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2018-05-03 Vocable Anglais

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édito
sommaire
N° 778 / Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
NIVEAU DE DIFFICULTÉ ET ÉQUIVALENCE CECRL
(Cadre Européen Commun de Référence pour les langues) :
 facile A2-B1  moyen B2-C1  difficile C1-C2
Pour faciliter le repérage et la compréhension, les mots traduits sont surlignés dans tous les
articles du magazine.
AMÉLIE ARA
RÉDACTRICE EN CHEF
Célébrer le cinéma
Voici venu le temps des paillettes, des palmiers,
des projections de films d’exception, et de la traditionnelle montée des marches sur le tapis rouge
(sans selfies s’il vous plaît, ils sont désormais
interdits !). Pour sa 71ème édition, qui se tiendra
du 8 au 19 mai 2018, le Festival de Cannes s’offre
un président du jury exceptionnel : l’actrice australienne Cate Blanchett.
Depuis son rôle d’Élisabeth Ière dans le biopic de
Shekhar Kapur en 1998, qui l’a propulsée au rang
de célébrité mondiale et lui a valu un Golden
Globe, Cate Blanchett fait partie du club très
fermé des plus grands acteurs de cinéma de notre
époque. Elle excelle dans l’art de la métamorphose
et ses rôles éclectiques vont du confidentiel Coffee
and Cigarettes de Jim Jarmush à la trilogie du
Seigneur des anneaux. Encensée par la critique,
elle a été récompensée par une multitude de
prix mais a su conserver une grande liberté de
choix artistiques.
Il est rare que Cannes s’offre des présidentes du
jury. Cela n’est arrivé que onze fois depuis la première édition du festival en 1946. Le choix de Cate
Blanchett, figure cruciale du mouvement Time's
Up contre le harcèlement sexuel dans l’industrie
du cinéma, est donc un symbole fort. C’est en
outre la deuxième personnalité australienne à
avoir eu l’honneur de présider le jury du festival,
après le réalisateur George Miller en 2016. Une
présidence d’exception, donc, qui laisse présager
d’un grand cru.
Grand angle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4
On parle d'eux .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5
 C1-C2
THE GUARDIAN (UK)
et suivez-nous sur
 A2-B1
L’article est repris sur le CD ou les MP3
de conversation : Des interviews en V.O.
pour améliorer votre compréhension
Tous les articles du magazine sont lus par des
anglophones sur le CD (ou les MP3) de lecture
Retrouvez le reportage vidéo
lié à l’ article sur vocable.fr
Photo de couverture : THE GUARDIAN/SIPA
Focus: Cannes Film Festival Jury
Société
 B2-C1
6
India’s gender gap remains vast
.......................................................................................................
10
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12
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14
THE ECONOMIST (UK)
La place des femmes dans la société indienne : un paradoxe.
 B2-C1
The repair cafes against throwaway culture
THE GUARDIAN (UK)
Réparer les objets pour lutter contre le gaspillage.
 A2-B1
A 360°
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
PRATIC’ABLE ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
16
17
Vocabulaire, expressions et astuces pour parler
comme un anglophone
Le 1er mai / Point de grammaire : Les comparatifs
Enjeux
 B2-C1
 B2-C1
‘Jacindamania’ in New Zealand
....................................
21
.....................................................................................................................................................................................
23
LOS ANGELES TIMES (US)
Une personnalité politique qui a conquis le monde.
What’s next for Canada’s economy
THE ECONOMIST (UK)
Le Canada mise sur des industries innovantes.
et sur
BONUS
............................................................................................................................................................................................
Rencontre avec la présidente du jury du 71ème Festival de Cannes.
 A2-B1
 B2-C1
Rejoignez-nous sur
A la une
Cate Blanchett: ‘empathy is a noble cause’
Culture
Echos
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Shakespeare and Company Is Back
25
...........
26
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28.
THE NEW YORK TIMES (US)
Retour d’une librairie emblématique dans le West Side, à New York.
Découverte
 B2-C1
British scientists set to work on Zika vaccine
THE GUARDIAN (UK)
Les études récentes sur le virus Zika.
 B2-C1
Pall on testing of self-driving cars
THE NEW YORK TIMES (UK)
.............
30.
Les voitures autonomes sont-elles vraiment sûres ?
Bons plans .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32
Les sorties ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 34
Le dessin .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 35
L’actualité en images
(Simon Czapp/Solent/SIPA)
Grand
angle
ROYAUME-UNI
Did you know?
In Great Britain, people celebrating their 100th
birthday receive a congratulatory card from the
Queen, and a birthday card every year
thereafter. A “Centenarian team” comprised of
seven people is dedicated to keeping
information up to date about Britain’s oldest
citizens. Couples celebrating their 60th, 65th
and 70th wedding anniversaries also receive a
royal congratulatory card as part of a tradition
dating back to 1917.
thereafter par la suite (au-delà de cent ans) /
to be comprised of comprendre, compter / to
be dedicated to ici, avoir pour mission de / up
to date à jour, actualisé / citizen citoyen (ici,
sujet) / as part of ici, suivant / to date back
to remonter à.
4
• VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
BIRTHDAY BOY
Robert Weighton, Britain’s oldest man, has just celebrated his 110th Birthday. He
was born in Hull on March 29, 1908 and has lived through both World Wars. He
trained in marine engineering but worked as an English teacher in Taiwan until
World War II. He has three children, 10 grandchildren and 25 great-grandchildren.
Although he received a letter from Queen Elizabeth II when he turned 100, he
decided not to accept birthday cards from the Queen for every additional year,
because he didn’t want to clutter up his house. He also said that the Queen looked
“a bit miserable while on official duties” in these birthday cards, however, he
would welcome birthday cards from the Royal Family again if there were a change
of monarch…
birthday boy personne (ici, homme) dont on célèbre l’anniversaire / to live through traverser, connaître / both
les deux / to train suivre une formation, être formé / marine engineering ingénierie navale / great-grandchild
arrière-petit-enfant / although bien que / to turn ici, atteindre (âge) / to clutter up encombrer / to look avoir
l’air, sembler / miserable malheureux / while on lors de / duty ici, fonction / to welcome ici, accepter.
On parle d'eux…
Retrouvez le fil d’infos sur www.vocable.fr
Ceux qui font l'actu
Winnie
Madikizela-Mandela
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, the former wife of Nelson Mandela,
has died. She received a state funeral on April 14th. The politician and
anti-apartheid activist was revered by many South Africans, who
called her “Mother of the Nation”, but she remained a controversial
figure. As a prominent face of the struggle to overturn the apartheid
system, she campaigned tirelessly for Mandela’s release during his
27-year imprisonment, and spent 491 days in solitary confinement
herself. However, she was criticised because of her bodyguards’ role
in the kidnapping of four boys in Soweto, and her support for “necklacing,” a torture and execution practice carried out on suspected
apartheid collaborators.
