session. I believe diet is the key to achieving a great physique, no matter what your age. I eat healthy but I do allow myself an occasional cheat when I am not preparing for a competition. I give myself longer to prepare so that I don’t have to push myself too hard and risk injury or over-stressing my body. People are surprised by my age but “PEOPLE ARE SURPRISED BY MY AGE BUT I TELL THEM THAT AGE IS JUST A NUMBER AND THAT I AM THE PERFECT EXAMPLE THAT IT IS NEVER TOO LATE TO START A DIET AND TRAINING PROGRAMME.” 20 Muscle Evolution I tell them that age is just a number and that I am the perfect example that it is never too late to start a diet and training programme. I am always willing to give advice to others wanting to take up the sport. I am busy completing my personal training qualification through Exercise Teachers Academy as I want to groom young talent in my community. Have you been overseas to compete? Yes, I have been over to El Salvador, South America, the United States and Romania. I like being able to travel and experience new cultures. It is just wonderful to be part of something I enjoy. What is at the top of your bucket list right now? To win a World Championship title. I want to do something I have never done before. Any advice? My advice for people is to set realistic goals. As long as you are improving, you are winning. I want to thank the following people who have supported me: Darren Shootbert, Werner Herrmann, Michael Page and my company Mahle Behr. Also, Jolene van Heerden, Beverley Pool, Quentin Bonhomme and Charles Barnes who made it possible for me to compete abroad. JABULANI’S RECENT ACCOMPLISHMENTS: 2017 – Arnold Classic USA 3rd place in Masters 2017 – Arnold Classic Africa 3rd place in Masters 2017 – IFBB SA Championships 1st place in Masters 2017 – IFBB Gentle Giant Classic 3rd place in Men Over 40 2017 – IFBB World Championships 6th place in Masters M.E W NE New CHERRY COLA FLAVOUR THE HARDER YOU PUSH THE HARDER IT WORKS 1. BEAST MODE 2. EXPLODE 3. BREAK THROUGH 20 500 mg 300 mg SERVINGS PER CONTAINER BEETROOT POWDER PER SERVING USN.CO.ZA CAFFEINE PER SERVING USN SA @USNSA @USNSA INDIVIDUAL RESULTS MAY VARY. FOR OPTIMAL RESULTS, COMBINE WITH A LEAN MUSCLE-BUILDING EATING PLAN AND TRAINING PROGRAMME. READERS’ QUESTIONS ASK M.E YOUR QUESTIONS ON TRAINING, NUTRITION & SUPPLEMENTATION ANSWERED. Questions answered by Muscle Evolution’s team of experts. Q JUST SQUAT Can you just squat for maximal leg development? Keegan from Roodepoort A Traditionally in strength sports, the squat has been regarded as the king of all exercises. No other exercise engages every muscle in the body like the squat. However, according to research conducted by Wright et al. (1999), the squat does not hit the hamstrings quite as hard as the quadriceps, adductor magnus and gluteus maximus. To determine what muscles are active during a particular exercise, researchers use electromyography, or EMG to evaluate and record the electrical activity of skeletal muscles. Studies have shown that the squat is a quad dominant exercise, where the contribution of the hamstrings group is minimal compared to other muscles groups. This is the main reason additional exercises are included in routines to improve leg development. While squats target the quadriceps, you also need to work the hamstrings and calves if your goal is to attain an aestheticallypleasing physique. The back of the thigh, in particular, is one of the most neglected parts among competitive bodybuilders. If you look at hamstring activation from a biomechanical perspective, the muscle group is inefficient as a hip extensor when you squat due to the following: Q Three of the four hamstring muscles are two-joint muscles, working as both hip extensors and knee flexors; Q When you squat down (performing hip flexion and knee flexion), the muscle is trying to shorten at the knee but lengthen at the hip, and 22 Muscle Evolution “WHILE SQUATS TARGET THE QUADRICEPS, YOU ALSO NEED TO WORK THE HAMSTRINGS AND CALVES IF YOUR GOAL IS TO ATTAIN AN AESTHETICALLY-PLEASING PHYSIQUE. THE BACK OF THE THIGH, IN PARTICULAR, IS ONE OF THE MOST NEGLECTED PARTS AMONG COMPETITIVE BODYBUILDERS.” ends up staying roughly the same length. Q When you squat up (performing hip extension and knee extension), the muscle is trying to lengthen at the knee but shorten at the hip and again ends up staying about the same length. If leg size is what you’re after, you need to make sure that the exercises you perform are working all the muscles, including your hamstrings. A sufficient dose of leg presses, lunges, leg extensions, stiff leg deadlifts, hamstring curls and calf raises is needed. Some of the best exercises for the hamstrings are good mornings, Romanian deadlifts, and glute-ham raises. When you are pressed for time and can only squat, there are two basic ways to activate your hamstrings more during the exercise: QFocus on “sitting back” more. Q Purposefully lean farther forward to increase hip flexion. Although there is no doubt that the squat is an excellent muscle and strength building movement, it is not enough for total development. Q A TRAINING FUNCTIONALITY What is functional training, and should I include it in a bodybuilding programme? Martin from Cape Town Training functionally is about focusing on movements and not muscles. Instead of training a particular muscle group at a time, as you do with conventional weight training, functional training recruits more muscle groups by using movements that require your muscles to work in harmony. A functional training approach will see you use multi-plane and open-chain movements instead of singleplane, closed-chain and single-purpose exercises. The idea is building strength, stability and mobility across the body, making you not only more efficient in the gym but also outside it as well. WHERE DID IT COME FROM? Functional training emerged from the rehabilitation of soldiers who returned from World War I with injuries that had a severe impact on their daily function, such as standing, walking, bending and sitting. The physical therapy they received as part of their rehabilitation programme emphasised, among other things, core strength and mobility which are important for virtually all human movements. While bodybuilding is not aimed at increasing strength, endurance or speed as ends in themselves, these qualities are sought to the extent to which they can help a competitor look better on stage. Core training has become synonymous with functional training and translates into doing movements that activate the deep core muscles of the torso, pelvis, and lower back, and the more superficial abdominals. Everything you do in the gym, from deadlifts and shoulder presses to bench presses and squats, will benefit from a stronger core. You can also incorporate unilateral (single limb) exercises such as the split squat, single-arm bent-over rows or single-leg presses to not only address muscle imbalances, but also prevent injury, increase mobility and most importantly, sculpt a better body. GYM BAG ALL THE LATEST WORKOUT APPAREL AND ACCESSORIES GEAR UP FOR YOUR BEST WORKOUT YET! 26 Muscle Evolution 1 2 3 4 EYEWEAR 1 adidas Sport eyewear Zonyk Aero Midcut www.adidas.co.za 2 Maui Jim Night Dive R3,290 3 Maui Jim Ho’okipa R2,490 1 2 5 3 FOOTWEAR 1 Puma Ignite Flash evoKnit R1,499 www.puma.com 2 Under Armour Hovr www.underarmour.com/en-za 3 Nike Flyknit bootie R2,199 www.nike.com 4 Puma Speed 600 Ignite 3 R2,599 www.puma.com 5 adidas Energy Boost R2,299 www.adidas.co.za 1 BAGS 1 Puma PR Lightweight Backpack R1,199 www.puma.com 2 Puma gym duffle bag R999 www.puma.com 3 Solo Bag range www.gammatek.co.za 3 2 adidas Alphaskin Sport: Light compression, 360: Highest compression, Tech: Mid-level compression www.adidas.co.za www.muscleevolution.co.za 27 FEATURE MOVING VS CLE THERE ARE TWO WAYS TO LIFT. G THE MOST AMOUNT OF MOVING T FROM POINT A TO POINT B WEIGHT FEEL THE MUSCLES WORKING OR TO F TO ACHIEVE A CERTAIN LOOK. NO RIGHT O OR WRONG ed in a If you are involve performance-based sport such as rugby, MMA orr powerlifting concerned you will be more c you put on the about the weight y gth and power. bar to build streng A typical set is executed with es and more heavier poundage explosively. dybuilder or If you are a bod a physique comp etitor the weight is second ary to how oal is to really you lift it. Your go working. A feel the muscle w set is typically executed with moderate po undages and under contro l. Which method is better? There is not a right or o lift weight. wrong way to Both approaches serve different purposes. Athletes in performancebased sports focus on training movements to move better to improve their performance while bodybuilders focus on training muscles to improve their cosmetic appearance for the stage. Powerlifters don’t care what muscles are involved (or not involved) as it is not the point of their sport. The difference is: One is concerned about building maximum strength to generate force rapidly and repeatedly while the other is concerned about the appearance of musculature nd not specific an ower output po orr endurance apacity. ca THE DIF FFERENCE ACCORD DING TO KAI GREENE: “Your prima ary goal is not to lift weights, you’re not a weight t lifter. I’ll never be a weight lifter. For the peop ple out there who don’t know the difference, a bodybuilder is primarily concerned with contrac cting his muscles. He contracts his muscles against greater and greater resistance (over time) and a by doing that he is able to stimulate hy ypertrophy (growth). A ‘weight t concerned about moving weight so lifter’ is just he can boast t to you about how much he curls, h much he benches.” 28 Muscle Evolution “THE WEIGHTS ARE JUST A MEANS TO AN END; HOW WELL YOU CONTRACT THE MUSCLES IS WHAT TRAINING IS ALL ABOUT.” -- ARNOLD ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER SCHWARZENEGGER TRAINING MUSCLES TRAINING MOVEMENTS Q IF YOU WANT TO MOVE FAST YOU NEED TO TRAIN FAST The objective in the gym would be to recruit the maximum amount of muscle fibers to fire as powerfully as possible. One way to accomplish this is to increase your rep speed. When you perform a rep explosively you maximise motor unit recruitment. Q MOVING THE HEAVIEST WEIGHT POSSIBLE When you are a powerlifter for example, you work on your ability to perform a specific movement by doing it repeatedly under heavier and heavier resistance. If you are an MMA fighter your goal will be to move more explosively with heavy weight to work on your ability to overpower your opponent. The focus is about moving heavy weight as explosively as possible – not feeling the muscle you are working. Q THE PURPOSE OF THE LIFT Where you place your focus when you perform a lift will determine what type of training adaptations occur. A powerlifter is more concerned about performing a lift with the most efficiency whereas the focus of a physique athlete will be on the muscles involved in a lift. Q STIMULATING THE TARGET MUSCLE A bodybuilder always makes sure the target muscle he is working is doing all the work. The majority of movements in the gym cannot be performed without the assistance of other muscle groups. Hypertrophy is about the time under tension to stimulate the target muscle and while progressively overloading to build muscle is important it is not just about moving the most weight. What matters is how an exercise is executed – squeezing, stretching and getting a pump. Q USE THE RIGHT RESISTANCE While it is undisputed in gym circles that heavy weight builds muscle, you lose the feeling of the target muscle working if you are training like a powerlifter instead of a bodybuilder. If you neglect to stimulate the right muscle it won’t lead to growth and could even exacerbate imbalances when stronger muscle groups take over. Q MIND OVER MUSCLE Research shows that the mind-muscle connection can significantly improve muscle recruitment. The ability to activate a certain muscle group can be very useful like bracing your midsection and tensing your back as much as possible during barbell squats or military presses. Your mind should be on the target muscle you are working from the onset of your first rep to the completion of your last rep. To feel the muscle working you can reduce the speed of the reps you are performing or even use isometric holds, especially in the contracted position, to accentuate the stress of a particular exercise on a particular muscle group. MUSCLES NOT MOVEMENTS Bodybuilding is about feeling the muscle you train. This attention to detail is not prevalent in the realm of strength training where the primary concern is to move the bar from point A to point B. While you can make size gains with strength training, stimulating a muscle to grow is about high quality muscle contractions. You improve strength by lifting heavy weights in low volume while you maximise muscle growth by lifting moderately heavy weights in high volume. To increase hypertrophy it is best to focus on training muscles and not movements. But what then about strength? A good compromise is to train your main lifts like a powerlifter and your accessory movements like a bodybuilder. Alternatively, pick a power move and go heavy with lower reps on occasion. Another method is to dedicate days or weeks to a specific goal. Combine heavy loads in the 1-5 rep range with moderate to light loads in the 8-20 rep range. Don't be misled by an industry that is riddled with gurus and followers of a particular philosophy that “does it all”. The best results are usually seen when heavy, low to moderate rep compound training is combined with lighter, moderate to high rep isolation training. M.E “YOU IMPROVE STRENGTH BY LIFTING HEAVY WEIGHTS IN LOW VOLUME WHILE YOU MAXIMISE MUSCLE GROWTH BY LIFTING MODERATELY HEAVY WEIGHTS IN HIGH VOLUME.” www.muscleevolution.co.za 29 FEATURE BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR KEY POINTTSO EN ROUTE E SHREDVILL Y OU KNOW WHO YOU ARE. YOU’VE BEEN LIFTING FOR A YEAR OR SO, CHASING THE BODYBUILDING DREAM. YOU HAVE FOLLOWED THE BEST ROUTINES AND BANGED OUT SOME HEAVY IRON BECAUSE YOU WERE HELL BENT ON GETTING HUGE. SURE, YOU GAINED SOME SOLID MUSCLE BUT NOW THE COMPETITIVE SEASON IS HERE AND YOU WANT TO BECOME FREAKISHLY RIPPED WITH VEINS THE SIZE OF RADIATOR HOSES RUNNING ALL OVER YOUR BODY! 30 Muscle Evolution A LONG & WINDING ROAD Welcome. You are stepping into a different realm of insanity. Prepare to set foot in a world that no one understands! Prepping for a show is one of the most demanding things you will ever do on this planet. You have built the brick house, now it is time to define it, so that you can walk out on the stage with confidence. It will take persistence, commitment, will power and vision. Lifting weights has just become more than just exercise. THIS IS IT! IT’S TIME TO GIVE YOU SOME POINTERS ON THE LONG AND WINDING ROAD TO SHREDVILLE. MIND OVER MATTER There is no way to underestimate the importance of the psychological aspect of bodybuilding. The mind has an incredibly powerful effect on the body. All of your drive, motivation and desire comes from your mind. When you train and diet to compete you need to be totally focused on the task at hand. Each day will feel as if you are testing new limits of what you previously regarded as impossible. You need to have confidence in what you do and fuel the fire to push WHAT YOU CAN CONTROL forward on a road to actualise your true potential. Go to the gym focused, you are there to work. Keep yourself in the zone and take pride in the way the iron feels in your hands. When you are in there putting everything into every set, every lift, day in and day out, it goes to show that you have the persistence to see things through and not let anything stand in your way. Bodybuilding as a sport boosts self-esteem and self-confidence but if your mind isn't up to the task, your body will never be. “YOUR BODYBUILDING JOURNEY IS ABOUT YOU. IT IS ALL ON YOU TO GET RESULTS, BUT THAT ALSO MEANS YOU HAVE THE POWER TO MAKE THINGS HAPPEN.” YOU HAVE THE POWER What you eat and how you train will separate you from the masses. It takes hard work and dedication to compete and to fulfil your potential. Even if you're not a Pro athlete, don't think you can get away with a mediocre training plan or diet. If you look at statues of athletes in ancient Greece or Rome you have a clearer picture of what you need to become. Genetics determine your physical abilities and development but hard work in the gym, proper nutrition and supplementation can take you a long way. Supplements should be used to supplement your diet and should not be your diet. Your bodybuilding journey is about you. It is all on you to get results, but that also means you have the power to make things happen. Before you start prepping you better do your homework first. Go to local shows, view the competitors and try to talk to them off the stage. The biggest mistake beginners who are training for their first competition make is to try to do too much. Intensity is the cornerstone of bodybuilding but the body also needs rest to recuperate between sessions. Keep your goals in mind if you want to make continual progress and maintain momentum. To fulfill your bodybuilding potential takes dedication and sacrifice. Don’t quit when you prep for a show. Once you learn to quit it becomes a habit. Fatigue can make a coward of us all and when you are tired of training and dieting you will rationalise everything to make excuses to quit. Even if you plateau in your prep there are ways to bust through it. The mind is extremely powerful – go for days with almost no carbs and you will realise what it is all about! Focus and believe in yourself so that you can give it all you have to give, especially when the going gets tough. In life the highs are high, and the lows are lower and prepping for a show is no exception. Stay focused on the bigger picture and brush off all the criticism. The only thing that really matters is bringing the best version of yourself to stage that you can. So, focus on what you can control and let go of what you cannot. COMPARE YOURSELF TO YOURSELF As you prep for a competition you will have to define what progress means to you. Do not compare yourself to others on social media. Technology today has us so focused on getting more “likes” which can only complicate things. Compare yourself to yourself. Acknowledge success when you accomplish small goals along the way and allow them to fuel your determination to move forward to reach bigger goals. Your prep is in your own hands. You will find yourself in a prep rut and while it will suck and hurt it will elevate you to physical and psychological levels that you did not think you could reach. Smash your barriers and don't put self-imposed limits on yourself and what you can accomplish. Your attitude will be the deciding factor and the difference between success and failure. www.muscleevolution.co.za 31 FEATURE A SLOW & STEADY APPROACH The way you build a brick house is one brick at a time. You have acquired the mass, now it’s time to refine what you have constructed. It takes time to sculpt a physique worthy of the stage. Most contest preps will usually start between 16 and 12 weeks out from a show. This allows plenty of time for fat to be shed while holding on to muscle mass. However, the time it takes will be different for everyone. It is always better to start your diet sooner and lean out that way to avoid a final week panic scenario. Keep doing basic exercises and don’t worry if you lose strength when your body fat