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Muscle Evolution - May 01, 2018

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CONTENTS
>> ON THE COVER
Cover image by Soulby Jackson, www.skjphotography.co.za Shot on location at
Alleysway Gym, Bedfordview, www.alleysway.co.za
30HOW TO SURVIVE YOUR FIRST PREP
38HUGE GUNS
50TIME UNDER TENSION
68THEACRINE VS CAFFEINEE
Key points en route to shredville
Grow yours the Shane Kreusch way.
Are super slow reps still the rage in the gy
gym?
Energy without the jitters
ALSO IN THIS ISSUE:
20 The Rock from Nkandla
Jabulani Buthelezi shows it is never
too late to pursue your dreams
28 Moving weight versus
working muscle
Which method is better?
34 Muscle confusion
How to implement change in
your routine
52 Protein is still king
Science confirms protein’s vital role
in building strength and size
54 Machines or free weights
Biomechanics – a legitimate debate
58 Stop muscle breakdown
64
72
74
Ideal food choices for recovery
64 Claudette Renney
We profile this ridiculously hot IFBB
Fitness Bikini competitor
72 The hunger games
Shred smart and stress less
74 Balancing act
The impact that foods have on
blood sugar levels
Show coverage:
76 Arnold Classic USA
82 Arnold Classic Australia
86 PCA Development Show
88 Elite Athlete Extravaganza
92 PCA Conrad Nagel
Xtreme Classic
95 Last rep
Views on all things bodybuilding
6
Muscle Evolution
76
38
EDITOR’S LETTER
at that scale and pace. So,
forget about fast gains.
I’ve seen people come
to the gym all geared up
with their bands, belts and
the latest headphones. It’s
great to have all that shit. I
have it, but it doesn’t make
you hardcore. What makes
you hardcore is grinding it
out for years on end, and
continuing to lift after you
get your ass kicked at a
bodybuilding show or a
powerlifting competition.
Yours truly with veterans
Lifting when your squat
Vic Alley and Shane Kreusch
sucks. Lifting when it hurts.
Dealing with adversity
KEEP LIFTING
makes you hardcore. Leave
your phone at home, put another plate
train so that I can deal with life. Many
on the bar and don’t expect anyone to
go to gym only to stimulate. This
understand your preoccupation with the
is not training. A more appropriate
term to best describe this practice is
iron. Educate yourself and don’t just rely on
maintenance.
any so-called guru. If you decide to put a
Real training demands a certain kind of
chemical in your body, find out the impact
pain that mutes everything around you. It
it will have on you.
makes you forget about the inconsequential
Always train as if nobody is watching,
things in life. All that matters is the barbell
because nobody really is. People couldn’t
on your back.
care less about you and your deadlift
You’re bullshitting yourself if you think
numbers. They’re all buried in their own
that you can still hear a conversation when
phones and fake social media profiles and
you’re training ‘hard’.
cannot wait to upload their pissy workouts
Train for a purpose. Don’t stop and don’t
on YouTube or check their latest Instagram
get discouraged just because you missed a
notifications. Don’t be like them.
lift. There is no secret that will add 10 kilos of
Don’t satisfy your ego by sacrificing your
muscle to your frame (unless you originate
form for numbers. It’s better to lift less
from a planet called Krypton) without
weight with good form than to push hard
hard work, rest, supplementation and the
and get injured. Be patient – the weight will
consistency of a decent meal plan.
increase when you grow stronger. Over the
It takes time and dedication to reach your
long term, you must love what you do. If
goals – be it to become super shredded,
you hate every minute, hardcore is not for
acquiring some muscle mass, or simply move you. Rather do something else.
some heavy-ass weight.
And time doesn’t preclude anyone from
Werner
learning things the hard way, especially
Editor
when it comes down to the time you spend
under a ton of weight. Hardcore lifting has
no expiry date... it’s a way of life.
MY FAVOURITE THIS ISSUE:
Today we are bombarded with info from
all angles and there’s an app for everything.
Truth be told, you don’t have to know
everyone’s opinion on something to make
a decision. The nature of the beast is that
you’ll have to work extremely hard after
making your initial ‘fast’ gains in your first
few months as a beginner. It’s the only time
in your life when you’ll experience progress
I
PAGE
40
You
Tube
8
Muscle Evolution
WIN THE
ARMS RACE!
PUBLISHER & EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
Andrew Carruthers
EDITOR
Werner Beukes
MANAGING EDITOR
Pedro van Gaalen
ART DIRECTION & DESIGN
Tanja Schmitz
Christian Nel
ADMINISTRATION
Leoni Needham
ADVERTISING
info@muscleevolution.co.za
011 791 3646
PHOTOGRAPHERS
Gary Phillips, Soulby Jackson,
Ben Myburgh, Slade @ Pure Studio,
Cindy Ellis, Isaac Hinds,
Naco Rautenbach
CONTRIBUTORS & ADVISORY
Anthony Roberts, Sean Johnson,
Joe Pietaro, Justin Maguire,
Roy Butterton, Stehan Schoeman
THE PUBLISHER
Postnet suite 99, Private Bag X8
North Riding, 2162
Head Office: +27 11 791 3646
Fax: 086 660 4761
E-mail: info@muscleevolution.co.za
Unit 7, Ground Floor, Boskruin View
181 Girdwood Road, Randpark
Ridge, 2169
DISTRIBUTION ENQUIRIES
RNA DISTRIBUTION,
Tel +27 11 473 8700
SUBSCRIPTIONS
Tel 011 791 3646;
Email: subscriptions@muscleevolution.co.za
No liability is assumed by The Maverick Publishing
Corporation, Muscle Evolution Magazine nor any
of the authors of the information provided in this
publication. The Maverick Publishing Corporation
cannot be held liable for any advice provided in this
publication. The information published in this magazine
should not be considered as medical advice, please
consult a registered doctor. The Maverick Publishing
Corporation shall not be liable for any unsolicited
material, nor photographs or manuscripts submitted
to our publication office. The Maverick Publishing
Corporation reserve the right to reject any advertising
without notification, and will not
publish any editorial material
nor advertising that we feel does
not comply with our readership
audience.
FOLLOW US ON TWITTER @muscleevomag | TAG YOUR PHOTOS ON INSTAGRAM #teamME & #MEpeople | BEHIND THE SCENES
ON INSTAGRAM @muscleevomag | VIDEOS ON YOUTUBE: muscleevolutiontv | FACEBOOK www.facebook.com/muscleevomag
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ourselves in leading by example. Not content to follow, we’ve blazed our
own trail in the iron underground for close to four decades. We’ve been out
in front of the trends, the fads and the flashes in the pan. Being on the
frontline in defending the nutritional regimens of the hardest training
athletes in the world, as the “True Original” training multivitamin, we’ve
won the trust of the bodybuilders and powerlifters who lead the pack. In the
front of their minds, at the top of their lists, when the time came to put in the
work, it was Animal Pak that they called upon. Since day one, Pak has been
the one they could count on, the one who stood the test of time, the one to
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PUBLISHER’S LETTER
FROM THE PUBLISHERS OF
THE NEXT EVOLUTION
I
almost didn’t take a trip down to the
coast shortly before this magazine’s
deadline. Work usually gets too
chaotic, which makes it hard to leave.
But if there’s one thing I’ve come to
understand, it’s the need to make time
for what’s important in life.
I guess you could say that in my older
years I’ve come to understand the value
of spending time with family and the
people who are most important in my life.
Just the other day I heard that someone
I knew really well had suddenly and
unexpectedly fallen critically ill. This once
thriving and healthy individual was now
in hospital fighting for their life. That type
of news really puts life into perspective.
Suffice to say, I’m embracing every
moment and I’m glad I took the trip.
I also haven’t been able to train or
get to the gym as much as I used to. As
PAGE MACHINES VS
54
FREE WEIGHTS
eager as I am to get my strength back
up to where it once was, I’ve had to put
that aspect of life aside for a few weeks
to focus on more important and pressing
issues. I’ve never been able to focus on
too many tasks at a time, and the thing
about training properly is that it demands
your absolute and total attention, all
of the time. I’ve never been that guy
who does things half-arsed. I’ve always
focused 110% on whatever it was I’ve
wanted to pursue at that point in time.
With that said, I’ve come to appreciate
balance. I guess that’s one of the
reasons why I never did more than two
bodybuilding shows in my career. I was
always more interested in my business
and forging ahead as an entrepreneur.
Don’t get me wrong, I truly respect
anyone who competes, because when
I last stood on stage it took everything
I had inside me to display the best
physique I could. I can certainly say it
wasn’t great for business, though.
I still love promoting the sport
and those who have chosen to use
bodybuilding to build their careers. I
also have a very deep respect for those
who commit to competing in shows and
endure what’s needed to step on stage.
Having said that, the way we continue
to promote bodybuilding and fitness is
going to change. Our online portal, for
instance, is going to be focused more
around the athletes. No matter how many
athletes we feature in the magazines,
we still don’t get to promote as many as
we’d like. But that’s all about to change.
Stay tuned to our websites and online
channels for more on how we’re going to
take athlete promotion to the next level.
It’s important that we keep creating
and evolving our platforms to continue to
grow our sport locally and promote those
who sustain it – the athletes. This will be
the next evolution in our business and the
core of our purpose going forward – to
promote more athletes and profile the
huge swathes of up-and-coming local
talent through both our web and
printed platforms.
I’m excited about what is to come.
Enjoy this issue.
Andrew
Editor-In-Chief
OVER 73 000 MAGAZINES PRINTED (COMBINED)
10
Muscle Evolution
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12
Muscle Evolution
CORRECTION:
JAN TANA,
NOT PRO TAN AT
ARNOLD CLASSIC
AFRICA
In the March/April 2018
edition of Muscle Evolution we
incorrectly stated that Pro Tan
is the exclusive tan provider to
the Arnold Classic Africa. We
regret the mistake and would like
to apologise unreservedly for
our error. It is Jan Tana that has
secured the exclusive rights as
the official onsite tanning service
provider for this year’s Arnold
Classic Africa, which takes
place from 18 to 20 May at the
Sandton Convention Centre in
Johannesburg. As the exclusive
tanning, hair and makeup
provider at the Arnold Classic
Africa, Jana Tana will provide
professional airbrush tanning,
hair and makeup services to
ensure competitors look their
absolute best on the day of the
competition. Jan Tana is also the
official tanning, hair and makeup
sponsor for the IFBB Elite Pro
show at the Arnold Classic Africa.
The Jan Tana Team has tanned
thousands of competitors all
over the world for the past 35
years. Please book your tanning
time for the day before you
go on stage at the Arnold
Classic Africa.
If you have any questions,
email the Jan Tana Team at
booking@jantana.com.
Follow Jan Tana on Instagram
@jan_tana_international or visit
www.jantana.com for
more information.
‘THE BEAST’ SUFFERS INJURY SETBACK
IFBB Pro bodybuilder
Earl ‘The Beast’
Abrahams tore his left
quad while performing
unilateral leg presses
as part of his off-season
training regimen. It
happened on Earl’s
second warm-up set, when
he was pressing 4 20s a
side (160kg). “I don’t think
I will do unilateral presses
again anytime soon,” says
the 122kg Capetonian
juggernaut, who competed
in three Arnold Classic
Pro competitions in 2017,
placing 7th at the Arnold
Classic Australia, 6th at
the Arnold Classic South
America and 8th at the
Arnold Classic Africa. ‘The
Beast’ was using the leg
press to pre-exhaust his
legs for squats later in the
workout. “Well, it’s fair to
say I never gott around
d
to squatting. This is my
third pull performing this
particular movement – the
two previous pulls were
both on my hammies.
I have really been
hammering my legs to
get them to match the
size of my upper body.
I think because of this
continuous beating they
were overtrained and
just caved in under the
pressure. I have had
numerous pulls and
tears over the years.
Last year I also pulled
my right pec and left lat
on different occasions,
but no tear has been
as painful as this one!”
Despite the excruciating
pain, the bodybuilder
from Worcester says
his recovery has been
nothing but astonishing.
“This
“Thi was a major
j ssecond
degree tear on both
the rectus femoris and
vastus medialis heads.
I had massive bleeding,
swelling and pain, but
with the assistance of my
physician Christo van Dyk,
physiotherapist Engela
Cardosa, and biokineticist
Helena Rousseau and her
brilliant air jet therapy, I
was walking unsupported
within two weeks after
the incident. Thank you
also to all my friends and
family for their incredible
support.” Earl plans to
compete in shows from
September onwards with
the aim of making a huge
impact on the Pro circuit
as he feels that he has
improved immensely over
the past year. We all wish
you a full recovery and we
hope to see ‘The Beast’ in
action soon!
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PCA’S H&H CLASSIC MOVED TO JULY
The Physical Culture Association
(PCA) South Africa is expanding at a
phenomenal rate. The H&H Bodybuilding
and Fitness Classic, in it’s eleventh year
and a bodybuilding institution in Gauteng,
now falls under the PCA and will be hosted
on 6 and 7 July 2018 at the Kaleideo
Auditorium in Kempton Park. Hennie
Kotze, H&H show organiser and one of
only a few South Africans who attained
IFBB Pro Status, recently decided to join
the ranks of the rapidly growing PCA
South Africa. Kotze follows in the footsteps
of PCA Pro’s Wiehann Mentz (former
NABBA/WFF) and Cobus van der Merwe
(former IFBB). The PCA was formed in the
United Kingdom in 2015 with the objective
of putting athletes first and improving the
spectator experience at bodybuilding and
fitness contests.
Be the first to know the most current PCA SA information by contacting
Kevin on 072 447 7520, or following PCASAarmy on Facebook.
Visit the new website at www.pcasouthafrica.co.za or check out the
latest photos on Instagram @pcasa.
14
Muscle Evolution
Rafael Santonja, President of
the International Federation of
Bodybuilding and Fitness (IFBB),
has announced that bodybuilding
will form part of the 2018 South
American Games in Bolivia this
year. Classic Bodybuilding,
Men's Physique, Bikini Fitness
and Women's Fitness are due
to appear for the first time at
the South American Games,
scheduled to run from 26 May to
10 June 2018.
Bodybuilding was also added to
the list of sports at the 2019 Pan
American Games, taking place in
Lima. Santonja, who has led the
Madrid-based IFBB since 2006,
believes the inclusion of the four
disciplines will have a significant
impact in raising bodybuilding's
profile and widen its links within the
sporting world as it aspires towards
eventual inclusion at the Olympic
Games, the world's greatest sporting
stage. He is positive about achieving
International Olympic Committee
recognition: “I am sure we are
going to have good news soon."
For bodybuilding to be included
as an Olympic sport the IFBB must
work hand-in-hand with the IOC to
determine weight categories, rules
for judging and disqualification,
drug testing and other technical
procedures. The IFBB Anti-Doping
rules are in full compliance with the
latest World Anti-Doping Agency
(WADA) Code. Drugs that are tested
for will include anabolic steroids,
growth hormone, diuretics and
any other substances that are on
the banned list for the Olympics.
The IFBB in South Africa has also
prioritised this code with the recent
presentation of anti-doping seminars
in Johannesburg, Cape Town and
Durban. The seminars were open
to IFBB judges, officials, athletes,
trainers and coaches.
Bodybuilding will join 35 other
sports at the 2018 South American
Games, a regional multi-sport event
held between nations from South
America, organised by the South
American Sports Organisation.
CHECK OUT WWW.STEELFITSA.CO.ZA,
STEELFITSA,
STEELFITSA OR CALL 011 070 7630 FOR MORE INFORMATION
COMING TO SA MARCH 2018
EVENTS CALENDAR
APRIL/MAY/JUNE
APRIL
28
MAY
IBFF KLERKSDORP
CLASSIC
DEVELOPMENT SHOW
IFBB-
-
The International Bodybuilding and
Fitness Federation (IBFF) will host a
development show for novice athletes in
the Klerksdorp Auditorium in the North
West Province. Those who have received
a top 3 placement on an IBFF stage
previously cannot enter this show. As this
is a development/novice competition, the
IBFF encourages athletes to enter into
more than one category. Make sure not
to miss this golden opportunity as R5000
in cash will be up for grabs for the Overall
winners. A special category, Best Poser,
will allow all the rookies to compete in a
proper posing showdown. Come show
the IBFF what you’ve got!
Q VENUE: Auditorium Hall,
City of Matlosana, Klerksdorp.
The main show kicks off at 18:00.
Contact Ida on 082 890 4312 or visit
www.ibffafrica.co.za
28
SA XTREME
12
18-20
ARNOLD
CLASSIC AFRICA
Amateur and professional
bodybuilding will take centre stage at the third
edition of the Arnold Classic Africa, which forms
part of the Arnold Sports Festival, a large multi-sporrt
extravaganza that attracts a multitude of athletes
from all over the world. As the biggest sports event
on the continent the ACA will be an IFBB Elite Pro
Qualifier and open to all athletes from the IFBBaffiliated national federations. There will also be a
fitness and lifestyle expo for the health-conscious.
Q VENUE: Sandton Convention Centre, JHB
Visit www.arnoldclassic.africa.com
IFBB-
-
SANCTIONED
SHOW ARNOLD
CLASSIC
AFRICA
QUALIFIER
Muzi
Maluleke
Marcelle
Collison
NABBA/WFF
BLOEM CLASSIC
Athletes will be vying for a
top spot at the Bloem Classic, a contest
hosted at the annual Bloem Show,
under the dual federation banner of
the National Amateur Body Builders’
Association (NABBA) and the World
Fitness Federation (WFF). Each federation
seeks a different ‘look’ from competitors,
with NABBA catering for the muscular
physique and WFF focusing on the more
toned and aesthetic appearance.
Q VENUE: Coca Cola Stage,
Bloemfontein Showgrounds.
Registration takes place from 09:00
till 11:00, 28 April.
Contact Hende-Mari on 082 562 9262
or visit www.nabbasa.com
CHECK OUT
MUSCLEEVOLUTION.CO.ZA
FOR THE COMPLETE LIST OF
SHOWS FOR 2018!
16
WFF PRO AM PRETORIA CLASSIC
The local chapter of both the National Amateur BodyBuilders’ Association and the World Fitness Federation will
present this show, an international contest for Professional and Amateur
athletes. A total of 28 WFF Pro Cards will be up for grabs and a team
will be selected to compete at the WFF Universe competition hosted in
Singapore on 1 July 2018.
Q VENUE: Unisa, Preller Street, Muckleneuk, PTA
Contact Alet on 079 377 4350 or Bev on 082 374 7227
Cape Town
What originally
started as a women only
show in 2000 now also offers
categories for men.
Contact Nina on 082 440 0410 or
email kobus.richter@gmail.com
28
5
IFBB SHAMEEN CLASSIC
Named after one of South Africa’s best bodybuilders,
Shameen Adams, this popular muscle fest in Cape Town
annually attracts athletes in pristine condition from all over
South Africa, who are eager to showcase what they have to go
through to compete in the prestigious Arnold Classic.
Visit the www.ifbbsa.co.za for updates.
SANCTIONED
SHOW ARNOLD
CLASSIC
AFRICA
QUALIFIER
Muscle Evolution
JUNE
The month of June will see a string of shows hosted by the PCA (Physical Culture
Association) in South Africa. First formed in the United Kingdom in 2015 with the
objective to offer bodybuilding and fitness athletes an improved competitor experience,
the PCA expanded internationally and quickly set a new standard for bodybuilding,
physique and fitness events. Contact Kevin on 072 447 7520 or check out
www.pcasouthafrica.co.za to find out more.
2
PCA NELSON MANDELA BAY
CHAMPIONSHIPS
9
PCA GARDEN ROUTE
CASINO CLASSIC
Q VENUE: Fairview Sports Centre,
Willow Road, Lorraine, PE
Contact Steve on 073 200 0009,
pe@pcasouthafrica.co.za
Q VENUE: Mossel Bay
Contact Johan or Deseray on
072 762 6959/082 419 0729,
oomink02@gmail.com
16
PCA QUEENS
GRAND PRIX
Q VENUE: Queenstown
Contact Chris on 071 686 2566,
border@pcasouthafrica.co.za
22-23
PCA BATTLE
OF THE
TITANS VI
(The show will also include PCA Pro divisions)
Q VENUE: HS Durbanville Auditorium,
Langenhoven Street, Durbanville, CT
Contact Damian on 076 849 2529,
wp@pcasouthafrica.co.za
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COME TO DIS-CHEM FOR ALL YOUR NUTRITIONAL
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stream music while they train, but without compromising on sound quality.
With talk time and music playback time of up to four hours, they are the
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Distributed locally via Gammatek and available across South
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BMW M3 CS
Only 15 of BMW’s first four-door CS
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In the M3 guise, the new limited edition CS
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at 6250 rpm, surpassing the stock M3’s
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spoiler, and the rear diffuser is
borrowed from the
M4 GTS.
INSPIRATION
PROFILE
THE ROCK
Everywhere he goes KZN-based JABULANI BUTHELEZI draws
monikers like ‘The Rock’ and ‘Grootman’ from fans who admire
his enthusiasm for bodybuilding. Jabulani’s late venture into
the sport first started off as a hobby before it evolved into a
full-blown passion. Now the 53-year-old is living proof that it is
never too late to pursue your dreams.
Where are you originally from?
I was born in Nkandla but moved to
Pinetown where I work.
What sparked your interest in
bodybuilding?
I decided to compete at the age of 40
after watching my first show. Back then
I had no idea that I would compete
internationally one day and be afforded
the opportunity to inspire others.
Isn’t it supposed to be harder when
you get older?
I follow a schedule which involves five
to six weight training sessions per week
and I focus on different body parts
per session. I believe diet is the key to
achieving a great physique, no matter
what your age. I eat healthy but I do
allow myself an occasional cheat when
I am not preparing for a competition.
I give myself longer to prepare so that I
don’t have to push myself too hard and
risk injury or over-stressing my body.