Jeremy Deller, an English artist who won the
prestigious Turner Prize in 2004, has been
distributing anti-Facebook posters. His
posters, printed on pink paper, were handed
out in Liverpool and London train stations in
the wake of the Cambridge Analytica scandal,
and explained to commuters how to delete
their Facebook accounts in six steps. The
action was part of a Liverpool-based project
called “Rapid Response Unit,” set up to
explore how news is received.
prize prix, récompense / to hand out distribuer,
remettre / in the wake of à la suite de (wake
sillage) / commuter personne faisant la navette
entre son domicile et son lieu de travail / to delete
supprimer / account compte / step ici, étape /
action ici, initiative / to be part of s’inscrire dans le
cadre de / rapid response unit unité d’intervention
rapide / to set, set, set up ici, créer, imaginer,
concevoir / to explore ici, étudier / to receive ici,
accueillir (fig.), percevoir.
Justin Trudeau
(SIPA)
(Chang W. Lee/The New York Times)
(SIPA)
Jeremy Deller
(SIPA)
former ancien / wife épouse / activist militant / to revere vénérer / to remain rester, demeurer
/ figure personnage, personnalité / prominent principal / face visage; ici, personnalité /
struggle lutte, combat / to overturn renverser, mettre fin à / to campaign faire/mener
campagne, se battre, militer / tirelessly sans relâche / release ici, libération / to spend, spent,
spent passer (temps) / solitary confinement isolement / however cependant, néanmoins /
support soutien / to carry out ici, pratiquer, utiliser / suspected ici, présumé.
Elizabeth Esty
Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has
exonerated six indigenous chiefs who were
executed by colonial authorities more than
150 years ago. In 1864, the Tsilhqot’in chiefs
were tricked into going to what they thought
were peace talks. They were then accused of
murdering fourteen white road workers who
had entered their territory without permission,
and hanged for the alleged crime. Justin
Trudeau has apologised and absolved the
Tsilhqot’in leaders in a statement to the
House of Commons.
Following days of controversy, Democrat
Representative Elizabeth Esty announced that
she would not seek re-election to Congress in
her Connecticut district. She was forced out of
office after it was reported that she waited
three months to fire a former top aide, John
Baker, after he sexually harassed and made
death threats to another co-worker. “Too many
women have been harmed by harassment in
the workplace. In the terrible situation in my
office, I could have and should have done
better,” she said in a statement.
to exonerate innocenter, disculper / to trick sb into
(+ger.) amener qn à (en lui faisant croire qch) /
peace talks négociations de paix / to murder
assassiner / to hang, hanged or hung, hanged or
hung pendre / alleged présumé / to apologise
présenter des excuses / to absolve absoudre; ici,
disculper, innocenter / statement déclaration /
(the) House of Commons (la) Chambre des
communes.
following ici, après / to seek, sought, sought
re-election litt. chercher à être réélu; ici, se représenter
/ to force sb out of office contraindre qn à quitter son
poste/ses fonctions / to report rapporter, signaler,
porter à l’attention du public / to fire «virer», congédier
/ top ici, principal / aide assistant, conseiller,
collaborateur / to harass harceler / to make, made,
made ici, formuler / threat menace / co-worker
collègue / to be harmed by ici, être victime de (to
harm nuire à) / in the workplace ici, sur leur lieu de
travail.
VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
•5
À la une
I Culture I
AUSTRALIE
I  C2
SUPPLÉMENT VIDÉO
Comment a réagi Cate Blanchett en recevant son deuxième Oscar ?
Découvrez le reportage vidéo et testez votre compréhension sur
www.vocable.fr/videos-anglais
THE GUARDIAN XAN BROOKS
CATE
BLANCHETT:
‘EMPATHY
IS A NOBLE
CAUSE’
Interview de l'actrice Cate
Blanchett
(Swan Gallet/WWD/Shutter/SIPA)
Aussi à l’aise dans les blockbusters que dans les
petites productions indépendantes, Cate
Blanchett est l’une des plus grandes actrices de
sa génération. La star australienne multioscarisée a été choisie pour présider le jury du
71ème Festival de Cannes – une nouvelle
consécration pour elle. Nous vous proposons de
découvrir ce très beau portrait publié par le
quotidien britannique The Guardian en 2015,
lors de la sortie du film Carol.
6
• VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
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Téléchargez l’appli Vocable offerte à nos abonnés ! www.vocable.fr/applimobile
“She will be a committed President, a passionate
woman and a big-hearted spectator.”
Pierre Lescure and Thierry Frémaux, Cannes Festival Presidents
I
am half an hour early for the interview
but the discreet hotel library has already
been taken. A woman (blond, gangly, faintly
familiar) is sitting on the floor, demolishing a
plate of tenderstem broccoli. The movie camera
misleads. I have been watching [Cate Blanchett]
for years and thought I knew just what to expect:
some imposing snow queen, with wide geometric features and a hard feline stare. It is only now,
gawping at the loose-limbed, studious-looking
thief on the floor, that I realise I got it wrong. COLLABORATIONS WITH TODD
HAYNES
2. Blanchett is in London to attend two movie
premieres. In the first, Truth, she stars as Mary
Mapes, the CBS journalist who found herself
targeted by the Bush administration during
the fraught run-up to the 2004 election. In the
second, the extraordinary Carol, she plays the
sculpted 50s housewife who sets out to seduce
1. library bibliothèque / gangly dégingandé / faintly
vaguement / to demolish ici, dévorer / tenderstem
broccoli légume hybride, né de l'union du brocoli et du
chou kale / to mislead, misled, misled induire en
erreur / feature trait (du visage) / stare regard / to
gawp rester bouche bée / loose-limbed souple /
thief voleur (-se) / to get, got, got sth wrong se
tromper.
2. to attend assister à / premiere projection en
avant-première / Truth (VF) Truth : Le Prix de la vérité
(2015), de James Vanderbilt / to star tenir la vedette /
to target viser, prendre pour cible / fraught pénible,
éprouvant / run-up période précédant (un événement)
/ sculpted à la silhouette sculptée / housewife femme
au foyer / to set, set, set out entreprendre (de) /
SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE
library (§ 1)
N'oubliez pas que library se traduit
par bibliothèque et que librairie se dit
bookshop ou bookstore.
Les bouquinistes, si célèbres à Paris,
sont des secondhand booksellers et
"Shakespeare and Company" est un
secondhand bookshop qui vend des
livres d'occasion. Quel plaisir de
browse through (feuilleter) their
stock !
a Manhattan shopgirl. It is gracefully directed
by Todd Haynes, who made his name at the
vanguard of the New Queer Cinema movement
and seems drawn to tales of transgression and
tragedy (Far From Heaven, Safe). Blanchett
reckons nobody else could have made it. 3. The pair last collaborated on the 2007 film I’m
Not There, a fractured, skittish Bob Dylan biopic in which six actors were
cast as the mercurial singer.