gets low. Your strength will come back after the show when your body weight does. Add in isolation work but don’t neglect the basic exercises. Allow your fat loss to come from dieting and cardio. Remember that if you do too much cardio too soon, your body will adapt and you will have no choice but to increase your cardio later in your prep. “MOST CONTEST PREPS WILL USUALLY START BETWEEN 16 AND 12 WEEKS OUT FROM A SHOW. THIS ALLOWS PLENTY OF TIME FOR FAT TO BE SHED WHILE HOLDING ON TO MUSCLE MASS. HOWEVER, THE TIME IT TAKES WILL BE DIFFERENT FOR EVERYONE.” DIET IS EVERYTHING One of the keystones to any prep is diet. One of the greatest lessons from competing is learning how your body works and the enormous importance of food in your life. A ripped condition will take a lot of diligence and hard work to achieve. Break your meals up into five or six small ones instead of three big ones. Prep your meals ahead of time and store your portions for each day. It is crucial that you provide your body with extra fuel for each workout and for the growth and recovery process. There are numerous ways to eat to burn fat and retain muscle mass. The more muscle you have the more calories are needed to sustain the muscles. It is better to lose weight slowly than to crash diet. Even if you exert the utmost control over your diet you will experience setbacks and periods where you will question your own sanity. Stay in the game by understanding the likelihood of occasional setbacks so that you won’t perceive it as the end of the world. THE IMPORTANCE OF H20 Water is often the most overlooked resource for the body. A lack of water can result in loss of muscle since it is made primarily of water. For glycogen (carbohydrates stored in the muscle to be used as energy) water is needed. Water is critical to the balance of all the body’s systems, including the muscles, 32 Muscle Evolution lungs, heart, kidneys and most importantly the proper functioning of the brain. Dehydration is one of the most common causes of fatigue, cramping and the loss of strength and endurance when an athlete is prepping for a show. It also plays an important role in energy transformation as it is a medium in which all energy reactions take place. It is suggested that the average person requires between 8 and 12 cups of water per day. Bodybuilders need much more to replace the fluid lost during exercise. To combat dehydration always have something to drink with you wherever you go. Water consumption will obviously change the closer you get to the contest. “WHEN YO OU DIET, ONE DA AY AT A TIM ME IS THE BES ST WAY TO GO O. NEVER THIN NK OF HOW MAN NY DAYS YO OU HAVE LEFT T.” CARBS AS FUEL Carbohydrates are used as fuel for muscle contraction. You must differentiate between simple and complex carbohydrates. A simple carb is rapidly utilised by the body as energy while a complex carb takes longer to break down and is used when the body needs it. There is a fine balance between eating too much and too little carbs. Eating fewer calories than you need creates an energy deficit which will cause fat loss. However, radical cuts can lead to a slowing of your metabolic rate, ultimately making it harder to get leaner. When you use too much carbs you will blow up like the Michelin Man. When you eat too little carbs your muscles will lose glycogen and you will A FINAL WORD Prepping for a competition is the most intense mental and physical battle you will ever face. You are going to fail, and probably more than once before you reach your ultimate potential. But you don't have to travel the road on your own. Rely on the support of your family, close friends and on those that had made the journey before you. There is an abundance of prep coaches and trainers who have perfected the interfere in your body’s ability to break down fat. If you ask 15 different prep coaches about carb intake, you will likely get 15 different theories as there is a wide variety of opinions on how to manipulate carbs to get stage-ready. Some coaches believe in altering carb intake or dividing carb meals throughout the day to stimulate a steady release of insulin to create an anabolic environment. Others suggest only eating carbs around training sessions to offset muscle breakdown or earlier in the day when a greater portion is stored as muscle glycogen. No matter what strategy you follow your goal will remain the same – to support muscle mass while you shred for the stage. science of sculpting a contest-winning physique. Make use of their expertise. What is competing all about? It's more than those few seconds you spend on that stage. It is more like having two full-time jobs! The body, without fail, will adapt to everything if given enough time. In your prep there will be days where you feel like you are going to lose it. Where everything will piss you off! There will be days where your THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF MUSCLE Dieting 24/7 will inevitably lead to your metabolic rate heading south. If that happens, getting super shredded for the stage becomes a real challenge. When your caloric intake drops, you need complete protein to maintain muscle mass. Complete protein comes from animal derived protein sources while incomplete protein is found in all nonanimal foods such as rice, oats, potatoes, pasta, fruit etc. Cutting back on dietary fat and reducing carbs will lead to your body burning more protein as fuel, which can also put you at risk of losing muscle. This is the reason bodybuilders increase their protein intake to compensate for the reduction in carbs. The right combination of carbs and protein, however, will be more conducive to a muscle building state than a diet that is overloaded with protein and short on carbs. You can also modulate your protein up or down depending on how intense your training is. Your first competition will be a series of experiments but when you make a decision, make an informed one. When you diet, one day at a time is the best way to go. Never think of how many days you have left. When you do your best for that day you will know in the end that when show day comes you will be in the best shape possible. cravings will shoot through the roof. Stay on the course. Soon show day will arrive and the judges will call your division to assemble back stage for the moment of truth. When this happens, it's all done. You will feel nervous but excited to finally step on stage. Bodybuilding is a tough venture compared to other sports but after surviving a full prep you will realise that you have the ability to take on any obstacle in life. M.E www.muscleevolution.co.za 33 FEATURE BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR THOUGH THE TERM IS FREQUENTLY MISINTERPRETED, THERE ARE PLENTY OF INTERESTING ANECDOTES SUPPORTING IT. SOME TOP-LEVEL COMPETITORS IN BODYBUILDING AND STRENGTH SPORTS SWEAR BY IT WHILE OTHERS REGARD IT AS TOTAL BULLSHIT. HERE’S WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW. MUSCLE CONFUSION IS CHANGE GOOD OR BAD? MUSCLE CONFUSION IS CONFUSING An old Chinese proverb says, “Give a man a fish, you feed him for a day: teach a man to fish, and you feed him for life.” This sums up the approach many lifters take when it comes to exercise. They know that the probability of achieving any physique-related goals without a workable blueprint for success is slim to none. 34 Muscle Evolution A training split, however, only serves as a template and must be customised based on your response. Repeatedly doing the same routine day-in and day-out impedes exercise-induced muscle damage in what is commonly known as the repeated bout effect. In other words, if you follow the same exercise with the same volume and intensity over a long period of time, your muscle gains will decrease. A well-known gym adage dictates that a programme is only as good as the time it takes for a lifter to adapt to it. However, some change it too often, hopping from one split to the next, never giving themselves enough time to make significant improvement on any given exercise. DON’T WING IT The psychological drive to always seek what is new and exciting is an innate one. In this regard, muscle confusion is a training principle that creates variety in your training to shock the body into new growth. While the term is open to misinterpretation due to its ambiguous nature, it would be unwise to totally dismiss the concept without first taking a closer look at how it really works. Numerous studies have shown that regular change is effective at producing muscular improvement as part of a periodised training programme. The biggest difference between a proper training plan and muscle confusion, as frequently misinterpreted by many lifters, is that changes are meticulously planned and not randomly selected according to instinct. Employing muscle confusion intelligently is to change variables such as training style, intensity, length of the workout and frequency in a more structured manner. In fact, there are literally thousands of tweaks you can make to your routine to “confuse” the muscles, such as switching your grip, hand or foot position, stance width, type of bar or attachment used, the tempo of reps, number of sets and your range of motion. Keep in mind that if you change things in every training session haphazardly, you may lose the progression element that is vital to muscle gain. Implement change, don’t wing it! PRACTICAL TAKE AWAYS “KEEP IN MIND THAT IF YOU CHANGE THINGS IN EVERY TRAINING SESSION HAPHAZARDLY, YOU MAY LOSE THE PROGRESSION ELEMENT THAT IS VITAL TO MUSCLE GAIN. IMPLEMENT CHANGE, DON’T WING IT!” Q Change your exercises every 4 to 5 weeks to keep progressing, but keep them closely-related. For example, change from deadlifting with a barbell to deadlifting with dumbbells, or from bench presses to floor presses with dumbbells, or from pull-ups to lat pulldowns. Q Slash your volume every 4 to 5 weeks by de-loading to rest and grow. Don’t be afraid to take a total break away from the weights. Some of the biggest records in strength training have come after a layoff. A good example is Ed Coan, one of the greatest powerlifters of all time. Coan took 2 weeks off after every competition, which seems to have been the common practice at the time when he competed in the sport. It also explains why he quickly moved past strength plateaus after layoffs and managed to set over 71 world records in powerlifting. In bodybuilding terms, legendary Kevin Levrone took months off after racking up a string of IFBB Heavyweight victories in the 1990s. Even today elite bodybuilders take between 2 to 3 weeks of easy training after every show and some even take 3 weeks off from the gym. Q Changing the intensity, reps and sets, frequency, volume, and rest time are all ways of putting progressive overload and muscle confusion into action in your own training. For example, alternate between lower reps (3-5), moderate reps (6-12) and high reps (15-20). Muscle development is best achieved by using the full spectrum of rep ranges. Start with a strength phase (lower reps) for a few weeks and follow that up with a short metabolic phase (high reps) before ending with a hypertrophy phase (the typical 6 to 12 range). There is also the option of a more non-linear approach, where you change rep ranges more frequently to hit all the phases. Q Avoid long workouts. They only lead to diminishing returns on all goals except endurance. Q If you cannot stand taking time off, simply cycle between heavy and lighter weights or focus on isolation exercises instead of compound moves. The more muscles and joints involved in a particular movement, the higher the impact will be on your central nervous system and your subsequent need to de-load. Isolation moves generally don’t require much de-loading. REMEMBER: It is always a bad idea to go into the gym without knowing what you’ll be doing when you get there. Even advanced lifters should mentally prepare and have particular goals in mind. The frequent change of variables is actually important as your training age increases, because your body adapts to a programme at a faster rate than a beginner who is still trying to improve his foundational base. M.E www.muscleevolution.co.za 35 PROFILE BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR PHOTOGRAPHY BY SOULBY JACKSON, SHOT AT ALLEYSWAY GYM, WWW.ALLEYSWAY.CO.ZA FAST FACTS HEIGHT: 1.74m MOTTO IN LIFE: OFF-SEASON WEIGHT: 105kg “HARD WORK BEATS TALENT.” COMPETITION WEIGHT: 97kg LIVES: King William’s Town, EC OCCUPATION: Owner of Health Avenue Gym Shane Kreusch shaneqkreusch COACH: Vic Alley SPONSORS: TNT Mercury & Ciccone Pharma SHANE KREUSCH IS KING WHEN IT COMES TO DOMINATING THE MASTERS DIVISION. Although he also retained his Masters title in his first show of 2018, the Physical Culture Association’s Conrad Nagel Xtreme Classic, the 42-year-old gym owner from King William’s Town is also the first to admit that without the discipline and sacrifices he has made to reach the top, he would not have achieved success. KREUSCH USCH RULES! LES! 38 Muscle Evolution Shane, what does the sport mean to you? Bodybuilding is part of my genetics and will be until my last breath. It's a sport in which you get out what you put in. When I was in school I was teased about how thin I was, so I started lifting weights to boost my self-esteem. I soon realised that it was what I wanted to do for the rest of my life. Now I know of no other way to live. Bodybuilding is an art to be practiced with patience, dedication and obsession. It takes immense mental and physical effort to improve your condition through training and dieting. To achieve the desired look for the stage you have to put in the time and totally commit yourself to hard work 24/7. You raked in a phenomenal seven wins as part of your comeback to the competitive stage in 2017. What is the secret to your success? Believing in yourself is vitally important and I knew that I had the inner drive to reach my goals. I set out determined to do my best and never gave up. I competed in a number of shows between 1998 and 2003, which included representing WABBA South Africa at the World Championships in Spain, where I placed 5th in my division. I purchased a gym in King William's Town and that motivated me to return to the stage. I believe setting specific goals is a crucial component of a demanding sport like bodybuilding. It takes considerable work ethic to achieve success. There has to be something that drives you to push your body to its limits. I believe that whatever you think becomes your reality. As a veteran, what is your view of the local bodybuilding scene? South Africa has exceptional bodybuilders who could challenge international competitors on any world stage. More and more athletes are becoming passionate about the sport and this is evident in the talent that our youth is showing on stage. What's next for 'King Kreusch'? Bringing an improved package to the PCA's Battle of the Titans. The plan is to continue to dominate the Masters division as long as I'm competitive. SHANE’S TRAINING SPLIT MON Chest, Shoulders, Triceps & Abs TUE Back, Biceps & Calves WED Legs THU Rest FRI Cycle starts again RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS: 2017Q PCA Conrad Nagel Xtreme Classic, Masters division, 1st Q IFBB Buffalo City Championships, Masters division, 1st Q PCA Battle of the Titans, Masters division, 1st Q PCA Queenstown Grand Prix, Masters division, 1st Q IBFF Border Championships, 1.74 to 1.80m division, 1st Q IBFF Border Championships, Masters division, 1st Q PCA Rise of the Phoenix, Masters division, 1st 2018Q PCA Conrad Nagel Xtreme Classic, Masters division, 1st SHANE’S SUPPLEMENT PLAN UPON WAKING UP TNT Mercury Carnitine/CLA Ciccone Pharma Essential Amino Acids PRE-WORKOUT TNT Mercury TNT Mercury Hydroblast Joint Armour TNT TN T Mercury Carnitine/ CLA INTRA-WORKOUT Ciccone Pharma Essential Amino Acids TNT Mercury Vitargo POST-WORKOUT TNT Mercury Titanium Whey TNT Mercury Vitargo BED TIME TNT Mercury Micellar Casein protein www.muscleevoluttion.co.za 39 TRAINING WIN THE ARMS RACE! PUT YOURSELF ON A FAST TRACK TO GREATNESS ALL TOP-TIER BODYBUILDERS SPORT EXCEPTIONAL ARM DEVELOPMENT. WHETHER YOU’RE A ROOKIE OR A VETERAN, A BEASTLY SET OF ARMS WILL SET YOU APART FROM THE REST ON STAGE. Fresh from a victory at this year’s Conrad Nagel Xtreme Classic hosted by the Physical Culture Association (PCA), Shane Kreusch joins the Muscle Evolution Team at the Alleysway Fitness Centre in Bedfordview to demonstrate how he uses exercises, some of them unknown, underrated and underutilised, to build a freaky pair of arms. TIME & EFFORT Even though he’s a veteran of the sport, holding numerous Master’s divisional titles, Shane has been interested in developing huge guns since the beginning of his career. “Biceps, triceps and forearms are usually a high priority for nearly everyone who picks up a weight to develop their body,” says the 42-year-old gym owner, who is based in King William’s Town in the Eastern Cape. “The arm is universally one of the first muscles a beginner bodybuilder focuses on. In their quest to build bigger arms, many make the common mistake of doing too many sets in an attempt to speed up development. Building muscle, however, takes time and it requires dedicated effort,” says Shane. “Through the years I have found the following exercises to be the most effective for building arms.” 40 Muscle Evolution SHANE’S TIP: “I use an EZ-bar to make the exercise easier on my wrists and I don’t use a lot of weight. The key to this movement is slowing down on the negative part of the rep.” REVERSE EZ-BAR CURLS EXERCISE 1 PURPOSE: If your goal is a balanced physique, a good set of forearms is nonnegotiable. TARGET: The brachialis muscle (which lies under the lower portion of your biceps) and the brachioradialis (runs the length of the forearm). ACTION: Grip a standard EZ-bar with a shoulder-width overhand grip. While keeping your elbows tucked into your sides, curl the bar up towards your chest. At the top, pause for a second to fully contract your forearms before lowering the bar back down to the starting position. REP RANGE: Vary your rep range between 8-10 and 12-15 reps per set. EXERCISE 2 EZ-BAR CURLS PURPOSE: Many lifters prefer using an EZ-bar because the pronated grip provides much greater comfort to the wrists compared to a straight bar. When you use an EZ-bar to curl, your thumbs remain higher than your pinkies, which will hit your biceps and forearms in a different way than a straight bar. TARGET: The brachialis muscle (which lies under the lower portion of your biceps), the brachioradialis (runs the length of the forearm) and the arm flexor muscles. ACTION: Grasp the bar with an underhand grip. Curl the weight up with your arms down by your sides. At the top, contract your arms before lowering the bar in a controlled manner to return to the starting position. REP RANGE: Vary your rep range between 8-10 and 12-15 reps per set. SHANE’S TIP: “Although I use a fair amount of weight, I keep the barbell stable throughout the lift and I do not swing or use momentum.” “I HAVE MY FAVOURITE EXERCISES, BUT TO PREVENT STALENESS I USE DIFFERENT MOVES AND OFTEN ALTERNATE BETWEEN A DIFFERENT NUMBER OF SETS AND REPS.” N’T FALL INTO STALENESS DON Shane likes to train with as muc h intensity as possible, with hout focusing too much on we eight. “To see gains in your ar ms you must balance your wo orkload and intensity with su ufficient rest. If you tip the sc ale too much in a particular dir ection, I can guarantee you u that you won’t see any prog