People are surprised by my age but
“PEOPLE ARE
SURPRISED BY MY
AGE BUT I TELL THEM
THAT AGE IS JUST A
NUMBER AND THAT
I AM THE PERFECT
EXAMPLE THAT
IT IS NEVER TOO
LATE TO START A
DIET AND TRAINING
PROGRAMME.”
20
Muscle Evolution
I tell them that age is just a number and
that I am the perfect example that it is
never too late to start a diet and training
programme. I am always willing to give
advice to others wanting to take up the
sport. I am busy completing my personal
training qualification through Exercise
Teachers Academy as I want to groom
young talent in my community.
Have you been overseas to compete?
Yes, I have been over to El Salvador,
South America, the United States and
Romania. I like being able to travel
and experience new cultures. It is just
wonderful to be part of something I enjoy.
What is at the top of your bucket list
right now?
To win a World Championship title. I want
to do something I have never done before.
Any advice?
My advice for people is to set realistic
goals. As long as you are improving, you
are winning.
I want to thank the following people
who have supported me: Darren
Shootbert, Werner Herrmann, Michael
Page and my company Mahle Behr. Also,
Jolene van Heerden, Beverley Pool,
Quentin Bonhomme and Charles Barnes
who made it possible for me to compete
abroad.
JABULANI’S RECENT ACCOMPLISHMENTS:
2017 – Arnold Classic USA 3rd place in Masters
2017 – Arnold Classic Africa 3rd place in Masters
2017 – IFBB SA Championships 1st place in Masters
2017 – IFBB Gentle Giant Classic 3rd place in Men Over 40
2017 – IFBB World Championships 6th place in Masters
M.E
W
NE
New
CHERRY COLA
FLAVOUR฀
THE HARDER YOU PUSH
THE HARDER IT WORKS
1. BEAST MODE 2. EXPLODE 3. BREAK THROUGH
20 500 mg 300 mg
SERVINGS
PER CONTAINER
BEETROOT POWDER
PER SERVING
USN.CO.ZA
CAFFEINE
PER SERVING
USN SA
@USNSA
@USNSA
INDIVIDUAL RESULTS MAY VARY. FOR OPTIMAL RESULTS, COMBINE WITH A LEAN MUSCLE-BUILDING EATING PLAN AND TRAINING PROGRAMME.
READERS’ QUESTIONS
ASK M.E
YOUR QUESTIONS ON TRAINING, NUTRITION & SUPPLEMENTATION ANSWERED.
Questions answered by Muscle Evolution’s team of experts.
Q
JUST
SQUAT
Can you just squat for
maximal leg development?
Keegan from Roodepoort
A
Traditionally in
strength sports,
the squat has been
regarded as the king of all
exercises. No other exercise
engages every muscle in the
body like the squat. However,
according to research
conducted by Wright et al.
(1999), the squat does not hit
the hamstrings quite as hard
as the quadriceps, adductor
magnus and gluteus maximus.
To determine what muscles
are active during a particular
exercise, researchers use
electromyography, or EMG
to evaluate and record the
electrical activity of skeletal
muscles.
Studies have shown
that the squat is a quad
dominant exercise, where the
contribution of the hamstrings
group is minimal compared
to other muscles groups. This
is the main reason additional
exercises are included in
routines to improve leg
development. While squats
target the quadriceps, you also
need to work the hamstrings
and calves if your goal is
to attain an aestheticallypleasing physique. The back
of the thigh, in particular, is
one of the most neglected
parts among competitive
bodybuilders.
If you look at hamstring
activation from a
biomechanical perspective, the
muscle group is inefficient as
a hip extensor when you squat
due to the following:
Q Three of the four hamstring
muscles are two-joint muscles,
working as both hip extensors
and knee flexors;
Q When you squat down
(performing hip flexion and
knee flexion), the muscle is
trying to shorten at the knee
but lengthen at the hip, and
22
Muscle Evolution
“WHILE SQUATS TARGET THE QUADRICEPS,
YOU ALSO NEED TO WORK THE HAMSTRINGS
AND CALVES IF YOUR GOAL IS TO ATTAIN AN
AESTHETICALLY-PLEASING PHYSIQUE. THE
BACK OF THE THIGH, IN PARTICULAR, IS
ONE OF THE MOST NEGLECTED PARTS
AMONG COMPETITIVE BODYBUILDERS.”
ends up staying roughly the
same length.
Q When you squat up
(performing hip extension and
knee extension), the muscle is
trying to lengthen at the knee
but shorten at the hip and
again ends up staying about
the same length.
If leg size is what you’re after,
you need to make sure that
the exercises you perform are
working all the muscles, including
your hamstrings. A sufficient
dose of leg presses, lunges, leg
extensions, stiff leg deadlifts,
hamstring curls and calf raises
is needed. Some of the best
exercises for the hamstrings
are good mornings, Romanian
deadlifts, and glute-ham raises.
When you are pressed for time
and can only squat, there are
two basic ways to activate
your hamstrings more during
the exercise:
QFocus on “sitting back” more.
Q Purposefully lean farther
forward to increase hip flexion.
Although there is no doubt
that the squat is an excellent
muscle and strength building
movement, it is not enough for
total development.
Q
A
TRAINING FUNCTIONALITY
What is functional training, and should I include it in
a bodybuilding programme? Martin from Cape Town
Training functionally
is about focusing on
movements and not
muscles. Instead of training
a particular muscle group
at a time, as you do with
conventional weight training,
functional training recruits
more muscle groups by using
movements that require your
muscles to work in harmony.
A functional training
approach will see you use
multi-plane and open-chain
movements instead of singleplane, closed-chain and
single-purpose exercises.
The idea is building strength,
stability and mobility across
the body, making you not only
more efficient in the gym but
also outside it as well.
WHERE DID
IT COME FROM?
Functional training emerged
from the rehabilitation of
soldiers who returned from
World War I with injuries
that had a severe impact on
their daily function, such as
standing, walking, bending and
sitting. The physical therapy
they received as part of their
rehabilitation programme
emphasised, among other
things, core strength and
mobility which are important
for virtually all human
movements.
While bodybuilding is not
aimed at increasing strength,
endurance or speed as ends in
themselves, these qualities are
sought to the extent to which
they can help a competitor
look better on stage.
Core training has become
synonymous with functional
training and translates into
doing movements that activate
the deep core muscles of
the torso, pelvis, and lower
back, and the more superficial
abdominals. Everything you
do in the gym, from deadlifts
and shoulder presses to
bench presses and squats,
will benefit from a stronger
core. You can also incorporate
unilateral (single limb)
exercises such as the split
squat, single-arm bent-over
rows or single-leg presses
to not only address muscle
imbalances, but also prevent
injury, increase mobility and
most importantly, sculpt a
better body.
GYM BAG
ALL THE
LATEST
WORKOUT
APPAREL AND
ACCESSORIES
GEAR UP
FOR YOUR
BEST
WORKOUT YET!
26
Muscle Evolution
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2
3
4
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www.muscleevolution.co.za
27
FEATURE
MOVING
VS
CLE
THERE ARE TWO WAYS TO LIFT.
G THE MOST AMOUNT OF
MOVING
T FROM POINT A TO POINT B
WEIGHT
FEEL THE MUSCLES WORKING
OR TO F
TO ACHIEVE A CERTAIN LOOK.
NO RIGHT O
OR WRONG
ed in a
If you are involve
performance-based sport such
as rugby, MMA orr powerlifting
concerned
you will be more c
you put on the
about the weight y
gth and power.
bar to build streng
A typical set is executed with
es and more
heavier poundage
explosively.
dybuilder or
If you are a bod
a physique comp etitor the
weight is second ary to how
oal is to really
you lift it. Your go
working. A
feel the muscle w
set is typically executed with
moderate po undages and
under contro l.
Which method is better?
There is not a right or
o lift weight.
wrong way to
Both approaches serve
different purposes.
Athletes in performancebased sports focus on training
movements to move better
to improve their performance
while bodybuilders focus on
training muscles to improve their
cosmetic appearance for the
stage. Powerlifters don’t care
what muscles are involved (or
not involved) as it is not the point
of their sport. The difference is:
One is concerned about building
maximum strength to generate
force rapidly and repeatedly while
the other is concerned about
the appearance of musculature
nd not specific
an
ower output
po
orr endurance
apacity.
ca
THE DIF
FFERENCE
ACCORD
DING TO KAI GREENE:
“Your prima
ary goal is not to lift weights, you’re
not a weight
t lifter. I’ll never be a weight lifter.
For the peop
ple out there who don’t know the
difference, a bodybuilder is primarily concerned
with contrac
cting his muscles. He contracts his
muscles against greater and greater resistance
(over time) and
a by doing that he is able to
stimulate hy
ypertrophy (growth). A ‘weight
t concerned about moving weight so
lifter’ is just
he can boast
t to you about how much he curls,
h
much he benches.”
28
Muscle Evolution
“THE WEIGHTS
ARE JUST A MEANS
TO AN END; HOW
WELL YOU CONTRACT
THE MUSCLES IS
WHAT TRAINING IS
ALL ABOUT.”
-- ARNOLD
ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER
SCHWARZENEGGER
TRAINING MUSCLES
TRAINING MOVEMENTS
Q IF YOU WANT TO MOVE FAST YOU
NEED TO TRAIN FAST
The objective in the gym would be
to recruit the maximum amount of
muscle fibers to fire as powerfully as
possible. One way to accomplish this is
to increase your rep speed. When you
perform a rep explosively you maximise
motor unit recruitment.
Q MOVING THE HEAVIEST
WEIGHT POSSIBLE
When you are a powerlifter for
example, you work on your ability
to perform a specific movement by
doing it repeatedly under heavier
and heavier resistance. If you are an
MMA fighter your goal will be to move
more explosively with heavy weight
to work on your ability to overpower
your opponent. The focus is about
moving heavy weight as explosively as
possible – not feeling the muscle you
are working.
Q THE PURPOSE OF THE LIFT
Where you place your focus when
you perform a lift will determine what
type of training adaptations occur.
A powerlifter is more concerned about
performing a lift with the most efficiency
whereas the focus of a physique athlete
will be on the muscles involved in a lift.
Q STIMULATING THE TARGET MUSCLE
A bodybuilder always makes sure the
target muscle he is working is doing
all the work. The majority of movements
in the gym cannot be performed without
the assistance of other muscle groups.
Hypertrophy is about the time under
tension to stimulate the target muscle
and while progressively overloading to
build muscle is important it is not just
about moving the most weight.
What matters is how an exercise is
executed – squeezing, stretching and
getting a pump.
Q USE THE RIGHT RESISTANCE
While it is undisputed in gym circles
that heavy weight builds muscle, you
lose the feeling of the target muscle
working if you are training like a
powerlifter instead of a bodybuilder. If
you neglect to stimulate the right muscle
it won’t lead to growth and could even
exacerbate imbalances when stronger
muscle groups take over.
Q MIND OVER MUSCLE
Research shows that the mind-muscle
connection can significantly improve
muscle recruitment.
The ability to activate a certain muscle
group can be very useful like bracing
your midsection and tensing your back
as much as possible during barbell
squats or military presses. Your mind
should be on the target muscle you are
working from the onset of your first rep
to the completion of your last rep. To feel
the muscle working you can reduce the
speed of the reps you are performing or
even use isometric holds, especially in
the contracted position, to accentuate
the stress of a particular exercise on a
particular muscle group.
MUSCLES NOT
MOVEMENTS
Bodybuilding is about
feeling the muscle you
train. This attention to
detail is not prevalent in the
realm of strength training
where the primary concern
is to move the bar from
point A to point B. While
you can make size gains
with strength training,
stimulating a muscle to
grow is about high quality
muscle contractions.
You improve strength by
lifting heavy weights in low
volume while you maximise
muscle growth by lifting
moderately heavy weights in
high volume.
To increase hypertrophy it
is best to focus on training
muscles and not movements.
But what then about
strength?
A good compromise
is to train your main lifts
like a powerlifter and your
accessory movements like
a bodybuilder. Alternatively,
pick a power move and go
heavy with lower reps on
occasion. Another method
is to dedicate days or weeks
to a specific goal. Combine
heavy loads in the 1-5 rep
range with moderate to
light loads in the 8-20 rep
range. Don't be misled by
an industry that is riddled
with gurus and followers
of a particular philosophy
that “does it all”. The
best results are usually
seen when heavy, low to
moderate rep compound
training is combined with
lighter, moderate to high rep
isolation training. M.E
“YOU IMPROVE
STRENGTH BY LIFTING
HEAVY WEIGHTS IN
LOW VOLUME WHILE
YOU MAXIMISE
MUSCLE GROWTH BY
LIFTING MODERATELY
HEAVY WEIGHTS IN
HIGH VOLUME.”
www.muscleevolution.co.za
29
FEATURE
BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR
KEY POINTTSO
EN ROUTE
E
SHREDVILL
Y
OU KNOW WHO YOU
ARE. YOU’VE BEEN
LIFTING FOR A YEAR
OR SO, CHASING
THE BODYBUILDING
DREAM. YOU HAVE
FOLLOWED THE BEST
ROUTINES AND BANGED
OUT SOME HEAVY IRON
BECAUSE YOU WERE HELL
BENT ON GETTING HUGE.
SURE, YOU GAINED SOME
SOLID MUSCLE BUT NOW
THE COMPETITIVE SEASON
IS HERE AND YOU WANT
TO BECOME FREAKISHLY
RIPPED WITH VEINS
THE SIZE OF RADIATOR
HOSES RUNNING ALL
OVER YOUR BODY!
30
Muscle Evolution
A LONG & WINDING ROAD
Welcome. You are stepping into a different realm
of insanity. Prepare to set foot in a world that no
one understands! Prepping for a show is one of the most
demanding things you will ever do on this planet.
You have built the brick house, now it is time to define it, so that you
can walk out on the stage with confidence. It will take persistence,
commitment, will power and vision. Lifting weights has just become more
than just exercise.
THIS IS IT! IT’S TIME TO GIVE YOU SOME POINTERS ON THE LONG
AND WINDING ROAD TO SHREDVILLE.
MIND OVER MATTER
There is no way to underestimate
the importance of the psychological
aspect of bodybuilding. The mind has an
incredibly powerful effect on the body. All
of your drive, motivation and desire comes
from your mind. When you train and
diet to compete you need to be totally
focused on the task at hand. Each day
will feel as if you are testing new limits
of what you previously regarded
as impossible. You need to have
confidence in what you do
and fuel the fire to push
WHAT YOU CAN CONTROL
forward on a road to actualise your true
potential. Go to the gym focused, you are
there to work. Keep yourself in the zone
and take pride in the way the iron feels
in your hands. When you are in there
putting everything into every set, every lift,
day in and day out, it goes to show that
you have the persistence to see things
through and not let anything stand in
your way. Bodybuilding as a sport boosts
self-esteem and self-confidence but if your
mind isn't up to the task, your body will
never be.
“YOUR BODYBUILDING JOURNEY IS ABOUT
YOU. IT IS ALL ON YOU TO GET RESULTS,
BUT THAT ALSO MEANS YOU HAVE THE
POWER TO MAKE THINGS HAPPEN.”
YOU HAVE THE POWER
What you eat and how you train
will separate you from the masses.
It takes hard work and dedication to
compete and to fulfil your potential.
Even if you're not a Pro athlete, don't think
you can get away with a mediocre training plan
or diet. If you look at statues of athletes in ancient
Greece or Rome you have a clearer picture of what
you need to become. Genetics determine your physical
abilities and development but hard work in the gym,
proper nutrition and supplementation can take you a
long way. Supplements should be used to supplement
your diet and should not be your diet.
Your bodybuilding journey is about you. It is all on
you to get results, but that also means you have the
power to make things happen.
Before you start prepping you better do your
homework first. Go to local shows, view the competitors
and try to talk to them off the stage. The biggest mistake
beginners who are training for their first competition
make is to try to do too much. Intensity is the
cornerstone of bodybuilding but the body also needs
rest to recuperate between sessions. Keep your goals
in mind if you want to make continual progress and
maintain momentum.
To fulfill your bodybuilding potential
takes dedication and sacrifice. Don’t
quit when you prep for a show. Once
you learn to quit it becomes a habit.
Fatigue can make a coward of us all
and when you are tired of training and
dieting you will rationalise everything
to make excuses to quit. Even if you
plateau in your prep there are ways to
bust through it. The mind is extremely
powerful – go for days with almost no
carbs and you will realise what it is all
about! Focus and believe in yourself so
that you can give it all you have to give,
especially when the going gets tough.
In life the highs are high, and the lows
are lower and prepping for a show is no
exception. Stay focused on the bigger
picture and brush off all the criticism.
The only thing that really matters is
bringing the best version of yourself to
stage that you can. So, focus on what
you can control and let go of what you
cannot.
COMPARE YOURSELF
TO YOURSELF
As you prep for a competition you will
have to define what progress means to
you. Do not compare yourself to others on
social media. Technology today has us so
focused on getting more “likes” which can
only complicate things.
Compare yourself to yourself.
Acknowledge success when you
accomplish small goals along the way and
allow them to fuel your determination to
move forward to reach bigger goals. Your
prep is in your own hands. You will find
yourself in a prep rut and while it will suck
and hurt it will elevate you to physical and
psychological levels that you did not think
you could reach. Smash your barriers and
don't put self-imposed limits on yourself
and what you can accomplish. Your
attitude will be the deciding factor and the
difference between success and failure.
www.muscleevolution.co.za
31
FEATURE
A SLOW & STEADY APPROACH
The way you build a brick house is one brick at a time. You have
acquired the mass, now it’s time to refine what you have constructed.
It takes time to sculpt a physique worthy of the stage. Most contest
preps will usually start between 16 and 12 weeks out from a show. This
allows plenty of time for fat to be shed while holding on to muscle mass.
However, the time it takes will be different for everyone. It is always better
to start your diet sooner and lean out that way to avoid a final week panic
scenario. Keep doing basic exercises and don’t worry if you lose strength when
your body fat gets low. Your strength will come back after the show when your
body weight does. Add in isolation work but don’t neglect the basic exercises.
Allow your fat loss to come from dieting and cardio.
Remember that if you do too much cardio too soon, your body will adapt and
you will have no choice but to increase your cardio later in your prep.
“MOST CONTEST PREPS WILL
USUALLY START BETWEEN 16 AND
12 WEEKS OUT FROM A SHOW.
THIS ALLOWS PLENTY OF TIME FOR
FAT TO BE SHED WHILE HOLDING
ON TO MUSCLE MASS. HOWEVER,
THE TIME IT TAKES WILL BE
DIFFERENT FOR EVERYONE.”
DIET IS
EVERYTHING
One of the keystones to
any prep is diet. One of the
greatest lessons from competing
is learning how your body works
and the enormous importance of food
in your life. A ripped condition will take
a lot of diligence and hard work to achieve.
Break your meals up into five or six small ones
instead of three big ones. Prep your meals ahead
of time and store your portions for each day. It
is crucial that you provide your body with extra
fuel for each workout and for the growth and
recovery process. There are numerous ways to
eat to burn fat and retain muscle mass. The more
muscle you have the more calories are needed
to sustain the muscles. It is better to lose weight
slowly than to crash diet. Even if you exert
the utmost control over your diet you will
experience setbacks and periods where you
will question your own sanity. Stay in the
game by understanding the likelihood of
occasional setbacks so that you won’t
perceive it as the end of the world.
THE IMPORTANCE OF H20
Water is often the most overlooked
resource for the body. A lack of water
can result in loss of muscle since it is
made primarily of water. For glycogen
(carbohydrates stored in the muscle to
be used as energy) water is needed.
Water is critical to the balance of all the
body’s systems, including the muscles,
32
Muscle Evolution
lungs, heart, kidneys and most importantly
the proper functioning of the brain.
Dehydration is one of the most common
causes of fatigue, cramping and the loss
of strength and endurance when an athlete
is prepping for a show. It also plays an
important role in energy transformation as
it is a medium in which all energy reactions
take place. It is suggested that the average
person requires between 8 and 12 cups
of water per day. Bodybuilders need
much more to replace the fluid lost during
exercise. To combat dehydration always
have something to drink with you wherever
you go. Water consumption will obviously
change the closer you get to the contest.
“WHEN YO
OU
DIET, ONE DA
AY
AT A TIM
ME
IS THE BES
ST
WAY TO GO
O.
NEVER THIN
NK
OF HOW MAN
NY
DAYS YO
OU
HAVE LEFT
T.”
CARBS AS FUEL
Carbohydrates are used as fuel
for muscle contraction. You must
differentiate between simple and complex
carbohydrates. A simple carb is rapidly
utilised by the body as energy while a
complex carb takes longer to break down
and is used when the body needs it.
There is a fine balance between eating too
much and too little carbs. Eating fewer
calories than you need creates an energy
deficit which will cause fat loss. However,
radical cuts can lead to a slowing of your
metabolic rate, ultimately making it harder
to get leaner. When you use too much
carbs you will blow up like the Michelin
Man. When you eat too little carbs your
muscles will lose glycogen and you will
A FINAL WORD
Prepping for a competition is the
most intense mental and physical
battle you will ever face. You are
going to fail, and probably more
than once before you reach your
ultimate potential. But you don't
have to travel the road on your own.
Rely on the support of your family,
close friends and on those that had
made the journey before you. There
is an abundance of prep coaches
and trainers who have perfected the
interfere in your body’s ability to break
down fat. If you ask 15 different prep
coaches about carb intake, you will likely
get 15 different theories as there is a wide
variety of opinions on how to manipulate
carbs to get stage-ready. Some coaches
believe in altering carb intake or dividing
carb meals throughout the day to stimulate
a steady release of insulin to create an
anabolic environment. Others suggest only
eating carbs around training sessions to
offset muscle breakdown or earlier in the
day when a greater portion is stored as
muscle glycogen. No matter what strategy
you follow your goal will remain the same
– to support muscle mass while you shred
for the stage.
science of sculpting a contest-winning
physique. Make use of their expertise.
What is competing all about?