Blanchett cropped up as androgynous Bob, decked out in
black, a cigarette on the go,
whereas tragic Carol Aird, the
eponymous heroine of the
new film, could hardly be
more feminine. She’s an explosion of platinum hair and
crimson nail polish. Virginal
Therese (Rooney Mara) is
knocked for six and falls in
love – and Carol appears to
love her back. Except that this is Eisenhower-era
America and Carol is married. she says, she was living in Egypt on a gap
year abroad, because at the time she was
planning on becoming a museum curator.
“So I was in this fleapit in Cairo, which has
probably long since burned down, called the
Oxford hotel. [...] And this random Scottish
guy came up and said they were looking for
English-speaking extras, and that I’d get paid
five Egyptian pounds and a falafel. At the
time I didn’t have enough
money to pay my room for
the week. I went along and
there was an Arabic guy
with a megaphone, like
something out of a silent
movie, and it was so hot and
so boring that I left.” “Acting had
become like
this terrible
addiction.”
THE BEGINNINGS
I’m interested in how she then found an
escape into acting. Sources state that she
made a low-rent film debut while she was
still in her teens, playing a cheerleader in an
Egyptian boxing movie called Crabs. Except
it transpires that the sources are wrong. Yes,
4.
gracefully avec élégance / to direct réaliser /
vanguard avant-garde / queer queer (lit. "bizarre",
désigne ce qui interroge nos catégories de pensée, et
notamment ce qui n’est pas hétéronormé) / to be
drawn to s'intéresser à, être attiré par / tale histoire /
Far From Heaven (VF) Loin du paradis / to reckon
estimer.
5. Back in Australia, she en-
rolled at drama school and
decided she might as well give
acting a shot. I tell her she
makes herself sound rather
passive and again she corrects me; it was not
like that at all. “Acting had become like this
terrible addiction. I felt I needed to give it five
years and see where it took me.” A PERFECT CAREER
6. Specifically it took her to the Sydney stage,
through acclaimed turns in Sophocles’ Electra
(while she was still a student) and David
Mamet’s Oleanna (shortly after graduation).
It carried her to a Bafta award for her breakthrough role in the 1998 film Elizabeth. “I was
shocked,” she recalls. “You know, I called my
agent after making Elizabeth and said, ‘I think
I’ve ended my career before it’s even begun.’
So yeah, I was completely shocked by how that
film was received.” 3. pair ici, duo / fractured ici, à multiples facettes /
skittish fébrile / biopic film biographique / to cast,
cast, cast choisir (pour un rôle) / mercurial
changeant, instable, lunatique / to crop up apparaître
/ decked out vêtu(e) / a cigarette on the go
cigarette au coin des lèvres / hardly ne...guère,
difficilement / crimson écarlate / nail polish vernis à
ongles / to be knocked for six être sous le choc,
tomber à la renverse.
5. to enroll (US) = to enrol (GB) s’inscrire / drama
school école d'art dramatique / to give, gave, given
a shot at sth essayer de faire qqch, tenter sa chance /
addiction dépendance, passion.
4. escape échappatoire / acting métier d’acteur / to
state affirmer / low-rent très modeste / debut
premiers pas / in one's teens adolescent(e) /
cheerleader pom-pom girl / to transpire apparaître, it
transpires on apprend /
6. stage scène / acclaimed applaudi, apprécié / turn
ici, interprétation / graduation obtention d'un diplôme
/ Bafta = British Academy of Film and Television Arts,
équivalent britannique des Oscars américains /
breakthrough ici, qui la révéla.
gap year année sabbatique (que s'accorde un étudiant
avant d'entrer à l'université) / curator conservateur
(-trice) / fleapit endroit miteux / random ici, sorti de
nulle part / extra ici, figurant / silent movie film muet.
VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
•7
>>>
À la une
I Culture I
AUSTRALIE
I  C2
Cate Blanchett received 2 Academy Awards, 3 Golden Globe Awards
and 3 British Academy Film Awards.
Karl Urban and Cate Blanchett in Thor Ragnarok. (LILO/SIPA)
Isabelle Huppert and
Cate Blanchett in the
theatre play The Maids.
(Ruby Washington/The New
York Times) Cate Blanchett in the theatre play Uncle Vanya. (Sara Krulwich/The New York Times)
Cate Blanchett in Carol. (Moviestore/REX Shutters/SIPA)
8
• VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
Cate Blanchett in Manifesto. (Julian Rosefeldt and VG Bild-Kuns)
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Une suggestion ? écrivez-nous sur monavis@vocable.fr
- Elizabeth (1998)
- The Aviator (2004)
- Babel (2006)
>>>
Selected Filmography
- The Curious Case of Benjamin Button (2008)
- Blue Jasmine (2013)
- Carol (2015)
7. Since then, it all looks to have been plain
sailing: a canny blend of multiplex blockbusters
with classy human dramas; an Oscar for her
pitch-perfect impression of Katharine Hepburn
in Martin Scorsese’s The Aviator. She points
out that she once made a comedy – Bandits,
co-starring Bruce Willis – that had the misfortune to open the same week as the 9/11 terrorist
attacks and promptly sank without trace. But
in scanning her credits, there aren’t many obvious duds. 8. In her mid-20s, she met the Australian play-
wright Andrew Upton. They bonded over a
late-night poker game; he proposed marriage
just weeks later. They now have three sons
(Dashiell, Roman, Ignatius), along with baby
Edith, who they adopted in March. Blanchett
reckons the children keep her honest. “They
force you to be economical. To choose your roles
wisely and then shrug them off as soon as
you’re done.” 9. In 2008 she took the decision to limit her
film roles in order to join her husband as coartistic directors of the Sydney theatre company. She knows the move was a gamble; it
risked closing the door at her back. “When I
stepped away to run the theatre company, a lot
of people said, ‘This is a mistake. You realise
you have a certain shelf life and you’re throwing that away.’ But I think it’s made me a better
actor. If it hasn’t, I’m a fucking idiot.” She
pauses. “But you do carry that fear with you.
When I was getting ready to leave [the company], I did think, ‘Well, I’m in my 40s, I don’t
know if I’ve even got a film career to go back
to.’ And then Blue Jasmine landed in my lap.”
7. to be plain sailing marcher comme sur des
roulettes / canny avisé, intelligent / blend mélange /
blockbuster superproduction / classy élégant /
pitch-perfect excellent, parfait / to point out faire
remarquer / misfortune malchance / to open ici,
sortir / to sink, sank, sunk ici, sombrer dans l’oubli / to
scan passer en revue / credits ici, filmographie / dud
navet, nanar.
8. playwright dramaturge / to bond ici, faire
connaissance / to be economical ici, aller à l'essentiel
/ wisely judicieusement / to shrug sth off laisser
derrière soi, oublier qqch.
9. gamble pari risqué / to step away s'éloigner / to
run, ran, run diriger / shelf life ici, période d'activité,
durée de vie dans le circuit / to throw, threw, thrown
away gâcher / to land atterrir / lap genoux, giron.