gress. Extremely intense traini ng tears down the body and yo ou need recuperation to rebuild it. Most youngsters, when it comes to arm training, try to do too much, which is certain to lead to overtraining and to a lack of progress.” He often uses barbells for his first arm workout in the week before changing over to dumbbells and machines in his second session. “Although I pair arms with other body parts, super-setting them sometimes by themselves for variation also provides a significant pump and can boost the size of your arms when you do it that way,” says Shane. www.muscleevolution.co.za 41 TRAINING EXERCISE 3 DRAG CURLS PURPOSE: Why is it called a drag curl? Because you drag the bar up your body. The idea is to perform super strict reps. TARGET: Isolation of the biceps while limiting deltoid involvement. ACTION: Hold a bar with your elbows fully extended before dragging it up the front of your body until your elbows are fully bent. Lower the bar under control and repeat the exercise for the desired reps. REP RANGE: Do sets of 8 to 12 reps. SHANE’S TIP: “Leave your ego at the gym door because you need to use less weight for these than a typical curl. Pull you elbows back as you lift the bar and when you’re at the top, squeeze extra hard. Make sure that the bar stays in contact with your body at all times.” EXTREME ARM TECHNIQUES With dumbbell curls, Shane would typically perform a-down-the-rack version. “I will go until failure before I grab a lighter set of dumbbells to knock out as many reps as possible. I’ll then finish my arms off with a last set with a lighter weight.” Shane believes the down-the-rack method is excellent for punishing a muscle that is stubborn and refuses to respond to straight sets. “I believe it is ideal for reaching those 42 Muscle Evolution hard-to-hit muscle fibers and forcing them to grow.” He also, now and then, relies on forced reps to take his arms past the point of failure. A training partner would help him lift a weight so that he can complete additional reps. “You must be careful here that your buddy is not doing the majority of the work and you are only there for the ride. Forced reps should allow you to perform three to four reps, max. Each rep should go beyond the point of failure and should be exceedingly difficult to complete than the previous one if you do it right.” Shane recommends using forced reps sparingly in your arm training. “I believe they are most effective with exercises for smaller body parts such as the arms. Working past failure on back or legs is tough enough as it is, whereas an extra rep or two on curls or pushdowns causes less overall stress on the body.” ROPE PUSHDOWNS EXERCISE 4 PURPOSE: By using a rope instead of a straight bar your hand position will change, which will work the lateral head of the tricep at the outside of the arm. Using a rope allows for a greater range of motion than a straight bar. The greater range of motion also allows for an extra squeeze at the bottom of the movement. TARGET: The lateral head of the tricep muscle. ACTION: Attach a rope to a high pulley and grab it with a neutral grip. Using your triceps, bring the rope down the front of your body. You should only move your forearms and your arms should be fully extended and perpendicular to the floor at the end of the movement. After holding for a second at the bottom, bring the rope up to the original position. REP RANGE: Vary your rep range between 8 to 10 and sets of 12 to 15 reps. SHANE’S TIP: “Bring each side of the rope to your legs when you reach the bottom, and flex your triceps in a contracted position before returning back to the starting point. Mix up your use of an E-Z bar attachment as well as a straight or V-angled bar to work the triceps in a different way.” “YOU SHOULD ONLY MOVE YOUR FOREARMS AND YOUR ARMS SHOULD BE FULLY EXTENDED AND PERPENDICULAR TO THE FLOOR AT THE END OF THE MOVEMENT.” www.muscleevolution.co.za 43 TRAINING A C B EXERCISE 5 ZOTTMAN CURLS PURPOSE: Not many lifters have heard of Zottman curls, but it’s an excellent old school option, particularly for stimulating the arm muscles with a single exercise. TARGET: The biceps, brachialis and brachioradialis. ACTION: Grasp a pair of dumbbells and curl them up, as you would with a standard dumbbell curl. Once you’ve reached the top, rotate your wrists downward and slowly descend to the bottom of the exercise where you rotate your wrists back again to curl the dumbbells back to the top. REP RANGE: Vary your rep range between 8-10 and sets of 20-30 reps with a lighter weight. THE GREAT ZOTTMAN SHANE’S TIP: “You’re getting the best of both worlds with this one! When you curl the dumbbells up with a supinated grip (palms facing up) you’re hitting the biceps. When you rotate your wrists at the top of the exercise and switch to a pronated grip (palms down) you target your forearms (the brachialis and brachioradialis). I sometimes do this exercise as a warm-up or as a highrep finisher at the end of a session.” 44 Muscle Evolution The Zottman curl is named after 19th-century American strongman George Zottman, who performed this exercise with a pair of 22kg dumbbells. Known for his impressive strength, he set numerous records at the time, such as cleaning and pressing 79kg while sitting on a chair. Zottman also had tremendous lower body strength – one of his favourite exercises was walking up a flight of stairs carrying a pair of heavy, thick-handled dumbbells. TRAINING EXERCISE 6 OVERHEAD DUMBBELL EXTENSIONS PURPOSE: Including a tricep exercise where your arms are overhead will ensure complete development by working the long head of the tricep muscle, which is not activated as much when your arms are by your sides. TARGET: The tricep muscle has three heads – a lateral, a long and a medial head which are all located at the rear of your upper arm. The lateral head is the farthest from your body (i.e. outer arm), the long head is located behind the lateral (i.e. rear arm) and the medial head is adjacent to the long head (i.e. inner arm). Unlike the medial and lateral head, which only cross the elbow joint, the long head of the triceps also crosses the shoulder joint. With your arms in an overhead position, the long head becomes stretched, which creates a length-tension relationship, allowing it to produce more force. ACTION: Grasp a dumbbell with both hands and raise it vertically into the starting position above your head while seated on a bench. Now bend your elbows by slowly lowering the dumbbell to the starting position without changing your posture. When your elbow drops below 90 degrees, pause before extending to return to the starting position. In order to isolate the triceps, motion should occur only at the elbow joints. REP RANGE: Combine high reps of between 12 to 15 with lower reps of 8 to 10. MUSCLE MATCHING Even if Shane trains his biceps with back, or triceps with his chest he will always hit his larger muscle groups before the smaller ones in the same workout. “If you were to target your triceps before chest, or your biceps before back you’ll end up too tired to train the larger body parts properly. On major compound moves, for instance, you won’t be able to use as much weight or do as many reps, thereby diminishing the training effect that muscles like your chest and back get.” For Shane, some body part groupings make better sense than others. “I like the classic push and pull format with legs on their own. Include different exercises in your routine to hit each muscle group from a variety of directions, but remember, while pushing yourself hard in the gym is always important, doing too many sets past failure can actually be counterproductive.” SHANE’S TIP: “Keep your body tight throughout the movement and don’t do half reps, but shoot for a full range of motion. You can work up to some fairly heavy weight if you have healthy elbows. The exercise isolates the triceps directly, making it excellent for building muscle.” “REMEMBER, WHILE PUSHING YOURSELF HARD IN THE GYM IS ALWAYS IMPORTANT, DOING TOO MANY SETS PAST FAILURE CAN ACTUALLY BE COUNTERPRODUCTIVE.” www.muscleevolution.co.za 46 TRAINING EXERCISE 7 PUSH-UPS PURPOSE: A total-body movement that will not only strengthen your triceps but also your chest and shoulders. TARGET: By placing your hands closer than shoulder-width apart, the focus is shifted to your triceps. ACTION: Place your hands firmly on the ground with the rest of your body in a neutral position. Lower your body until your chest touches the floor before pushing back to the starting position at the top. Keep your abs, glutes and hamstrings tight, which in turn will help keep your back straight. REP RANGE: Repeat for 10 to 20 reps or as many as you can perform with good form. SHANE’S TIP: “Your body should remain in a straight line from head to toe. Inhale on the way down and exhale on the way up. Don’t cheat. Make sure each rep reaches a full range of motion by getting your chest as close to the floor as possible before you fully extend your elbows at the top.” WIDE OR NARROW PUSH-UPS? If you are looking for more bang for your buck from your push-ups, the close grip push-up fits the bill perfectly. Exercise scientists tested subjects who performed a wide and a narrow grip push-up. The purpose of the 2016 study, published in The Journal of Physical Therapy Science, was to record dynamic and muscular modifications during push-up exercise variants. Researchers found a drop in overall muscle activation in the upper body when a wide push-up was performed. With a narrow push-up there was an increase in upper body muscle activation. It was concluded that a narrow-grip was more challenging than a wide-grip push-up. 48 Muscle Evolution WEIGHT PLATE BENCH DIPS EXERCISE 8 PURPOSE: If you have a training partner, you can use weight plate bench dips to maximum effect to build your triceps. TARGET: Reducing the load just enough to allow your set to continue will work your triceps to exhaustion and hit a wide range of muscle fibres to finish off an arm workout. ACTION: You need a bench behind your back for your hands and another in front for your legs. With the benches perpendicular to your body, hold on to one bench on its edge with your hands close to your body, separated at shoulder-width, and your legs extended forward on top of the other bench. Have your training buddy place a plate on your lap before you lower your body to an angle slightly smaller than 90 degrees between the upper arm and the forearm. Using your triceps, bring your body back up again to the original position. REP RANGE: Do as many complete reps as possible. Remember to do this exercise without any plates at first to get used to the movement. “BENCH DIPS CAN ADD REAL MASS TO YOUR TRICEPS. GO AS LOW AS YOU CAN WITHOUT STRESSING YOUR SHOULDERS BUT DON’T FULLY LOCK OUT YOUR ARMS AT THE TOP OF THE MOVEMENT.” SHANE'S TIP: “Use a weight that you are comfortable with. Warm-up with bodyweight dips before you progress to plates. I perform bench dips for reps with up to two or three plates on my lap, while my heels are on a stool. Do the exercise in front of a mirror to make sure you are doing them with a full range of motion.” M.E www.muscleevolution.co.za 49 SCIENCE BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR DO YOU NEED TO SLOW DOWN TO SPEED UP GAINS? COMPLETE FAILURE “I FOR ONE WAY TO CRANK UP THE INTENSITY IN THE GYM, BESIDES PILING ON THE PLATES, IS TO MANIPULATE HOW YOU PERFORM YOUR REPS. In training methodology, TUT stands for time under tension. The underlying concept originates from the common belief that performing a rep slowly is better for building muscle. But are super slow reps still the rage in the gym? he slower rep structure that characterises TUT training is typically defined as a 6-second concentric (raising the weight) phase and a 6-second eccentric (lowering the weight) phase, as opposed to a faster tempo - the speed at which you perform a rep. The rationale is that more optimal muscle growth can be achieved the longer a targeted muscle group is under tension during a specific exercise. There are even more extreme proponents of super slow 50 Muscle Evolution What does 4010 in the Pakulski example mean? denotes the duration, expressed in seconds, of the eccentric phase or the negative. denotes the duration, expressed in seconds, spent at the bottom portion in a stretched position. denotes the duration, expressed in seconds, of the concentric phase or lifting portion. denotes the duration, expressed in seconds, spent in the fully contracted position. 4 0 1 0 NOTHING NEW T t is advantageous to change the rep tempo of your workouts every 3 to 6 weeks,” says Pakulski. “Some great examples for hypertrophy are 4010, 6010, 4111, 4021 (tempos). If strength is your primary goal, tempo would be different but these can certainly be incorporated.” training prescribing TUT-protocols of up to 30 seconds and longer per phase. Although slow lifting has been around for decades, a modern-day IFBB Pro bodybuilder like Ben Pakulski still endorses TUT. The Canadian, nicknamed the Pak-Man, believes tempo is one of the most under-utilised training variables and recommends using explosive concentrics with slow eccentrics to build supreme muscle mass. Tempo, according to Pakulski, is the least understood of all the other training variables. The “4” in a 4010 tempo would indicate 4 seconds to move from the top to the bottom of an exercise. The second number is the pause, which occurs at the fully stretched position (e.g. how long you pause at the bottom when you lower a weight). The “0” in the 4010 example refers to no pause. The third number is the concentric contraction - that is lifting the weight (e.g. rising or pressing with a weight from the bottom to the top). In this case you take 1 second to return to the original position in an exercise. The fourth number is the time of pause in the contracted position (e.g. at the top of a movement). Pakulski typically uses 30 to 60 seconds a set. “It is also important to note that this TUT range is meant to refer to complete muscular failure or exhaustion within this time. This does not mean you stop a set that you could have easily extended well beyond 60 seconds just because the time range was up. If this is the case, it's time to up the weight. Try to keep the weight as heavy as possible within this range,” the former Mr. Olympia contender suggests. “USE CORRECT FORM, AND ALWAYS MAKE SURE YOU ARE PROGRESSIVELY OVERLOADING TO BUILD MUSCLE. THE KEY IS CONSTANT TENSION AND ENGAGING THE AREA YOU TARGET.” CONSTANT TENSION I FBB Pro Josh Lenartowicz believes in continuous tension with the only requirement being that you load the muscle to optimise the hypertrophy effect. “Use correct form, which involves no pausing or jolting while lowering and lifting the weight,” says the Australian behemoth. “And always make sure you are progressively overloading to build muscle. The key is constant tension and engaging the area you target so that you don’t recruit other muscles.” Lenartowicz does not believe continuous tension is the only way to lift, though. “I see people preaching their way is absolutely the right way, that their beliefs are superior and backed by studies that now fit into everyone’s physiology. Please stop listing things as ‘the only proven way’ because the human body has so many variables - situational and environmental.” John Meadows, creator of the Mountain Dog training system, has been advocating constant tension for years. It involves stopping an exercise just short of the full range of movement and not locking out on each rep. Meadows believes using this approach, especially in isolation movements, to extend sets beyond failure. “Think of a piston continuously moving up and down with no built-in rest periods – that’s what you want your reps to look like.” Strength coach Charles Poliquin recommends different time under tension ranges depending on different goals: STRENGTH: 1 – 30 seconds, HYPERTROPHY: 30 -70 seconds, MUSCULAR ENDURANCE: 70 – 100 seconds. WHAT DOES SCIENCE SAY? O nly a limited number of studies have actually probed the impact of rep speed in resistance training. In research conducted by Munn et al. (Resistance training for strength: the effect of number of sets and contraction speed, 2005) rep speed was probed when participants performed sets at different paces. In the study the fast group used a tempo of 1010 while the slow group used a tempo of 3030. The strength of the subjects was tested over a period of six weeks with the different groups performing either a single set or three sets per exercise. The three-set group increased in strength. Fast reps also led to significantly more strength gains than slower reps. In a follow-up study (Shepstone et al. 2005) it was also found that faster contractions resulted in more muscle growth than slow contractions. Hatfield and Kraemer (The impact of velocity of movement on performance factors in resistance exercise, 2006) tested men who had experience in resistance training. They performed squats and shoulder presses at 60 or 80% of their 1 rep maximum (1RM) and were given the option of either choosing to perform very slow (10-second eccentric and 10-second concentric) reps as many times as possible or faster reps. The slow contractions were not as successful at building strength than the explosive reps. More recently, sports scientists James Krieger, Dan Ogborn and Brad Schoenfeld published a meta-analysis on muscle hypertrophy (The effect of repetition duration during resistance training on muscle hypertrophy, 2015) in which they found no difference in hypertrophy between rep durations. According to biomechanics researcher Bret Contreras, the muscles need ample signalling to grow larger. “One simply cannot get optimal development from only one method. Certain exercises lend themselves better to explosive reps, while certain movements lend themselves better to controlled reps. You should have variety in your training in regards to both exercise selection as well as types of repetitions in order to maximally strengthen all ranges of motion if your goal is to develop the biggest muscles possible.” TAKE HOME MESSAGE F rom a practical standpoint, a wide range of rep durations should therefore be employed to boost muscle growth, strength or endurance. Although a lack of studies on the subject makes it difficult to draw definitive conclusions, lowering the weight under control and lifting explosively will most likely have the most favourable effect. What is more important is the degree of tension, which is dictated by the weight you lift and the total time a muscle group is under tension in a given training session. Lifters should use different rep cadences to experiment and see what may spur additional growth, as the best research often comes from what is learned in the trenches. M.E www.muscleevolution.co.za 51 SUPPLEMENTS BY WERNER BEUKUS, EDITOR SCIENTISTS AT THE MCMASTER UNIVERSITY IN CANADA HAVE RECENTLY POURED OVER DOZENS OF RESEARCH STUDIES IN THEIR QUEST TO PUT THE AGE-OLD DEBATE OVER THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS TO REST. THE DEBATE IS OVER: DIETARY PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS ARE HIGHLY BENEFICIAL IN BUILDING MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SIZE “THE AMOUNT OF PROTEIN RECOMMENDED BY INTERNATIONAL GUIDELINES IS NOT SUFFICIENT TO MAINTAIN MUSCLE SIZE AND STRENGTH, ESPECIALLY IN OLDER MEN.” 52 Muscle Evolution THERE IS A LIMIT PROTEIN IS ESSENTIAL According to Stuart Phillips, lead author of the comprehensive