It's more than those few seconds
you spend on that stage. It is more
like having two full-time jobs!
The body, without fail, will adapt to
everything if given enough time. In
your prep there will be days where
you feel like you are going to lose
it. Where everything will piss you
off! There will be days where your
THE BUILDING
BLOCKS OF MUSCLE
Dieting 24/7 will inevitably lead to
your metabolic rate heading south. If
that happens, getting super shredded
for the stage becomes a real challenge.
When your caloric intake drops, you need
complete protein to maintain muscle
mass. Complete protein comes from
animal derived protein sources while
incomplete protein is found in all nonanimal foods such as rice, oats, potatoes,
pasta, fruit etc. Cutting back on dietary
fat and reducing carbs will lead to your
body burning more protein as fuel, which
can also put you at risk of losing muscle.
This is the reason bodybuilders increase
their protein intake to compensate for the
reduction in carbs. The right combination
of carbs and protein, however, will be
more conducive to a muscle building state
than a diet that is overloaded with protein
and short on carbs. You can also modulate
your protein up or down depending on
how intense your training is. Your first
competition will be a series of experiments
but when you make a decision, make an
informed one. When you diet, one day at a
time is the best way to go. Never think of
how many days you have left. When you
do your best for that day you will know in
the end that when show day comes you
will be in the best shape possible.
cravings will shoot through the roof.
Stay on the course.
Soon show day will arrive and
the judges will call your division to
assemble back stage for the moment
of truth. When this happens, it's all
done. You will feel nervous but excited
to finally step on stage. Bodybuilding
is a tough venture compared to other
sports but after surviving a full prep you
will realise that you have the ability to
take on any obstacle in life. M.E
www.muscleevolution.co.za
33
FEATURE
BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR
THOUGH THE TERM IS FREQUENTLY
MISINTERPRETED, THERE ARE
PLENTY OF INTERESTING ANECDOTES
SUPPORTING IT. SOME TOP-LEVEL
COMPETITORS IN BODYBUILDING AND
STRENGTH SPORTS SWEAR BY IT WHILE
OTHERS REGARD IT AS TOTAL BULLSHIT.
HERE’S WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW.
MUSCLE
CONFUSION
IS CHANGE GOOD OR BAD?
MUSCLE CONFUSION IS CONFUSING
An old Chinese proverb says, “Give
a man a fish, you feed him for a day:
teach a man to fish, and you feed him
for life.” This sums up the approach
many lifters take when it comes to
exercise. They know that the probability
of achieving any physique-related
goals without a workable blueprint for
success is slim to none.
34
Muscle Evolution
A training split, however, only serves as
a template and must be customised based
on your response. Repeatedly doing the
same routine day-in and day-out impedes
exercise-induced muscle damage in what
is commonly known as the repeated bout
effect. In other words, if you follow the
same exercise with the same volume and
intensity over a long period of time, your
muscle gains will decrease.
A well-known gym adage dictates
that a programme is only as good as
the time it takes for a lifter to adapt to
it. However, some change it too often,
hopping from one split to the next, never
giving themselves enough time to make
significant improvement on any given
exercise.
DON’T WING IT
The psychological drive to always seek
what is new and exciting is an innate
one. In this regard, muscle confusion is
a training principle that creates variety
in your training to shock the body into
new growth. While the term is open to
misinterpretation due to its ambiguous
nature, it would be unwise to totally
dismiss the concept without first taking
a closer look at how it really works.
Numerous studies have shown that
regular change is effective at producing
muscular improvement as part of a
periodised training programme. The
biggest difference between a proper
training plan and muscle confusion,
as frequently misinterpreted by many
lifters, is that changes are meticulously
planned and not randomly selected
according to instinct.
Employing muscle confusion
intelligently is to change variables such
as training style, intensity, length of
the workout and frequency in a more
structured manner. In fact, there are
literally thousands of tweaks you can
make to your routine to “confuse” the
muscles, such as switching your grip,
hand or foot position, stance width, type of
bar or attachment used, the tempo of reps,
number of sets and your range of motion.
Keep in mind that if you change things
in every training session haphazardly, you
may lose the progression element that is
vital to muscle gain. Implement change,
don’t wing it!
PRACTICAL TAKE AWAYS
“KEEP IN
MIND THAT IF
YOU CHANGE
THINGS IN EVERY
TRAINING SESSION
HAPHAZARDLY,
YOU MAY LOSE
THE PROGRESSION
ELEMENT THAT IS
VITAL TO MUSCLE
GAIN. IMPLEMENT
CHANGE, DON’T
WING IT!”
Q Change your
exercises every 4
to 5 weeks to keep
progressing, but keep
them closely-related.
For example, change
from deadlifting with
a barbell to deadlifting
with dumbbells, or from
bench presses to floor
presses with dumbbells,
or from pull-ups to lat
pulldowns.
Q Slash your volume
every 4 to 5 weeks by
de-loading to rest and
grow. Don’t be afraid
to take a total break
away from the weights.
Some of the biggest
records in strength
training have come after
a layoff. A good example
is Ed Coan, one of the
greatest powerlifters
of all time. Coan took
2 weeks off after every
competition, which
seems to have been
the common practice
at the time when he
competed in the sport.
It also explains why
he quickly moved past
strength plateaus after
layoffs and managed
to set over 71 world
records in powerlifting.
In bodybuilding terms,
legendary Kevin Levrone
took months off after
racking up a string
of IFBB Heavyweight
victories in the
1990s. Even today
elite bodybuilders take
between 2 to 3 weeks of
easy training after every
show and some even
take 3 weeks off from
the gym.
Q Changing the
intensity, reps and sets,
frequency, volume, and
rest time are all ways
of putting progressive
overload and muscle
confusion into action
in your own training.
For example, alternate
between lower reps
(3-5), moderate reps
(6-12) and high reps
(15-20). Muscle
development is best
achieved by using the
full spectrum of rep
ranges. Start with a
strength phase (lower
reps) for a few weeks
and follow that up
with a short metabolic
phase (high reps)
before ending with a
hypertrophy phase (the
typical 6 to 12 range).
There is also the option
of a more non-linear
approach, where you
change rep ranges
more frequently to hit
all the phases.
Q Avoid long workouts.
They only lead to
diminishing returns
on all goals except
endurance.
Q If you cannot stand
taking time off, simply
cycle between heavy
and lighter weights
or focus on isolation
exercises instead of
compound moves. The
more muscles and joints
involved in a particular
movement, the higher
the impact will be on
your central nervous
system and your
subsequent need to
de-load. Isolation moves
generally don’t require
much de-loading.
REMEMBER: It is always a bad idea to go into the gym without knowing what
you’ll be doing when you get there. Even advanced lifters should mentally prepare and have
particular goals in mind. The frequent change of variables is actually important as your
training age increases, because your body adapts to a programme at a faster rate
than a beginner who is still trying to improve his foundational base.
M.E
www.muscleevolution.co.za
35
PROFILE
BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR
PHOTOGRAPHY BY SOULBY JACKSON, SHOT AT ALLEYSWAY GYM, WWW.ALLEYSWAY.CO.ZA
FAST FACTS
HEIGHT: 1.74m
MOTTO IN LIFE:
OFF-SEASON WEIGHT: 105kg
“HARD WORK
BEATS TALENT.”
COMPETITION WEIGHT: 97kg
LIVES: King William’s Town, EC
OCCUPATION: Owner of
Health Avenue Gym
Shane Kreusch
shaneqkreusch
COACH: Vic Alley
SPONSORS: TNT Mercury &
Ciccone Pharma
SHANE KREUSCH IS
KING WHEN IT COMES
TO DOMINATING THE
MASTERS DIVISION.
Although he also retained his
Masters title in his first show
of 2018, the Physical Culture
Association’s Conrad Nagel
Xtreme Classic, the 42-year-old
gym owner from King William’s
Town is also the first to admit
that without the discipline and
sacrifices he has made to reach
the top, he would not have
achieved success.
KREUSCH
USCH
RULES!
LES!
38
Muscle Evolution
Shane, what does the sport mean to you?
Bodybuilding is part of my genetics and
will be until my last breath. It's a sport in
which you get out what you put in. When
I was in school I was teased about how
thin I was, so I started lifting weights to
boost my self-esteem. I soon realised that
it was what I wanted to do for the rest of
my life. Now I know of no other way to live.
Bodybuilding is an art to be practiced with
patience, dedication and obsession. It
takes immense mental and physical
effort to improve your condition
through training and dieting. To
achieve the desired look for the
stage you have to put in the time
and totally commit yourself to
hard work 24/7.
You raked in a phenomenal
seven wins as part of
your comeback to the
competitive stage in
2017. What is the secret
to your success?
Believing in yourself is vitally
important and I knew that I
had the inner drive to reach
my goals. I set out determined
to do my best and never
gave up. I competed in a
number of shows between
1998 and 2003, which included
representing WABBA South Africa at the
World Championships in Spain, where
I placed 5th in my division. I purchased
a gym in King William's Town and that
motivated me to return to the stage. I
believe setting specific goals is a crucial
component of a demanding sport like
bodybuilding. It takes considerable work
ethic to achieve success. There has to be
something that drives you to push your
body to its limits. I believe that whatever you
think becomes your reality.
As a veteran, what is your view of the
local bodybuilding scene?
South Africa has exceptional bodybuilders
who could challenge international
competitors on any world stage. More and
more athletes are becoming passionate
about the sport and this is evident in the
talent that our youth is showing on stage.
What's next for 'King Kreusch'?
Bringing an improved package to the PCA's
Battle of the Titans. The plan is to continue
to dominate the Masters division as long as
I'm competitive.
SHANE’S TRAINING SPLIT
MON
Chest, Shoulders,
Triceps & Abs
TUE
Back, Biceps & Calves
WED
Legs
THU
Rest
FRI
Cycle starts again
RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS:
2017Q PCA Conrad Nagel Xtreme Classic,
Masters division, 1st Q IFBB Buffalo City
Championships, Masters division, 1st
Q PCA Battle of the Titans, Masters division,
1st Q PCA Queenstown Grand Prix, Masters
division, 1st Q IBFF Border Championships,
1.74 to 1.80m division, 1st Q IBFF Border
Championships, Masters division, 1st
Q PCA Rise of the Phoenix, Masters
division, 1st 2018Q PCA Conrad Nagel
Xtreme Classic, Masters division, 1st
SHANE’S
SUPPLEMENT
PLAN
UPON WAKING UP
TNT Mercury
Carnitine/CLA
Ciccone Pharma
Essential Amino
Acids
PRE-WORKOUT
TNT Mercury TNT Mercury
Hydroblast Joint Armour
TNT
TN
T Mercury
Carnitine/
CLA
INTRA-WORKOUT
Ciccone Pharma
Essential Amino
Acids
TNT Mercury
Vitargo
POST-WORKOUT
TNT Mercury
Titanium Whey
TNT Mercury
Vitargo
BED TIME
TNT Mercury
Micellar Casein protein
www.muscleevoluttion.co.za
39
TRAINING
WIN THE
ARMS RACE!
PUT YOURSELF ON A FAST
TRACK TO GREATNESS
ALL TOP-TIER BODYBUILDERS SPORT
EXCEPTIONAL ARM DEVELOPMENT.
WHETHER YOU’RE A ROOKIE OR
A VETERAN, A BEASTLY SET OF
ARMS WILL SET YOU APART
FROM THE REST ON STAGE.
Fresh from a victory at this
year’s Conrad Nagel Xtreme
Classic hosted by the
Physical Culture Association
(PCA), Shane Kreusch joins
the Muscle Evolution Team
at the Alleysway Fitness
Centre in Bedfordview
to demonstrate how he
uses exercises, some
of them unknown,
underrated and
underutilised, to
build a freaky pair
of arms.
TIME & EFFORT
Even though he’s a veteran of
the sport, holding numerous
Master’s divisional titles, Shane
has been interested in developing
huge guns since the beginning of
his career. “Biceps, triceps and
forearms are usually a high priority
for nearly everyone who picks up
a weight to develop their body,”
says the 42-year-old gym owner,
who is based in King William’s
Town in the Eastern Cape. “The
arm is universally one of the first
muscles a beginner bodybuilder
focuses on. In their quest to build
bigger arms, many make the
common mistake of doing too
many sets in an attempt to speed
up development. Building muscle,
however, takes time and it requires
dedicated effort,” says Shane.
“Through the years I have found
the following exercises to be the
most effective for building arms.”
40
Muscle Evolution
SHANE’S TIP: “I use an
EZ-bar to make the exercise
easier on my wrists and I
don’t use a lot of weight.
The key to this movement
is slowing down on the
negative part of the rep.”
REVERSE
EZ-BAR CURLS
EXERCISE 1
PURPOSE: If your goal is a balanced
physique, a good set of forearms is nonnegotiable.
TARGET: The brachialis muscle (which lies
under the lower portion of your biceps) and
the brachioradialis (runs the length of the
forearm).
ACTION: Grip a standard EZ-bar with
a shoulder-width overhand grip. While
keeping your elbows tucked into your
sides, curl the bar up towards your chest.
At the top, pause for a second to fully
contract your forearms before lowering the
bar back down to the starting position.
REP RANGE: Vary your rep range
between 8-10 and 12-15 reps per set.
EXERCISE 2
EZ-BAR CURLS
PURPOSE: Many lifters prefer using an
EZ-bar because the pronated grip
provides much greater comfort to the
wrists compared to a straight bar. When
you use an EZ-bar to curl, your thumbs
remain higher than your pinkies,
which will hit your biceps and forearms
in a different way than a straight bar.
TARGET: The brachialis muscle (which lies
under the lower portion of your biceps),
the brachioradialis (runs the length of the
forearm) and the arm flexor muscles.
ACTION: Grasp the bar with an underhand
grip. Curl the weight up with your arms
down by your sides. At the top, contract
your arms before lowering the bar in a
controlled manner to return to the
starting position.
REP RANGE: Vary your rep range
between 8-10 and 12-15 reps per set.
SHANE’S TIP:
“Although I use a fair
amount of weight,
I keep the barbell
stable throughout the
lift and I do not swing
or use momentum.”
“I HAVE MY FAVOURITE EXERCISES, BUT TO PREVENT
STALENESS I USE DIFFERENT MOVES AND OFTEN ALTERNATE
BETWEEN A DIFFERENT NUMBER OF SETS AND REPS.”
N’T FALL INTO STALENESS
DON
Shane likes to train with as
muc h intensity as possible,
with
hout focusing too much on
we
eight. “To see gains in your
ar ms you must balance your
wo
orkload and intensity with
su
ufficient rest. If you tip the
sc ale too much in a particular
dir ection, I can guarantee
you
u that you won’t see any
prog
gress. Extremely intense
traini ng tears down the body
and yo
ou need recuperation to
rebuild it. Most youngsters, when
it comes to arm training, try to do
too much, which is certain to lead
to overtraining and to a lack of
progress.” He often uses barbells
for his first arm workout in the week
before changing over to dumbbells
and machines in his second
session. “Although I pair arms with
other body parts, super-setting
them sometimes by themselves for
variation also provides a significant
pump and can boost the size of
your arms when you do it that way,”
says Shane.
www.muscleevolution.co.za
41
TRAINING
EXERCISE 3
DRAG CURLS
PURPOSE: Why is it called a drag curl? Because you drag the
bar up your body. The idea is to perform super strict reps.
TARGET: Isolation of the biceps while limiting deltoid involvement.
ACTION: Hold a bar with your elbows fully extended before
dragging it up the front of your body until your elbows are fully
bent. Lower the bar under control and repeat the
exercise for the desired reps.
REP RANGE: Do sets of 8 to 12 reps.
SHANE’S TIP: “Leave your ego at the gym door because you need to
use less weight for these than a typical curl. Pull you elbows back as
you lift the bar and when you’re at the top, squeeze extra hard. Make
sure that the bar stays in contact with your body at all times.”
EXTREME ARM TECHNIQUES
With dumbbell curls, Shane would
typically perform a-down-the-rack
version. “I will go until failure before I
grab a lighter set of dumbbells to knock
out as many reps as possible. I’ll then
finish my arms off with a last set with
a lighter weight.” Shane believes the
down-the-rack method is excellent for
punishing a muscle that is stubborn
and refuses to respond to straight sets.
“I believe it is ideal for reaching those
42
Muscle Evolution
hard-to-hit muscle fibers and forcing
them to grow.” He also, now and then,
relies on forced reps to take his arms
past the point of failure. A training partner
would help him lift a weight so that he
can complete additional reps. “You
must be careful here that your buddy is
not doing the majority of the work and
you are only there for the ride. Forced
reps should allow you to perform three
to four reps, max. Each rep should go
beyond the point of failure and should
be exceedingly difficult to complete than
the previous one if you do it right.” Shane
recommends using forced reps sparingly
in your arm training. “I believe they are
most effective with exercises for smaller
body parts such as the arms. Working
past failure on back or legs is tough
enough as it is, whereas an extra rep or
two on curls or pushdowns causes less
overall stress on the body.”
ROPE
PUSHDOWNS
EXERCISE 4
PURPOSE: By using a rope instead of
a straight bar your hand position will
change, which will work the lateral head
of the tricep at the outside of the arm.
Using a rope allows for a greater range
of motion than a straight bar. The greater
range of motion also allows for an extra
squeeze at the bottom of the movement.
TARGET: The lateral head of the
tricep muscle.
ACTION: Attach a rope to a high pulley
and grab it with a neutral grip. Using your
triceps, bring the rope down the front of
your body. You should only move your
forearms and your arms should be fully
extended and perpendicular to the floor at
the end of the movement. After holding for
a second at the bottom, bring the rope up
to the original position.
REP RANGE: Vary your rep range between
8 to 10 and sets of 12 to 15 reps.
SHANE’S TIP: “Bring each side of the rope
to your legs when you reach the bottom, and
flex your triceps in a contracted position
before returning back to the starting point.
Mix up your use of an E-Z bar attachment
as well as a straight or V-angled bar to work
the triceps in a different way.”
“YOU SHOULD ONLY MOVE YOUR FOREARMS AND YOUR
ARMS SHOULD BE FULLY EXTENDED AND PERPENDICULAR
TO THE FLOOR AT THE END OF THE MOVEMENT.”
www.muscleevolution.co.za
43
TRAINING
A
C
B
EXERCISE 5
ZOTTMAN CURLS
PURPOSE: Not many lifters
have heard of Zottman curls,
but it’s an excellent old
school option, particularly for
stimulating the arm muscles
with a single exercise.
TARGET: The biceps, brachialis
and brachioradialis.
ACTION: Grasp a pair of
dumbbells and curl them up,
as you would with a standard
dumbbell curl. Once you’ve
reached the top, rotate your
wrists downward and slowly
descend to the bottom of the
exercise where you rotate your
wrists back again to curl the
dumbbells back to the top.
REP RANGE: Vary your
rep range between 8-10 and
sets of 20-30 reps with a
lighter weight.
THE GREAT ZOTTMAN
SHANE’S TIP: “You’re getting the best of both worlds
with this one! When you curl the dumbbells up with
a supinated grip (palms facing up) you’re hitting the
biceps. When you rotate your wrists at the top of the
exercise and switch to a pronated grip (palms down) you
target your forearms (the brachialis and brachioradialis).
I sometimes do this exercise as a warm-up or as a highrep finisher at the end of a session.”
44
Muscle Evolution
The Zottman curl is named after 19th-century American
strongman George Zottman, who performed this
exercise with a pair of 22kg dumbbells. Known for his
impressive strength, he set numerous records at the time,
such as cleaning and pressing 79kg while sitting on a chair.
Zottman also had tremendous lower body strength – one
of his favourite exercises was walking up a flight of stairs
carrying a pair of heavy, thick-handled dumbbells.
TRAINING
EXERCISE 6 OVERHEAD
DUMBBELL
EXTENSIONS
PURPOSE: Including a tricep exercise where
your arms are overhead will ensure complete
development by working the long head of
the tricep muscle, which is not activated as
much when your arms are by your sides.
TARGET: The tricep muscle has three heads – a
lateral, a long and a medial head which are all
located at the rear of your upper arm. The lateral
head is the farthest from your body (i.e. outer
arm), the long head is located behind the lateral
(i.e. rear arm) and the medial head is adjacent
to the long head (i.e. inner arm). Unlike the
medial and lateral head, which only cross the
elbow joint, the long head of the triceps also
crosses the shoulder joint. With your arms in
an overhead position, the long head becomes
stretched, which creates a length-tension
relationship, allowing it to produce more force.
ACTION: Grasp a dumbbell with both hands
and raise it vertically into the starting position
above your head while seated on a bench.
Now bend your elbows by slowly lowering
the dumbbell to the starting position without
changing your posture. When your elbow
drops below 90 degrees, pause before
extending to return to the starting position.
In order to isolate the triceps, motion should
occur only at the elbow joints.
REP RANGE: Combine high reps of between
12 to 15 with lower reps of 8 to 10.
MUSCLE MATCHING
Even if Shane trains his biceps with
back, or triceps with his chest he will
always hit his larger muscle groups
before the smaller ones in the same
workout. “If you were to target your
triceps before chest, or your biceps
before back you’ll end up too tired to
train the larger body parts properly. On
major compound moves, for instance,
you won’t be able to use as much
weight or do as many reps, thereby
diminishing the training effect that
muscles like your chest and back get.”
For Shane, some body part
groupings make better sense than
others. “I like the classic push and
pull format with legs on their own.
Include different exercises in your
routine to hit each muscle group from
a variety of directions, but remember,
while pushing yourself hard in the
gym is always important, doing too
many sets past failure can actually be
counterproductive.”
SHANE’S TIP: “Keep your body
tight throughout the movement and
don’t do half reps, but shoot for a full range
of motion. You can work up to some fairly
heavy weight if you have healthy elbows.
The exercise isolates the triceps directly,
making it excellent for building muscle.”