- Thor: Ragnarok (2017)
- Manifesto (2018)
- Ocean's Eight (2018)
BLUE JASMINE
10. Her role as Jasmine Francis, the brittle Park
Avenue princess fallen on hard times, would
go on to win Blanchett a second Oscar. But the
experience of shooting it was no bed of roses.
She describes Woody Allen’s directing style as
one of “benign neglect”, although it doesn’t
sound altogether benign to me. “The first day
was brutal,” she recalls. “He came up to me and
said, ‘This is awful and you’re awful.’ And then
three weeks later it turned out that he didn’t
like the costumes, he didn’t like the locations,
he didn’t like the scene. He said, ‘You’ve got to
help me rescue this movie.’” perfection? The idea that something can be
truly perfect only if there’s an imperfection in
it. We all have that, it’s what makes us human.
And it doesn’t matter if you’re playing Elizabeth
I or Bob Dylan or Mary Mapes or Carol. You’ve
got to find as many warts as you can.” 13. Is it important for her to have some affection
for the people she plays? “No, I don’t think so.
But I think that empathy is a noble cause. I
think a point of understanding is probably a
good thing. I mean, with some people it’s
harder than with others. If I was playing Donald Trump, it might be a tall order.” l
11. Blue Jasmine was a gift. Those films don’t
come along too often. All the same, she feels
that most characters present at least some form
of challenge. “Acting can be an anthropological
process,” she says. She is fascinated by the tension between how people project themselves
in public and who they become behind closed
doors; their capacity for surprising themselves
most of all. Surely there have been occasions
when a character has defeated her, when there
are simply no hidden depths to explore? How
about Galadriel, the distant, dreary elf queen
from The Lord Of The Rings? The actor snorts;
she’s not about to disown Galadriel. “Pointy
ears,” she says. “What’s not to like?” wart verrue ici, aspect déplaisant.
FINDING IMPERFECTIONS
12. Even Galadriel’s not perfect, everybody has
their flaws. “You know that eastern idea of
10. brittle fragile / to fall, fell, fallen on hard times
traverser une période difficile / ...would go on to win
Blanchett a second Oscar ...devait rapporter à C.
Blanchett un second Oscar / to shoot, shot, shot ici,
jouer (dans un film) / ...was no bed of roses ...n'a pas été
une partie de plaisir / benign doux, bienveillant /
neglect négligence / altogether du tout / awful
affreux, épouvantable / to turn
out s’avérer / location lieu (de
tournage) / to rescue sauver.
11. gift cadeau ici, aubaine /
to come, came, come
along se présenter /
challenge défi, gageure / behind closed doors ici, en
privé / to defeat vaincre, triompher de / depth
profondeur / dreary triste, morne / The Lord of the
Rings Le Seigneur des Anneaux / to snort se récrier /
to disown renier / pointy pointu / What’s not to
like? Que demander de plus ?.
12. flaw défaut /
(Noel West/The New York Times)
VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
•9
I Cinéma I
FRANCE
Focus
CANNES FILM FESTIVAL JURY
Prizewinners and jury members from the 70th Cannes Film Festival. (SIPA)
to appoint nommer, désigner / to
surround entourer / juror juré /
background origines, expérience; ici, corps
de métier / prize prix, récompense / feature
film long-métrage / to be part of faire
partie de / award prix, récompense / as
well as ainsi que.
The president of the jury at Cannes is an
internationally recognised person involved
in cinema. According to Thierry Frémaux,
the head of Cannes Film Festival, the
president must be trusted to lead a jury,
conduct debates and establish a list of
winners. Being appointed to this position
constitutes the recognition of an
exceptional career.
to be involved in être impliqué dans /
according to d’après, selon / to trust avoir
confiance en, être sûr de / to conduct
mener / position poste, fonction.
10
• VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
The 1st woman
British-American actress Olivia de Havilland is the first woman to have been
named jury president of the Cannes Film Festival, in 1965. She was a leading
movie star during the so-called Golden Age of Hollywood and featured in 49
films. She is especially famous for her portrayal of Melanie Hamilton in Gone with
the Wind (1939). She won two Best Actress Oscars for her roles in To Each His Own
(1946) and The Heiress (1949). She is now 101 years old.
(SIPA)
Cate Blanchett has been appointed to
lead the jury at Cannes Film Festival in 2018.
She will be surrounded by eight other jurors,
chosen from different nationalities and a
variety of backgrounds (authors, critics,
actors, cinema historians…). Cate
Blanchett’s jury will determine the prizes
for feature films that are part of the
“Official Selection”. They will give a total of
seven awards, including the Palme d’Or –
the most prestigious award –, as well as
Jury Prize, Best Actor, and Best Actress.
leading ici, éminent / so-called nommé, baptisé / to feature apparaître; ici, jouer
/ especially surtout / portrayal ici, interprétation / Gone with the Wind Autant
en emporte le vent / To Each His Own A chacun son destin / The Heiress L’Héritière.
The jury in numbers
9 people make up the Jury. The
choice of an odd number is to avoid
the possibility of a tie.
12 women have been a president
of the jury at Cannes since Olivia de
Havilland.
1 person had the honour of being
president of the jury twice: Jeanne
Moreau.
In 1955, the Palme d’or was
awarded for the first time. Its palm
leaf pattern is taken from the old
coat of arms of the city of Cannes.
65 directors have received the
Palme d’or.
Only 1 woman has been
awarded the Palme d’or: New
Zealand director Jane Campion,
in 1993, for her movie The Piano.
With 16 American movies
awarded the Palme d’or, the
United States has the highest
number of winners.
to make, made, made up constituer / odd ici, impair / to avoid éviter / tie ex aequo, même nombre de voix /
leaf feuille / pattern motif, forme / coat of arms armoiries / director ici, réalisateur / The Piano La Leçon de
piano.
Société
I Droits des femmes I
THE ECONOMIST
INDE
I  B2-C1
Women prepare for a day of work at the meatprocessing factories nearby, in Peepli Khera, India.
(Andrea Bruce/The New York Times)
INDIA’S GENDER GAP
REMAINS VAST
Inde : les inégalités entre les sexes ont la vie dure (gap écart, disparité)
L’Inde est sans doute l’un des pays les plus paradoxaux en ce qui concerne les droits des femmes. C’est l’un des rares pays à avoir
été gouverné par une femme ; Indira Gandhi est la deuxième femme au monde à avoir été élue démocratiquement à la tête d’un
gouvernement, en 1966. Mais certaines barrières, dues à la position des femmes dans la société et au sein même de la cellule
familiale, semblent difficilement surmontables…
P
OLICE in Haldwani, a small town
where the Gangetic Plain bumps
against the Himalayas, shrugged when Kamini
Sen lodged charges against her husband last
October. What could be more ordinary than
wife-beating and dowry extortion? The case got
hotter when the 29-year-old, who holds masters
degrees in both English and psychology, added
that her spouse had also secretly married a
younger woman. But only the final twist, revealed later when police tracked and caught
Krishna “Sweety” Sen, shocked India. The twotiming swindler, said to like cursing, smoking
1. Gangetic Plain plaine du Gange / to shrug hausser
les épaules / to lodge ici, déposer / charges ici, plainte
/ dowry dot / hot brûlant, suscitant la controverse /
master's degree master (degree diplôme) / spouse
époux(se) / twist rebondissement / to track pister,
traquer / two-timing infidèle, qui mène une double vie
/ swindler escroc, arnaqueur / to curse jurer.
and motorbikes, confessed that he was not a man
but a woman. 2. Growing numbers of Indian women are, like
Ms Sen, breaking traditional gender barriers.