scientific review of research that was published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, older lifters even need greater protein supplementation to maintain muscularity as they age. “The amount of protein recommended by international guidelines is not sufficient to maintain muscle size and strength, especially in older men,” says Phillips. Other studies have also shown that lifters, especially past the age of 40, who eat the most protein have the strongest and largest muscles. They also lose the least amount of muscle over time. It is common knowledge that athletes need more protein than the regular recommended daily allowance. From research there is however an upper limit to the amount of protein that can be consumed on a daily basis. The maximum amount is 1.6g of dietary protein per kilogram of bodyweight per day. The current protein recommended daily allowance (RDA) by the World Health Organisation (WHO) is 0.8g per kilogram of body weight. Phillips believes the WHO protein requirements are insufficient to maintain strength or muscle size. “Protein must be a big part of what you think about when you plan your meals. The prescribed 0.8g/kg/day just isn't enough.” Advanced bodybuilders and strength athletes should consume high quality protein at every meal to support muscle health. "Protein is essential for all tissues in the body, providing amino acids that are important for growth and development. It is particularly important when you get older to help slow down the loss of muscle." High-quality protein supplementation, such as milk-based casein and whey protein, can spare muscle and promote gains during intense training or when athletes follow a caloric restrictive diet. Research has shown that your muscle is ‘sensitised’ to the effect of protein for at least 24 hours after a workout. TIMING NOT CRITICAL “PROTEIN INTAKE IS CRITICAL FOR MUSCLE HEALTH AND THERE IS MOUNTING RESEARCH THAT SUGGESTS THE RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE, OF 0.8G PROTEIN PER KG PER DAY, IS TOO LOW.” When is the best time to consume protein? “Anytime in the ensuing 24 hours after a workout is a good time to eat protein,” says Phillips. “Work from our research group has shown that your muscle is ‘sensitised’ to the effect of protein for at least 24 hours after a workout. I agree that the time from at least immediately to 3 hours postexercise is a time when your muscle is even more sensitive to protein. However, it’s not a big difference between that time window and much later. While it's still prudent to consume your shake immediately post-workout, it’s not critical.” Phillips points out lifters should rather pay attention to the three “R’s” after exercise – rehydrate, replenish (muscle glycogen), and repair (damaged proteins). “Effective adaptation to training will occur only if all three R’s are attended to.” IXED MESSA AGES “There have been mixed d messages sent to clinicians, dietician , and ultimately practitioners about t efficacy of protein meta-analysis puts supplementation. T that debate to rest,” ays Robert Morton, and a PhD student in league of Phillips a the Exercise Metab ism Research Group versity. the McMaster Univ otein intake is critical for muscle health and there i mounting research that suggests the rrecommended dietary protein per kg per owance, of 0 e will see more and day, is too lo more research, especially as our e, challenging that populations number,” says Morton. It was the largest meta-analysis study of its kind with researchers combing through a total of 49 high-quality studies with 1 863 participants, including men and women, young and old, and experienced weight lifters as well as novices. Scientists aggregated the results from studies of weight training and protein, using databases of published research. They looked at experiments that had lasted at least six weeks and included a control group and the measurement of participants' protein consumption as well as the impact on muscle size and strength. KEY FINDINGS OF THE MCMASTER UNIVERSITY META-ANALYSIS Q Protein during weight training can lead to a larger increase in muscle size and strength. Protein ingestion and weight training both stimulate the process of new muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and are synergistic when protein consumption follows exercise. Q Protein is particularly important with age to help slow down the loss of muscle. Q The impact of additional protein was not enormous. A maximum amount of 1.6g of protein per kilogram of body weight per day seems to be ideal for building and maintaining muscle. In practical terms that would amount to approximately 130g of protein a day for a 79kg man. A chicken breast contains about 45g of protein. Q Beyond the 1.6g, more protein did not result in more muscle. Q Any source of protein at any time was fine. Muscle gains were similar if people consumed their protein immediately after a workout or in the hours earlier or later. It also made no difference if the protein was solid, liquid, beef, soy, vegan or any other. M.E www.muscleevolution.co.za 53 FEATURE BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR SINCE WALK KING INTO A GYM M FOR THE FIRST T TIME TO BUILD STRENGTH FOR RUGBY I WAS TOLD TO WORK ON ALL THE BASIC MOVES TO GAIN SIZE. So, I focused on all the big muscle groups with squats, bench presses and d deadlifts, slowly build ding up to lift hea avier to stand strong in the scrum ms and carry th he ball forward in the field of play. I sh hunned the so-called shaping mov vements because I w was told they don’t have a legitimate p place in training and d that I needed the difficulty of free weights s to grow. MACHINES FREE WEIGHTS WHICH IS BETTER? VS 54 Muscle Evolution n RISE OF THE MACHINES I continued with the mass-building exercises until I borrowed a copy of 'The Education of a Bodybuilder' from the local library. In the book Arnold Schwarzenegger wrote about his training philosophy where he used not only squats but also leg presses and hamstring curls to blast his legs. The Austrian Oak machine-curled to develop his guns and performed flyes to build his enormous chest. By that time I was putting a great deal of stress on myself with compounds and some of the moves even overlapped in terms of muscle groups. This, in combination with the normal rigors of rugby training, put me in a serious slump. It was then that I tried out one of Arnold's routines and discovered the world of isolation, the mind-muscle connection and how to build muscle through tension. I obviously reflect back upon a time where the majority of gyms consisted of free weights and only a small section was devoted to machines. Things in the fitness world have changed. Walk through an aisle of any of today's modern facilities and it is like entering a showroom of a Mercedes-Benz dealership. Apart from the usual stack of weights there is ample space dedicated to sleek workstations where you can follow a machine-centric regimen without ever having to pick up a barbell again. I bet if you head to Gold's Gym Venice right now odds are you will see Arnold working out – on machines. That's good enough for me or is it? “A BIG DRAWBACK OF FREE WEIGHTS IS THE RISK OF SUSTAINING AN INJURY WHEN YOU DON’T MAINTAIN PROPER FORM.” WHERE IT ALL BEGAN STRENGTHENING MUSCLES - ONE AT A TIME Do muscles really work in isolation or in a chain of movement and if you focus on everything individually do you stress vulnerable joints more than necessary? Exercise scientists say there is potential for injury in any workout. The key is to find the weak links and then exercise to fortify them to prevent injuries of which the most common ones are rotator-cuff problems, knee issues and lower-back pain. Is this the result of machine-based training? Machine manufacturers would argue that shear forces exist in all exercises. Machines, they say, are more convenient and safer. Free weights and machines have very different movement patterns. When you use free weights you move in different dimensions: forward, backward, horizontally and vertically. This movement pattern mimics how your body normally moves in everyday life. When you use barbells and dumbbells you also have to stabilise the weight you are using, therefore you end up engaging more muscles. A big drawback of free weights is the risk of sustaining an injury when you don’t maintain proper form. Machines only allow you to move in one direction which makes it easier to lift heavier weights when you target specific muscle groups. Pro-machine advocates argue you can strengthen muscles one at a time – in isolation – and the only way you can target a specific weakness is to isolate a joint. Free weight exercises, on the other hand, is a good choice to strengthen total-body movements and improve coordination between the various muscle groups. In some circles Arthur Jones is seen as a visionary who fundamentally changed the way people exercise. In the late 1960s Jones designed the first series of user-friendly strength training machines. One of his innovations, the Nautilus Pullover, enabled you to work your latissimus to momentary muscular failure without the assistance of other muscles. It stimulated the muscles in a way that was not possible through conventional multi-set exercises such as pulldowns or rows, exercises in which the arms would inevitably fatigue before the target muscles were worked to their absolute limit. With the success of Nautilus, other equipment manufacturers appeared on the fitness scene to offer a wider variety of training tools. Machines are now commonly used to train individual muscles in isolation as well as to rebuild the body after an injury as part of a rehabilitation protocol. “From a hypertrophy standpoint, the benefits of machines counteract the disadvantages of free weights, and vice versa,” says Brad Schoenfeld, author of ‘The Science and Development of Hypertrophy.’ “Machines can promote functional improvements, and this has been displayed over and over in studies. By taking out the need for muscle stabilisers in free weight exercises, you can put more focus on a given aspect of a muscle and enhance the hypertrophic response.” www.muscleevolution.co.za 55 FEATURE A DIFFERENT KIND OF STRESS Mr. Olympia contender Mamdouh Elssbiay, otherwise known as Big Ramy, prefers machines because he can feel the muscle contraction more than when he trains with free weights. “I like to hold the weight and control it on the way down,” says the mass monster who recently finished runner up to Phil Heath in the hunt for the prestigious Sandow. Big Ramy focuses on complete control and how hard he contracts his muscles when he uses machines. His favourite machine exercises are the chest press and preacher curls. Another IFBB Pro bodybuilder who gets in tremendous shape for the Mr. Olympia contest by using machines is Dexter Jackson. In his early years as a competitor 'The Blade' built muscle size with basic free weight movements but his focus recently shifted to machine-based training. “I still go heavy, but I am a lot smarter about when I go heavy and on which movements. I can load up a machine with plenty of resistance and still stimulate muscle. I don’t care how much weight I am using on anything in the gym as long as it is stimulating the muscle like I want it to,” says Jackson. “If I can’t get that feeling, I use a little less weight.” For the 2008 Mr. Olympia winner, staleness in training is one of the silent killers of muscle gains. “A lot of bodybuilders think machines are useless, but I get a great feeling with things like dip machines and the onearm curl with your biceps up high,” says Dexter, who has won more professional bodybuilding titles than any bodybuilder. “Free weights, cables and machines can all contribute to growth.” Gold's Gym trainer Charles Glass also emphasises form over maximum overload. Known for his unapologetic use of machines, Glass often isolates different muscle groups in new and innovative ways. One of his signature exercises is a single leg press movement that is performed by stepping into a horizontal leg press while your body is turned to the side and pressing unilaterally with one leg at a time while your other leg is suspended in midair. Glass agrees some exercises are inherently more demanding because of the number of muscles involved but a heavy set of leg 56 Muscle Evolution “FREE WEIGHTS, CABLES AND MACHINES CAN ALL CONTRIBUTE TO GROWTH.” - DEXTER JACKSON presses taken to the point of muscular failure can be just as demanding or more than a set of heavy squats stopped a few reps short of failure. “Before we w had a lot of machines, we all used free weights because that was what we w had,” says Glass. “But now, you can’t get certain angles from fre ee weights than you can get from machines. They put a different kind of sstress on the muscles.” Machines and free weights were M only tools he used when he was still competing says former 6x Mr. Olympia Dorian Yates: “We are all built differently. We are all different heights and we have different lengths of limbs. The advantage of a free weight is that it works with the individual's body. The advantage of a machine is you can isolate without too much outside involvement. Especially if you have injuries, they are very useful. You have more control if you want to do extra negatives and so on. If you are doing a free weight bench press it's very awkward to do extra negatives at the end. It's just not practical. It is not really safe. With a machine, you can get your training partner to lift to the top and control it. It is safe,” says Yates. “The main thing is the effort you are putting in, not the tools you use.” “WE ARE ALL BUILT DIFFERENTLY. WE ARE ALL DIFFERENT HEIGHTS AND WE HAVE DIFFERENT LENGTHS OF LIMBS. THE ADVANTAGE OF A FREE WEIGHT IS THAT IT WORKS WITH THE INDIVIDUAL’S BODY.” LEGITIMATE DEBATE Biomechanics researcher Brett Contreras believes the debate between machines versus free weights is a legitimate one. “If you compare squats to leg presses, leg extensions or leg curls, of course squats come out ahead for most purposes. However, if you compare squats to a lever machine squat, then that is a different story. They are very similar in muscle activation and joint movements, but the machine is a bit more stable than the free-weight version which could be an advantage or a disadvantage depending on how you look at it!” Schoenfeld is still of the opinion that multi-joint movements such as squats, rows, and presses will activate the greatest amount of muscle mass: “They certainly should be staples in any training routine. However, single joint movements do allow for better targeting of individual muscles and thus can be an important part of a hypertrophy-oriented routine.” According to Schoenfeld certain muscles will dominate over others, causing imbalanced growth during multijoint training. “Employing single joint movements allows one to enhance muscle development in otherwise underworked muscles while also improving muscular symmetry.” MACHINES OR FREE WEIGHTS FOR MUSCLE ACTIVATION ADVANTAGES OF FREE-WEIGHT DISADVANTAGES OF FREE-WEIGHT ADVANTAGES OF MACHINES DISADVANTAGES OF MACHINES Q More affordable Q Portable and takes up less space Q Represent more natural movement patterns Q More specific to powerlifting and weightlifting Q Provide for plenty of variation Q Well suited for maximising spinal strength and stability Q Better suited for complex, highly integrated lifts Q More metabolically demanding Q Certain lifts are awkward for certain body types Q Higher rates of acute injury Q Some lifters learn to rely on excessive momentum Q More correlated with sloppy form and contorting the body to accomplish a lift Q Many lifts have torqueangle curves and strength curves that stress a particular ROM but lighten such up at the opposite ROM s as squats and good mornings. Q Certain lifts require spotters or rack supports s Q Not always well suited for rotary and lateral movements Q The loading and unloadin ng of plates Q More stable and easier to learn for beginners Q Fixed bar paths can prevent injuries Q Constant tension on the muscles via variable resistance Q Well suited for initial rehabilitation Q Well suited for beginners Q No spotters required Q Certain machines don’t feel comfortable for certain body types Q Can have unnatural paths which can lead to overload Q Costlier to purchase and to maintain Q Not portable and takes up more space Q Less variety Q Less versatile M.E www.muscleevolution.co.za 57 NUTRITION To realise your full potential you need to give your body the right material to grow bigger and stronger. Postworkout nutrition is a vital aspect of the recovery process. The food you eat after lifting weights should replenish expended energy reserves, and repair and regenerate damaged soft tissue, which is what triggers muscle growth. STOP MUSCLE BREAKDOWN FAST-TRACK YOUR WAY TO RECOVERY BUILDING UP & TEARING DOWN Your metabolism is your body’s ability to build up (anabolic) or break down (catabolic). What your body exactly breaks down is a list of materials that includes protein, carbohydrates, fats and countless other substances that in totality form the structure of your body. When you lift weights you essentially break down muscle glycogen (carbderived energy) stores and muscle protein structures. Without the proper carbohydrates and protein the rebuilding of muscle cannot take place and you fail 58 Muscle Evolution to reach your physique goals because your body will always strive for a state of equilibrium or homeostasis. Your body is in constant flux, either tearing things down or rebuilding them. If you want to build muscle you have to disrupt homeostasis and encourage a state of positive protein balance where the rate of anabolism has to be higher than the rate of catabolism. “There are advantages in nutrient timing, especially protein towards the end of the day, ” says exercise physiologist Scott Stevenson. “When dieting, large endof-the-day meals seem to help preserve muscle mass. A casein-based protein improves protein balance. If you train later in the day, carbohydrate-rich meals may be necessary the next morning. Shifting carbohydrates promotes greater weight loss when you are dieting; it improves insulin sensitivity and reduces hunger and inflammation in the body. Protein during low carbohydrate consumption stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits breakdown, allowing continued recovery.” COMBINE CARBS & PROTEIN If you blast a muscle group in the gym, you create a lot of damage that you’ll have to recover from. At no other time in the day will your nutrition make such a major difference as in the postworkout period. Science has shown that glycogen restoration and protein synthesis are achieved at a faster rate when you consume your carbohydrates and protein together. “Whey or milk-based protein is often more effective than soy or just carbohydrate alone for stimulating protein synthesis and building muscle,” says Stevenson. “Animal protein sources, such as meat and eggs are great options. They are rich in the essential amino acids and highly digestible.” Given that the anabolic effect of a meal lasts approximately 5 to 6 hours you should spread your meals throughout the day to boost muscle growth. The optimal amount of what you need to eat will vary, depending on your energy expenditure during your training session and on your total daily energy expenditure, and if your goal is getting ripped for a competition (hypocaloric), maintaining muscle mass (isocaloric), or muscle gain (hypercaloric). Unlike protein, which is used as building material, carbohydrates are used for energy. Sports nutritionist Mike Colgan defines carbohydrates as premium fuel. “Fats are also used for fuel, but the difference is that fats don’t burn as efficiently as carbohydrates. It is a common misconception that fat is a more efficient fuel source, but it’s not – it’s simply a more concentrated fuel source. Carbohydrates are the body’s preferred and most efficient energy source. Whenever carbohydrates are restricted, energy levels and performance usually decline,” stresses Colgan. EXAMPLES OF GOOD FOOD CHOICES FOR BREAKFAST STARCHY CARBS Oats Whole wheat bread C h t Cream off wheat FRUIT O Orange Apple Pineapple FAST ABSORBED PROTEIN Whey isolate Whey concentrate BCAA BCAAs/Amino /A i acids id SLOW-ABSORBED PROTEIN Egg whites Tuna IDEAL CHOICES A common recommendation is 3g of carbohydrates per kg of lean bodyweight per day to ensure that your glycogen stores are fully stocked. At least 1.6g of protein per kg of lean bodyweight per day is needed if your goal is hypertrophy. If you train twice a day (morning and evening sessions) you should consume carbohydrates within 60 minutes post-workout. Lifters who train partially or fully fasted should eat protein as quickly as possible after exercise. To improve your body composition you need approximately 60-100g of carbohydrates and 30-50g of protein for your post-workout meal. Of course these are only starting points and can go much higher, depending on individual needs. If you are on a fat-loss diet, the carbohydrates will typically be lower, depending on the quantity you eat. A post-workout meal high in carbohydrates is required to refill your muscle carbohydrate and energy stores. By consuming carbohydrates after your workout you will not only promote insulin release, but also increase glycogen storage and accelerate protein repair. Just like carbohydrates, you also need protein in your postexercise meal to help rebuild muscles that are depleted and in need of an abundance of nutrients. Whey protein is often the preferred choice due to its bio-availability and complete amino acid profile, but ultimately any standard protein source will do. High quality protein from food such as chicken, fish, eggs and beef are the other options. Protein sources are generally more filling than most nutrients and great to pair with either fats or carbohydrates to lower the overall calories you consume per meal. Chi k Chicken www.muscleevolution.co.za 59 NUTRITION REPAIR & RECOVERY So, you have smashed the weights and are dog tired. Is it better to gulp down a liquid or eat a big meal? For some individuals liquid formulas are easy to drink and provide all the nutrients needed at the time for adequate repair of protein and glycogen replenishment. Look for liquid formulas that contain fast-digesting protein in the form of whey isolates and hydrolysates, and carbohydrates such as maltodextrin and dextrose. These are more easily absorbed than whole food meals. During the post exercise period, the faster carbohydrates and protein can reach the muscle, the better the chance for muscle repair and recovery. Lifters who are carbohydrateintolerant should rather stick with whole food that can provide them with adequate nutrients and fibre. Some athletes consume their two largest meals of the day around workouts to elevate insulin in order to stop muscle breakdown and provide amino acids to stimulate protein synthesis. Research conducted by Areta and colleagues (Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis, 2013) has shown the impact of various protein-rich meals on muscle protein synthesis. In the study, a group of welltrained men consumed 80g of whey protein as either a pulse feeding (8x10g every 1.5 hours), an intermediate feeding (4x20g every 3 hours) or a bolus feeding (2x40g every 6 hours) during a 12hour recovery period after a weight training session. It was found that the intermediate feeding condition was superior to the other two feeding conditions for stimulating muscle protein synthesis over the recovery period. The 20g of whey protein provided in the intermediate feeding condition was sufficient enough to elevate muscle protein synthesis throughout the day. The pulse feeding condition of 10g was insufficient and the bolus feeding condition could not sustain muscle protein synthesis. 60 Muscle Evolution BODYBUILDING FOODS YOU CAN’T GO WRONG WITH O t Oats Sweet potatoes White or red potatoe potatoes Whole wheat heat t bread and an nd 100% whole g grain products Brown rice Vegetables Fresh F h fruit f it Low fat and non-fat dairy products (yoghurt, cheese, milk, etc) Chicken breast Egg whites Lean red meat Fish FOCUS ON QUALITY According to former competitive bodybuilder Leo Costa, nutrition should take the same approach as that used when fuelling a high-performance car. He stresses the importance of high-grade, easily digestible protein derived from red meat, chicken, egg whites and fish. “The protein from these sources is easy for the body to digest and use. Trimming the fat off the cuts of red meat, removing the skin from poultry, or separating the yolk from the egg will go a long way in bringing the fat you ingest to a manageable level, ” says Costa. “Do not blacklist fat because it is a necessity for the efficient operation of the body. Limit your fat intake and try to get it from pure sources like meats, avocados and olives.” He also discourages the consumption of all processed and canned meat. “These types of meat contain high amounts of sodium and unhealthy chemical preservatives.” Costa recommends “DO NOT BLACKLIST FAT BECAUSE IT IS A NECESSITY FOR THE EFFICIENT OPERATION OF THE BODY. LIMIT YOUR FAT INTAKE AND TRY TO GET IT FROM PURE SOURCES LIKE MEATS, AVOCADOS AND OLIVES.” rice, potatoes, beans and vegetables as the best sources of carbohydrates. “These sources contain the unrefined carbohydrates the diet requires for energy. They also contain fibre, vitamins and enzymes which the body uses for proper digestion. Pies, cakes and some breads and breakfast cereals have large amounts of refined sugars and fats. Vegetables that have been cooked and canned also lose nutritional content and are less nutritious than fresh vegetables. You also do not have to be a total Spartan when you are on a diet. You can go out for a pizza or cheesecake once in a while and still get results. Just be reasonable about it.” FOR ALL YOUR SUPPLEMENT, CLOTHING & ACCESSORY NEEDS IN THE WITBANK, MIDDELBURG & NELSPRUIT AREAS. MIDDELBURG WITBANK NELSPRUIT Shop 5, Retail City, Dolerite Crescent, Dolerite Street Shop V09, River Crescent Centre, Nelson Mandela Rd 5 Andrews Street (c/o R40) Nelspruit Ext 7, Shop 3 066 305 8852 066 305 8851 066 305 8850 WWW.NUTRITIONRAGE.CO.ZA NUTRITIONRAGESA @NUTRITION_RAGE_SA NUTRITION “TO ENSURE A SUPPLEMENT STRATEGY WORKS WELL IT IS IMPORTANT NEVER TO NEGLECT A WELLBALANCED DIET OF NUTRIENTDENSE WHOLE FOODS.” CHOOSING THE RIGHT STUFF For Costa, a good diet in bodybuilding is not enough. Good supplementation focuses on speeding up the recovery process, especially following a workout. “If you are not taking supplements you are one step behind the rest of the world. Supplementation is a must if you want to perform at the highest possible level and get the maximum out of your training sessions. The faster your body recovers from a training session the faster it adapts to become bigger and stronger.” He adds: “If you are in a constant state of recovery trying to come back from your last workout, you will find yourself missing out on the progress you could be making. There are truckloads of nutritional supplement products available to accelerate the process of recovery and muscle building. Look at the ingredients and their impact when you are looking at choosing the right stuff.” Costa suggests supplements such as Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) to stimulate muscle synthesis, quickabsorbing carbohydrates to help replenish both glucose and glycogen, creatine monohydrate to reload the body, and antioxidants to neutralise free radicals released in response to intense training. “IF YOU ARE NOT TAKING SUPPLEMENTS YOU ARE ONE STEP BEHIND THE REST OF THE WORLD. SUPPLEMENTATION IS A MUST IF YOU WANT TO PERFORM AT THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE LEVEL AND GET THE MAXIMUM OUT OF YOUR TRAINING SESSIONS.” THE GOLD STANDARD “I’ve always been of the mindset that a full supplement regime is a luxury that should only be implemented when one’s diet is assumed lacking or when sufficient training intensity cannot be summoned,” says bodybuilding coach Dave Robson. His ignorance held him back in many a contest. When he recently made a comeback to the stage, Robson made use of supplements to train harder, recover faster and retain more muscle. “Without the necessary micronutrients, additional protein and recovery agents the body must work so much harder to translate training efforts into lean muscle,” says Robson, who was no longer dragging his heels and wishing for the final rep in his training sessions. He recommends a full spectrum of vitamins and minerals, creatine, glutamine and fast-absorbing protein to build muscle, fat burning agents to shred and dextrose to boost energy. Robson also 62 Muscle Evolution suggests using a high potency multivitamin and mineral tablet to provide the additional micronutrients a hard training bodybuilder needs for their muscles to respond favourably to hard training sessions. For him, the ideal time to consume whey protein is 60 minutes before the gym as this time will allow a lifter to absorb everything quickly enough as to not negatively impact training due to the fullness the protein creates. Creatine, for Robson, is “the gold standard” in supplementation, and certainly the most scientifically studied. “Creatine provides several positive benefits for those wanting to add quality muscle. It has been shown to enhance our ability to exert maximal effort during training sessions due to its ability to facilitate ATP production. Also, it directly adds volume to the muscles through its ability to initially increase intracellular water uptake by the muscles.” TRIPLEWHAMMY EFFECT “Glutamine is often mixed with whey protein and creatine to provide a triple-whammy effect,” says Robson. “It has a more significant anti-catabolic effect compared to other amino acids as it directly prevents muscle tissue wasting, a process that can occur when glutamine stores are low. With ephedrine off the market, companies are also frequently coming out with new fat loss products, all designed for the purpose of getting a bodybuilder ripped fast.” He typically uses a dextrosebased energy drink to supply simple sugars, when they are needed most, directly after training. Sugars consumed at this time are rapidly absorbed and stored as muscle glycogen, in preparation for the next training session. “To ensure the supplement strategies work as well for you as they did for me it is important never to neglect a well-balanced diet of nutrient-dense whole foods, which is still the very foundation of any good nutritional plan to change your body composition.” M.E BABE BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR PHOTOGRAPHY BY SEAN LEVITT, SEAN.LEVITT.PHOTOGRAPHER e t t e d u la C RIDICULOUSLY HOT IS AN APT DESCRIPTION FOR IFBB FITNESS BIKINI COMPETITOR CLAUDETTE RENNEY, WHO IS OUR LATEST ME BABE. Helping others is Claudette’s passion and seeing the change in someone through their fitness journey is incredibly satisfying for this 28-year-old, who lives and works in Johannesburg. And let’s be totally honest, who would not want to try out a class with this insanely good-looking personal trainer? 64 Muscle Evolution Who is Claudette Renney? I'm an extremely driven and passionate person. I always wanted to become an actress but when I left school I decided to study hairdressing while working in Hyde Park. I started exercising and have since made fitness an essential component of my life. In 2015 I studied sport science while I was making a living in America. At the time I was employed at an executive gym and working with rehabilitation clients. There I found so much comfort in seeing the tremendous progress they were making every day. Inspired by these people who have worked hard to reach their goals, I started competing in 2016 and did four shows in six months. In 2017 I started working as a personal trainer and group instructor. Have you always lived a fit-focused lifestyle? No, I only got involved in the fitness industry while I was abroad. I was working super long hours and having to walk to the gym demotivated me. One morning I decided that was it and I've been training consistently ever since. Competing in shows made me realise how much I love the competitive side of the sport, which makes me work harder in the gym. Working out is something that holds me accountable and keeps me motivated. What's your training strategy? I like to think out of the box and change exercises to keep my body from hitting a plateau. My favourite body part to train is shoulders. I love doing a tri-set of a shoulder press, an Arnold press and a shoulder to shoulder landmine press. The look of my body determines how far in advance I will start doing cardio for a show. I have to be careful; if I do too much, I lose weight quickly. My training split changes when I prep, but I usually pair chest with shoulders and then back with triceps and abs. I train legs, calves and arms separately, on their own. I train chest and shoulders and legs twice a week. Gym COOL CLAUDETTE FACT Claudette completes 20 minutes of fasted cardio a day, starting two to three weeks out from a contest. She also lifts weights for 11 hours a week, training twice a day when she is in prep mode. time is my time and I believe the results you get are based on how much effort you put in. Competing is about showing off all your hard work on the stage. My motivation basically comes from living healthily, training and dieting hard, and being proud of what I've accomplished. Do you use compound moves when you train? I started focusing on the deadlift because I battled with a weak back. At first I struggled to drop my butt and keep my back straight, but I worked hard on my technique and my deadlifts are way more comfortable now. What interesting thing can you recall from the day you made your show debut? How well all the athletes got along. I've also heard some horrible stories about how rude and judgmental judges were and was totally surprised to find the complete opposite to be the truth. y QUICK FACTS NICKNAME: Clauds LIVES: Sandton, Johannesburg CATEGORY: Fitness Bikini HEIGHT: 1.64m OFF-SEASON WEIGHT: 55kg CONTEST WEIGHT: 50kg COMPETING SINCE: 2016 SPONSORED BY: Essie Aesthetics FAVOURITE EXERCISE: Any shoulder press MOTTO IN LIFE: Claudette Roux (Renney) claudettersa “Little by little a little becomes a lot.” www.muscleevolution.co.za 65 BABE “Don’t focus on what everyone else is doing, or how their prep is going. Bettering yourself is all that matters. Never doubt your own ability, or compare yourself to others.” 66 Muscle Evolution COOL CLAUDETTE FACT Claudette almost passed out from H[KDXVWLRQ ZKHQ VKH ¯UVW VWRRG RQ stage. “The heat from the lights while standing on stage was something I was not entirely prepared for!” What is the best way to lean out for a show? I don't have a problem leaning out. Rather, I battle with gaining weight. I would definitely suggest a low-carb diet and regular cardio sessions if you need to drop kilos. I have two cheat meals a week up until peak week. I'm very lucky in that regard as my body responds really well to good food so I lean out easily. I usually get to have more re-feeds to fill me back out. I love sushi and anything that is fried! What healthy dish can you just not get enough of? My breakfast pancakes, because they taste exactly like flap jacks. I take a banana, 60 grams of instant oats, 5 egg whites and a touch of cinnamon and blend it all together and cook it on medium heat in Spray and Cook, and voilà. They're absolutely delicious! If you could train in a gym anywhere in the world, where would it be? Definitely Gold's Gym at Venice Beach in California. No explanation is needed for this one. What's your favourite bodyweight exercise? Jump squats. I've always had a flat butt and the progress of my booty has made me so much more confident... 'cause who doesn't want a round peach? Tell us the most valuable bit of fitness advice you got in the industry? To not focus on what everyone else is doing, or how their prep is going. Bettering yourself is all that matters. Never doubt your own ability, or compare yourself to others. Where do you go to for inspiration? Like all people, I sometimes lack motivation and inspiration. When I feel down I remind myself why I got into the fitness lifestyle in the first place. Locally, I find Shelby Neves and Micaela Markides inspirational. Internationally, I look at amazing women like Candice Lewis Carter, Hattie Boydle and Shannah Baker to remind myself of the type of physique I strive for. I'm also an avid follower of Alexia Clark, specifically for her innovative exercise routines. What is 'meh' about prepping? Peak week and depletion. It takes a huge toll on your mind and body, but seeing yourself transform is what makes it all worth it. I always find ways to stay positive and motivated. If you could train with any Marvel Comic character, who would it be? Wonder Woman. Her sass, elegance and strength is mesmerising! Would you rather do cardio or lift weights? Definitely weight training. Too much cardio makes me look incredibly skinny. The only time I'll willingly run is when I'm being chased! How would you describe a perfect date? Looking out at the ocean on one of the exotic beaches in Greece while sipping champagne with someone special. What is the biggest lie about nutrition someone told you? To eat less to lose weight. You actually need to eat more frequently throughout the day to speed up your metabolism. Eating regularly also prevents you from nibbling on crap between meals. I try and eat clean most of the time, but I do allow myself more variety of cheat meals when I'm not prepping for a comp. CONTEST HISTORY: 2016 Q IFBB East Coast Classic, 4th place Q IFBB Summer Superbodies, 1st place 2017 Q Elite Athlete Extravaganza, 3rd place Q IFBB Gauteng Central Provincials, 3rd place Q IFBB SA Championships, 2nd place M.E www.muscleevolution.co.za 67 SUPPLEMENTS BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR THEACRINE CAFFEINE AS A MENTAL AND PHYSICAL STIMULANT IS A STAPLE IN EVERYONE’S DAILY LIFE. KNOWN FOR GIVING YOU A KICK WHEN YOU NEED IT THE MOST, THERE CAN ALSO BE SOME DRAWBACKS TO YOUR FAVOURITE CUP OF COFFEE IN THE MORNING GYM. BEFORE GYM TRAIN HARDER FOR LONGER Let's be honest - for a vast majority of people coffee has become more of an entrenched habit than an energizer. Caffeine consumption, in fact, can lead to a vicious cycle of fatigue and insomnia. Some of the negative side effects of caffeine include: Q Accelerated heartbeat Q Restlessness Q Muscle tremors Q Nervousness The chronic use of caffeine can cause physical dependence which means you need to continue taking more and more of it to achieve the same desired effect. As we become increasingly desensitised to caffeine over time we are forced to increase the amount we consume. Some people even compare caffeine “THEACRINE IS ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY FOUND IN CAMELLIA ASSAMICA, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS KUCHA.” withdrawal to experiencing a breakdown in a relationship. You feel headaches, depression, and a host of other symptoms that vary depending on the individual. Symptoms usually set in as early as 12 hours after caffeine cessation, and may last for up to a week. Acknowledging this drawback, supplement manufacturers have started including an ingredient known as theacrine in their preworkouts, fat burners and mood enhancing products as an alternative to caffeine. GAINING POPULARITY Found almost exclusively in camellia assamica, otherwise known as kucha tea, theacrine (1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid) is an alkaloid that is biochemically very similar to caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine). Due to the structural similarities between the two as purine alkaloids, theacrine and caffeine perform their duties in a very similar fashion in the body - it raises levels of certain neurotransmitters to give you a boost in physical and mental performance. For this reason, theacrine is also believed to offer improved focus and energy levels which is appealing to all fitness demographics – from lifters who “WHEN USED AS KUCHA TEA IN LOWER DOSAGES, THEACRINE CAN ALSO BE USED TO INDUCE RELAXATION.” are looking to increase muscle size and stre ength to those interrested in improving the ir athletic performa ance or decreasing the ir body fat percenta age for the stage. age. en used as kucha tea t in lower low wer When dosages, for example, theacrine can also be used to induce relaxation. “Theacrine is similar to caffeine,” explains Dr. Jacob Wilson, director of a skeletal muscle and sports nutrition laboratory in Florida. “It is an alkaloid, a scientific word for the active compound in a supplement, but its effects have been shown to be more beneficial than caffeine. It can increase focus, energy, and motivation while simultaneously decreasing fatigue.” C COGNITIVE BENEFITS With theacrine it is believed that no tolerance is developed in the body with continuous use. “Theacrine will give you the same focus and energy as caffeine in a smaller dose, ” says Wilson. He adds: “Theacrine is an anti-adaptogenic, which means that you do not adapt to it as quickly as you do to caffeine. This has been shown in a few clinical trials where participants supplementing with theacrine felt the exact same effects in the last dose compared to the first.” According to Wilson another interesting attribute of theacrine is that it not only increases focus and energy, it has also been shown to increase your willingness to exercise and the desire to train. “When you train your body’s main energy source ATP is broken down into adenosine. Adenosine signals the body that you are fatigued and low on energy by binding to landing docks called receptors in the brain. Theacrine works by blocking adenosine receptors. This causes the stimulatory effects that increase energy and alertness.” www.muscleevolution.co.za 69 SUPPLEMENTS S ENERGY WITHOUT THE JITTERS Theacrine has also been shown to increase dopamine. What is beneficial about increased dopamine is the fact that it increases the 'reward centre' of the brain causing an overall increase in well-being. “Theacrine can not only increase focus but also increase the reward centre in the brain causing the pleasure response,” adds Wilson. “This can further enhance the energy and alertness effects. There is even evidence showing that theacrine can be beneficial for libido.” Recommended dosages range anywhere from 200mg to more than 300mg. However, as theacrine has not been studied much, it's optimal dosage is unknown. According to research conducted by Dr. Richard Bloomer from the School of Health Studies at the University of Memphis theacrine displays similar benefits to caffeine but lacks the massive high and then the crash that can happen with caffeine. “Theacrine also is a very potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. There doesn’t seem to be much variation in benefits across individuals, although like all dietary supplements the level of response varies, “ says Bloomer who also found that a low dose “THEACRINE CAN NOT ONLY INCREASE FOCUS BUT ALSO INCREASE THE REWARD CENTRE IN THE BRAIN CAUSING THE PLEASURE RESPONSE.” of caffeine (about 150mg, or one cup of coffee), plus theacrine, prolongs the benefits of theacrine. “The studies of theacrine are still in their infancy but it seems like theacrine has two methods of action,” says Bloomer. “The first is to act on adenosine receptors, much like caffeine. Animal research also suggests that theacrine works on dopamine receptors in a dual phase effect.” IS IT WORTH IT? THEACRINE DIFFERS FROM CAFFEINE: Q It has a longer half-life Q It has no effect on blood pressure and does not cause anxiety Q It is less likely to cause insomnia compared to caffeine Q Research has demonstrated that theacrine does not result in a fatigued crash or lead to tolerance build up over time CAFFEINE, THEACRINE SYNERGY Bloomer conducted a pharmacokinetics analysis on theacrine at two different dosages relatively low and high, and then caffeine alone at a moderate dosage, followed by the theacrine coupled with the caffeine. The study, which suggested that caffeine made theacrine more bioavailable, was published in 2017. As part of his research Bloomer recruited eight participants to consume caffeine, 50-400mg/day in the form of a beverage or a dietary supplement. Each participant also received four treatments: 25mg theacrine, 125mg theacrine, 150mg caffeine and the combination of 125mg theacrine with 150mg caffeine. “We tried to determine what the half-life 70 Muscle Evolution would be, what the max concentration would be alone and in isolation, as well as in combination,” explains Bloomer. Participants visited Bloomer's laboratory for each study day in the early mornings after a 10-hour fast and abstinence from beverages or supplements containing alcohol or caffeine. “What we see is that, in all individuals, theacrine seems to behave in a pretty similar manner. And interestingly, the caffeine addition seems to prolong the overall effect of the theacrine. I think that's of interest to a lot of individuals who tend to use the theacrine nowadays within blended dietary supplements that might contain caffeine,” says Bloomer. To summarise, theacrine has been shown to aid in the following positive aspects: Q Provides a boost in mental energy and reduces perceived fatigue Q Improves focus and mental concentration Q Enhances mood Q Acts as an anti-inflammatory in the body Q Theacrine appears to have a biphasic dose response, meaning that it acts as a sedative at lower doses and has stimulatory properties at higher doses, especially taken in conjunction with caffeine. Theacrine taken on its own will not help you build tons of muscle but it can be stacked with other ingredients in order to heighten energy levels and improve focus in the gym. Theacrine also does not suppress appetite or accelerate the breakdown of fat cells but can give you energy to train harder for longer to burn off more calories. While caffeine has been demonstrated to cause the body to begin building a tolerance after a short while, theacrine appears to have no such adaptation. M.E STOCKISTS OF THE WIDEST RANGE OF SUPPLEMENTS & ACCESSORIES *SHOP ONLINE @ SPR OFF INGBOK DELIV ERS A FREE E TO T RY SERV GAUT HESE ARE ICE A ENG, SAN S: ME TRIAN YERTON, VDTON, G A NIGEL LE, SASOLBAL ,H UR ROODEIDELBERG G, CENT EPOORT, , URIO PRETO N AND RIA WWW.SPRINGBOKPHARMACY.CO.ZA TEL: 011 861 6600 / 011 861 6690 EMAIL: INFO@SPRINGBOKPHARMACY.CO.ZA ALBERTON MALL, VOORTREKKER STR, ALBERTON NUTRITION BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR THE HUNGER GAMES ARE YOU SUPER HUNGRY WHILE CUTTING? DO YOU GO TO SLEEP AT NIGHT AND DREAM ABOUT FOOD? DIETING FOR A SHOW BRINGS ALONG A WHOLE SET OF MIND GAMES OF ITS OWN. DON’T STRESS, SHRED SMART WITH THESE HELPFUL TIPS. PUMP UP THE PROTEIN N CARB CONSUMPTION When you lean out for a show you have to hold on to your muscle by increasing your protein intake. You should actually take in a higher percentage of your calories from protein when you are dieting than when you are trying to add muscle in the off-season. Known as the most satiating macronutrientt, protein will help you through the tough patches in your prep, especially when you lower your total caloric consumption. ESSENTIAL VEGGIES R GET YOUR FROM: PROTEIN F Q Lean bee ef Q Tuna in water Q Chicken breasts Q Whey pr rotein Low calorie green leafy vegetables will become your best friend when you are in a cutting phase. Eating healthy and watching your calories is one thing but when you compete you need to go much further than that. Make a point of having green vegetables such as kale, spinach or cabbage at every main meal to keep your body functioning at an optimal level. Carbohydrates are stored in your muscles and the liver and utilised to provide energy to muscles. When you train your body converts stored carbs into adenosine triphosphate which is used as energy. Save the bulk of your carb consumption, critical for recuperation and muscle growth, for the post-workout period when your body is severly depleted. This is the ideal time to eat high-glycemic carbohydrates such as fruits, bread and cereals. If you cut carbs too drastically your performance in the gym will suffer and you increase your chances of losing muscle. GET YOUR CARBS FROM: Q Sweet potatoes Q Vegetables Q Brown rice Q Oats GO FOR NUTRIENT-DENSITY G W When you shred you need to eat foods that are nutrient-dense and not calorie-dense. Examples are eggs, broccoli and lettuce. In order to walk out on stage in sterling form you need E to know what you are eating. Master your diet by keeping track of everything. It is all part of a process. Keep your eyes on the goal and let that be your motivating factor to push through, especially when you start to feel hungry all the time. e 72 Muscle Evolution PREP TRAINING DRINK MORE WATER D D Dehydration causes mental exhaustion. When you are in a dehydrated state you also won’t recover sufficiently from your workouts. Water is needed to replace lost fluids and is y ypically only decreased before a show. Stay hydrated by ty sspreading your water consumption evenly over the day, rather han a few giant chug-sessions. th STOP BREAKDOWN WITH BCAAS Branched chain amino acids are not only the building blocks of muscle but they also help combat any fatigue you might be feeling from a reducedcalorie diet. Make BCAAs part of a proper contest prep which will give you the ripped-to-shreds, muscular and defined, anatomy chart-look you need to succeed on stage. DON’T DECREASE FAT The importance of carbs and protein is often emphasised over that of fat. Eating fat won’t wreak havoc on your fat-loss goals. In fact, fat is essential in keeping your testosterone levels normal so that you are able to preserve muscle while keeping your body out of a state of starvation and locked in a fat-burning zone. If you avoid fat completely you will end up with lower testosterone. Obviously you cannot avoid a decrease in testosterone levels when you are cutting but by eating enough fat you can at least minimise the damage. Examples of fat sources are nuts, olive oil, fish oil and egg yolks. Your goal when training for a competition is to keep muscle and shred fat. Weight loss rates that are gradual are superior for muscle retention. Lift the same way you did before in order to retain muscle. Your diet will take care of stripping off all the body fat. You can depend on either cardio or diet to reach your calorie deficit to a degree, but in the end you still need to use both if your goal is to see optimal results on show day. PREP GUIDELINES Q Train larger muscle groups first and add two additional exercises for lagging parts. Q Stick to textbook form when you lift. You don’t want to injure yourself before a show. Q Schedule training your legs away from your cardio sessions. Q Too much cardio causes a spike in cortisol which leads to water retention. Q As your prep progresses and your body weight and calories begin to drop to low numbers, it is normal for your strength to decline. Q Don’t expect to lift the same weight when you weigh less, eat fewer calories and perform regular cardio sessions. Remind yourself that you are training for a bodybuilding competition and not a powerlifting one. CONTEST CARDIO DON T DITCH VITS DON’T Suppleme enting with a multivitamin while you are prepping is imporrtant because when your calories are low you are at a much higher risk for deficiencies. The purpose of vitamins is regulating metabolic functions, many of which are critical fo or exercise performance, muscle growth and weight loss. “PROPER SLEEP IS VITAL FOR MUSCLE BUILDING AND THE RELEASE OF FAT-LOSS HORMONES SUCH AS LEPTIN AND HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE. CUTTING DOWN ON YOUR ZZZ’S IS A NIGHTMARE FOR FAT LOSS.” STRESS LESS WITH L-THEANINE You are bound to feel irritated and stressed out when you are pushing the physical frontiers in the gym while low on calories. Something that never used to bother you before suddenly becomes the most annoying thing in the world! Contest prep is about biting the bullet as you undergo weeks of physical and mental torture leading up to the big day. Avoid going over the edge by taking L-theanine – a unique amino acid with a neurological calming effect. It can also help promote focus and concentration. TAKE YOUR ZMA ZMA is a combination of zinc, magnesium aspirate and vitamin B6 and can help you to relax and get a good night’s sleep. Proper sleep is vital for muscle building and the release of fatloss hormones such as leptin and human growth hormone. Cutting down on your g are for fat loss. Shoot for zzz’s is a nightm 7 to 8 hours of sle e ep each n night. Q You can alternate the type of cardio you perform every workout. Alternate every week, or stick to one method and switch halfway through your prep. Q Don’t panic when other competitors have their veins and striations pop out while you see fat on your hammies. In the sport of bodybuilding, although you are competing against other athletes, you are truly only competing against yourself. Q Don’t go into overdrive, ramp up your cardio and drop your calories to starvation levels. Social media is the worst place to post your prep pics for advice. Get help from a knowledgeable mentor or prep coach and focus on what you can control. Q You are extremely lucky if you are able to reach stage-readiness with a limited amount of cardio. For the majority of bodybuilders it is an absolute necessity in order to burn calories. Most competitors need to throw in some cardio on off days too or even a second cardio session in one day to reach their goals. Never perform cardio before your workout because your intensity will suffer. Q Cardio is performed to not only burn calories and body fat but also to strengthen the heart and lungs, improve bone density, lower blood pressure, keep cholesterol in check, and improve overall stamina. M.E www.muscleevolution.co.za 73 HEALTH BY JUSTIN MAGUIRE, HULK ENTERPRISES, WWW.HULKENTERPRISES.LTD A N OFTEN OVERLOOKED ASPECT OF BODYBUILDING NUTRITION IS THE IMPACT THAT FOODS HAVE ON BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS. Low blood sugar levels can lead to sub-par growth, while a spike can turn you into blubber man. In contrast, stable sugar levels are correlated with muscle growth and recovery. BALANCING BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS A FINE BALANCING ACT Blood sugar, also defined as blood glucose, is a term used to describe the amount of sugar in your blood. Your body breaks down the carbohydrates you consume into sugar. Two things happen: sugar either floats in your blood until your muscles adsorb it to make muscle glycogen, which is an important component of muscle recovery and muscle growth, or it is stored as fat, adding to your total body fat percentage. Maintaining even blood sugar levels can be a fine balancing act. The ideal 74 Muscle Evolution WH INSUALT IS IN? Insuli by the n is a horm on p levels ancreas in r e released Insulin of sugar in y esponse to high our act by shu s as a trans bloodstream ttling port m . carboh glucos e ydrate chanism e into -derive muscle is stor transp ed as glyco cells where d gen. In orts a mino sulin a it protein lso into th acids from ing em carboh ydrate uscle cells ested . Bot s an therefo re vita d protein ar h e l for repair and gr muscle owth. is to stay away from slumping dives or unwanted spikes. Stress also has the ability to spike blood sugar levels. This is a common concern for athletes who compete because stress can elevate blood sugar levels to the point where performance is impaired. Stress from overtraining can put you in a state where you have difficulty assimilating sugar and higher levels in the blood could lead to fa at storage. If you cannot recover adequately y from your training sessions you also put yourself into a prime position for an injury y, illness or, even worse, burnout. WHAT YOU PUT ON YOUR PLATE “THE HEALTHIER THE FOODS ARE THAT YOU CONSUME, THE BETTER YOU WILL SUCCEED IN BUILDING MUSCLE.” A phrase 'you are what you eat' is often used to describe the huge impact food has on one's state of health. What you put on your plate is even more important when you are a bodybuilder. The healthier the foods are that you consume, the better you will succeed in building muscle. The reverse is unfortunately true as well. The less attention you pay to what goes into your mouth, the bigger your effort will become to reach your physique goals. Bodybuilding is one of the few sports in which nutrition is as important as training and recuperation. To become successful you have to understand the role of the three macronutrients – protein, carbohydrates and fat – and how you need to organise them in your daily diet plan to allow for maximum absorption and assimilation. Training hard is only the beginning of developing a better physique. If you want to go all the way, you need to pay attention to what you do outside of the gym. That is what ultimately will determine how far you will go in the sport. You want to increase your insulin levels when it's most likely that the nutrients you ingested will go to the muscle cells, and decrease your levels when it is more likely that nutrients will be stored in fat cells. Bodybuilders typically load up on simple carbohydrates before and after workouts because these are seen as the times when muscle cells are more likely to be the most receptive. At other times in the day it is most advantageous to keep blood sugar levels even as it can help reduce fat gain from a high calorie diet. THE ROLE OF CARBS Carbohydrates are used very differently by the body. Simple carbohydrates, also known as simple sugars, are broken down very quickly. Examples include fructose (fruit sugar), sucrose (table sugar) and lactose (milk sugar), as well as refined foods usually purchased from convenience stores for easy consumption. You have to avoid simple carbohydrates BLOOD SUGAR: WHAT TO DO EAT AT LEAST SIX SMALL MEALS A DAY: In this way you ensure that blood sugar levels are even which can contribute to a bigger and harder physique. Eating several small meals will also stimulate your metabolism. STAY AWAY FROM FOODS HIGH IN SUGAR AND EMPTY CALORIES: Your body burns more calories to digest foods that are high in protein and complex carbohydrates than foods high in sugar and empty calories. Remember, the higher your blood glucose levels, the more insulin is released. EAT SUFFICIENT AMOUNTS OF PROTEIN AND COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES: By doing this you feed the muscles with the amino acids and glycogen they need, especially after a heavy, intense training session. because they cause the pancreas to secrete high levels of insulin to control the sudden spike of sugar in your system. As a result, simple carbohydrates are often shuttled directly into the fat cells for storage. This is particularly important when you are prepping for a show and you need to drop as much subcutaneous fat as possible. Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are sugar molecules that form complex chains. This makes them more difficult to break down. Their insulin response is not so dramatic and they are broken down more slowly by the body, which translates into less fat deposition. Complex carbohydrates are also more likely to be stored as glycogen (stored sugar) within our muscle cells rather than being assimilated into fat cells. RATING ACCORDING TO GI The glycaemic index (GI) is a system of ranking foods based on their impact on your blood sugar levels. Because the GI is based on how quickly foods are broken down and enter the bloodstream, it is best to consume foods that are high in fibre and as close to their original state as possible, and to ignore refined foods. How you change the structure of a food also impacts how your body absorbs it. For example, a potato is an example of a complex carbohydrate that contains plenty of fibre in its natural state. When you leave the skin on a potato your body will digest it at a slower pace as opposed to when you remove the skin and mash it for easier consumption. INDIVIDUAL REACTION Assessing your reaction to food can be complex as it often involves testing protocols. Although stringent testing may at times be warranted, simply measuring your glucose response at specific times of the day may prove to be useful in providing insight into what you eat. The Gamma Project by Hulk Enterprises provides an online coaching service around your own physiology, for instance, how to regulate your blood sugar levels. While hypertrophy and fat loss can be seen as by-products of discipline, it is imperative for competitors to recognise and educate themselves on the chemical processes of food and what impact the environment may have on their bodies. Simply eating regularly or cutting out the sugar may not be enough to combat the stressful effect both external and internal stimuli may have on you as an individual. M.E www.muscleevolution.co.za 75 SHOW REPORT REPORT BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR PHOTOGRAPHY BY GARY PHILLIPS, WWW.GARYPHILLIPSPHOTOGRAPHY.COM DEXTER JACKSON BODYBUILDING OPEN 1. William Bonac 2. Dexter Jackson 3. Cedric McMillan 4. Roelly Winklaar 5. Steve Kuclo 6. Lionel Beyeke WILLIAM BONAC CEDRIC MCMILLAN CONSISTENCY PAYS OFF FOR BONAC WILLIAM BONAC’S QUEST FOR 3-D MUSCLE CONTINUES 76 Muscle Evolution ARNOLD CLASSIC 2018 BONAC SHOCKS COLUMBUS! WHEN: 1-4 March 2018 WHERE: Columbus, Ohio, USA THE CONQUEROR CONQUERED In one of the biggest events of the year William Bonac claimed one of the biggest victories in his professional career with a combination of density, separation and definition. And it was a fitting occasion - the 30th anniversary of the Arnold Classic - where a number of headlining competitions took place as part of the four-day sport extravaganza, the Arnold Sports Festival. Annually the world’s top bodybuilders descend on Columbus to fight it out for top honours in the second most prestigious event in the world, after the Mr. Olympia. This year, among the hopefuls, was Ghana-born USN athlete William ‘The Conqueror’ Bonac. Now living in the Netherlands, Bonac was in absolute killer shape, thrilling fans that eagerly gathered with anticipation to watch the best of the best flex in Ohio’s capital city. Defending champion Cedric McMillan made the headlines in last year’s showdown but only managed 3rd place this time around. Bonac did not only beat McMillan but he also successfully squared off in a memorable battle with the likes of second-place finisher Dexter ‘The Blade’ Jackson, Roelly Winklaar (4th), Steve Kuclo (5th) and Lionel Beyeke (6th). Making his return to the competitive field after a serious injury, Dennis Wolf was one competitor to watch but he failed to leave a lasting impression and crashed out of the top 6 with the likes of Jon De La Rosa, Hidetada Yamagishi, Fred Smalls and Maxx Charles. www.muscleevolution.co.za 77 SHOW REPORT From left to right: Steve Kuclo, Cedric McMillan, Dexter Jackson, William Bonac, Roelly Winklaar, Lionel Beyeke BONAC - THE NEXT MR. OLYMPIA? Often referred to by bodybuilding aficionados as a mini-Kai Greene, Bonac’s victory was well deserved against a loaded field of professionals. One of them was Jackson. As the five time Arnold Classic champ, former Mr. Olympia and undisputed most consistent bodybuilder of all time, he is no slouch when it comes to aestheticallypleasing lines, shape and proportion. In Columbus, however, The Blade had problems holding in his gut, especially in abdominal poses and while his arms, shoulders and back were bigger than ever, his legs were small and his waist uncharacteristically wide. Hats off to Bonac who has made consistent progress every year, turning himself into one of the best in the world. “I’m extremely proud that William won the 2018 Arnold Classic,” said his trainer Neil Hill. “This is the accumulation of years spent being committed.” It was however not always the case. I recall a time when Bonac struggled as a 212 athlete. No one thought it would have been possible for a smaller man to improve and make a successful transition to the Bodybuilding Open division. Bonac’s win begs the question: Can he become the next Mr. Olympia? In recent years, the IFBB judges have shown a preference for aesthetic cartoonish muscle over freaky mass that was reminiscent of an era that belonged to the Jay Cutlers and Ronnie Colemans of this world. I believe the quest for 3-D muscle will continue on the Olympia stage. King Phil Heath leads the pack but Bonac now has the momentum and is waiting in the wings for ‘The Gift’ to let down his guard. Not that I think Phil will lose sight of the all-time record of eight Sandows. I also don’t know where otherworldly freaks like Ramy and Roelly fit into the equation, now that we are officially in the era of the X-frame. KAMAL CROWNED AS NEW 212 CHAMP KAMAL ELGARGNI’S CONDITIONING WAS HARD TO BEAT KAMAL ELGARGNI 212 BODYBUILDING CHARLES DIXON 78 Muscle Evolution 1. Kamal Elgargni 2. Charles Dixon 3. Samir Troudi 4. David Henry 5. Jose Raymond 6. Guy Cisternino ARASH RAHBAR COURAGE OPARA BREON ANSLEY HAROLD KELLEY FIRST-EVER ARNOLD CLASSIC PHYSIQUE WINNER HISTORIC VICTORY FOR BREON ANSLEY MEN’S CLASSIC PHYSIQUE 1. Breon Ansley 2. Arash Rahbar 3. Courage Opara 4. Danny Hester 5. Kevin Ford 6. Dani Younan PRO WHEELCHAIR 1. Harold Kelley 2. Reggie Bennett 3. Gabriele Andriulli 4. Daniel Minster 5. Steven Lister 6. Adelfo Ceramo WOMEN’S PHYSIQUE 1. Shanique Grant 2. Natalia Coelho 3. Margita Zamolova 4. Michaela Aycock 5. Kira Neuman 6. Priscila Cavilha From left to right: Kira Neuman, Margita Zamolova, Shanique Grant, Natalia Coelho, Michaela Aycock, Priscila Cavilha www.muscleevolution.co.za 79 From left to right: Bojana Vasiljevic, Heather Dees, Candice Lewis-Carter, Cydney Gillon, Michele Silva, Maria Diaz HISTORY IN THE MAKING The superbly conditioned Kamal Elgargni won the 212 championship while a seemingly unstoppable Breon Ansley and the stunning Shanique Grant won the Classic Physique in the Men’s and Women’s events, respectively. In reaction to his victory 212 winner Elgargni, a Libya native now living in England, told reporters: “It took me several years to get my Pro Card. This was a bigger achievement for me as it was my first professional show. To come out of nowhere and win it, it just doesn’t happen.” The 46-year-old also said: “Arnold told me afterwards the physique I had was like the bodybuilders from the 80s, when bodybuilding was an art. He told me I was just what they were looking for. He was so happy that a newcomer could just come to his show and win.” The Classic Physique division has risen in popularity and being so new, it was anyone’s game as to who will be the winner. In the end it was Ansley who made history as the winner in the first-ever Classic Physique competition at the Arnold Classic. Andre Ferguson finished with gold in the Men’s Physique section. In the Bikini division, Angelica Teixeira took her second consecutive crown while in the Pro Wheelchair category, Harold Kelley, aptly named ‘King Kong’, clinched his third Arnold Classic title. In the Fitness International section the retirement of Oksana Grishina left the contest wide open for a new star. Whitney Jones, who finished 3rd last year, dominated in the same fashion the incomparable Grishina did at her peak and in a spectacular way, taking into account that she only recently underwent neck surgery. As an admirer of strength sports it is also worth mentioning that Hafthór Björnsson, known as Mountain in the hit show Game of Thrones, won the Arnold Strongman Classic competition after finishing in second place last year. The Icelandic strongman set a new world-record in the Elephant Bar Deadlift event with an astonishing 472 kg! M.E TOP HONOURS FOR LEWISCARTER FIGURE CHAMP, CANDICE LEWISCARTER, IN TOP NOTCH SHAPE WOMEN’S FIGURE 1. Candice Lewis-Carter 2. Cydney Gillon 3. Heather Dees 4. Michele Silva 5. Bojana Vasiljevic 6. Maria Diaz WOMEN’S BIKINI 1. Angelica Teixeira 2. Janet Layug 3. Casey Samsel 4. Romina Basauldo 5. Jennifer Ronzitti 6. Breena Martinez CASEY SAMSEL 80 Muscle Evolution ANGELICA TEIXEIRA JANET LAYUG The ONLY choice for hard-core strength and power athletes who crave pound positive muscle gains. Developed for those, who bask in the glory of PBs, who crave elevated strength and power levels, anyone who just won’t give in… SHOW REPORT REPORT BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR PHOTOGRAPHY BY GARY PHILLIPS, WWW.GARYPHILLIPSPHOTOGRAPHY.COM ARNOLD CLASSIC 2018 ROELLY WINS DOWN UNDER BODYG BUILDING OPEN 1. Roelly Winklaar 2. William Bonac 3. Dexter Jackson 4. Lukas Osladil 5. Hidetada Yamagishi 6. Luke Sandoe WHEN: 16-18 March 2018 WHERE: Melbourne, Australia A BATTLE OF EPIC PROPORTIONS The Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre was packed to the brim with bodybuilding fans absolutely stoked to see their favourite athlete fight for the top spot. Arnold Schwarzenegger’s flagship contest, the Arnold Classic USA, was held two weeks before the Arnold Classic Australia, so it was no surprise to see the same contestants in the line-up. Everyone thought William Bonac would win another Arnold Classic after he captured the title in Columbus in dominant fashion, but that didn’t happen. This time around it was Roelly Winklaar who emerged the star of the evening. It was a battle of epic proportions between the two Dutchmen, with Bonac displaying phenomenal shape and size that can only be described as cartoonish. Known as the quintessential mass monster, Winklaar was, however, a lot tighter than his rival and also impressed DEXTER JACKSON WILLIAM BONAC ROELLY WINKLAAR 82 Muscle Evolution the judges with a killer posing routine. Schwarzenegger was full of praise for the 40-year-old: “Congratulations on your first victory in Australia. You worked so hard to lose those 20 pounds (9 kg) and you were ripped! No stomach, no fat, great posing. All the mistakes of the past were eliminated.” From left to right: Dexter Jackson, Roelly Winklaar, William Bonac ROELLY WINKLAAR From left to right: Lukas Osladil, Hidetada Yamagishi, Luke Sandoe ROELLY STEALS THE LIMELIGHT ROELLY WINKLAAR SHEDS 9KG TO WIN www.muscleevolution.co.za 83 SWANSONG FOR KEVIN LEVRONE KEVIN LEVRONE Dexter Jackson finished in 3rd position after injuring his bicep prior to the show. Through the years Jackson has established a historic run of success and longevity, earning him the moniker “the winningest bodybuilder of all tim”. When Dexter is off, he is still better than most competitors when they are on. Despite his injury Jackson was still in good enough shape to beat much younger and bigger men for a podium spot. It speaks volumes about ‘The Blade’s’ discipline and commitment after placing second to Bonac in Columbus. Lukas Osladil came 4th, with Hidetada Yamagishi in 5th and Luke Sandoe rounding out the top six. It was the swansong for legendary Kevin Levrone after he made a comeback at the 2016 Mr. Olympia competition. Although he finished in 13th position, Arnold Classic Australia promoter Tony Doherty asked everyone to stand up for Levrone’s last show as a bodybuilder and the crowd went wild for the icon. Calling Kevin one of the ANGELICA SCOOPS TOP PRIZE ANGELICA TEIXEIRA IS UNSTOPPABLE IN THE BIKINI LINE-UP CANDICE LEWIS-CARTER 84 Muscle Evolution greatest is not an exaggeration as he finished second at the Mr. Olympia four times (1992, 1995, 2000 & 2002) and competed against guys like Rich Gaspari, Lee Labrada and Shawn Ray. Hats off to ‘The Maryland Muscle Machine’! Kate Errington dominated the Fitness category after finishing in 2nd place in Columbus. Candice LewisCarter took home the title in the Women’s Figure division for the second year in a row, while Angelica Teixeira looked unstoppable in the Bikini division. M.E From left to right: Katya Nisova, Margret Gnarr, Janet Layug, Angelica Teixeira, Romina Basualdo, Sheena Jayne Martin WOMEN’S FIGURE WOMEN’S BIKINI 1. Candice Lewis-Carter 2. Cydney Gillin 3. Michele Pinto 4. Carly Starling-Horrell 5. Ivana Vusic 6. Maria Luisa Baeza Diaz 1. Angelica Teixeira 2. Janet Layug 3. Romina Basualdo 4. Margret Gnarr 5. Sheena Jayne Martin 6. Katya Nisova SHOW REPORT REPORT & PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEHAN SCHOEMAN M asters divisional winner Johannes Hendricks showed that age was nothing g but a number when he also scooped the Overall Men’s title at the first ever Physical Culture Association (PCA) South Africa’s Development Bodybuilding and Fitness show. TRULY INSPIRING T he main goal throughout the 60-year-old’s prep for the contest was to step on stage in magnificent shape to inspire younger athletes. And he did just that. When he achieved this milestone Hendricks looked truly overwhelmed. Well done! The future looks bright and the talent abundant with 51 newcomers stepping on stage at the event presented at the Durbanville High School Auditorium in Cape Town. FROM JITTERS TO CONFIDENCE A t first, judging from their facial expressions, it seemed like a total nerve-racking experience for competitors at the pre-judging but a sense of calmness prevailed when their jitters turned into confidence at the main show where they strutted their stuff to show off the end result of all their hard work. Anele Ntsabo, winner of the Junior under 23 category who also conquered the Junior Overall title, displayed astonishing size for his age and great things are expected from the youngster. If Anele can improve his conditioning, he will be hard to beat at future shows. The super talented Elzabé Höll brought a classic combination of balance and conditioning in the Ladies Trained Bikini division. Sculpting to create an illusion is what the sport is all about and in this regard Elzabé is definitely an athlete with a bright future! Bikini athlete Natasha Sutton also showed a classy and sharp physique while the muscular Gift Menemene was outstanding in what was arguably the toughest line-up of the entire show, the Senior Men under 80kg division. Juniors U/23 Anele Ntsabo Men’s Masters Johannes Hendricks ELECTRIFYING STAGE PRESENCE M ickael Davis, another youngster who impressed the judges, was awarded for his balance, proportional size and symmetry when his hand was raised in victory in the Men’s Muscle Model category. Ezra Lingeveldt brought a lot of showmanship to the Classic Bodybuilding line-up and his electrifying stage presence combined with a perfectly executed posing routine ensured him gold. Posing practice is essential to help you shine on stage and Ezra was a great example of how you can move with grace and elegance while still contracting every muscle effortlessly. Senior Men U/70kg Monrée Adonis Senior Men U/90kg Jacobus Henn PCA DEVELOPMENT SHOW WHEN: 2,3 MARCH 2018 WHERE: DURBANVILLE, CAPE TOWN 86 Muscle Evolution Bikinii Ladies Masters Trained B Natasha Sutton Senior Men U/60kg Ricardo Hendricks Ladies Masters Toned Bikini Sanet Drotschie Ladies Trained Bikini Elzabé Höll Classic Bodybuilding Ezra Lingeveldt Ladies Toned Bikini Natasha Byleveld The rookies have nailed down the necessities they needed to leave a lasting impression at their big debut and whether the plan now is to compete only in local shows or work their way up the ranks to compete at national and international level – they will remember it all started at the PCA’s Development show. Congratulations to the PCA in South Africa who is clearly on a mission to ensure the promotion, growth and development of the sport within local communities. We salute you guys! Check out www.pcasouthafrica.co.za or www.muscleevolution.co.za for more information on shows in your region. PCA DEVELOPMENT SHOW RESULTS Senior Men U/100kg Johannes Schreuder JUNIORS U/18 1. Moegamat Damon 2. Michael Jansen 3. Saki Kayembe JUNIORS U/23 1. Anele Ntsabo 2. Reghard Steenkamp 3. Donovan van der Merwe Men’s Physique Mikaylin Rhode Juniors U/18 Moegamat Damon LADIES TONED BIKINI 1. Natasha Byleveld 2. Elizma Otto 3. Sanet Drotschie LADIES MASTERS TONED BIKINI 1. Sanet Drotschie 2. Edna Abbott LADIES TRAINED BIKINI 1. Elzabé Höll 2. Natasha Sutton 3. Carla Ross LADIES MASTERS TRAINED BIKINI 1. Natasha Sutton 2. Odette van der Merwe Senior Men U/80kg Gift Menemene Men’s Beach Model Brady Johnstone Men’s Muscle Model Mickael Davis MEN’S MUSCLE MODEL 1. Mickael Davis CLASSIC BODYBUILDING 1. Ezra Lingeveldt 2. Jean-Paul van Rensburg BEST MEN’S ROUTINE 1. Jacobus Henn MEN’S MASTERS 1. Johannes Hendricks 2. Jaco Jacobs SENIOR MEN U/60KG 1. Ricardo Hendricks 2. Ryno Robynjies SENIOR MEN U/70KG 1. Monrée Adonis 2. Joshua Carrol 3. Jacques Philander SENIOR MEN U/80KG 1. Gift Menemene 2. Anele Mtsabo 3. Mickael Davis SENIOR MEN U/90KG 1. Jacobus Henn MEN’S BEACH MODEL 1. Brady Johnstone 2. Shaan Laudien SENIOR MEN U/100KG 1. Johannes Schreuder MEN’S PHYSIQUE 1. Mikaylin Rhode 2. Daniel Laing 3. Auric Ruiters * All results and spelling as supplied by the event organisers. Muscle Evolution accepts no responsibility for any errors or omissions M.E www.muscleevolution.co.za 87 HOW REPORT SH BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR HY BY SOULBY JACKSON WWW.SKJPHOTOGRAPHY.CO.ZA eliteathleteestravaganza www.eliteathleteextravaganza.com ELITE ATHLETE EXTRAVAGANZA WHEN: 24 MARCH 2018 WHERE: LYRIC THEATRE, GOLD REEF CITY CASINO he plush surroundings of the Lyric Theatre at Gold Reef City Casino in Johannesburg was transformed into a battleground on Satu urday, 24 March, with athletes trading poses for p podium positions at the annual Elite Athlete Extra avaganza. AH HIGH STANDARD I fy you were present on the day of the show it would’ve been hard to miss the number of heavily muscled men and women walking in and out the venue. Organisers Drienkie Visagie and Lisa Carr, pulled out all the stops to make the experience as rewarding as ossible and ensured it ran smoothly. po Although the theatre did not actually fill out A everything ran on time and, judging as planned, p from