“REMEMBER, WHILE PUSHING YOURSELF HARD IN THE
GYM IS ALWAYS IMPORTANT, DOING TOO MANY SETS PAST
FAILURE CAN ACTUALLY BE COUNTERPRODUCTIVE.”
www.muscleevolution.co.za
46
TRAINING
EXERCISE 7
PUSH-UPS
PURPOSE: A total-body
movement that will not only
strengthen your triceps but
also your chest and shoulders.
TARGET: By placing your hands
closer than shoulder-width
apart, the focus is shifted
to your triceps.
ACTION: Place your hands
firmly on the ground with the
rest of your body in a neutral
position. Lower your body until
your chest touches the floor
before pushing back to the
starting position at the top.
Keep your abs, glutes and
hamstrings tight, which
in turn will help keep your
back straight.
REP RANGE: Repeat for 10 to
20 reps or as many as you can
perform with good form.
SHANE’S TIP: “Your body should
remain in a straight line from head to
toe. Inhale on the way down and exhale
on the way up. Don’t cheat. Make
sure each rep reaches a full range of
motion by getting your chest as close
to the floor as possible before you fully
extend your elbows at the top.”
WIDE OR NARROW
PUSH-UPS?
If you are looking for
more bang for your buck
from your push-ups, the
close grip push-up fits
the bill perfectly. Exercise
scientists tested subjects
who performed a wide and
a narrow grip push-up. The
purpose of the 2016 study,
published in The Journal of
Physical Therapy Science,
was to record dynamic and
muscular modifications during
push-up exercise variants.
Researchers found a drop in
overall muscle activation in
the upper body when a wide
push-up was performed. With
a narrow push-up there was
an increase in upper body
muscle activation. It was
concluded that a narrow-grip
was more challenging than a
wide-grip push-up.
48
Muscle Evolution
WEIGHT
PLATE BENCH DIPS
EXERCISE 8
PURPOSE: If you have a training
partner, you can use weight plate
bench dips to maximum effect to
build your triceps.
TARGET: Reducing the load just
enough to allow your set to continue
will work your triceps to exhaustion
and hit a wide range of muscle fibres
to finish off an arm workout.
ACTION: You need a bench behind
your back for your hands and
another in front for your legs. With
the benches perpendicular to your
body, hold on to one bench on its
edge with your hands close to your
body, separated at shoulder-width,
and your legs extended forward on
top of the other bench. Have your
training buddy place a plate on your
lap before you lower your body to
an angle slightly smaller than 90
degrees between the upper arm
and the forearm. Using your triceps,
bring your body back up again
to the original position.
REP RANGE: Do as many complete
reps as possible. Remember to do
this exercise without any plates at
first to get used to the movement.
“BENCH DIPS CAN
ADD REAL MASS
TO YOUR TRICEPS.
GO AS LOW AS
YOU CAN WITHOUT
STRESSING YOUR
SHOULDERS BUT
DON’T FULLY LOCK
OUT YOUR ARMS
AT THE TOP OF
THE MOVEMENT.”
SHANE'S TIP: “Use a weight that you
are comfortable with. Warm-up with
bodyweight dips before you progress
to plates. I perform bench dips for reps
with up to two or three plates on my
lap, while my heels are on a stool.
Do the exercise in front of a mirror to
make sure you are doing them
with a full range of motion.” M.E
www.muscleevolution.co.za
49
SCIENCE
BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR
DO YOU
NEED TO
SLOW
DOWN TO
SPEED UP
GAINS?
COMPLETE
FAILURE
“I
FOR
ONE WAY TO CRANK UP THE INTENSITY IN THE GYM,
BESIDES PILING ON THE PLATES, IS TO MANIPULATE
HOW YOU PERFORM YOUR REPS. In training methodology,
TUT stands for time under tension. The underlying
concept originates from the common belief that
performing a rep slowly is better for building muscle.
But are super slow reps still the rage in the gym?
he slower rep structure that
characterises TUT training is
typically defined as a 6-second
concentric (raising the weight) phase
and a 6-second eccentric (lowering the
weight) phase, as opposed to a faster
tempo - the speed at which you
perform a rep.
The rationale is that more optimal
muscle growth can be achieved the longer
a targeted muscle group is under tension
during a specific exercise. There are even
more extreme proponents of super slow
50
Muscle Evolution
What does 4010 in the Pakulski
example mean?
denotes the duration,
expressed in seconds, of the
eccentric phase or the negative.
denotes the duration,
expressed in seconds, spent
at the bottom portion in a
stretched position.
denotes the duration,
expressed in seconds, of
the concentric phase or lifting
portion.
denotes the duration,
expressed in seconds, spent
in the fully contracted position.
4
0
1
0
NOTHING NEW
T
t is advantageous to change the rep
tempo of your workouts every 3 to
6 weeks,” says Pakulski. “Some great
examples for hypertrophy are 4010,
6010, 4111, 4021 (tempos). If strength
is your primary goal, tempo would be
different but these can certainly be
incorporated.”
training prescribing TUT-protocols of up to
30 seconds and longer per phase.
Although slow lifting has been around
for decades, a modern-day IFBB Pro
bodybuilder like Ben Pakulski still
endorses TUT. The Canadian, nicknamed
the Pak-Man, believes tempo is one of the
most under-utilised training variables and
recommends using explosive concentrics
with slow eccentrics to build supreme
muscle mass. Tempo, according to
Pakulski, is the least understood of all the
other training variables.
The “4” in a 4010 tempo would indicate
4 seconds to move from the top to the
bottom of an exercise. The second
number is the pause, which occurs at the
fully stretched position (e.g. how long
you pause at the bottom when you lower
a weight). The “0” in the 4010 example
refers to no pause. The third number is
the concentric contraction - that is lifting
the weight (e.g. rising or pressing with
a weight from the bottom to the top). In
this case you take 1 second to return to
the original position in an exercise. The
fourth number is the time of pause in the
contracted position (e.g. at the top of a
movement).
Pakulski typically uses 30 to 60 seconds
a set. “It is also important to note that this
TUT range is meant to refer to complete
muscular failure or exhaustion within this
time. This does not mean you stop a set
that you could have easily extended well
beyond 60 seconds just because the time
range was up. If this is the case, it's time
to up the weight. Try to keep the weight as
heavy as possible within this range,” the
former Mr. Olympia contender suggests.
“USE CORRECT FORM,
AND ALWAYS MAKE SURE YOU
ARE PROGRESSIVELY OVERLOADING
TO BUILD MUSCLE. THE KEY
IS CONSTANT TENSION AND
ENGAGING THE AREA
YOU TARGET.”
CONSTANT
TENSION
I
FBB Pro Josh Lenartowicz believes
in continuous tension with the only
requirement being that you load the
muscle to optimise the hypertrophy
effect. “Use correct form, which
involves no pausing or jolting while
lowering and lifting the weight,” says
the Australian behemoth. “And always
make sure you are progressively
overloading to build muscle. The key
is constant tension and engaging the
area you target so that you don’t recruit
other muscles.”
Lenartowicz does not believe
continuous tension is the only way to lift,
though. “I see people preaching their
way is absolutely the right way, that their
beliefs are superior and backed by studies
that now fit into everyone’s physiology.
Please stop listing things as ‘the only
proven way’ because the human body
has so many variables - situational and
environmental.”
John Meadows, creator of the Mountain
Dog training system, has been advocating
constant tension for years. It involves
stopping an exercise just short of the full
range of movement and not locking out
on each rep. Meadows believes using
this approach, especially in isolation
movements, to extend sets beyond failure.
“Think of a piston continuously moving up
and down with no built-in rest periods –
that’s what you want your reps to look like.”
Strength coach Charles Poliquin
recommends different time under
tension ranges depending on
different goals:
STRENGTH:
1 – 30 seconds,
HYPERTROPHY:
30 -70 seconds,
MUSCULAR ENDURANCE:
70 – 100 seconds.
WHAT DOES SCIENCE SAY?
O
nly a limited number of studies have
actually probed the impact of rep
speed in resistance training. In research
conducted by Munn et al. (Resistance
training for strength: the effect of
number of sets and contraction speed,
2005) rep speed was probed when
participants performed sets at different
paces. In the study the fast group used
a tempo of 1010 while the slow group
used a tempo of 3030.
The strength of the subjects was
tested over a period of six weeks with
the different groups performing either a
single set or three sets per exercise. The
three-set group increased in strength. Fast
reps also led to significantly more strength
gains than slower reps.
In a follow-up study (Shepstone et
al. 2005) it was also found that faster
contractions resulted in more muscle
growth than slow contractions. Hatfield
and Kraemer (The impact of velocity of
movement on performance factors in
resistance exercise, 2006) tested men who
had experience in resistance training. They
performed squats and shoulder presses
at 60 or 80% of their 1 rep maximum
(1RM) and were given the option of either
choosing to perform very slow (10-second
eccentric and 10-second concentric)
reps as many times as possible or faster
reps. The slow contractions were not as
successful at building strength than the
explosive reps.
More recently, sports scientists James
Krieger, Dan Ogborn and Brad Schoenfeld
published a meta-analysis on muscle
hypertrophy (The effect of repetition
duration during resistance training on
muscle hypertrophy, 2015) in which
they found no difference in hypertrophy
between rep durations.
According to biomechanics researcher
Bret Contreras, the muscles need ample
signalling to grow larger. “One simply
cannot get optimal development from
only one method. Certain exercises lend
themselves better to explosive reps, while
certain movements lend themselves better
to controlled reps. You should have variety
in your training in regards to both exercise
selection as well as types of repetitions in
order to maximally strengthen all ranges
of motion if your goal is to develop the
biggest muscles possible.”
TAKE HOME
MESSAGE
F
rom a practical standpoint, a
wide range of rep durations
should therefore be employed to
boost muscle growth, strength
or endurance. Although a lack
of studies on the subject makes
it difficult to draw definitive
conclusions, lowering the
weight under control and lifting
explosively will most likely have
the most favourable effect.
What is more important is
the degree of tension, which
is dictated by the weight you
lift and the total time a muscle
group is under tension in a given
training session. Lifters should
use different rep cadences to
experiment and see what may
spur additional growth, as the best
research often comes from what is
learned in the trenches. M.E
www.muscleevolution.co.za
51
SUPPLEMENTS
BY WERNER BEUKUS, EDITOR
SCIENTISTS AT
THE MCMASTER
UNIVERSITY IN CANADA
HAVE RECENTLY POURED
OVER DOZENS OF
RESEARCH STUDIES IN
THEIR QUEST TO PUT THE
AGE-OLD DEBATE OVER
THE EFFECTIVENESS
OF PROTEIN
SUPPLEMENTS
TO REST.
THE DEBATE IS OVER: DIETARY PROTEIN
SUPPLEMENTS ARE HIGHLY BENEFICIAL IN BUILDING
MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SIZE
“THE AMOUNT
OF PROTEIN
RECOMMENDED
BY INTERNATIONAL
GUIDELINES IS
NOT SUFFICIENT TO
MAINTAIN MUSCLE
SIZE AND STRENGTH,
ESPECIALLY IN
OLDER MEN.”
52
Muscle Evolution
THERE IS A LIMIT
PROTEIN IS ESSENTIAL
According to Stuart Phillips, lead author
of the comprehensive scientific review
of research that was published in the
British Journal of Sports Medicine,
older lifters even need greater
protein supplementation to maintain
muscularity as they age.
“The amount of protein recommended
by international guidelines is not sufficient
to maintain muscle size and strength,
especially in older men,” says Phillips.
Other studies have also shown that lifters,
especially past the age of 40, who eat
the most protein have the strongest and
largest muscles. They also lose the least
amount of muscle over time.
It is common knowledge that athletes
need more protein than the regular
recommended daily allowance. From
research there is however an upper limit
to the amount of protein that can be
consumed on a daily basis. The maximum
amount is 1.6g of dietary protein per
kilogram of bodyweight per day.
The current protein recommended
daily allowance (RDA) by the World
Health Organisation (WHO) is 0.8g
per kilogram of body weight. Phillips
believes the WHO protein requirements
are insufficient to maintain strength or
muscle size. “Protein must be a big part
of what you think about when you plan
your meals. The prescribed 0.8g/kg/day
just isn't enough.”
Advanced bodybuilders and strength
athletes should consume high quality
protein at every meal to support muscle
health. "Protein is essential for all tissues
in the body, providing amino acids that are
important for growth and development.
It is particularly important when you
get older to help slow down the loss of
muscle."
High-quality protein supplementation,
such as milk-based casein and whey
protein, can spare muscle and promote
gains during intense training or when
athletes follow a caloric restrictive diet.
Research has shown
that your muscle is
‘sensitised’ to the effect
of protein for at least 24
hours after a workout.
TIMING NOT CRITICAL
“PROTEIN INTAKE IS CRITICAL FOR
MUSCLE HEALTH AND THERE IS
MOUNTING RESEARCH THAT SUGGESTS THE
RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE, OF 0.8G
PROTEIN PER KG PER DAY, IS TOO LOW.”
When is the best time to consume
protein? “Anytime in the ensuing 24
hours after a workout is a good time to
eat protein,” says Phillips.
“Work from our research group has
shown that your muscle is ‘sensitised’ to
the effect of protein for at least 24 hours
after a workout. I agree that the time from
at least immediately to 3 hours postexercise is a time when your muscle is
even more sensitive to protein. However,
it’s not a big difference between that
time window and much later. While it's
still prudent to consume your shake
immediately post-workout, it’s not critical.”
Phillips points out lifters should rather
pay attention to the three “R’s” after
exercise – rehydrate, replenish (muscle
glycogen), and repair (damaged proteins).
“Effective adaptation to training will occur
only if all three R’s are attended to.”
IXED MESSA
AGES
“There have been mixed
d messages sent
to clinicians, dietician , and ultimately
practitioners about t efficacy of protein
meta-analysis puts
supplementation. T
that debate to rest,” ays Robert Morton,
and a PhD student in
league of Phillips a
the Exercise Metab ism Research Group
versity.
the McMaster Univ
otein intake is critical for muscle
health and there i mounting research
that suggests the rrecommended dietary
protein per kg per
owance, of 0
e will see more and
day, is too lo
more research, especially as our
e, challenging that
populations
number,” says Morton.
It was the largest meta-analysis study
of its kind with researchers combing
through a total of 49 high-quality studies
with 1 863 participants, including men and
women, young and old, and experienced
weight lifters as well as novices.
Scientists aggregated the results from
studies of weight training and protein,
using databases of published research.
They looked at experiments that had lasted
at least six weeks and included a control
group and the measurement of participants'
protein consumption as well as the impact
on muscle size and strength.
KEY FINDINGS OF THE
MCMASTER UNIVERSITY META-ANALYSIS
Q Protein during weight
training can lead to a larger
increase in muscle size and
strength. Protein ingestion and
weight training both stimulate
the process of new muscle
protein synthesis (MPS) and
are synergistic when protein
consumption follows exercise.
Q Protein is particularly
important with age to help
slow down the loss of muscle.
Q The impact of additional
protein was not enormous.
A maximum amount of 1.6g
of protein per kilogram of
body weight per day seems
to be ideal for building and
maintaining muscle. In
practical terms that would
amount to approximately
130g of protein a day for a
79kg man. A chicken breast
contains about 45g of protein.
Q Beyond the 1.6g, more
protein did not result in
more muscle.
Q Any source of protein at
any time was fine. Muscle
gains were similar if people
consumed their protein
immediately after a workout or
in the hours earlier or later. It
also made no difference if the
protein was solid, liquid, beef,
soy, vegan or any other. M.E
www.muscleevolution.co.za
53
FEATURE
BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR
SINCE WALK
KING
INTO A GYM
M FOR
THE FIRST T
TIME
TO BUILD
STRENGTH
FOR RUGBY
I WAS TOLD
TO WORK
ON ALL
THE BASIC
MOVES TO
GAIN SIZE.
So, I focused
on all the
big muscle
groups with
squats, bench
presses and
d
deadlifts,
slowly build
ding
up to lift hea
avier
to stand strong
in the scrum
ms
and carry th
he ball
forward in the field
of play. I sh
hunned
the so-called
shaping mov
vements
because I w
was told
they don’t have a
legitimate p
place in
training and
d that I
needed the difficulty of
free weights
s to grow.
MACHINES
FREE
WEIGHTS
WHICH IS BETTER?
VS
54
Muscle Evolution
n
RISE OF THE
MACHINES
I continued with the mass-building
exercises until I borrowed a copy of
'The Education of a Bodybuilder' from
the local library.
In the book Arnold Schwarzenegger
wrote about his training philosophy where
he used not only squats but also leg
presses and hamstring curls to blast his
legs. The Austrian Oak machine-curled
to develop his guns and performed flyes
to build his enormous chest. By that
time I was putting a great deal of stress
on myself with compounds and some
of the moves even overlapped in terms
of muscle groups. This, in combination
with the normal rigors of rugby training,
put me in a serious slump. It was then
that I tried out one of Arnold's routines
and discovered the world of isolation, the
mind-muscle connection and how to build
muscle through tension.
I obviously reflect back upon a time
where the majority of gyms consisted of
free weights and only a small section was
devoted to machines.
Things in the fitness world have changed.
Walk through an aisle of any of today's
modern facilities and it is like entering
a showroom of a Mercedes-Benz
dealership. Apart from the usual stack of
weights there is ample space dedicated to
sleek workstations where you can follow
a machine-centric regimen without ever
having to pick up a barbell again. I bet if
you head to Gold's Gym Venice right now
odds are you will see Arnold working out
– on machines. That's good enough for
me or is it?
“A BIG
DRAWBACK
OF FREE
WEIGHTS
IS THE
RISK OF
SUSTAINING
AN INJURY
WHEN
YOU DON’T
MAINTAIN
PROPER
FORM.”
WHERE IT
ALL BEGAN
STRENGTHENING MUSCLES - ONE AT A TIME
Do muscles really work in isolation or
in a chain of movement and if you focus
on everything individually do you stress
vulnerable joints more than necessary?
Exercise scientists say there is potential
for injury in any workout. The key is to find
the weak links and then exercise to fortify
them to prevent injuries of which the most
common ones are rotator-cuff problems,
knee issues and lower-back pain.
Is this the result of machine-based
training? Machine manufacturers would
argue that shear forces exist in all
exercises. Machines, they say, are more
convenient and safer.
Free weights and machines have very
different movement patterns.
When you use free weights you move in
different dimensions: forward, backward,
horizontally and vertically. This movement
pattern mimics how your body normally
moves in everyday life. When you use
barbells and dumbbells you also have
to stabilise the weight you are using,
therefore you end up engaging more
muscles. A big drawback of free weights
is the risk of sustaining an injury when you
don’t maintain proper form.
Machines only allow you to move in
one direction which makes it easier to lift
heavier weights when you target specific
muscle groups.
Pro-machine advocates argue you can
strengthen muscles one at a time – in
isolation – and the only way you can target
a specific weakness is to isolate a joint.
Free weight exercises, on the other hand,
is a good choice to strengthen total-body
movements and improve coordination
between the various muscle groups.
In some circles Arthur Jones is seen
as a visionary who fundamentally
changed the way people exercise. In
the late 1960s Jones designed the first
series of user-friendly strength training
machines. One of his innovations, the
Nautilus Pullover, enabled you to work
your latissimus to momentary muscular
failure without the assistance of other
muscles. It stimulated the muscles in
a way that was not possible through
conventional multi-set exercises such as
pulldowns or rows, exercises in which
the arms would inevitably fatigue before
the target muscles were worked to their
absolute limit.
With the success of Nautilus, other
equipment manufacturers appeared on
the fitness scene to offer a wider variety of
training tools.
Machines are now commonly used to
train individual muscles in isolation as well
as to rebuild the body after an injury as
part of a rehabilitation protocol.
“From a hypertrophy standpoint, the
benefits of machines counteract the
disadvantages of free weights, and vice
versa,” says Brad Schoenfeld, author
of ‘The Science and Development of
Hypertrophy.’ “Machines can promote
functional improvements, and this has
been displayed over and over in studies.
By taking out the need for muscle
stabilisers in free weight exercises, you
can put more focus on a given aspect of
a muscle and enhance the hypertrophic
response.”
www.muscleevolution.co.za
55
FEATURE
A DIFFERENT
KIND OF STRESS
Mr. Olympia contender Mamdouh Elssbiay,
otherwise known as Big Ramy, prefers
machines because he can feel the muscle
contraction more than when he trains with
free weights. “I like to hold the weight and
control it on the way down,” says the mass
monster who recently finished runner up to
Phil Heath in the hunt for the prestigious
Sandow. Big Ramy focuses on complete
control and how hard he contracts his
muscles when he uses machines. His
favourite machine exercises are the chest
press and preacher curls.
Another IFBB Pro bodybuilder who
gets in tremendous shape for the Mr.
Olympia contest by using machines
is Dexter Jackson. In his early years
as a competitor 'The Blade' built
muscle size with basic free weight
movements but his focus recently
shifted to machine-based training.
“I still go heavy, but I am a lot
smarter about when I go heavy
and on which movements. I can
load up a machine with plenty
of resistance and still stimulate
muscle. I don’t care how much
weight I am using on anything
in the gym as long as it is
stimulating the muscle like I
want it to,” says Jackson. “If
I can’t get that feeling, I use
a little less weight.”
For the 2008 Mr.
Olympia winner, staleness
in training is one of
the silent killers of
muscle gains. “A lot
of bodybuilders think
machines are useless,
but I get a great feeling
with things like dip
machines and the onearm curl with your biceps
up high,” says Dexter, who
has won more professional
bodybuilding titles than any
bodybuilder. “Free weights,
cables and machines can all
contribute to growth.”
Gold's Gym trainer Charles Glass
also emphasises form over maximum
overload. Known for his unapologetic
use of machines, Glass often isolates
different muscle groups in new and
innovative ways.
One of his signature exercises is
a single leg press movement that is
performed by stepping into a horizontal
leg press while your body is turned to the
side and pressing unilaterally with one
leg at a time while your other leg is
suspended in midair.