India’s defence and foreign ministers are women. A woman recently stepped down as head of
its biggest bank. There have been a female
president and prime minister, as well as female
chief ministers in various states. Women are
becoming better educated, better paid and
healthier than they were. Literacy among 21-yearold women leapt, for example, from 60% in 1990
to 85% in 2011. 2. to step down démissionner / chief minister (Inde)
chef de gouvernement d'un des 29 États du pays ou des
territoires de Pondichéry ou Delhi / literacy fait de
savoir lire et écrire, instruction élémentaire / to leap,
leaped or leapt bondir.
FROM EARLY CHILDHOOD
3. Yet traditional practices still hold Indian
women back. The problem is not just specific
customs, such as the payment of dowries or
living with in-laws. Deepa Narayan, a development consultant, argues in a new book titled
Chup—meaning “be quiet” in Hindi—that women across social classes are still conditioned from
early childhood to be subservient. 4. Indian women suffer handicaps at every stage
of life, starting with birth. Although determining
the sex of a fetus has been banned since 1994,
and in spite of an intensified campaign to stress
3. early childhood tendre enfance / to hold, held,
held back entraver / in-laws beaux-parents,
belle-famille / to argue affirmer, soutenir /
subservient soumis.
4. to ban interdire / to stress mettre l’accent sur /
VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
• 11
>>>
Société
I Droits des femmes I
INDE
I  B2-C1
March on International Women's Day in New Delhi, 2018. (Manish Swarup/AP/SIPA)
>>> the value of daughters under the current prime FEMALE LITERACY
minister, Narendra Modi, parents wanting sons
have continued to find ways to abort girls. The
skewed sex ratio for newborns has not improved
since Amartya Sen, an economist, calculated 28
years ago that India had some 40m “missing
women.” In recent years it has got worse. In some
districts the sex ratio at birth has fallen below
800 girls for every 1,000 boys. to abort avorter / skewed faussé / ratio proportion,
rapport.
SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE
5. Indian officials are rightly proud of boosting
female literacy and school attendance. Gender
gaps do remain in education, though. Notably,
girls are far more likely to drop out of secondary
school than boys. Perhaps more tellingly, an
annual survey of education results for 14- to
18-year-olds, published in January, found differences in educational attainment. Whereas 82%
of boys could count money and 66% could tell
time in a simple test, the corresponding proportions for girls were 70% and 53%. 6. Although impressive numbers of Indian
women now go on to higher studies, with ever
more venturing into fields that were long male
preserves such as engineering, their efforts may
not bring similar rewards. While women with
college degrees are more likely to work than
those with just high-school certificates, the
number of them with jobs is still under 30%. In
fact, the proportion of women in the workforce
has been steadily dropping for more than a
decade, reflecting both a steep decline in farm
jobs and a preference among newly urban
families to show that their womenfolk do not
need to work. THE MARRIAGE ISSUE
7. Of all the hurdles Indian women still face, sex
and marriage may be the highest. The vast
majority of marriages are still arranged by
families, and some 94% of them among Hindus
are within the same caste. Women are expected,
by and large, to become part of the husband’s
family, and to bring along a sweetener. In-laws
can press their demands in unsubtle ways. Aside
from an annual average of around 8,000 “dowry deaths”—wives killed because they have not
coughed up enough money—recent newspaper
spouse
12
Notez que spouse veut dire "époux"
et "épouse" mais on l'utilise
uniquement comme language
formel ou dans une situation
humoristique.
5. official (haut) responsable / rightly à juste titre / to
boost accroître, augmenter / school attendance
fréquentation scolaire / to drop out abandonner (ses
études) / tellingly de façon révélatrice / survey
enquête / educational attainment niveau scolaire.
Pour présenter son mari ou sa
femme à quelqu'un on dit my
husband ou my wife.
6. impressive impressionnant / to venture
s’aventurer / preserve domaine réservé, chasse gardée
/ engineering ingénierie, génie / reward récompense
/ college degree diplôme universitaire /
• VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
workforce population active / steadily
continuellement / to drop chuter / steep ici, net,
important / farm agricole / womenfolk femmes
(d'une communauté).
7. hurdle obstacle / by and large en règle générale /
sweetener ici, compensation, cagnotte / to press
demands faire valoir des revendications / unsubtle
peu subtil, grossier / to cough up (fam.) casquer /
 facile A2-B1 /  moyen B2-C1 /  difficile C1-C2
Améliorez votre prononciation en écoutant tous les articles sur le supplément audio de lecture.
reports tell of such persuasive methods as beating with hockey sticks, stealing a kidney and
blackmailing with sex tapes.
More broadly, violence
against women in various
forms appears to be on the
increase, although this may
chiefly be the result of an increased tendency to report
such crimes. inheritance and property. But Hindu inheritance
law was only substantially reformed in 2005,
and in the patriarchal north it
is still considered proper for
sons alone to hold property
and perform religious rites.
The north also happens to be
the heartland of the ruling
Bharatiya Janata Party, which
can make it awkward for the
government to campaign too
forcefully for women’s rights. Within Indian
homes, women
are winning
more respect.
CASTE SYSTEM
8. Part of the trouble lies with
the caste system. The compartmentalisation of
society into narrow layers negates what should
be a supply-and-demand empowerment of
women due to their shrinking proportion. In
essence, women’s families still compete to ensnare the best husbands within a relatively
limited pool. The conservative Hinduism of the
northern Hindi-speaking heartland does not
help, either. In parts of the south, Hindus have
a long tradition of matriarchy.
9. By the same token, Muslim and Christian
minorities have long given women rights to
report ici, article / hockey stick crosse de hockey /
kidney rein / to blackmail faire chanter / tape ici,
enregistrement, vidéo / to report signaler, dénoncer.
8. to lie, lay, lain with être imputable à / layer
couche, strate / to negate remettre en cause /
supply-and-demand ici, lié à l'offre et la demande /
empowerment émancipation, antonomisation /
shrinking en baisse / to compete rivaliser / to
ensnare attraper, prendre au piège / pool réservoir,
contingent / heartland cœur, bastion traditionnel.
RECENT PROGRESSES
10. In important respects, however, not just
numbers but attitudes are definitely changing.