the reaction of the spectators, the high dard set by the athletes on the day did not go stand oticed. unno Evvery category at the Elite Athlete Extravaganza wed enormous talent and everyone brought show their A-game to the stage. This year a disabled athlete section was also ed, which belonged to the inspirational Marius adde dman. A crop of exceptionally talented athletes Land Veileroglou and Michelle McCall (Beach like Alexia A ni category winners), Shepherd Mpakosi (the Bikin Men’s Overall winner in Category 1 and winner of the Model “Bad Boy” Plus and Beach Model) and André Pieterse (Mr. Elite Light heavyweight Bodybuilding and Category 2 Overall winner) B d dominated their respective line-ups. MR. ELITE MEN’S OVERALLS CATEGORY 2 Mr. Elite Light Heavyweight BB 80kg – 90kg André Pieterse A TON OF QUALITY MUSCLE O Mr. Elite Heavyweight BB O/90kg Sipho Maphumulo 88 Muscle Evolution Mr. Elite Novice BB Open Justin du Rand Mr. Elite Middle Class BB 75kg– 80kg Ben Sonopo thers who got the nod from the judges on the day were Nadine Wales-Smith (Fitness Bikini), Nadine Yates (Figure) and Ben Sonopo (Middle Class Bodybuilding). Of particular note was the Heavyweight winner in the Bodybuilding category, Sipho Maphumulo, who displayed a ton of quality muscle. If Sipho comes in bigger and drier, he would be like a locomotive running over his opposition at full speed! Competitions require a certain level of physical and mental discipline, because it can take years of Mr. Elite Classic Physique BB 70kg – 75kg James Sebopelo Mr. Elite Junior BB 23 & under Louis Tverdon Miss Elite Junior 16-19 Tammy Dreyer Miss Elite Beach Bikini Model O/1.63m Michelle McCall Mr. Elite Light Weight Physique BB U/70kg Enoch James MISS ELITE LADIES OVERALLS CATEGORY 1 Miss Elite Beach Bikini Model 1.63m & under Alexia Veileroglou MISS ELITE LADIES OVERALLS CATEGORY 2 Miss Elite Fitness Bikini 1.63m & under & 35+ Open Nadine Wales-Smith Miss Elite Fitness Bikini O/1.63m Dominique v/d Merwe Miss Elite Wellness Bikini Open & Sports Model Themed Open Kayla Engelbrecht practice and mistakes to get your diet, training and prep perfect for a show. Regardless of your level, a game plan is an absolute must and will make the process of getting stage-ready so much easier. Every show has a storyline for those who take part, which combines the exhaustive prep with the few minutes under the spotlights and the eventual outcome. Athletes know the anticipation of walking out to strike your poses, which is difficult to describe to the audience. There is a sense of nervousness, but also an immense satisfaction that comes with eventually reaching what started out as a dot on the horizon at the start of a prep many weeks ago. The word ‘fierce’ aptly describes the level of competitiveness displayed at this season’s opening shows, and the Elite Athlete Extravaganza was no different. It was awesome to witness competitors battling it out for top honours and enjoying it. Congratulations to all who worked so hard to achieve success, and to the organisers for putting on a phenomenal show! www.muscleevolution.co.za 89 SHOW REPORT 2018 ELITE ATHLETE EXTRAVAGANZA RESULTS: MISS ELITE JUNIOR 16-19 1. Tammy Dreyer 2. Emma Hoogenhout MISS ELITE BEACH BIKINI MODEL 1.63M & UNDER 1. Alexia Veileroglou 2. Leonie Kruger 3. Yvette Knoetze MISS ELITE BEACH BIKINI MODEL O/1.63M 1. Michelle McCall 2. Kayla Engelbrecht 3. Shannon Botha MISS ELITE FITNESS BIKINI 1.63M & UNDER 1. Nadine Wales-Smith 2. Rojeanne Burdett 3. Karen Boshoff MISS ELITE FITNESS BIKINI O/1.63M 1. Dominique van der Merwe 2. Michelle McCall 3. Madelein Botes MISS ELITE FITNESS BIKINI 35+ OPEN 1. Nadine Wales-Smith 2. Nadine Yates 3. Lizette van Rensburg MISS ELITE WELLNESS BIKINI OPEN 1. Kayla Engelbrecht 2. Kirsten Thomas 3. Melissa Thobei MISS ELITE SPORTS MODEL THEMED OPEN 1. Kayla Engelbrecht 2. Rojeanne Burdett 3. Claire Brown MR. ELITE LIGHT WEIGHT PHYSIQUE BODYBUILDING U/ 70KG 1. Enoch James 2. Francois Nel 3. Denzel Mbengo MR. ELITE CLASSIC PHYSIQUE BODYBUILDING 70KG – 75KG 1. James Sebopelo 2. Jeremy Welkom 3. Themba Ncube MR. ELITE MIDDLE CLASS BODYBUILDING 75KG– 80KG 1. Ben Sonopo 2. Themba Vakele 3. Collen Leopeng MR. ELITE LIGHT HEAVYWEIGHT BODYBUILDING 80KG – 90KG 1. André Pieterse 2. Justin Rossouw 3. Justin du Rand MR. ELITE HEAVYWEIGHT BODYBUILDING O/ 90KG 1. Sipho Maphumulo 2. Rubin Borhd 3. Tawanda Terrance Nvoka MR. ELITE MASTERS 40+ 1. Deon Tolken MR. ELITE MASTERS 50+ 1. André Grobler ELITE COUPLES DIVISION OPEN 1. Nadine Yates and Deon Tolken MISS ELITE X-TREME ATHLETIC 1. Simone van Zyl ELITE COACH AWARD 2018 1. Julian Naidoo MR. ELITE NEW KID ON THE BLOCK 16-19 1. Francois Nel 2. Rodney Robinson 3. Godwin Eksteen ELITE 12 WEEK CHALLENGE – BIGGEST LOSER 1. Mona du Toit (Lost 12,7kg) MR. ELITE MODEL “BAD BOY” PLUS 1. Shepherd Mpakosi 2. Brian Marais 3. Henjo Smith ELITE 12 WEEK CHALLENGE – TRANSFORMATION 1. Vanessa Coetzee MR. ELITE FITNESS/ SPORTS MODEL 1. Deon Tolken 2. Brian Mariais 3. Gabriel Mosala MR. ELITE NOVICE BODYBUILDING OPEN 1. Justin du Rand 2. Jaco Lottering 3. Frederick van Wyk MR. ELITE JUNIOR BODYBUILDING 23 & UNDER 1. Louis Tverdon 2. Justin du Rand 3. Jeremy Welkom 90 Muscle Evolution MR. ELITE MEN’S OVERALLS CATEGORY 1 MR. ELITE DISABLED ATHLETE 1. Marius Landman MISS ELITE FIGURE OPEN 1. Nadine Yates 2. Katinka Kruger 3. Irena Oreski MR. ELITE BEACH MODEL 1. Shepherd Mpakosi 2. Tatenda Mwakiwa 3. Gabriel Mogala Mr. Elite New Kid on The Block 16-19 Francois Nel Miss Elite X-Treme Athletic Simone van Zyl Mr. Elite Model “Bad Boy” Plus & Beach Model Shepherd Mpakosi Mr. Elite Disabled Athlete Marius Landman ELITE ATHLETE EXTRAVAGANZA SOCIAL MEDIA AWARD 1. Michael Coovadia MR. ELITE MEN’S OVERALLS, CATEGORY 1 Shepherd Mpakosi MR. ELITE MEN’S OVERALLS, CATEGORY 2 André Pieterse MISS ELITE LADIES OVERALLS, CATEGORY 1 Kayla Engelbrecht MISS ELITE LADIES OVERALLS, CATEGORY 2 Nadine Wales-Smith * All results and spelling as supplied by the event organisers. Muscle Evolution accepts no responsibility for any errors or omissions M.E Miss Elite Figure Open Nadine Yates Mr. Elite Masters 50+ André Grobler Mr. Elite Fitness/Sports Model & Masters 40+ Deon Tolken SHOW REPORT REPORT AND PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEHAN SCHOEMAN PCA CONRAD NAGEL XTREME CLASSIC WHEN: 23, 24 MARCH 2018 WHERE: DURBANVILLE, CAPE TOWN T he Physical Culture Association’s Conrad Nagel Xtreme Classic has this year celebrated its second anniversary. Bearing the name of former bodybuilder Conrad Nagel, who won several titles and also competed on the world stage, the show has led to new faces in the line-ups competing for the first time. PHENOMENAL PHYSIQUES T he veterans in attendance also did not disappoint, showing off remarkable physiques. A total of 93 athletes traded poses for the top spots, but it was the 19-year-old Matthew Parker who took home the biggest prize of the evening – the Overall Men’s title. Although he was way too young to show off muscle maturity, Parker was as thick as a bull and I won’t be the least bit surprised if he wins every junior division he enters this season! As soon as Parker took to the stage I had him in mind as the benchmark for others to beat. The youngster had all the goods you need to dominate the opposition at a show of this stature – large round delts, solid quad development, rock-hard abs and spectacular conditioning. Hard-as-nails Chris Strachan, who dominated the Novice Men’s Muscle Model and Open Muscle Model to win the Overall Model title, is also destined for great things. It was only going to be one way traffic on the night with another talented newcomer, Didi Yuan impressing friends and foes with an exceptional physique in the Novice Ladies Trained Bikini U/1.63m category. The Novice Men’s Beach Model category is known as always being highly competitive, but in Sean Cohen the judges recognised a worthy winner as he came out on top after the physique comparisons. Men’s Physique rookie Mikaylin Rhode was sliced and diced to win against a line-up of seven rivals, while Willem Koch showed his mettle in a clash for the Classic Bodybuilding crown. OVERALL MEN Open Men U/100kg Chris Oelofse Open Junior Men U/23 Matthew Parker Open Men O/100kg Delano Naude Open Men U/80kg Abduraghman Salie SHOW-WINNING CONDITIONING M egan Hubbard clearly upped her game from last year and made a significant improvement in her physique to walk away with a stunning victory in what was genuinely one of the toughest line-ups of the show, the Novice Ladies Toned Bikini over 1.63m category. Another rising star, Elzabé Höll won her second Overall Bikini title in two outings this season, displaying a classy physique. Bodybuilding stalwart Shane Kreusch showed once again why he is regarded as one of the top 92 Muscle Evolution Open Men U/70kg Yongie Mpinda Novice Men’s Bodybuilding U/70kg Monreé Adonis OVE O ERALL MO ODEL OVERALL BIKINI Novice & Open Men’s Muscle Model Chris Strachan Open Men’s Masters ste Shane Kreusch Novice & Open Ladies Trained Bikini O/1.63m Elzabé Höll Best Men’s Routine Nic Lotter Open Classic Bodybuilding Willem Koch Novice Men’s Bodybuilding U/80kg Sanele Msibi competitors in South Africa as he bagged yet another first place trophy. In the Open Ladies Toned Bikini Masters division, Anje Pansegrouw was in absolutely incredible shape. Her grace and poise truly elevated her stage presence. The contest was packed with quality athletes in superb form. When all things are equal physiquewise, razor-sharp conditioning will always push you ahead of your opposition – this was also the case at the Conrad Nagel Xtreme Classic. Well done to all the champions (young and not so young) for nailing it perfectly! Shape Shifters Female Natasha Sutton Open Ladies Trained Bikini U/1.63m & Over 35 Nicolene Vermeulen Novice Ladies Trained Bikini U/1.63m Didi Yuan www.muscleevolution.co.za 93 SHOW REPORT PCA CONRAD NAGEL XTREME CLASSIC RESULTS NOVICE JUNIOR MEN U/23 U/75KG 1. Abongile Meyer 2. Ayabonga Mpinda OPEN LADIES TRAINED BIKINI OVER 35 1. Nicolene Vermeulen 2. Natasha Sutton NOVICE MEN’S BEACH MODEL 1. Sean Cohen 2. Juandre Rossouw 3. Robin Spamer SHAPE SHIFTERS MALE 1. Dominique Wiid NOVICE MEN’S PHYSIQUE 1. Andre Thompson 2. De Wet Laing 3. Nicolas Roodman OPEN MEN’S PHYSIQUE 1. Mikaylin Rhode 2. Nicolas Roodman 3. Alex Kriel NOVICE MEN’S MUSCLE MODEL 1. Chris Strachan 2. Gerald Geduld OPEN MEN’S MUSCLE MODEL 1. Chris Strachan 2. Willem Koch 3. Nic Lotter NOVICE LADIES TONED BIKINI U/1.63M 1. Marisha du Plessis 2. Sanoline Calitz NOVICE LADIES TONED BIKINI O/1.63M 1. Megan Hubbard 2. Lauren-Leigh Rix 3. Natasha Byleveld OPEN LADIES TONED BIKINI U/1.63M 1.Marisha du Plessis OPEN LADIES TONED BIKINI O/1.63M 1. Megan Hubbard 2. Natasha Byleveld 3. Liebe van Rooyen OPEN LADIES TONED BIKINI MASTERS 1. Anje Pansegrouw 2. Elana Marais 3. Sanet Drotschie NOVICE LADIES TRAINED BIKINI U/1.63M 1. Didi Yuan 2. Nicolene Vermeulen NOVICE LADIES TRAINED BIKINI O/1.63M 1. Elzabé Höll 2. Tanja Cronje 3. Cornel Nieuwenhuys OPEN LADIES TRAINED BIKINI U/1.63M 1. Nicolene Vermeulen OPEN LADIES TRAINED BIKINI O/1.63M 1. Elzabé Höll 2. Cornel Nieuwenhuys 3. Bernette Beyers 94 Muscle Evolution SHAPE SHIFTERS FEMALE 1. Natasha Sutton 2. Nata Vorster NOVICE MEN’S BODYBUILDING U/70KG 1. Monreé Adonis NOVICE MEN’S BODYBUILDING U/80KG 1. Sanele Msibi 2. Akhona Futswane 3. Gift Menemene Novice Men’s Beach Model Sean Cohen NOVICE MEN’S BODYBUILDING U/90KG 1. Carlin Jatho NOVICE MEN’S BODYBUILDING U/100KG 1. Juan Schreuder NOVICE MEN’S BODYBUILDING O/100KG 1. Jaco Jacobs Novice Men’s Physique Andre Thompson OPEN JUNIOR MEN U/23 1. Matthew Parker BEST MEN’S ROUTINE 1. Nic Lotter OPEN MEN’S MASTERS 1. Shane Kreusch 2. Leon Barnard OPEN CLASSIC BODYBUILDING 1. Willem Koch 2. Thandolwethu Vintwembi 3. Lindsay Pentolfe Novice & Open Ladies Ton ned Bikini O/1.63m Megan Hubbard OPEN MEN U/70KG 1. Yongie Mpinda 2. Arnaldo Barbosa 3. Sebastian Tshangana OPEN MEN U/80KG 1. Abduraghman Salie 2. Solomon Ackah 3. Sanele Msibi Open Men’s Physique Mikaylin Rhode OPEN MEN U/100KG 1. Chris Oelofse 2. Delight Manyene OPEN MEN O/100KG 1. Delano Naude 2. Pieta Botes OVERALL BIKINI: Elzabé Höll OVERALL MODEL: Chris Strachan OVERALL MEN: Matthew Parker * All results and spelling as supplied by the event organisers. Muscle Evolution accepts no responsibility for any errors or omissions M.E Novice & Open Ladies Toned Bikini U/1.63m Marisha du Plessis Open Ladies Toned Bikini Masters Anje Pansegrouw Shape Shifters Male Dominique Wiid ATHLETE’S PAGE GAR RETH SC CHEEPERS 201 17 IFBB World Junior Champion TR IS S CARDIO E ESSENTIAL F FOR PREP? II’ve been competing in bodybuilding since age of 17 and have the a done cardio and my always d weight training sessions. This was er 2016 when I met until Novembe my current coach, Roy Butterton. co In the past I performed my weight training sessions in the morning, followed by cardio in the evening. This resulted in me often slacking in my weight training sessions. It had a major impact on retaining muscle mass and maintaining fullness. Roy explained to me that there is no need for cardio during competition prep if your diet is on point and your weight training sessions are highly intense. In other words, while lifting weights, you should do plenty of supersets with no rest in-between sets. He also explained the importance of maintaining a clean diet in the off-season in order to maintain a reasonable body fat level. This makes dieting a lot easier when you’re prepping for a show. I much prefer this way of training as it certainly works for me. I never liked cardio anyway! EARS RADEBE Mr. Elite Middle Class 75-80kg Winner at Elite te Extravaganza T SUPPLEMENTS DO YOU USE? nd A thermogenic fat burner to increase my metabolism an incinerate fat when I prep for a show. I also use it to fuel aining sessions as I don’t take pre-workouts. Most ogenic fat burners have stimulants such as caffeine e. so use conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) because ulates fat burning without breaking down muscle . It also does not contain caffeine, which makes it to use when you train in the evening. ey protein is also high up on my list of must-havess. airs tissue and promotes lean muscle gains, while BCAAs protect my muscles from the catabolic effects of dieting and training. Glutamine is another one of my favourite supplementss nimise the breakdown of muscle and boost protein bolism. I use testo boosters to maintain testosteron e to promote lean muscle mass and strength, and ltivitamin to mitigate the extra stress of training and g, which creates deficiencies in certain vitamins and rals and can lead to the breakdown of muscle if it iss ctified. www.musc ev l ATHLETE’S PAGE DAVID JOUBERT SHELDON OAKES 2017 IFBB Summer Superbodies Junior Bodybuilding U/23 O/75kg Winner 2017 IFBB Millennium Gold Plate Senior Classic Bodybuilding O/1.75m Winner WHAT BODY PART DO YOU STRUGGLE WITH THE MOST? My approach to training my weaker muscle groups (legs in my case) consists of frequency, volume and posing. I start off by increasing the frequency with which I train the lagging body part. By doing so I place more strain on the muscle group more often, which results in more muscle growth. I found training my legs two to three times per week has greatly increased the size and density in a relatively short period of time. Secondly, I increase the volume by adding more reps and sets, which floods more blood into the working muscle. This leads to more pumps, recovery and muscle development. My final technique when WHAT PRO DO YOU LOOK UP TO? I’ve always admired Dorian Yates, not only for his prodigious physique but his mind-blowing work ethic and intensity in the gym. Yates claimed six consecutive Mr. Olympia titles in probably the toughest era of bodybuilding. I have yet to see anyone working in the shadows and keeping to himself before revealing an incredible physique at show time like Dorian did! If I ever had the opportunity to pick a Pro to train with, it would be Yates. Not only would it be the most gruelling hour of my life spent in the gym, but also the most memorable. “One set at extreme intensity does the muscle-building job. It must be stressed that the one final, all-out set I do takes me to the very limit of my capabilities. If you feel you can attempt a second set, then you couldn’t have been pulling out all the stops during the first set. It’s not pretty, but it works.” Dorian Yates. Muscle Evolution can be done by adding a clean form of simple carbs to your shake or meal. It takes time and persistence to build muscle. Do not rush the process, trust in your plan, be patient and work your butt off. Rome was not built in a day! STEVE MCCLAREN 2017 Elite Masters Veteran Over 50 yrs Winner at Elite Athlete Extravaganza WHO GOT YOU STARTED IN BODYBUILDING? I’ve always been athletic and started lifting weights when I was in high school. When I was 35 years old I met Mr. Universe winner 96 training a lagging body part is posing. I flex and pose my legs between sets and by doing so I create a better contraction of the muscle, forcing it to work harder. The outcome is an increase in muscle density and overall development. No matter what muscle group you are trying to improve, you cannot expect adequate results if you are not fuelling your body with the correct ratio of nutrients it requires. What I’ve found works best for me is to greatly increase my carb intake on leg days, mainly in my post-workout meal. This method boosts recovery and nutrient partitioning within the muscle. Spiking insulin as part of my post-workout meal also increases the transportation of nutrients into the muscle cells. This André van der Mescht, who prepped and coached me for my first show, the Gauteng Provincials in 2007. I placed 1st in the competition and qualified for the Novice SA’s later that year, which I won. In the years that I trained with André, he taught me some valuable life lessons on how to become disciplined and how to stay focused and motivated. He challenged me in so many ways and showed me how to plan and build the foundation for my future in the health and fitness industry. We both studied our Personal Training Certification together at HFPA and I travelled with André to the IFBB Worlds in Korea, where I was introduced to professional bodybuilders like Hennie Kotze, Marius Dohne and a few others. Through my association with André, I also met other influential people in the fitness industry such as Mario Van Biljon, Andrew Hudson, Francis Benfatto and Julian Naidoo. Every single person I have met in this industry has in some way influenced me – some negatively, but mostly positively. I’m fortunate to say that this positive energy has resulted in me becoming a very successful commercial gym owner, personal trainer and online coach. I’m also very proud to say that my son Byron has worked by my side in the same profession for the past eight years, also having competed before. We were both fortunate enough to compete in the WFF Worlds in 2016. Thanks to André for inspiring me to follow my passion. I’m currently 52 years old and living my dream. y our imits.then imits then puu s h furtherr. NEW dĞů͗нϮϳ ϭϭϮϯϰ ϵϴϵϬ / ƐĂůĞƐΛŽƉƟ ƟŵƵŵŶƵƚƌŝƟŽŶ Ŷ͘ĐŽ͘ǌĂĂ TAKE CHARGE OF YOUR TESTOSTERONE NPL’s Elite Pro Series is designed to outperform any product of its class when it comes to delivering results, potency, taste and advanced scientific formulations, with a strict no proprietary blends policy. NPL products are produced only in NSF and cGMP facilities. 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