Glass agrees some exercises are inherently
more demanding because of the number
of muscles involved but a heavy set of leg
56
Muscle Evolution
“FREE WEIGHTS,
CABLES AND
MACHINES CAN
ALL CONTRIBUTE
TO GROWTH.”
- DEXTER JACKSON
presses taken to the point of muscular
failure can be just as demanding or more
than a set of heavy squats stopped a few
reps short of failure.
“Before we
w had a lot of machines, we
all used free weights because that was
what we
w had,” says Glass. “But now,
you can’t get certain angles from
fre
ee weights than you can get from
machines. They put a different kind
of sstress on the muscles.”
Machines and free weights were
M
only tools he used when he was
still competing says former 6x
Mr. Olympia Dorian Yates: “We
are all built differently. We are all
different heights and we have different
lengths of limbs. The advantage of a free
weight is that it works with the individual's
body. The advantage of a machine is
you can isolate without too much outside
involvement. Especially if you have injuries,
they are very useful. You have more
control if you want to do extra negatives
and so on. If you are doing a free weight
bench press it's very awkward to do extra
negatives at the end. It's just not practical.
It is not really safe. With a machine, you
can get your training partner to lift to the
top and control it. It is safe,” says Yates.
“The main thing is the effort you are
putting in, not the tools you use.”
“WE ARE ALL BUILT DIFFERENTLY. WE ARE ALL DIFFERENT HEIGHTS
AND WE HAVE DIFFERENT LENGTHS OF LIMBS. THE ADVANTAGE OF A
FREE WEIGHT IS THAT IT WORKS WITH THE INDIVIDUAL’S BODY.”
LEGITIMATE DEBATE
Biomechanics researcher Brett Contreras
believes the debate between machines
versus free weights is a legitimate one. “If
you compare squats to leg presses, leg
extensions or leg curls, of course squats
come out ahead for most purposes.
However, if you compare squats to a lever
machine squat, then that is a different
story. They are very similar in muscle
activation and joint movements, but the
machine is a bit more stable than the
free-weight version which could be an
advantage or a disadvantage depending
on how you look at it!”
Schoenfeld is still of the opinion that
multi-joint movements such as squats,
rows, and presses will activate the
greatest amount of muscle mass: “They
certainly should be staples in any training
routine. However, single joint movements
do allow for better targeting of individual
muscles and thus can be an important
part of a hypertrophy-oriented routine.”
According to Schoenfeld certain
muscles will dominate over others,
causing imbalanced growth during multijoint training.
“Employing single joint movements
allows one to enhance muscle
development in otherwise underworked
muscles while also improving muscular
symmetry.”
MACHINES OR FREE WEIGHTS FOR MUSCLE ACTIVATION
ADVANTAGES
OF FREE-WEIGHT
DISADVANTAGES
OF FREE-WEIGHT
ADVANTAGES
OF MACHINES
DISADVANTAGES
OF MACHINES
Q More affordable
Q Portable and takes up
less space
Q Represent more natural
movement patterns
Q More specific to
powerlifting and weightlifting
Q Provide for plenty
of variation
Q Well suited for maximising
spinal strength and stability
Q Better suited for complex,
highly integrated lifts
Q More metabolically
demanding
Q Certain lifts are awkward
for certain body types
Q Higher rates of acute injury
Q Some lifters learn to rely
on excessive momentum
Q More correlated with
sloppy form and contorting
the body to accomplish a lift
Q Many lifts have torqueangle curves and strength
curves that stress a
particular ROM but lighten
such
up at the opposite ROM s
as squats and good mornings.
Q Certain lifts require
spotters or rack supports
s
Q Not always well suited for
rotary and lateral movements
Q The loading and unloadin
ng
of plates
Q More stable and easier
to learn for beginners
Q Fixed bar paths can
prevent injuries
Q Constant tension on
the muscles via variable
resistance
Q Well suited for initial
rehabilitation
Q Well suited for beginners
Q No spotters required
Q Certain machines don’t
feel comfortable for certain
body types
Q Can have unnatural paths
which can lead to overload
Q Costlier to purchase and
to maintain
Q Not portable and takes
up more space
Q Less variety
Q Less versatile M.E
www.muscleevolution.co.za
57
NUTRITION
To realise your full
potential you need
to give your body
the right material
to grow bigger
and stronger. Postworkout nutrition is
a vital aspect of the
recovery process.
The food you eat after
lifting weights should
replenish expended
energy reserves,
and repair and
regenerate damaged
soft tissue, which
is what triggers
muscle growth.
STOP
MUSCLE
BREAKDOWN
FAST-TRACK YOUR WAY TO RECOVERY
BUILDING UP & TEARING DOWN
Your metabolism is your body’s ability
to build up (anabolic) or break down
(catabolic). What your body exactly
breaks down is a list of materials that
includes protein, carbohydrates, fats
and countless other substances that in
totality form the structure of your body.
When you lift weights you essentially
break down muscle glycogen (carbderived energy) stores and muscle
protein structures. Without the proper
carbohydrates and protein the rebuilding
of muscle cannot take place and you fail
58
Muscle Evolution
to reach your physique goals because
your body will always strive for a state of
equilibrium or homeostasis.
Your body is in constant flux, either
tearing things down or rebuilding them.
If you want to build muscle you have to
disrupt homeostasis and encourage a
state of positive protein balance where the
rate of anabolism has to be higher than
the rate of catabolism.
“There are advantages in nutrient timing,
especially protein towards the end of the
day, ” says exercise physiologist Scott
Stevenson. “When dieting, large endof-the-day meals seem to help preserve
muscle mass. A casein-based protein
improves protein balance. If you train later
in the day, carbohydrate-rich meals may
be necessary the next morning. Shifting
carbohydrates promotes greater weight
loss when you are dieting; it improves
insulin sensitivity and reduces hunger and
inflammation in the body. Protein during
low carbohydrate consumption stimulates
protein synthesis and inhibits breakdown,
allowing continued recovery.”
COMBINE CARBS & PROTEIN
If you blast a muscle group in the gym,
you create a lot of damage that you’ll
have to recover from. At no other time
in the day will your nutrition make
such a major difference as in the postworkout period.
Science has shown that glycogen
restoration and protein synthesis are
achieved at a faster rate when you
consume your carbohydrates and protein
together. “Whey or milk-based protein
is often more effective than soy or just
carbohydrate alone for stimulating protein
synthesis and building muscle,” says
Stevenson. “Animal protein sources, such
as meat and eggs are great options. They
are rich in the essential amino acids and
highly digestible.”
Given that the anabolic effect of a meal
lasts approximately 5 to 6 hours you
should spread your meals throughout the
day to boost muscle growth. The optimal
amount of what you need to eat will vary,
depending on your energy expenditure
during your training session and on your
total daily energy expenditure, and if your
goal is getting ripped for a competition
(hypocaloric), maintaining muscle mass
(isocaloric), or muscle gain (hypercaloric).
Unlike protein, which is used as
building material, carbohydrates are
used for energy. Sports nutritionist
Mike Colgan defines carbohydrates as
premium fuel. “Fats are also used for
fuel, but the difference is that fats don’t
burn as efficiently as carbohydrates. It
is a common misconception that fat is a
more efficient fuel source, but it’s not – it’s
simply a more concentrated fuel source.
Carbohydrates are the body’s preferred
and most efficient energy source.
Whenever carbohydrates are restricted,
energy levels and performance usually
decline,” stresses Colgan.
EXAMPLES OF GOOD FOOD CHOICES FOR BREAKFAST
STARCHY CARBS
Oats
Whole wheat bread
C
h t
Cream off wheat
FRUIT
O
Orange
Apple
Pineapple
FAST ABSORBED PROTEIN
Whey isolate
Whey concentrate
BCAA
BCAAs/Amino
/A i acids
id
SLOW-ABSORBED PROTEIN
Egg whites
Tuna
IDEAL CHOICES
A common recommendation
is 3g of carbohydrates per kg
of lean bodyweight per day
to ensure that your glycogen
stores are fully stocked. At least
1.6g of protein per kg of lean
bodyweight per day is needed if
your goal is hypertrophy. If you
train twice a day (morning and
evening sessions) you should
consume carbohydrates within
60 minutes post-workout.
Lifters who train partially or
fully fasted should eat protein as
quickly as possible after exercise.
To improve your body
composition you need
approximately 60-100g of
carbohydrates and 30-50g of
protein for your post-workout
meal. Of course these are only
starting points and can go much
higher, depending on individual
needs. If you are on a fat-loss diet,
the carbohydrates will typically be
lower, depending on the quantity
you eat.
A post-workout meal high in
carbohydrates is required to refill
your muscle carbohydrate and
energy stores. By consuming
carbohydrates after your workout
you will not only promote insulin
release, but also increase
glycogen storage and accelerate
protein repair.
Just like carbohydrates, you
also need protein in your postexercise meal to help rebuild
muscles that are depleted and in
need of an abundance of nutrients.
Whey protein is often the preferred
choice due to its bio-availability
and complete amino acid profile,
but ultimately any standard
protein source will do. High
quality protein from food such as
chicken, fish, eggs and beef are
the other options. Protein sources
are generally more filling than
most nutrients and great to pair
with either fats or carbohydrates
to lower the overall calories you
consume per meal.
Chi k
Chicken
www.muscleevolution.co.za
59
NUTRITION
REPAIR &
RECOVERY
So, you have smashed the
weights and are dog tired. Is
it better to gulp down a liquid
or eat a big meal? For some
individuals liquid formulas are
easy to drink and provide all
the nutrients needed at the time
for adequate repair of protein
and glycogen replenishment.
Look for liquid formulas that
contain fast-digesting protein in
the form of whey isolates and
hydrolysates, and carbohydrates
such as maltodextrin and
dextrose. These are more easily
absorbed than whole food
meals.
During the post exercise period,
the faster carbohydrates and
protein can reach the muscle, the
better the chance for muscle repair
and recovery.
Lifters who are carbohydrateintolerant should rather stick with
whole food that can provide them
with adequate nutrients and fibre.
Some athletes consume their two
largest meals of the day around
workouts to elevate insulin in order
to stop muscle breakdown and
provide amino acids to stimulate
protein synthesis.
Research conducted by Areta
and colleagues (Timing and
distribution of protein ingestion
during prolonged recovery
from resistance exercise alters
myofibrillar protein synthesis,
2013) has shown the impact of
various protein-rich meals on
muscle protein synthesis.
In the study, a group of welltrained men consumed 80g of
whey protein as either a pulse
feeding (8x10g every 1.5 hours),
an intermediate feeding (4x20g
every 3 hours) or a bolus feeding
(2x40g every 6 hours) during a 12hour recovery period after a weight
training session. It was found that
the intermediate feeding condition
was superior to the other two
feeding conditions for stimulating
muscle protein synthesis over the
recovery period.
The 20g of whey protein
provided in the intermediate
feeding condition was sufficient
enough to elevate muscle protein
synthesis throughout the day. The
pulse feeding condition of 10g was
insufficient and the bolus feeding
condition could not sustain muscle
protein synthesis.
60
Muscle Evolution
BODYBUILDING FOODS YOU CAN’T GO WRONG WITH
O
t
Oats
Sweet potatoes
White or red potatoe
potatoes
Whole wheat
heat
t bread and
an
nd 100% whole g
grain products
Brown rice
Vegetables
Fresh
F
h fruit
f it
Low fat and non-fat dairy products (yoghurt, cheese, milk, etc)
Chicken breast
Egg whites
Lean red meat
Fish
FOCUS ON QUALITY
According to former
competitive bodybuilder
Leo Costa, nutrition should
take the same approach as
that used when fuelling a
high-performance car. He
stresses the importance of
high-grade, easily digestible
protein derived from red meat,
chicken, egg whites and fish.
“The protein from these
sources is easy for the body to digest and
use. Trimming the fat off the cuts of red
meat, removing the skin from poultry, or
separating the yolk from the egg will go a
long way in bringing the fat you ingest to
a manageable level, ” says Costa. “Do not
blacklist fat because it is a necessity for
the efficient operation of the body. Limit
your fat intake and try to get it from pure
sources like meats, avocados and olives.”
He also discourages the consumption
of all processed and canned meat. “These
types of meat contain high amounts
of sodium and unhealthy chemical
preservatives.” Costa recommends
“DO NOT BLACKLIST FAT
BECAUSE IT IS A NECESSITY
FOR THE EFFICIENT OPERATION
OF THE BODY. LIMIT YOUR FAT
INTAKE AND TRY TO GET IT FROM
PURE SOURCES LIKE MEATS,
AVOCADOS AND OLIVES.”
rice, potatoes, beans and vegetables
as the best sources of carbohydrates.
“These sources contain the unrefined
carbohydrates the diet requires for energy.
They also contain fibre, vitamins and
enzymes which the body uses for proper
digestion. Pies, cakes and some breads
and breakfast cereals have large amounts
of refined sugars and fats. Vegetables that
have been cooked and canned also lose
nutritional content and are less nutritious
than fresh vegetables. You also do not
have to be a total Spartan when you are
on a diet. You can go out for a pizza or
cheesecake once in a while and still get
results. Just be reasonable about it.”
FOR ALL YOUR SUPPLEMENT,
CLOTHING & ACCESSORY NEEDS
IN THE WITBANK, MIDDELBURG & NELSPRUIT AREAS.
MIDDELBURG
WITBANK
NELSPRUIT
Shop 5, Retail City, Dolerite
Crescent, Dolerite Street
Shop V09, River Crescent
Centre, Nelson Mandela Rd
5 Andrews Street (c/o R40)
Nelspruit Ext 7, Shop 3
066 305 8852
066 305 8851
066 305 8850
WWW.NUTRITIONRAGE.CO.ZA
NUTRITIONRAGESA
@NUTRITION_RAGE_SA
NUTRITION
“TO ENSURE A
SUPPLEMENT
STRATEGY
WORKS WELL
IT IS IMPORTANT
NEVER TO
NEGLECT A WELLBALANCED DIET
OF NUTRIENTDENSE WHOLE
FOODS.”
CHOOSING THE
RIGHT STUFF
For Costa, a good diet in bodybuilding
is not enough. Good supplementation
focuses on speeding up the recovery
process, especially following a workout.
“If you are not taking supplements you
are one step behind the rest of the
world. Supplementation is a must if you
want to perform at the highest possible
level and get the maximum out of your
training sessions. The faster your body
recovers from a training session the
faster it adapts to become bigger and
stronger.”
He adds: “If you are in a constant state
of recovery trying to come back from
your last workout, you will find yourself
missing out on the progress you could
be making. There are truckloads of
nutritional supplement products available
to accelerate the process of recovery and
muscle building. Look at the ingredients
and their impact when you are looking at
choosing the right stuff.”
Costa suggests supplements such as
Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs)
to stimulate muscle synthesis, quickabsorbing carbohydrates to help replenish
both glucose and glycogen, creatine
monohydrate to reload the body, and
antioxidants to neutralise free radicals
released in response to intense training.
“IF YOU ARE NOT TAKING SUPPLEMENTS YOU
ARE ONE STEP BEHIND THE REST OF THE WORLD.
SUPPLEMENTATION IS A MUST IF YOU WANT TO
PERFORM AT THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE LEVEL AND GET
THE MAXIMUM OUT OF YOUR TRAINING SESSIONS.”
THE GOLD STANDARD
“I’ve always been of the mindset that
a full supplement regime is a luxury
that should only be implemented when
one’s diet is assumed lacking or when
sufficient training intensity cannot be
summoned,” says bodybuilding coach
Dave Robson.
His ignorance held him back in many
a contest. When he recently made a
comeback to the stage, Robson made use
of supplements to train harder, recover
faster and retain more muscle. “Without
the necessary micronutrients, additional
protein and recovery agents the body
must work so much harder to translate
training efforts into lean muscle,” says
Robson, who was no longer dragging his
heels and wishing for the final rep in his
training sessions.
He recommends a full spectrum of
vitamins and minerals, creatine, glutamine
and fast-absorbing protein to build
muscle, fat burning agents to shred and
dextrose to boost energy. Robson also
62
Muscle Evolution
suggests using a high potency multivitamin and mineral tablet to provide the
additional micronutrients a hard training
bodybuilder needs for their muscles
to respond favourably to hard training
sessions.
For him, the ideal time to consume
whey protein is 60 minutes before the
gym as this time will allow a lifter to
absorb everything quickly enough as to
not negatively impact training due to the
fullness the protein creates.
Creatine, for Robson, is “the gold
standard” in supplementation, and
certainly the most scientifically studied.
“Creatine provides several positive
benefits for those wanting to add quality
muscle. It has been shown to enhance
our ability to exert maximal effort during
training sessions due to its ability to
facilitate ATP production. Also, it directly
adds volume to the muscles through its
ability to initially increase intracellular
water uptake by the muscles.”
TRIPLEWHAMMY
EFFECT
“Glutamine is often mixed with
whey protein and creatine to
provide a triple-whammy effect,”
says Robson. “It has a more
significant anti-catabolic effect
compared to other amino acids
as it directly prevents muscle
tissue wasting, a process that
can occur when glutamine stores
are low. With ephedrine off the
market, companies are also
frequently coming out with new
fat loss products, all designed
for the purpose of getting a
bodybuilder ripped fast.”
He typically uses a dextrosebased energy drink to supply
simple sugars, when they are
needed most, directly after training.
Sugars consumed at this time are
rapidly absorbed and stored as
muscle glycogen, in preparation for
the next training session.
“To ensure the supplement
strategies work as well for you
as they did for me it is important
never to neglect a well-balanced
diet of nutrient-dense whole
foods, which is still the very
foundation of any good nutritional
plan to change your body
composition.” M.E
BABE
BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR
PHOTOGRAPHY BY SEAN LEVITT,
SEAN.LEVITT.PHOTOGRAPHER
e
t
t
e
d
u
la
C
RIDICULOUSLY
HOT IS AN APT
DESCRIPTION FOR
IFBB FITNESS
BIKINI COMPETITOR
CLAUDETTE
RENNEY,
WHO IS OUR
LATEST ME BABE.
Helping others is
Claudette’s passion
and seeing the
change in someone
through their fitness
journey is incredibly
satisfying for this
28-year-old, who
lives and works
in Johannesburg.
And let’s be totally
honest, who would
not want to try out
a class with this
insanely good-looking
personal trainer?
64
Muscle Evolution
Who is Claudette Renney?
I'm an extremely driven and passionate
person. I always wanted to become an
actress but when I left school I decided to
study hairdressing while working in Hyde
Park. I started exercising and have since
made fitness an essential component of my
life. In 2015 I studied sport science while I
was making a living in America. At the time
I was employed at an executive gym and
working with rehabilitation clients. There
I found so much comfort in seeing the
tremendous progress they were making
every day. Inspired by these people who
have worked hard to reach their goals, I
started competing in 2016 and did four
shows in six months. In 2017 I started
working as a personal trainer and group
instructor.
Have you always lived a
fit-focused lifestyle?
No, I only got involved in the fitness
industry while I was abroad. I was working
super long hours and having to walk to
the gym demotivated me. One morning I
decided that was it and I've been training
consistently ever since. Competing in
shows made me realise how much I
love the competitive side of the sport,
which makes me work harder in the gym.
Working out is something that holds me
accountable and keeps me motivated.
What's your training strategy?
I like to think out of the box and change
exercises to keep my body from hitting
a plateau. My favourite body part to train
is shoulders. I love doing a tri-set of a
shoulder press, an Arnold press and a
shoulder to shoulder landmine press.
The look of my body determines how far
in advance I will start doing cardio for a
show. I have to be careful; if I do too much,
I lose weight quickly. My training split
changes when I prep, but I usually pair
chest with shoulders and then back with
triceps and abs. I train legs, calves and
arms separately, on their own. I train chest
and shoulders and legs twice a week. Gym
COOL CLAUDETTE FACT
Claudette completes
20 minutes of
fasted cardio a day,
starting two to three
weeks out from a
contest. She also lifts
weights for 11 hours
a week, training
twice a day when
she is in prep mode.
time is my time and I believe the results
you get are based on how much effort you
put in. Competing is about showing off all
your hard work on the stage. My motivation
basically comes from living healthily,
training and dieting hard, and being proud
of what I've accomplished.
Do you use compound moves when
you train?
I started focusing on the deadlift because
I battled with a weak back. At first I
struggled to drop my butt and keep my
back straight, but I worked hard on my
technique and my deadlifts are way
more comfortable now.
What interesting thing can you
recall from the day you made
your show debut?
How well all the athletes got
along. I've also heard some
horrible stories about how
rude and judgmental
judges were
and was totally
surprised to find the
complete opposite
to be the truth.
y
QUICK FACTS
NICKNAME: Clauds
LIVES: Sandton, Johannesburg
CATEGORY: Fitness Bikini
HEIGHT: 1.64m
OFF-SEASON WEIGHT: 55kg
CONTEST WEIGHT: 50kg
COMPETING SINCE: 2016
SPONSORED BY: Essie Aesthetics
FAVOURITE EXERCISE:
Any shoulder press
MOTTO IN LIFE:
Claudette Roux (Renney)
claudettersa
“Little by
little a little
becomes a lot.”
www.muscleevolution.co.za
65
BABE
“Don’t
focus on
what
everyone else
is doing, or
how their
prep is going.
Bettering
yourself is all
that matters.
Never doubt
your own
ability, or
compare
yourself to
others.”
66
Muscle Evolution
COOL CLAUDETTE FACT
Claudette almost passed out from
H[KDXVWLRQ ZKHQ VKH ¯UVW VWRRG RQ
stage. “The heat from the lights while
standing on stage was something I
was not entirely prepared for!”
What is the best way to lean out
for a show?
I don't have a problem leaning out. Rather,
I battle with gaining weight. I would
definitely suggest a low-carb diet and
regular cardio sessions if you need to drop
kilos. I have two cheat meals a week up until
peak week. I'm very lucky in that regard as
my body responds really well to good food
so I lean out easily. I usually get to have
more re-feeds to fill me back out. I love
sushi and anything that is fried!