Within Indian homes, women are winning more
respect: between national health surveys in 2006
and 2016, a striking number reported stronger
participation in family decision-making. Ever
more Indian women are also voting. In the national election of 1991, 10% more men than
women voted. At the most recent election, in
2014, this gap was down to 1.5%. 11. Canny politicians such as Mr Modi have not
failed to notice, and increasingly tailor their
property bien (immobilier) / substantially
considérablement / proper correct, convenable / to
perform effectuer, pratiquer / ruling au pouvoir /
awkward gênant, délicat / forcefully énergiquement.
10. respect égard, aspect / definitely vraiment /
striking surprenant, impressionnant / to report faire
état de, déclarer.
11. canny habile, rusé / to tailor adapter /
policies accordingly. His project to equip households with cooking gas to replace solid fuel not
only saves thousands of lives that would otherwise be lost to smoke inhalation, it also directly
targets women voters. Mr Modi has also courted Muslim women by attacking “triple talaq”,
an arcane tradition long since abandoned in most
Muslim-majority countries, which permits a
man to divorce simply by saying the word three
times. 12. Female voters have helped put issues such as
public safety, underage marriage, alcohol abuse
and sanitation at the centre of national politics.
“We might be on the cusp of a real transition,”
says Yamini Aiyar of the Centre for Policy Research, a think-tank in Delhi. “From the way
people dress—rural women have dropped their
dupattas [gauzy scarves] and now wear kurtas
[long shirts] over jeans—to changing marriage
expectations, to forging a woman-centred political narrative, the pace is speeding up.” The
two-timing Ms Sen should have realised that
men can’t get away with what they used to. l
accordingly en conséquence / household foyer,
ménage / fuel combustible / to target cibler / to
court courtiser, rechercher les faveurs de / arcane
mystérieux.
12. underage (des) mineur(e)(s) / sanitation hygiène
publique / on the cusp of à l'aube de / think-tank
groupe de réflexion, laboratoire d'idées / to drop
abandonner / gauzy en gaze, en tissu fin / scarf étole,
foulard / expectation attente / narrative ici, vision
des choses / pace rythme / to speed, speeded or
sped, speeded or sped up s'accélérer / to get, got,
got away with s’en tirer (impunément).
9. by the same token de la même manière /
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VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
• 13
Société
I Idéologie I
ROYAUME-UNI
I  B2-C1
NIVEAU BASIQUE ET AVANCÉ DU SUPPLÉMENT SONORE
Edimbourg
Nikki Slade Robinson et Jim Robinson nous expliquent comment ils
recyclent et réparent tout chez eux depuis des années.
CD audio ou téléchargement MP3
Reading
THE GUARDIAN
KATE LYONS
THE REPAIR
CAFES AGAINST
THROWAWAY
CULTURE
Les repair cafés mènent une guerre
contre la culture du gaspillage
Volunteer repairman Ted Haubrich fixes a mixer at the Lincoln
Repair Cafe, in Nebraska, United States. (Calla Kessler/AP/SIPA)
Chaque année, nous produisons entre 3,4 et 4 milliards de tonnes de déchets, à
l’échelle mondiale. Avec l’apparition du web marketing et le développement des
stratégies d’obsolescence programmée, on observe depuis quelques années une
hausse globale de la consommation de biens industriels. Au Royaume-Uni, des
citoyens opposés au modèle de la société de consommation ont décidé d’agir…
A
vacuum cleaner, a hair straightener, a
laptop, Christmas lights, an e-reader, a
blender, a kettle, two bags, a pair of jeans, a remotecontrol helicopter, a spoon, a dining-room chair,
a lamp and hair clippers. All broken. It sounds like
a pile of things that you’d stick in boxes and take
to the tip. In fact, it’s a list of things mended in a
1. vacuum cleaner aspirateur / hair straightener fer à
lisser / laptop ordinateur portable / blender mixeur / kettle
bouilloire / remote-control ici, télécommandé / hair
clippers tondeuse / to sound like ressembler à / to stick,
stuck, stuck entreposer, mettre / to take, took, taken ici,
emmener / tip décharge, déchetterie / to mend réparer /
14
• VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
single afternoon by British volunteers determined
to get people to stop throwing stuff away.
COMBATTING THE “THROWAWAY
CULTURE”
ing a world of stuff, of white goods littering dumps
in west Africa and trash swilling through the
oceans in huge gyres. The hair clippers belong to
William, who does not want to give his surname
but cheerfully describes himself as “mechanically
incompetent”. He has owned them for 25 years, but
10 years ago they stopped working and they have
been sitting unused in his cupboard ever since. 3. He sits down at the table of Colin Haycock, an
IT professional who volunteers at the repair cafe,
2. This is the Reading Repair Cafe, part of a bur-
geoning international network aimed at confront-
single seul / volunteer bénévole / to get, got, got sb to
amener qn à / to throw, threw, thrown stuff away ici,
gaspiller.
2. network réseau / to be aimed at viser à / to confront ici,
lutter contre /
world of stuff société de consommation / white goods
électroménager / to litter joncher (de détritus) / dump
décharge / trash déchets / to swill (through) ici,
tourbillonner / huge (très) grand / gyre tourbillon / to
belong to appartenir à / surname nom de famille /
cheerfully gaiement; ici, volontiers / to own posséder / to
work ici, fonctionner / to sit, sat, sat ici, se trouver, être
entreposé / cupboard placard / ever since depuis lors.
3. IT = information technology informatique /
 facile A2-B1 /  moyen B2-C1 /  difficile C1-C2
Retrouvez plus d’infos sur www.vocable.fr
which has been running monthly for about four
years and is a place where people can bring all
manner of household items to be fixed for free. In
less than five minutes, Haycock has unscrewed
and removed the blades, cleaned out some gunk
from inside the machine, oiled the blades, and
screwed it all back together. The clippers purr happily.William looks sheepish; Haycock looks pleased.
“I wish they were all that simple,” he says. manufacturers design products to break down
after a certain amount of time and are often difficult or expensive to fix. In December, Apple admitted to slowing older models of phones, though
it claimed it did this for operational not obsolescence reasons. A POLITICAL ACT
7. Repair cafe volunteer Stuart Ward says that when
from going to landfill and save 284kg of CO2. Some
items can’t be fixed on the spot – notably a hunting
horn split in two, which requires soldering with a
blow torch – but very little needs to be thrown
away. fixing items is actively discouraged by manufacturers, repair becomes a political act. He is vehement
about the “right to repair”, a movement opposed to
the practices of companies like the machinery
company John Deere, which, under copyright laws,
doesn’t allow people to fix their own equipment or
take them to independent repairers. A HUGE WASTE
8. Teaching people how to fix their own gear is at
4. Today, the repairers will divert 24kg of waste
5. Gabrielle Stanley, who used to run a clothing
alterations business, says she was drawn to volunteering at the repair cafe to combat the “throwaway
culture” she sees. “You go into certain stores...” - she
throws a dark look - “how they can sell clothes for
that price, when I couldn’t even buy the fabric for
that much? And then you hear about things that
happen [in the factories] in the far east.” 6. An estimated 300,000 tonnes of clothing was
sent to landfill in the UK in 2016 and a report from
Wrap puts the average lifespan for a piece of clothing in the UK at 3.3 years. Globally, the amount of
e-waste generated is expected to hit 50m tonnes
by the end of 2018. This is partly driven by consumers’ eagerness for new products, but there are also
concerns about built-in obsolescence, in which
to run, ran, run ici, opérer / about environ / place endroit /
all manner of household items n'importe quel appareil
électroménager / to fix ici, réparer / for free gratuitement /
to unscrew dévisser / to remove retirer / blade lame / to
clean out ici, retirer / gunk saleté(s), poussière(s) / to screw
sth all back together revisser toutes les pièces, réassembler
/ to purr ronronner; ici, (bien) fonctionner / happily ici,
parfaitement / to look avoir l'air / sheepish gêné.