What healthy dish can you just not get
enough of?
My breakfast pancakes, because they
taste exactly like flap jacks. I take a banana,
60 grams of instant oats, 5 egg whites and a
touch of cinnamon and blend it all together
and cook it on medium heat in Spray
and Cook, and voilà. They're absolutely
delicious!
If you could train
in a gym anywhere in
the world, where
would it be?
Definitely Gold's Gym at
Venice Beach in California.
No explanation is needed
for this one.
What's your favourite
bodyweight exercise?
Jump squats. I've
always had a flat butt
and the progress of
my booty has made
me so much more
confident... 'cause
who doesn't want a
round peach?
Tell us the most valuable bit of fitness
advice you got in the industry?
To not focus on what everyone else is doing,
or how their prep is going. Bettering yourself
is all that matters. Never doubt your own
ability, or compare yourself to others.
Where do you go
to for inspiration?
Like all people,
I sometimes
lack motivation
and inspiration.
When I feel down
I remind myself
why I got into the
fitness lifestyle in the
first place. Locally, I find Shelby
Neves and Micaela Markides
inspirational. Internationally, I look
at amazing women like Candice
Lewis Carter, Hattie Boydle and
Shannah Baker to remind myself
of the type of physique I strive
for. I'm also an avid follower of
Alexia Clark, specifically for her
innovative exercise routines.
What is 'meh' about prepping?
Peak week and depletion. It takes a huge
toll on your mind and body, but seeing
yourself transform is what makes it all worth
it. I always find ways to stay positive and
motivated.
If you could train with any
Marvel Comic character, who
would it be?
Wonder Woman. Her sass,
elegance and strength is
mesmerising!
Would you rather do cardio or
lift weights?
Definitely weight training. Too much cardio
makes me look incredibly skinny. The
only time I'll willingly run is when I'm being
chased!
How would you describe a
perfect date?
Looking out at the ocean on one
of the exotic beaches in Greece
while sipping champagne with
someone special.
What is the biggest lie about nutrition
someone told you?
To eat less to lose weight. You actually
need to eat more frequently throughout the
day to speed up your metabolism. Eating
regularly also prevents you from nibbling
on crap between meals. I try and eat clean
most of the time, but I do allow myself
more variety of cheat meals when I'm not
prepping for a comp.
CONTEST HISTORY: 2016 Q IFBB East Coast Classic, 4th place
Q IFBB Summer Superbodies, 1st place 2017 Q Elite Athlete Extravaganza, 3rd place
Q IFBB Gauteng Central Provincials, 3rd place Q IFBB SA Championships, 2nd place M.E
www.muscleevolution.co.za
67
SUPPLEMENTS
BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR
THEACRINE
CAFFEINE AS
A MENTAL AND
PHYSICAL
STIMULANT IS
A STAPLE IN
EVERYONE’S
DAILY LIFE.
KNOWN FOR
GIVING YOU A
KICK WHEN YOU
NEED IT THE
MOST, THERE CAN
ALSO BE SOME
DRAWBACKS TO
YOUR FAVOURITE
CUP OF COFFEE
IN THE MORNING
GYM.
BEFORE GYM
TRAIN HARDER FOR LONGER
Let's be honest - for a vast majority of
people coffee has become more of an
entrenched habit than an energizer.
Caffeine consumption, in fact, can lead to
a vicious cycle of fatigue and insomnia.
Some of the negative side effects of
caffeine include:
Q Accelerated heartbeat
Q Restlessness
Q Muscle tremors
Q Nervousness
The chronic use of caffeine can cause
physical dependence which means you
need to continue taking more and more
of it to achieve the same desired effect.
As we become increasingly desensitised
to caffeine over time we are forced to
increase the amount we consume.
Some people even compare caffeine
“THEACRINE
IS ALMOST
EXCLUSIVELY
FOUND IN
CAMELLIA
ASSAMICA,
OTHERWISE
KNOWN AS
KUCHA.”
withdrawal to experiencing a
breakdown in a relationship. You
feel headaches, depression,
and a host of other symptoms
that vary depending on the
individual. Symptoms usually
set in as early as 12 hours
after caffeine cessation, and
may last for up to a week.
Acknowledging this
drawback, supplement
manufacturers have
started including an
ingredient known as
theacrine in their preworkouts, fat burners
and mood enhancing
products as an
alternative to caffeine.
GAINING
POPULARITY
Found almost exclusively
in camellia assamica,
otherwise known
as kucha tea,
theacrine
(1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric
acid) is an alkaloid that is
biochemically very similar to caffeine
(1,3,7-trimethylxanthine).
Due to the structural similarities
between the two as purine alkaloids,
theacrine and caffeine perform their duties
in a very similar fashion in the body - it
raises levels of certain neurotransmitters
to give you a boost in physical and mental
performance. For this reason, theacrine
is also believed to offer improved focus
and energy levels which is appealing to
all fitness demographics – from lifters who
“WHEN USED AS KUCHA TEA IN LOWER
DOSAGES, THEACRINE CAN ALSO BE
USED TO INDUCE RELAXATION.”
are looking to increase muscle size and
stre
ength to those interrested in improving
the ir athletic performa
ance or decreasing
the ir body fat percenta
age for the stage.
age.
en used as kucha tea
t in lower
low
wer
When
dosages, for example, theacrine can also
be used to induce relaxation.
“Theacrine is similar to caffeine,”
explains Dr. Jacob Wilson, director of
a skeletal muscle and sports nutrition
laboratory in Florida.
“It is an alkaloid, a scientific word for
the active compound in a supplement,
but its effects have been shown to be
more beneficial than caffeine. It
can increase focus, energy, and
motivation while simultaneously
decreasing fatigue.”
C
COGNITIVE
BENEFITS
With theacrine it
is believed that
no tolerance is
developed in the
body with continuous
use. “Theacrine will
give you the same focus
and energy as caffeine
in a smaller dose, ”
says Wilson. He adds:
“Theacrine is an
anti-adaptogenic, which
means that you do not adapt
to it as quickly as you do to caffeine. This
has been shown in a few clinical trials
where participants supplementing with
theacrine felt the exact same effects in
the last dose compared to the first.”
According to Wilson another
interesting attribute of theacrine is
that it not only increases focus and
energy, it has also been shown
to increase your willingness to
exercise and the desire to train.
“When you train your body’s
main energy source ATP is
broken down into adenosine.
Adenosine signals the body
that you are fatigued and
low on energy by binding to
landing docks called receptors
in the brain. Theacrine works
by blocking adenosine
receptors. This causes
the stimulatory effects
that increase energy and
alertness.”
www.muscleevolution.co.za
69
SUPPLEMENTS
S
ENERGY WITHOUT
THE JITTERS
Theacrine has also been shown to
increase dopamine. What is beneficial
about increased dopamine is the fact
that it increases the 'reward centre' of
the brain causing an overall increase in
well-being.
“Theacrine can not only increase focus
but also increase the reward centre in the
brain causing the pleasure response,”
adds Wilson. “This can further enhance
the energy and alertness effects. There is
even evidence showing that theacrine can
be beneficial for libido.”
Recommended dosages range
anywhere from 200mg to more than
300mg. However, as theacrine has not
been studied much, it's optimal dosage is
unknown.
According to research conducted by
Dr. Richard Bloomer from the School
of Health Studies at the University of
Memphis theacrine displays similar
benefits to caffeine but lacks the massive
high and then the crash that can happen
with caffeine.
“Theacrine also is a very potent
antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
agent. There doesn’t seem to be much
variation in benefits across individuals,
although like all dietary supplements
the level of response varies, “ says
Bloomer who also found that a low dose
“THEACRINE
CAN NOT ONLY
INCREASE
FOCUS BUT
ALSO INCREASE
THE REWARD
CENTRE IN THE
BRAIN CAUSING
THE PLEASURE
RESPONSE.”
of caffeine (about 150mg, or one cup
of coffee), plus theacrine, prolongs the
benefits of theacrine.
“The studies of theacrine are still
in their infancy but it seems like
theacrine has two methods of action,”
says Bloomer. “The first is to act on
adenosine receptors, much like caffeine.
Animal research also suggests that
theacrine works on dopamine receptors
in a dual phase effect.”
IS IT WORTH IT?
THEACRINE DIFFERS FROM CAFFEINE:
Q It has a longer half-life
Q It has no effect on blood pressure and does not cause anxiety
Q It is less likely to cause insomnia compared to caffeine
Q Research has demonstrated that theacrine does not result in
a fatigued crash or lead to tolerance build up over time
CAFFEINE, THEACRINE SYNERGY
Bloomer conducted a pharmacokinetics
analysis on theacrine at two different
dosages relatively low and high, and then
caffeine alone at a moderate dosage,
followed by the theacrine coupled with
the caffeine. The study, which suggested
that caffeine made theacrine more
bioavailable, was published in 2017.
As part of his research Bloomer recruited
eight participants to consume caffeine,
50-400mg/day in the form of a beverage or
a dietary supplement. Each participant also
received four treatments: 25mg theacrine,
125mg theacrine, 150mg caffeine and the
combination of 125mg theacrine with
150mg caffeine.
“We tried to determine what the half-life
70
Muscle Evolution
would be, what the max concentration
would be alone and in isolation, as well as
in combination,” explains Bloomer.
Participants visited Bloomer's laboratory
for each study day in the early mornings
after a 10-hour fast and abstinence from
beverages or supplements containing
alcohol or caffeine.
“What we see is that, in all individuals,
theacrine seems to behave in a pretty
similar manner. And interestingly, the
caffeine addition seems to prolong the
overall effect of the theacrine. I think that's
of interest to a lot of individuals who tend to
use the theacrine nowadays within blended
dietary supplements that might contain
caffeine,” says Bloomer.
To summarise, theacrine has been
shown to aid in the following positive
aspects:
Q Provides a boost in mental energy and
reduces perceived fatigue
Q Improves focus and mental
concentration
Q Enhances mood
Q Acts as an anti-inflammatory in the body
Q Theacrine appears to have a biphasic
dose response, meaning that it acts
as a sedative at lower doses and has
stimulatory properties at higher doses,
especially taken in conjunction with
caffeine.
Theacrine taken on its own will not help
you build tons of muscle but it can be
stacked with other ingredients in order
to heighten energy levels and improve
focus in the gym. Theacrine also does
not suppress appetite or accelerate the
breakdown of fat cells but can give you
energy to train harder for longer to burn
off more calories. While caffeine has
been demonstrated to cause the body to
begin building a tolerance after a short
while, theacrine appears to have no such
adaptation. M.E
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NUTRITION
BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR
THE
HUNGER
GAMES
ARE YOU SUPER HUNGRY WHILE CUTTING? DO YOU GO TO
SLEEP AT NIGHT AND DREAM ABOUT FOOD? DIETING FOR A SHOW
BRINGS ALONG A WHOLE SET OF MIND GAMES OF ITS OWN.
DON’T STRESS, SHRED SMART WITH THESE HELPFUL TIPS.
PUMP UP THE PROTEIN
N
CARB CONSUMPTION
When you lean out for a show you
have to hold on to your muscle by
increasing your protein intake.
You should actually take in a higher
percentage of your calories from protein
when you are dieting than when you are
trying to add muscle in the off-season.
Known as the most satiating macronutrientt,
protein will help you through the tough
patches in your prep, especially when you
lower your total caloric consumption.
ESSENTIAL VEGGIES
R
GET YOUR
FROM:
PROTEIN F
Q Lean bee
ef
Q Tuna in
water
Q Chicken
breasts
Q Whey pr
rotein
Low calorie green leafy vegetables will
become your best friend when you are
in a cutting phase. Eating healthy and
watching your calories is one thing but
when you compete you need to go much
further than that. Make a point of having
green vegetables such as kale, spinach or
cabbage at every main meal to keep your
body functioning at an optimal level.
Carbohydrates are stored in your muscles
and the liver and utilised to provide
energy to muscles. When you train your
body converts stored carbs into adenosine
triphosphate which is used as energy.
Save the bulk of your carb consumption,
critical for recuperation and muscle growth,
for the post-workout period when your body
is severly depleted. This is the ideal time to
eat high-glycemic carbohydrates such as
fruits, bread and cereals. If you cut carbs
too drastically your performance in the gym
will suffer and you increase your chances of
losing muscle.
GET YOUR CARBS FROM:
Q Sweet potatoes
Q Vegetables
Q Brown rice
Q Oats
GO FOR NUTRIENT-DENSITY
G
W
When
you shred you need to eat foods that are nutrient-dense and not calorie-dense.
Examples are eggs, broccoli and lettuce. In order to walk out on stage in sterling form you need
E
to know what you are eating. Master your diet by keeping track of everything. It is all part of
a process. Keep your eyes on the goal and let that be your motivating factor to push through,
especially when you start to feel hungry all the time.
e
72
Muscle Evolution
PREP TRAINING
DRINK MORE WATER
D
D
Dehydration
causes mental exhaustion. When you are in
a dehydrated state you also won’t recover sufficiently from
your workouts. Water is needed to replace lost fluids and is
y
ypically only decreased before a show. Stay hydrated by
ty
sspreading your water consumption evenly over the day, rather
han a few giant chug-sessions.
th
STOP BREAKDOWN
WITH BCAAS
Branched chain amino acids are not
only the building blocks of muscle
but they also help combat any fatigue
you might be feeling from a reducedcalorie diet. Make BCAAs part of a
proper contest prep which will give you
the ripped-to-shreds, muscular and
defined, anatomy chart-look you need
to succeed on stage.
DON’T DECREASE FAT
The importance of carbs and protein is
often emphasised over that of fat.
Eating fat won’t wreak havoc on your
fat-loss goals. In fact, fat is essential in
keeping your testosterone levels normal
so that you are able to preserve muscle
while keeping your body out of a state
of starvation and locked in a fat-burning
zone. If you avoid fat completely you
will end up with lower testosterone.
Obviously you cannot avoid a decrease
in testosterone levels when you are
cutting but by eating enough fat you can
at least minimise the damage. Examples
of fat sources are nuts, olive oil, fish oil
and egg yolks.
Your goal when training for a
competition is to keep muscle and
shred fat. Weight loss rates that
are gradual are superior for muscle
retention. Lift the same way you did
before in order to retain muscle. Your
diet will take care of stripping off all
the body fat. You can depend on either
cardio or diet to reach your calorie
deficit to a degree, but in the end you
still need to use both if your goal is to
see optimal results on show day.
PREP GUIDELINES
Q Train larger muscle groups first
and add two additional exercises for
lagging parts.
Q Stick to textbook form when you
lift. You don’t want to injure yourself
before a show.
Q Schedule training your legs away
from your cardio sessions.
Q Too much cardio causes a spike
in cortisol which leads to water
retention.
Q As your prep progresses and your
body weight and calories begin to drop
to low numbers, it is normal for your
strength to decline.
Q Don’t expect to lift the same
weight when you weigh less, eat fewer
calories and perform regular cardio
sessions. Remind yourself that you are
training for a bodybuilding competition
and not a powerlifting one.
CONTEST CARDIO
DON T DITCH VITS
DON’T
Suppleme
enting with a multivitamin while you are prepping is
imporrtant because when your calories are low you are at a
much higher risk for deficiencies. The purpose of vitamins
is regulating metabolic functions, many of which are critical
fo
or exercise performance, muscle growth and weight loss.
“PROPER SLEEP IS VITAL FOR MUSCLE BUILDING AND
THE RELEASE OF FAT-LOSS HORMONES SUCH AS LEPTIN
AND HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE. CUTTING DOWN ON
YOUR ZZZ’S IS A NIGHTMARE FOR FAT LOSS.”
STRESS LESS
WITH L-THEANINE
You are bound to feel irritated and
stressed out when you are pushing the
physical frontiers in the gym while low
on calories. Something that never used to
bother you before suddenly becomes the
most annoying thing in the world! Contest
prep is about biting the bullet as you undergo
weeks of physical and mental torture leading
up to the big day. Avoid going over the edge
by taking L-theanine – a unique amino acid
with a neurological calming effect. It can also
help promote focus and concentration.
TAKE YOUR ZMA
ZMA is a combination of zinc,
magnesium aspirate and vitamin B6 and
can help you to relax and get a good
night’s sleep. Proper sleep is vital for
muscle building and the release of fatloss hormones such as leptin and human
growth hormone. Cutting down on your
g
are for fat loss. Shoot for
zzz’s is a nightm
7 to 8 hours of sle
e ep each n
night.
Q You can alternate the type of cardio
you perform every workout. Alternate
every week, or stick to one method and
switch halfway through your prep.
Q Don’t panic when other competitors
have their veins and striations pop
out while you see fat on your hammies.
In the sport of bodybuilding, although
you are competing against other
athletes, you are truly only competing
against yourself.
Q Don’t go into overdrive, ramp up
your cardio and drop your calories to
starvation levels. Social media is the
worst place to post your prep pics for
advice. Get help from a knowledgeable
mentor or prep coach and focus on
what you can control.
Q You are extremely lucky if you are
able to reach stage-readiness with
a limited amount of cardio. For the
majority of bodybuilders it is an
absolute necessity in order to burn
calories. Most competitors need to
throw in some cardio on off days too
or even a second cardio session in
one day to reach their goals. Never
perform cardio before your workout
because your intensity will suffer.
Q Cardio is performed to not only
burn calories and body fat but also
to strengthen the heart and lungs,
improve bone density, lower blood
pressure, keep cholesterol in check,
and improve overall stamina. M.E
www.muscleevolution.co.za
73
HEALTH
BY JUSTIN MAGUIRE, HULK ENTERPRISES, WWW.HULKENTERPRISES.LTD
A
N OFTEN OVERLOOKED ASPECT
OF BODYBUILDING
NUTRITION IS THE IMPACT
THAT FOODS HAVE ON BLOOD
SUGAR LEVELS. Low blood sugar
levels can lead to sub-par growth,
while a spike can turn you into
blubber man. In contrast, stable
sugar levels are correlated with
muscle growth and recovery.
BALANCING
BLOOD
SUGAR
LEVELS
A FINE BALANCING ACT
Blood sugar, also defined as blood
glucose, is a term used to describe
the amount of sugar in your blood. Your
body breaks down the carbohydrates
you consume into sugar. Two things
happen: sugar either floats in your
blood until your muscles adsorb it
to make muscle glycogen, which is
an important component of muscle
recovery and muscle growth, or it
is stored as fat, adding to your
total body fat percentage.
Maintaining even blood sugar levels
can be a fine balancing act. The ideal
74
Muscle Evolution
WH
INSUALT IS
IN?
Insuli
by the n is a horm
on
p
levels ancreas in r e released
Insulin of sugar in y esponse to
high
our
act
by shu s as a trans bloodstream
ttling
port m
.
carboh
glucos
e
ydrate chanism
e into
-derive
muscle
is stor
transp ed as glyco cells where d
gen. In
orts a
mino
sulin a it
protein
lso
into th acids from
ing
em
carboh
ydrate uscle cells ested
. Bot
s an
therefo
re vita d protein ar h
e
l
for
repair
and gr muscle
owth.
is to stay away from slumping dives or
unwanted spikes. Stress also has the
ability to spike blood sugar levels. This
is a common concern for athletes who
compete because stress can elevate
blood sugar levels to the point where
performance is impaired. Stress from
overtraining can put you in a state where
you have difficulty assimilating sugar and
higher levels in the blood could lead to fa
at
storage. If you cannot recover adequately
y
from your training sessions you also put
yourself into a prime position for an injury
y,
illness or, even worse, burnout.
WHAT YOU PUT ON YOUR PLATE
“THE
HEALTHIER
THE FOODS
ARE THAT YOU
CONSUME, THE
BETTER YOU
WILL SUCCEED
IN BUILDING
MUSCLE.”
A phrase 'you are what you eat' is often
used to describe the huge impact food has
on one's state of health. What you put on
your plate is even more important when
you are a bodybuilder. The healthier the
foods are that you consume, the better you
will succeed in building muscle.
The reverse is unfortunately true as well.
The less attention you pay to what goes
into your mouth, the bigger your effort will
become to reach your physique goals.
Bodybuilding is one of the few sports in
which nutrition is as important as training
and recuperation. To become successful
you have to understand the role of the three
macronutrients – protein, carbohydrates and
fat – and how you need to organise them in
your daily diet plan to allow for maximum
absorption and assimilation.
Training hard is only the beginning
of developing a better physique. If you
want to go all the way, you need to pay
attention to what you do outside of the
gym. That is what ultimately will determine
how far you will go in the sport.
You want to increase your insulin
levels when it's most likely that the nutrients
you ingested will go to the muscle cells,
and decrease your levels when it is more
likely that nutrients will be stored in fat
cells. Bodybuilders typically load up on
simple carbohydrates before and after
workouts because these are seen as the
times when muscle cells are more likely to
be the most receptive.
At other times in the day it is most
advantageous to keep blood sugar levels
even as it can help reduce fat gain from
a high calorie diet.
THE ROLE OF CARBS
Carbohydrates are used very differently
by the body. Simple carbohydrates, also
known as simple sugars, are broken
down very quickly. Examples include
fructose (fruit sugar), sucrose (table
sugar) and lactose (milk sugar), as well
as refined foods usually purchased from
convenience stores for easy consumption.
You have to avoid simple carbohydrates
BLOOD SUGAR: WHAT TO DO
EAT AT LEAST SIX
SMALL MEALS A DAY:
In this way you ensure that
blood sugar levels are even
which can contribute to a
bigger and harder physique.
Eating several small meals
will also stimulate your
metabolism.
STAY AWAY FROM FOODS
HIGH IN SUGAR AND
EMPTY CALORIES:
Your body burns more
calories to digest foods
that are high in protein and
complex carbohydrates
than foods high in sugar
and empty calories.
Remember, the higher your
blood glucose levels, the
more insulin is released.