up in landfill. But the Remakery is unique in that,
unlike much of the repair movement, which is
volunteer-led, it is a viable business, employing 11
staff and 10 freelancers. Last year the shop had an
income of £236,000 – 30% from grants, 70% generated through sales of furniture and electronics,
workshops and repair appointments. 11. The financial viability of the shop makes it at-
tractive as a model. In the last year, Sophie Unwin,
the co-founder of the Remakery in Brixton and the
founder of Edinburgh Remakery is setting up the
Remakery network to replicate the work internationally. She has had 53 inquiries from groups interested in setting up similar enterprises in the US,
New Zealand, Canada, South Korea, Austria, Ireland, Germany, Australia and elsewhere in the UK. the heart of the Edinburgh Remakery, a store on
the main street of Leith that is part repair shop,
part secondhand store, part repair education centre.
“We do the repair in front of a customer, not out
in the back, not hidden,” says Sotiris Katsimbas,
the lead IT technician at the Remakery. To do this,
Katsimbas and his team conduct one-to-one IT
repair appointments for a small fee, as do their
colleagues who specialise in sewing and furniture
repairs. 12. The network will provide toolkits and advice to
9. “It’s a matter of confidence. It’s not magic. Some-
to end up se retrouver / unlike contrairement à, à la
différence de / to lead, led, led mener / freelancer
(travailleur) indépendant / income ici, recettes / grant
subvention / through grâce à / workshop atelier.
one put it together, someone can take it apart, you
only need a Phillips screwdriver and some knowledge,” says Katsimbas as he shows Daniel Turner
how to open up his laptop so he can clean out the
fluff and dust that is causing the machine to overheat. A NEW BUSINESS MODEL?
10. Since it opened in 2012, the Remakery has di-
verted 205 tonnes of waste that would have ended
manufacturer fabricant / to design concevoir, mettre au
point; ici, programmer / to break, broke, broken down
tomber en panne / to admit reconnaître / though bien que /
to claim affirmer, déclarer.
4. to divert détourner, éviter / waste déchets / landfill
décharge / to save ici, faire économiser / on the spot sur
place/le champ / notably notamment / hunting horn cor
de chasse / to split, split, split fendre / to solder souder /
blowtorch lampe à souder, chalumeau.
7. law loi, législation / to allow autoriser (aussi, permettre) /
own propre, personnel / to take, took, taken sth to
amener qch à; ici, faire réparer qch par.
5. used to sert à marquer une distinction nette entre le passé
et le présent, à indiquer qu'une action passée n'est plus
d'actualité / to run, ran, run ici, diriger / alteration retouche
/ business ici, entreprise / to draw, drew, drawn ici, attirer,
tenter / even même / fabric tissu / to happen se passer /
factory usine / (the) Far East (l')Extrême-Orient.
8. gear équipement, matériel / secondhand d’occasion /
customer client / out in the back à l'arrière du magasin,
dans l'atelier, à l'abri des regards / lead principal, en chef / to
conduct ici, organiser / one-to-one (en) face à face; ici,
individuel, personnalisé / appointment rendez-vous / fee
tarif, coût / sewing couture / furniture (inv.) (de) meubles.
6. report rapport, étude / to put, put, put ici, estimer /
average moyen / lifespan durée de vie / piece of clothing
vêtement / globally dans le monde / amount quantité / to
expect s’attendre à, prévoir / to hit, hit, hit ici, atteindre / to
be driven by ici, être dû à / eagerness avidité / concern
préoccupation / built-in intégré; ici, programmé /
9. matter question / confidence confiance / to put, put,
put sth together assembler qch / to take, took, taken sth
apart démonter qch / screwdriver tournevis / fluff ici,
poussière(s) / dust poussière / to cause avoir pour
conséquence / to overheat surchauffer.
groups who want to recreate what she has done in
Edinburgh. Unwin hopes that these resources will
allow other groups to do in two years what it has
taken eight years of trial and error and extremely
hard graft to achieve. For repairers, fixing things
is a way of doing something about an obsession
with consumerism that Unwin calls “a kind of
sickness in society”. l
11. to make, made, made ici, rendre / co-founder
cofondateur / to set, set, set up mettre en place / to
replicate reproduire / inquiry demande de renseignements.
12. to provide fournir, remettre / toolkit trousse à outils /
advice (inv.) conseils / trial and error tâtonnements,
méthode consistant à apprendre de ses erreurs (trial essai,
tentative) / hard graft dur labeur / to achieve réussir, faire /
kind sorte / sickness maladie, mal.
SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE
Un peu de DIY ou Do-ItYourself (bricolage) !
to repair, to fix to mend réparer
workshop atelier
toolkit boîte à outils
a screwdriver un tournevis
to screw, to unscrew visser, dévisser
to solder souder
a blow torch, blow lamp lampe à
souder
to take apart démonter
to put together rassembler
10. business model modèle économique /
VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018 • 15
À 360°
Retrouvez plus d’infos sur www.vocable.fr
(SIPA)
Le tour du monde en V.O.
(IStock)
Emotional return
Culture clash
French waiter, Guillaume Rey, who worked at a Vancouver restaurant between
October 2016 and August 2017, has filed a complaint with British Colombia’s Human Rights Tribunal against his former employer after being dismissed for his
“aggressive, rude and disrespectful” behaviour. Guillaume Rey claimed he was
discriminated against because of his culture. He said his former colleagues didn’t
understand his “direct, honest and professional personality,” which he acquired
when working in the hospitality industry in France. His former employer tried to
have the complaint dismissed, but a tribunal member rejected the plea, so the
case will go ahead.
Nobel Peace Prize winner Malala Yousafza,
who was shot by Pakistani Taliban militants
in 2012 for championing girls’ education and
who has since lived in Britain, has made a
surprise four-day trip to her home country in
April. It was the first time the young activist
has returned to Pakistan since the shooting.
She was received by members of the
Pakistani government and made a powerful
televised speech, in which she said she
would continue to fight for girls’ access to
education.
return retour / Nobel Peace Prize prix Nobel de
la Paix / to shoot, shot, shot ici, blesser par balle
/ to champion défendre, promouvoir / home ici,
natal / activist militant.