EAT SUFFICIENT
AMOUNTS OF PROTEIN
AND COMPLEX
CARBOHYDRATES:
By doing this you feed the
muscles with the amino
acids and glycogen they
need, especially after a
heavy, intense training
session.
because they cause the pancreas to secrete
high levels of insulin to control the sudden
spike of sugar in your system. As a result,
simple carbohydrates are often shuttled
directly into the fat cells for storage. This
is particularly important when you are
prepping for a show and you need to drop
as much subcutaneous fat as possible.
Complex carbohydrates, on the other
hand, are sugar molecules that form
complex chains. This makes them more
difficult to break down. Their insulin
response is not so dramatic and they are
broken down more slowly by the body,
which translates into less fat deposition.
Complex carbohydrates are also more likely
to be stored as glycogen (stored sugar)
within our muscle cells rather than being
assimilated into fat cells.
RATING ACCORDING TO GI
The glycaemic index (GI) is a system of
ranking foods based on their impact on
your blood sugar levels. Because the
GI is based on how quickly foods are
broken down and enter the bloodstream,
it is best to consume foods that are high
in fibre and as close to their original state
as possible, and to ignore refined foods.
How you change the structure of a food
also impacts how your body absorbs it.
For example, a potato is an example of
a complex carbohydrate that contains
plenty of fibre in its natural state. When
you leave the skin on a potato your body
will digest it at a slower pace as opposed
to when you remove the skin and mash it
for easier consumption.
INDIVIDUAL REACTION
Assessing your reaction to
food can be complex as it often
involves testing protocols.
Although stringent testing may
at times be warranted, simply
measuring your glucose response
at specific times of the day may
prove to be useful in providing
insight into what you eat.
The Gamma Project by Hulk
Enterprises provides an online
coaching service around your own
physiology, for instance, how to
regulate your blood sugar levels.
While hypertrophy and fat loss can
be seen as by-products of discipline,
it is imperative for competitors to
recognise and educate themselves
on the chemical processes of food
and what impact the environment
may have on their bodies. Simply
eating regularly or cutting out the
sugar may not be enough to combat
the stressful effect both external and
internal stimuli may have on you as
an individual. M.E
www.muscleevolution.co.za
75
SHOW REPORT
REPORT BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR
PHOTOGRAPHY BY GARY PHILLIPS, WWW.GARYPHILLIPSPHOTOGRAPHY.COM
DEXTER JACKSON
BODYBUILDING OPEN
1. William Bonac
2. Dexter Jackson
3. Cedric McMillan
4. Roelly Winklaar
5. Steve Kuclo
6. Lionel Beyeke
WILLIAM BONAC
CEDRIC MCMILLAN
CONSISTENCY PAYS
OFF
FOR BONAC
WILLIAM BONAC’S QUEST FOR
3-D MUSCLE CONTINUES
76
Muscle Evolution
ARNOLD CLASSIC 2018
BONAC SHOCKS
COLUMBUS!
WHEN: 1-4 March 2018 WHERE: Columbus, Ohio, USA
THE CONQUEROR CONQUERED
In one of the biggest events
of the year William Bonac
claimed one of the biggest
victories in his professional
career with a combination
of density, separation and
definition.
And it was a fitting occasion
- the 30th anniversary of the
Arnold Classic - where a number
of headlining competitions took
place as part of the four-day sport
extravaganza, the Arnold Sports
Festival.
Annually the world’s top
bodybuilders descend on Columbus
to fight it out for top honours in the
second most prestigious event in
the world, after the Mr. Olympia.
This year, among the hopefuls,
was Ghana-born USN athlete
William ‘The Conqueror’ Bonac.
Now living in the Netherlands,
Bonac was in absolute killer
shape, thrilling fans that eagerly
gathered with anticipation to
watch the best of the best flex in
Ohio’s capital city.
Defending champion Cedric
McMillan made the headlines in last
year’s showdown but only managed
3rd place this time around. Bonac
did not only beat McMillan but he
also successfully squared off in a
memorable battle with the likes of
second-place finisher Dexter ‘The
Blade’ Jackson, Roelly Winklaar
(4th), Steve Kuclo (5th) and Lionel
Beyeke (6th).
Making his return to the
competitive field after a serious
injury, Dennis Wolf was one
competitor to watch but he failed
to leave a lasting impression and
crashed out of the top 6 with the
likes of Jon De La Rosa, Hidetada
Yamagishi, Fred Smalls and
Maxx Charles.
www.muscleevolution.co.za
77
SHOW REPORT
From left to right: Steve Kuclo, Cedric McMillan, Dexter Jackson, William Bonac, Roelly Winklaar, Lionel Beyeke
BONAC - THE NEXT MR. OLYMPIA?
Often referred to by
bodybuilding aficionados as
a mini-Kai Greene, Bonac’s
victory was well deserved
against a loaded field of
professionals.
One of them was Jackson.
As the five time Arnold
Classic champ, former Mr.
Olympia and undisputed most
consistent bodybuilder of all
time, he is no slouch when
it comes to aestheticallypleasing lines, shape and
proportion.
In Columbus, however,
The Blade had problems
holding in his gut, especially
in abdominal poses and while
his arms, shoulders and back
were bigger than ever, his
legs were small and his waist
uncharacteristically wide.
Hats off to Bonac who has
made consistent progress
every year, turning himself
into one of the best in the
world. “I’m extremely proud
that William won the 2018
Arnold Classic,” said his
trainer Neil Hill. “This is the
accumulation of years spent
being committed.”
It was however not always
the case. I recall a time when
Bonac struggled as a 212
athlete. No one thought it
would have been possible for
a smaller man to improve and
make a successful transition
to the Bodybuilding Open
division.
Bonac’s win begs the
question: Can he become the
next Mr. Olympia?
In recent years, the
IFBB judges have shown
a preference for aesthetic
cartoonish muscle over freaky
mass that was reminiscent of
an era that belonged to the Jay
Cutlers and Ronnie Colemans
of this world.
I believe the quest for 3-D
muscle will continue on the
Olympia stage. King Phil Heath
leads the pack but Bonac now
has the momentum and is
waiting in the wings for ‘The
Gift’ to let down his guard. Not
that I think Phil will lose sight
of the all-time record of eight
Sandows. I also don’t know
where otherworldly freaks
like Ramy and Roelly fit into
the equation, now that we
are officially in the era of the
X-frame.
KAMAL
CROWNED
AS NEW
212 CHAMP
KAMAL ELGARGNI’S
CONDITIONING WAS
HARD TO BEAT
KAMAL ELGARGNI
212
BODYBUILDING
CHARLES DIXON
78
Muscle Evolution
1. Kamal Elgargni
2. Charles Dixon
3. Samir Troudi
4. David Henry
5. Jose Raymond
6. Guy Cisternino
ARASH RAHBAR
COURAGE OPARA
BREON ANSLEY
HAROLD KELLEY
FIRST-EVER ARNOLD CLASSIC
PHYSIQUE
WINNER
HISTORIC VICTORY FOR BREON ANSLEY
MEN’S CLASSIC PHYSIQUE
1. Breon Ansley
2. Arash Rahbar
3. Courage Opara
4. Danny Hester
5. Kevin Ford
6. Dani Younan
PRO WHEELCHAIR
1. Harold Kelley
2. Reggie Bennett
3. Gabriele Andriulli
4. Daniel Minster
5. Steven Lister
6. Adelfo Ceramo
WOMEN’S
PHYSIQUE
1. Shanique Grant
2. Natalia Coelho
3. Margita Zamolova
4. Michaela Aycock
5. Kira Neuman
6. Priscila Cavilha
From left to right: Kira Neuman, Margita Zamolova, Shanique Grant, Natalia Coelho, Michaela Aycock, Priscila Cavilha
www.muscleevolution.co.za
79
From left to right: Bojana Vasiljevic, Heather Dees, Candice Lewis-Carter, Cydney Gillon, Michele Silva, Maria Diaz
HISTORY IN THE MAKING
The superbly conditioned
Kamal Elgargni won the
212 championship while a
seemingly unstoppable Breon
Ansley and the stunning
Shanique Grant won the
Classic Physique in the
Men’s and Women’s events,
respectively.
In reaction to his victory 212
winner Elgargni, a Libya native
now living in England, told
reporters: “It took me several
years to get my Pro Card. This
was a bigger achievement
for me as it was my first
professional show. To come out
of nowhere and win it, it just
doesn’t happen.”
The 46-year-old also said:
“Arnold told me afterwards the
physique I had was like the
bodybuilders from the 80s,
when bodybuilding was an art.
He told me I was just what they
were looking for. He was so
happy that a newcomer could
just come to his show and win.”
The Classic Physique
division has risen in popularity
and being so new, it was
anyone’s game as to who will
be the winner. In the end it
was Ansley who made history
as the winner in the first-ever
Classic Physique competition
at the Arnold Classic.
Andre Ferguson finished
with gold in the Men’s Physique
section. In the Bikini division,
Angelica Teixeira took her
second consecutive crown
while in the Pro Wheelchair
category, Harold Kelley, aptly
named ‘King Kong’, clinched his
third Arnold Classic title. In the
Fitness International section the
retirement of Oksana Grishina
left the contest wide open for
a new star. Whitney Jones,
who finished 3rd last year,
dominated in the same fashion
the incomparable Grishina did
at her peak and in a spectacular
way, taking into account that
she only recently underwent
neck surgery.
As an admirer of strength
sports it is also worth mentioning
that Hafthór Björnsson,
known as Mountain in the hit
show Game of Thrones, won
the Arnold Strongman Classic
competition after finishing in
second place last year. The
Icelandic strongman set a new
world-record in the Elephant
Bar Deadlift event with an
astonishing 472 kg! M.E
TOP
HONOURS
FOR LEWISCARTER
FIGURE CHAMP,
CANDICE LEWISCARTER, IN TOP
NOTCH SHAPE
WOMEN’S
FIGURE
1. Candice Lewis-Carter
2. Cydney Gillon
3. Heather Dees
4. Michele Silva
5. Bojana Vasiljevic
6. Maria Diaz
WOMEN’S
BIKINI
1. Angelica Teixeira
2. Janet Layug
3. Casey Samsel
4. Romina Basauldo
5. Jennifer Ronzitti
6. Breena Martinez
CASEY SAMSEL
80
Muscle Evolution
ANGELICA TEIXEIRA
JANET LAYUG
The ONLY choice for hard-core strength
and power athletes who crave pound
positive muscle gains. Developed for
those, who bask in the glory of PBs,
who crave elevated strength and power
levels, anyone who just won’t give in…
SHOW REPORT
REPORT BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR
PHOTOGRAPHY BY GARY PHILLIPS, WWW.GARYPHILLIPSPHOTOGRAPHY.COM
ARNOLD CLASSIC 2018
ROELLY WINS
DOWN UNDER
BODYG
BUILDING
OPEN
1. Roelly Winklaar
2. William Bonac
3. Dexter Jackson
4. Lukas Osladil
5. Hidetada Yamagishi
6. Luke Sandoe
WHEN: 16-18 March 2018 WHERE: Melbourne, Australia
A BATTLE OF EPIC PROPORTIONS
The Melbourne Convention
and Exhibition Centre was
packed to the brim with
bodybuilding fans absolutely
stoked to see their favourite
athlete fight for the top spot.
Arnold Schwarzenegger’s
flagship contest, the
Arnold Classic USA, was
held two weeks before the
Arnold Classic Australia, so
it was no surprise to
see the same contestants in
the line-up.
Everyone thought William
Bonac would win another
Arnold Classic after he
captured the title in Columbus
in dominant fashion, but
that didn’t happen. This time
around it was Roelly Winklaar
who emerged the star of
the evening.
It was a battle of epic
proportions between the
two Dutchmen, with Bonac
displaying phenomenal
shape and size that can only
be described as cartoonish.
Known as the quintessential
mass monster, Winklaar was,
however, a lot tighter than
his rival and also impressed
DEXTER JACKSON
WILLIAM BONAC
ROELLY WINKLAAR
82
Muscle Evolution
the judges with a killer
posing routine.
Schwarzenegger was full
of praise for the 40-year-old:
“Congratulations on your
first victory in Australia. You
worked so hard to lose those
20 pounds (9 kg) and you were
ripped! No stomach, no fat,
great posing. All the mistakes
of the past were eliminated.”
From left to right: Dexter Jackson, Roelly Winklaar, William Bonac
ROELLY WINKLAAR
From left to right: Lukas Osladil, Hidetada Yamagishi, Luke Sandoe
ROELLY
STEALS THE LIMELIGHT
ROELLY WINKLAAR SHEDS 9KG TO WIN
www.muscleevolution.co.za
83
SWANSONG FOR KEVIN LEVRONE
KEVIN LEVRONE
Dexter Jackson finished in
3rd position after injuring
his bicep prior to the show.
Through the years Jackson
has established a historic
run of success and longevity,
earning him the moniker
“the winningest bodybuilder
of all tim”.
When Dexter is off, he is still
better than most competitors
when they are on. Despite
his injury Jackson was still in
good enough shape to beat
much younger and bigger men
for a podium spot. It speaks
volumes about ‘The Blade’s’
discipline and commitment
after placing second to Bonac
in Columbus.
Lukas Osladil came 4th,
with Hidetada Yamagishi
in 5th and Luke Sandoe
rounding out the top six.
It was the swansong for
legendary Kevin Levrone after
he made a comeback at the
2016 Mr. Olympia competition.
Although he finished in 13th
position, Arnold Classic
Australia promoter Tony
Doherty asked everyone to
stand up for Levrone’s last
show as a bodybuilder and the
crowd went wild for the icon.
Calling Kevin one of the
ANGELICA
SCOOPS
TOP PRIZE
ANGELICA TEIXEIRA IS
UNSTOPPABLE IN THE BIKINI LINE-UP
CANDICE LEWIS-CARTER
84
Muscle Evolution
greatest is not an exaggeration
as he finished second at the
Mr. Olympia four times (1992,
1995, 2000 & 2002) and
competed against guys like
Rich Gaspari, Lee Labrada and
Shawn Ray. Hats off to ‘The
Maryland Muscle Machine’!
Kate Errington dominated
the Fitness category after
finishing in 2nd place in
Columbus. Candice LewisCarter took home the title in
the Women’s Figure division
for the second year in a row,
while Angelica Teixeira looked
unstoppable in the Bikini
division. M.E
From left to right: Katya Nisova, Margret Gnarr,
Janet Layug, Angelica Teixeira, Romina Basualdo,
Sheena Jayne Martin
WOMEN’S FIGURE
WOMEN’S
BIKINI
1. Candice Lewis-Carter
2. Cydney Gillin
3. Michele Pinto
4. Carly Starling-Horrell
5. Ivana Vusic
6. Maria Luisa Baeza Diaz
1. Angelica Teixeira
2. Janet Layug
3. Romina Basualdo
4. Margret Gnarr
5. Sheena Jayne Martin
6. Katya Nisova
SHOW REPORT
REPORT & PHOTOGRAPHY
BY STEHAN SCHOEMAN
M
asters divisional winner Johannes
Hendricks showed that age was nothing
g
but a number when he also scooped
the Overall Men’s title at the first ever Physical
Culture Association (PCA) South Africa’s
Development Bodybuilding and Fitness show.
TRULY INSPIRING
T
he main goal throughout the 60-year-old’s
prep for the contest was to step on stage in
magnificent shape to inspire younger athletes.
And he did just that. When he achieved this
milestone Hendricks looked truly overwhelmed.
Well done!
The future looks bright and the talent abundant
with 51 newcomers stepping on stage at the
event presented at the Durbanville High School
Auditorium in Cape Town.
FROM JITTERS TO CONFIDENCE
A
t first, judging from their facial expressions,
it seemed like a total nerve-racking
experience for competitors at the pre-judging
but a sense of calmness prevailed when their
jitters turned into confidence at the main show
where they strutted their stuff to show off the
end result of all their hard work.
Anele Ntsabo, winner of the Junior under 23
category who also conquered the Junior Overall
title, displayed astonishing size for his age and
great things are expected from the youngster. If
Anele can improve his conditioning, he will be
hard to beat at future shows.
The super talented Elzabé Höll brought a
classic combination of balance and conditioning
in the Ladies Trained Bikini division. Sculpting to
create an illusion is what the sport is all about and
in this regard Elzabé is definitely an athlete with a
bright future!
Bikini athlete Natasha Sutton also showed a
classy and sharp physique while the muscular
Gift Menemene was outstanding in what was
arguably the toughest line-up of the entire show,
the Senior Men under 80kg division.
Juniors U/23
Anele Ntsabo
Men’s Masters Johannes Hendricks
ELECTRIFYING STAGE PRESENCE
M
ickael Davis, another youngster who
impressed the judges, was awarded for
his balance, proportional size and symmetry
when his hand was raised in victory in the
Men’s Muscle Model category.
Ezra Lingeveldt brought a lot of showmanship to
the Classic Bodybuilding line-up and his electrifying
stage presence combined with a perfectly executed
posing routine ensured him gold.
Posing practice is essential to help you shine
on stage and Ezra was a great example of how
you can move with grace and elegance while still
contracting every muscle effortlessly.
Senior Men U/70kg
Monrée Adonis
Senior Men U/90kg Jacobus Henn
PCA DEVELOPMENT SHOW
WHEN: 2,3 MARCH 2018 WHERE: DURBANVILLE, CAPE TOWN
86
Muscle Evolution
Bikinii
Ladies Masters Trained B
Natasha Sutton
Senior Men U/60kg
Ricardo Hendricks
Ladies Masters Toned Bikini
Sanet Drotschie
Ladies Trained Bikini
Elzabé Höll
Classic Bodybuilding
Ezra Lingeveldt
Ladies Toned Bikini
Natasha Byleveld
The rookies have nailed down the necessities
they needed to leave a lasting impression at
their big debut and whether the plan now is to
compete only in local shows or work their way up
the ranks to compete at national and international
level – they will remember it all started at the
PCA’s Development show.
Congratulations to the PCA in South Africa who
is clearly on a mission to ensure the promotion,
growth and development of the sport within local
communities. We salute you guys!
Check out www.pcasouthafrica.co.za or
www.muscleevolution.co.za for more
information on shows in your region.
PCA DEVELOPMENT SHOW RESULTS
Senior Men U/100kg
Johannes Schreuder
JUNIORS U/18
1. Moegamat Damon
2. Michael Jansen
3. Saki Kayembe
JUNIORS U/23
1. Anele Ntsabo
2. Reghard Steenkamp
3. Donovan van der Merwe
Men’s Physique
Mikaylin Rhode
Juniors U/18
Moegamat Damon
LADIES TONED BIKINI
1. Natasha Byleveld
2. Elizma Otto
3. Sanet Drotschie
LADIES MASTERS
TONED BIKINI
1. Sanet Drotschie
2. Edna Abbott
LADIES TRAINED BIKINI
1. Elzabé Höll
2. Natasha Sutton
3. Carla Ross
LADIES MASTERS
TRAINED BIKINI
1. Natasha Sutton
2. Odette van der Merwe
Senior Men U/80kg
Gift Menemene
Men’s Beach Model
Brady Johnstone
Men’s Muscle Model
Mickael Davis
MEN’S MUSCLE MODEL
1. Mickael Davis
CLASSIC BODYBUILDING
1. Ezra Lingeveldt
2. Jean-Paul van Rensburg
BEST MEN’S ROUTINE
1. Jacobus Henn
MEN’S MASTERS
1. Johannes Hendricks
2. Jaco Jacobs
SENIOR MEN U/60KG
1. Ricardo Hendricks
2. Ryno Robynjies
SENIOR MEN U/70KG
1. Monrée Adonis
2. Joshua Carrol
3. Jacques Philander
SENIOR MEN U/80KG
1. Gift Menemene
2. Anele Mtsabo
3. Mickael Davis
SENIOR MEN U/90KG
1. Jacobus Henn
MEN’S BEACH MODEL
1. Brady Johnstone
2. Shaan Laudien
SENIOR MEN U/100KG
1. Johannes Schreuder
MEN’S PHYSIQUE
1. Mikaylin Rhode
2. Daniel Laing
3. Auric Ruiters
* All results and spelling
as supplied by the event
organisers. Muscle Evolution
accepts no responsibility for any
errors or omissions M.E
www.muscleevolution.co.za
87
HOW REPORT
SH
BY WERNER BEUKES, EDITOR
HY BY SOULBY JACKSON WWW.SKJPHOTOGRAPHY.CO.ZA
eliteathleteestravaganza
www.eliteathleteextravaganza.com
ELITE ATHLETE
EXTRAVAGANZA
WHEN: 24 MARCH 2018 WHERE: LYRIC THEATRE, GOLD REEF CITY CASINO
he plush surroundings of the Lyric Theatre
at Gold Reef City Casino in Johannesburg
was transformed into a battleground on
Satu
urday, 24 March, with athletes trading poses
for p
podium positions at the annual Elite Athlete
Extra
avaganza.
AH
HIGH STANDARD
I
fy
you were present on the day of the show
it would’ve been hard to miss the number
of heavily muscled men and women walking
in and out the venue. Organisers Drienkie
Visagie and Lisa Carr, pulled out all the stops
to make the experience as rewarding as
ossible and ensured it ran smoothly.
po
Although
the theatre did not actually fill out
A
everything ran on time and, judging
as planned,
p
from the reaction of the spectators, the high
dard set by the athletes on the day did not go
stand
oticed.
unno
Evvery category at the Elite Athlete Extravaganza
wed enormous talent and everyone brought
show
their A-game to the stage.
This year a disabled athlete section was also
ed, which belonged to the inspirational Marius
adde
dman. A crop of exceptionally talented athletes
Land
Veileroglou and Michelle McCall (Beach
like Alexia
A
ni category winners), Shepherd Mpakosi (the
Bikin
Men’s Overall winner in Category 1 and winner
of the Model “Bad Boy” Plus and Beach Model)
and André Pieterse (Mr. Elite Light heavyweight
Bodybuilding
and Category 2 Overall winner)
B d
dominated their respective line-ups.
MR. ELITE
MEN’S OVERALLS
CATEGORY 2
Mr. Elite Light Heavyweight BB 80kg – 90kg André Pieterse
A TON OF QUALITY MUSCLE
O
Mr. Elite Heavyweight BB
O/90kg Sipho Maphumulo
88
Muscle Evolution
Mr. Elite Novice BB Open
Justin du Rand
Mr. Elite Middle Class BB
75kg– 80kg Ben Sonopo
thers who got the nod from the judges on
the day were Nadine Wales-Smith (Fitness
Bikini), Nadine Yates (Figure) and Ben Sonopo
(Middle Class Bodybuilding). Of particular note
was the Heavyweight winner in the Bodybuilding
category, Sipho Maphumulo, who displayed a
ton of quality muscle. If Sipho comes in bigger
and drier, he would be like a locomotive running
over his opposition at full speed!
Competitions require a certain level of physical
and mental discipline, because it can take years of
Mr. Elite Classic Physique BB
70kg – 75kg James Sebopelo
Mr. Elite Junior BB 23 & under
Louis Tverdon
Miss Elite Junior 16-19
Tammy Dreyer
Miss Elite Beach Bikini Model
O/1.63m Michelle McCall
Mr. Elite Light Weight Physique
BB U/70kg Enoch James
MISS ELITE
LADIES OVERALLS
CATEGORY 1
Miss Elite Beach Bikini Model
1.63m & under Alexia Veileroglou
MISS ELITE
LADIES OVERALLS
CATEGORY 2
Miss Elite Fitness Bikini 1.63m & under & 35+ Open
Nadine Wales-Smith
Miss Elite Fitness Bikini
O/1.63m Dominique v/d Merwe
Miss Elite Wellness Bikini
Open & Sports Model Themed
Open Kayla Engelbrecht
practice and mistakes to get your diet, training and
prep perfect for a show. Regardless of your level,
a game plan is an absolute must and will make the
process of getting stage-ready so much easier.
Every show has a storyline for those who take
part, which combines the exhaustive prep with
the few minutes under the spotlights and the
eventual outcome. Athletes know the anticipation
of walking out to strike your poses, which is difficult
to describe to the audience. There is a sense of
nervousness, but also an immense satisfaction that
comes with eventually reaching what started out
as a dot on the horizon at the start of a prep many
weeks ago.
The word ‘fierce’ aptly describes the level of
competitiveness displayed at this season’s opening
shows, and the Elite Athlete Extravaganza was no
different. It was awesome to witness competitors
battling it out for top honours and enjoying it.
Congratulations to all who worked so hard to
achieve success, and to the organisers for putting
on a phenomenal show!
www.muscleevolution.co.za
89
SHOW REPORT
2018 ELITE ATHLETE EXTRAVAGANZA RESULTS:
MISS ELITE JUNIOR 16-19
1. Tammy Dreyer
2. Emma Hoogenhout
MISS ELITE BEACH BIKINI
MODEL 1.63M & UNDER
1. Alexia Veileroglou
2. Leonie Kruger
3. Yvette Knoetze
MISS ELITE BEACH BIKINI
MODEL O/1.63M
1. Michelle McCall
2. Kayla Engelbrecht
3. Shannon Botha
MISS ELITE FITNESS
BIKINI 1.63M & UNDER
1. Nadine Wales-Smith
2. Rojeanne Burdett
3. Karen Boshoff
MISS ELITE FITNESS
BIKINI O/1.63M
1. Dominique van der Merwe
2. Michelle McCall
3. Madelein Botes
MISS ELITE FITNESS
BIKINI 35+ OPEN
1. Nadine Wales-Smith
2. Nadine Yates
3. Lizette van Rensburg
MISS ELITE WELLNESS
BIKINI OPEN
1. Kayla Engelbrecht
2. Kirsten Thomas
3. Melissa Thobei
MISS ELITE SPORTS
MODEL THEMED OPEN
1. Kayla Engelbrecht
2. Rojeanne Burdett
3. Claire Brown
MR. ELITE LIGHT
WEIGHT PHYSIQUE
BODYBUILDING U/ 70KG
1. Enoch James
2. Francois Nel
3. Denzel Mbengo
MR. ELITE CLASSIC
PHYSIQUE BODYBUILDING
70KG – 75KG
1. James Sebopelo
2. Jeremy Welkom
3. Themba Ncube
MR. ELITE MIDDLE
CLASS BODYBUILDING
75KG– 80KG
1. Ben Sonopo
2. Themba Vakele
3. Collen Leopeng
MR. ELITE LIGHT
HEAVYWEIGHT
BODYBUILDING
80KG – 90KG
1. André Pieterse
2. Justin Rossouw
3. Justin du Rand
MR. ELITE HEAVYWEIGHT
BODYBUILDING
O/ 90KG
1. Sipho Maphumulo
2. Rubin Borhd
3. Tawanda Terrance Nvoka
MR. ELITE MASTERS 40+
1. Deon Tolken
MR. ELITE MASTERS 50+
1. André Grobler
ELITE COUPLES DIVISION
OPEN
1. Nadine Yates and Deon
Tolken
MISS ELITE X-TREME
ATHLETIC
1. Simone van Zyl
ELITE COACH
AWARD 2018
1. Julian Naidoo
MR. ELITE NEW KID ON
THE BLOCK 16-19
1. Francois Nel
2. Rodney Robinson
3. Godwin Eksteen
ELITE 12 WEEK
CHALLENGE –
BIGGEST LOSER
1. Mona du Toit
(Lost 12,7kg)
MR. ELITE MODEL “BAD
BOY” PLUS
1. Shepherd Mpakosi
2. Brian Marais
3. Henjo Smith
ELITE 12 WEEK
CHALLENGE –
TRANSFORMATION
1. Vanessa Coetzee
MR. ELITE FITNESS/
SPORTS MODEL
1. Deon Tolken
2. Brian Mariais
3. Gabriel Mosala
MR. ELITE NOVICE
BODYBUILDING OPEN
1. Justin du Rand
2. Jaco Lottering
3. Frederick van Wyk
MR. ELITE JUNIOR
BODYBUILDING 23 &
UNDER
1. Louis Tverdon
2. Justin du Rand
3. Jeremy Welkom
90
Muscle Evolution
MR. ELITE
MEN’S OVERALLS
CATEGORY 1
MR. ELITE DISABLED
ATHLETE
1. Marius Landman
MISS ELITE FIGURE OPEN
1. Nadine Yates
2. Katinka Kruger
3. Irena Oreski
MR. ELITE BEACH MODEL
1. Shepherd Mpakosi
2. Tatenda Mwakiwa
3. Gabriel Mogala
Mr. Elite New Kid on The Block
16-19 Francois Nel
Miss Elite X-Treme Athletic
Simone van Zyl
Mr. Elite Model “Bad Boy” Plus
& Beach Model Shepherd Mpakosi
Mr. Elite Disabled Athlete
Marius Landman
ELITE ATHLETE
EXTRAVAGANZA SOCIAL
MEDIA AWARD
1. Michael Coovadia
MR. ELITE MEN’S
OVERALLS, CATEGORY 1
Shepherd Mpakosi
MR. ELITE MEN’S
OVERALLS, CATEGORY 2
André Pieterse
MISS ELITE LADIES
OVERALLS, CATEGORY 1
Kayla Engelbrecht
MISS ELITE LADIES
OVERALLS, CATEGORY 2
Nadine Wales-Smith
* All results and spelling as
supplied by the event organisers.
Muscle Evolution accepts no
responsibility for any errors or
omissions M.E
Miss Elite Figure Open
Nadine Yates
Mr. Elite Masters 50+
André Grobler
Mr. Elite Fitness/Sports Model
& Masters 40+ Deon Tolken
SHOW REPORT
REPORT AND PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEHAN SCHOEMAN
PCA CONRAD
NAGEL XTREME
CLASSIC
WHEN: 23, 24 MARCH 2018 WHERE: DURBANVILLE, CAPE TOWN
T
he Physical Culture Association’s Conrad
Nagel Xtreme Classic has this year
celebrated its second anniversary. Bearing
the name of former bodybuilder Conrad
Nagel, who won several titles and also competed
on the world stage, the show has led to new faces
in the line-ups competing for the first time.
PHENOMENAL PHYSIQUES
T
he veterans in attendance also did not
disappoint, showing off remarkable physiques.
A total of 93 athletes traded poses for the top
spots, but it was the 19-year-old Matthew Parker
who took home the biggest prize of the evening –
the Overall Men’s title.
Although he was way too young to show off muscle
maturity, Parker was as thick as a bull and I won’t be
the least bit surprised if he wins every junior division
he enters this season! As soon as Parker took to the
stage I had him in mind as the benchmark for others
to beat. The youngster had all the goods you need
to dominate the opposition at a show of this stature –
large round delts, solid quad development, rock-hard
abs and spectacular conditioning.
Hard-as-nails Chris Strachan, who dominated the
Novice Men’s Muscle Model and Open Muscle Model
to win the Overall Model title, is also destined for
great things. It was only going to be one way traffic
on the night with another talented newcomer, Didi
Yuan impressing friends and foes with an exceptional
physique in the Novice Ladies Trained Bikini U/1.63m
category.
The Novice Men’s Beach Model category is known
as always being highly competitive, but in Sean
Cohen the judges recognised a worthy winner as
he came out on top after the physique comparisons.
Men’s Physique rookie Mikaylin Rhode was sliced
and diced to win against a line-up of seven rivals,
while Willem Koch showed his mettle in a clash for
the Classic Bodybuilding crown.
OVERALL
MEN
Open Men U/100kg
Chris Oelofse
Open Junior Men U/23 Matthew Parker
Open Men O/100kg
Delano Naude
Open Men U/80kg
Abduraghman Salie
SHOW-WINNING CONDITIONING
M
egan Hubbard clearly upped her game from
last year and made a significant improvement
in her physique to walk away with a stunning
victory in what was genuinely one of the toughest
line-ups of the show, the Novice Ladies Toned
Bikini over 1.63m category. Another rising star,
Elzabé Höll won her second Overall Bikini title
in two outings this season, displaying a classy
physique.
Bodybuilding stalwart Shane Kreusch showed
once again why he is regarded as one of the top
92
Muscle Evolution
Open Men U/70kg
Yongie Mpinda
Novice Men’s Bodybuilding
U/70kg Monreé Adonis
OVE
O
ERALL
MO
ODEL
OVERALL
BIKINI
Novice & Open Men’s Muscle
Model Chris Strachan
Open Men’s Masters
ste
Shane Kreusch
Novice & Open Ladies Trained Bikini O/1.63m Elzabé Höll
Best Men’s Routine
Nic Lotter
Open Classic Bodybuilding
Willem Koch
Novice Men’s Bodybuilding
U/80kg Sanele Msibi
competitors in South Africa as he bagged yet another
first place trophy. In the Open Ladies Toned Bikini
Masters division, Anje Pansegrouw was in absolutely
incredible shape. Her grace and poise truly elevated
her stage presence.
The contest was packed with quality athletes in
superb form. When all things are equal physiquewise, razor-sharp conditioning will always push you
ahead of your opposition – this was also the case at
the Conrad Nagel Xtreme Classic. Well done to all
the champions (young and not so young) for nailing
it perfectly!
Shape Shifters Female
Natasha Sutton
Open Ladies Trained
Bikini U/1.63m & Over 35
Nicolene Vermeulen
Novice Ladies Trained Bikini
U/1.63m Didi Yuan
www.muscleevolution.co.za
93
SHOW REPORT
PCA CONRAD NAGEL XTREME CLASSIC RESULTS
NOVICE JUNIOR
MEN U/23 U/75KG
1. Abongile Meyer
2. Ayabonga Mpinda
OPEN LADIES TRAINED
BIKINI OVER 35
1. Nicolene Vermeulen
2. Natasha Sutton
NOVICE MEN’S
BEACH MODEL
1. Sean Cohen
2. Juandre Rossouw
3. Robin Spamer
SHAPE SHIFTERS MALE
1. Dominique Wiid
NOVICE MEN’S
PHYSIQUE
1. Andre Thompson
2. De Wet Laing
3. Nicolas Roodman
OPEN MEN’S PHYSIQUE
1. Mikaylin Rhode
2. Nicolas Roodman
3. Alex Kriel
NOVICE MEN’S
MUSCLE MODEL
1. Chris Strachan
2. Gerald Geduld
OPEN MEN’S
MUSCLE MODEL
1. Chris Strachan
2. Willem Koch
3. Nic Lotter
NOVICE LADIES TONED
BIKINI U/1.63M
1. Marisha du Plessis
2. Sanoline Calitz
NOVICE LADIES TONED
BIKINI O/1.63M
1. Megan Hubbard
2. Lauren-Leigh Rix
3. Natasha Byleveld
OPEN LADIES TONED
BIKINI U/1.63M
1.Marisha du Plessis
OPEN LADIES TONED
BIKINI O/1.63M
1. Megan Hubbard
2. Natasha Byleveld
3. Liebe van Rooyen
OPEN LADIES TONED
BIKINI MASTERS
1. Anje Pansegrouw
2. Elana Marais
3. Sanet Drotschie
NOVICE LADIES TRAINED
BIKINI U/1.63M
1. Didi Yuan
2. Nicolene Vermeulen
NOVICE LADIES TRAINED
BIKINI O/1.63M
1. Elzabé Höll
2. Tanja Cronje
3. Cornel Nieuwenhuys
OPEN LADIES TRAINED
BIKINI U/1.63M
1. Nicolene Vermeulen
OPEN LADIES TRAINED
BIKINI O/1.63M
1. Elzabé Höll
2. Cornel Nieuwenhuys
3. Bernette Beyers
94
Muscle Evolution
SHAPE SHIFTERS
FEMALE
1. Natasha Sutton
2. Nata Vorster
NOVICE MEN’S
BODYBUILDING U/70KG
1. Monreé Adonis
NOVICE MEN’S
BODYBUILDING U/80KG
1. Sanele Msibi
2. Akhona Futswane
3. Gift Menemene
Novice Men’s Beach Model
Sean Cohen
NOVICE MEN’S
BODYBUILDING U/90KG
1. Carlin Jatho
NOVICE MEN’S
BODYBUILDING U/100KG
1. Juan Schreuder
NOVICE MEN’S
BODYBUILDING O/100KG
1. Jaco Jacobs
Novice Men’s Physique
Andre Thompson
OPEN JUNIOR MEN U/23
1. Matthew Parker
BEST MEN’S ROUTINE
1. Nic Lotter
OPEN MEN’S MASTERS
1. Shane Kreusch
2. Leon Barnard
OPEN CLASSIC
BODYBUILDING
1. Willem Koch
2. Thandolwethu Vintwembi
3. Lindsay Pentolfe
Novice & Open Ladies Ton
ned
Bikini O/1.63m Megan Hubbard
OPEN MEN U/70KG
1. Yongie Mpinda
2. Arnaldo Barbosa
3. Sebastian Tshangana
OPEN MEN U/80KG
1. Abduraghman Salie
2. Solomon Ackah
3. Sanele Msibi
Open Men’s Physique
Mikaylin Rhode
OPEN MEN U/100KG
1. Chris Oelofse
2. Delight Manyene
OPEN MEN O/100KG
1. Delano Naude
2. Pieta Botes
OVERALL BIKINI:
Elzabé Höll
OVERALL MODEL:
Chris Strachan
OVERALL MEN:
Matthew Parker
* All results and spelling as
supplied by the event organisers.
Muscle Evolution accepts no
responsibility for any errors or
omissions M.E
Novice & Open Ladies Toned
Bikini U/1.63m Marisha du Plessis
Open Ladies Toned Bikini
Masters Anje Pansegrouw
Shape Shifters Male
Dominique Wiid
ATHLETE’S PAGE
GAR
RETH
SC
CHEEPERS
201
17 IFBB World
Junior Champion
TR
IS
S CARDIO
E
ESSENTIAL
F
FOR PREP?
II’ve been competing
in bodybuilding since
age of 17 and have
the a
done cardio and my
always d
weight training sessions. This was
er 2016 when I met
until Novembe
my current coach,
Roy Butterton.
co
In the past I performed my weight
training sessions in the morning,
followed by cardio in the evening.
This resulted in me often slacking
in my weight training sessions. It
had a major impact on retaining
muscle mass and maintaining
fullness. Roy explained to me that
there is no need for cardio during
competition prep if your diet is
on point and your weight training
sessions are highly intense. In
other words, while lifting weights,
you should do plenty of supersets
with no rest in-between sets. He
also explained the importance
of maintaining a clean diet in the
off-season in order to maintain a
reasonable body fat level. This
makes dieting a lot easier when
you’re prepping for a show. I
much prefer this way of training as
it certainly works for me. I never
liked cardio anyway!
EARS RADEBE
Mr. Elite Middle Class 75-80kg Winner at Elite
te Extravaganza
T SUPPLEMENTS DO YOU USE?
nd
A thermogenic fat burner to increase my metabolism an
incinerate fat when I prep for a show. I also use it to fuel
aining sessions as I don’t take pre-workouts. Most
ogenic fat burners have stimulants such as caffeine
e.
so use conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) because
ulates fat burning without breaking down muscle
. It also does not contain caffeine, which makes it
to use when you train in the evening.
ey protein is also high up on my list of must-havess.
airs tissue and promotes lean muscle gains, while
BCAAs protect my muscles from the catabolic effects of
dieting and training.
Glutamine is another one of my favourite supplementss
nimise the breakdown of muscle and boost protein
bolism. I use testo boosters to maintain testosteron e
to promote lean muscle mass and strength, and
ltivitamin to mitigate the extra stress of training and
g, which creates deficiencies in certain vitamins and
rals and can lead to the breakdown of muscle if it iss
ctified.
www.musc ev l
ATHLETE’S PAGE
DAVID JOUBERT
SHELDON
OAKES
2017 IFBB Summer Superbodies Junior Bodybuilding
U/23 O/75kg Winner
2017 IFBB Millennium
Gold Plate Senior Classic
Bodybuilding O/1.75m Winner
WHAT BODY PART DO
YOU STRUGGLE WITH
THE MOST?
My approach to training
my weaker muscle groups
(legs in my case) consists
of frequency, volume
and posing. I start off by
increasing the frequency
with which I train the
lagging body part. By
doing so I place more
strain on the muscle group
more often, which results
in more muscle growth. I
found training my legs two
to three times per week
has greatly increased
the size and density in a
relatively short period of
time. Secondly, I increase
the volume by adding
more reps and sets, which
floods more blood into the
working muscle. This leads
to more pumps, recovery
and muscle development.
My final technique when
WHAT PRO DO YOU LOOK
UP TO?
I’ve always admired Dorian
Yates, not only for his prodigious
physique but his mind-blowing
work ethic and intensity in
the gym. Yates claimed six
consecutive Mr. Olympia titles
in probably the toughest era of
bodybuilding. I have yet to see
anyone working in the shadows
and keeping to himself before
revealing an incredible physique
at show time like Dorian did!
If I ever had the opportunity to
pick a Pro to train with, it would
be Yates. Not only would it be
the most gruelling hour of my
life spent in the gym, but also
the most memorable. “One set
at extreme intensity does the
muscle-building job. It must be
stressed that the one final, all-out
set I do takes me to the very limit
of my capabilities. If you feel you
can attempt a second set, then
you couldn’t have been pulling
out all the stops during the first
set. It’s not pretty, but it works.” Dorian Yates.
Muscle Evolution
can be done by adding a
clean form of simple carbs
to your shake or meal. It
takes time and persistence
to build muscle. Do not
rush the process, trust in
your plan, be patient and
work your butt off. Rome
was not built in a day!
STEVE MCCLAREN
2017 Elite Masters Veteran Over 50 yrs Winner at Elite Athlete Extravaganza
WHO GOT YOU STARTED
IN BODYBUILDING?
I’ve always been athletic
and started lifting weights
when I was in high school.
When I was 35 years old
I met Mr. Universe winner
96
training a lagging body
part is posing. I flex and
pose my legs between sets
and by doing so I create
a better contraction of the
muscle, forcing it to work
harder. The outcome is an
increase in muscle density
and overall development.
No matter what muscle
group you are trying to
improve, you cannot expect
adequate results if you
are not fuelling your body
with the correct ratio of
nutrients it requires. What
I’ve found works best for
me is to greatly increase
my carb intake on leg days,
mainly in my post-workout
meal. This method boosts
recovery and nutrient
partitioning within the
muscle. Spiking insulin as
part of my post-workout
meal also increases the
transportation of nutrients
into the muscle cells. This
André van der Mescht,
who prepped and coached
me for my first show,
the Gauteng Provincials
in 2007. I placed 1st
in the competition and
qualified for the Novice
SA’s later that year, which
I won. In the years that
I trained with André, he
taught me some valuable
life lessons on how to
become disciplined and
how to stay focused and
motivated. He challenged
me in so many ways and
showed me how to plan
and build the foundation
for my future in the health
and fitness industry. We
both studied our Personal
Training Certification
together at HFPA and I
travelled with André to
the IFBB Worlds in Korea,
where I was introduced to
professional bodybuilders
like Hennie Kotze, Marius
Dohne and a few others.
Through my association
with André, I also met
other influential people
in the fitness industry
such as Mario Van Biljon,
Andrew Hudson, Francis
Benfatto and Julian
Naidoo. Every single
person I have met in this
industry has in some way
influenced me – some
negatively, but mostly
positively. I’m fortunate
to say that this positive
energy has resulted in
me becoming a very
successful commercial
gym owner, personal
trainer and online coach.
I’m also very proud to
say that my son Byron
has worked by my side in
the same profession for
the past eight years, also
having competed before.
We were both fortunate
enough to compete in
the WFF Worlds in 2016.
Thanks to André for
inspiring me to follow
my passion. I’m currently
52 years old and living
my dream.
y our imits.then
imits then puu s h furtherr.
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