(SIPA)
waiter serveur / to file a complaint porter plainte / former ancien / to dismiss ici, licencier; aussi, rejeter / rude
impoli / behaviour comportement, attitude, conduite / to claim affirmer, prétendre / hospitality hôtellerie /
plea appel / case affaire / to go, went, gone ahead suivre son cours.
New political party
Greek ex-Finance Minister Yanis Varoufakis
has launched a new political party in Greece:
MeRA25. His goal is to organize a panEuropean movement by 2025 that will
overturn the European establishment and
release Greece from “debt bondage”. Many
Greeks blame Varoufakis for what they
consider a poor handling of the negotiations
with the EU in 2015, which led to a third bailout
loan, with more austerity terms for Greece.
(SIPA)
to launch lancer, créer / pan-European à l’échelle
européenne / by ici, d’ici (à) / to overturn renverser /
establishment classes dirigeantes, autorités / to
release libérer, sortir / debt dette / bondage
esclavage, servitude / to blame sb for sth imputer
qch à qn, tenir qn pour responsable de qch / poor ici,
mauvais / handling gestion / to lead, led, led to
conduire à / bailout sauvetage (financier) / loan prêt
/ terms conditions, modalités.
16
• VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
Bikes ban
Prague will soon ban cyclists from some
parts of the city’s historic centre. The ban, to
be implemented in the next few weeks, was
established by Prague 1 municipality in order
to protect tourists. Cyclists will be banned
from famous pedestrianised zones such as
the Old Town Square and parts of
Wenceslas Square, between 10am and 5pm.
“In a pedestrian zone, priority should be
given to pedestrians, not cyclists,”
legislators said. Pro-bike groups and some
of the city’s other administrative districts
have denounced this step.
ban interdiction / to implement mettre en
application / in order to afin de / pedestrianised
piétonnier / such as tel(les) que / square place /
step mesure, décision.
www.vocable.fr
PRATIC’ABLE
Vocabulaire, expressions et astuces pour parler comme un Anglais…
AUGUSTIN HABRAN
Le 1er mai
Si offrir un brin de muguet le jour du 1er mai reste une tradition
bien française, la lutte pour les conditions de travail s’inscrit,
quant à elle, dans un mouvement international. Voici quelques
mots et expressions qui complèteront votre vocabulaire.
Vocabulaire clé
anarchist anarchiste
anger, wrath colère
megaphone, loud hailer
porte-voix, mégaphone
armband brassard
mob foule
banner banderole
reform réforme
boss patron
representative
représentant
CEO PDG
rest repos
closed fermé
riot émeute
demand, claim
revendication
strike grève
demonstration
manifestation
trade union syndicat
communism communisme riot police CRS
sprig brin
day-off jour de repos
employee employé(e)
struggle lutte
trade-unionist
syndicaliste
employment law droit du
travail
unemployment chômage
leader dirigeant
wage, salary, pay salaire
lilly of the valley muguet
lucky charm portebonheur
march marche, défilé (n),
défiler (v)
violence violence
whistle sifflet
worker ouvrier, travailleur
working conditions
conditions de travail
Bon à savoir
Egalement connu sous le nom de International Workers’ Day
ou Labour Day, la date du premier mai a été choisie pour
commémorer l’action lancée le 1er mai 1884 par les syndicalistes
américains pour obtenir la limitation de la journée de travail à
huit heures. La grève qui s’ensuivit fut d’ampleur nationale.
Cependant, le 1er mai n’est pas un jour férié aux États-Unis. Au
Royaume-Uni, c’est le premier lundi de mai qui est férié.
La manifestation syndicale n’est pas aussi présente dans la
culture anglo-saxonne que dans la culture française. Les
grandes manifestations de ce type aux États-Unis et au
Royaume-Uni sont plutôt rares.
Retrouvez cette fiche de vocabulaire lue sur le CD
lecture et son commentaire sur la partie basique
du CD conversation.
CD audio ou téléchargement MP3
Expressions à retenir
The employees have been on strike for days. Les employés
sont en grève depuis plusieurs jours.
The negotiations might lead to an agreement. Les
négociations pourraient mener à un accord.
The demonstration gathered thousands of people. La
manifestation a rassemblé des milliers de personnes.
The reform has made many trade-unionists angry. La
réforme a causé la colère de nombreux syndicalistes.
Violence erupted during the march. Des violences sont
survenues lors du défilé.
Testez-vous
Trouvez l’intrus dans chacune des listes
suivantes :
1) a- demonstration b- rest c- riot d- march
2) a- agreement b- struggle c- claim d- demand
3) a- violence b- fight c- charge d- peaceful gathering
4) a- tear gas b- banner c- baton d- stun gun
5) a- luck b- union c- employement law d- conditions
SOLUTIONS : 1-b ; 2-a ; 3-d ; 4-b ; 5-a.
capitalism capitalisme
(ISTOCK)
bank holiday (GB), holiday negotiation négociation
(US) jour férié, jour chômé protest protestation
VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
• 17
PRATIC’ABLE / Grammaire
JOAN GREENWOOD
Les comparatifs
Piqûre de rappel
 Adjectifs
d’une syllabe  ajoutez “er”
qui se terminent en “y”  remplacer “y” par “i” et ajouter “er”
de 2 syllabes ou plus  utilisez “more”
 Comparatifs irréguliers :
bad/worse/the worst
much/more/the most
far/farther ou further/the farthest ou the furthest,
good/better/the best
 Pour faire des comparaisons, utilisez :
“than”, “as...as”, “not as ...as”
 Utilisez “more” devant les adverbes
1 Formulez des comparaisons en complétant
les phrases à l’aide des mots entre
parenthèses.
1. T
he Opening of Parliament is one of ........... .....................
ceremonies in Britain. (old)
2. I am not paid ........... ..................... ........... you. (much)
3. This is ........... ................... ......................... place I’ve ever seen.
(beautiful)
4. M
y sister is ........... ..................... cook in the world. (not good)
5. If you work ..................... you’ll finish ..................... . (hard / fast)
6. T
his one is ........... ................... ......................... of the three.
(expensive)
7. How much ......................... do we have to go? (far)
de chaque groupe les mots dans le bon ordre.
2
1
famous
London
than
other
5
no
one
each
is
it
people
murderer
is
more
as
world’s
take
Jack the Ripper
of
million
as
the
tours
explore
year
3
Ripper
with
is
more
tour
the
women
popular
best
foot
to
a
8. Abbey Road claims to be .................... ..................... .................
any other recording studio in the world. (known)
9. T
he ........... .............. ..................... classical composer of his day,
Sir Edward Elgar, recorded there. (famous)
10. I t has been used to record music for some of the screen’s
............. ..................... films. (successful)
SOLUTIONS : 1. the oldest 2. as much as 3. the most beautiful 4. the worst
5. harder / faster 6. the most expensive 7. further ou farther 8. better known than
9. the most famous 10. most successful
2 Trouvez des comparaisons en replaçant au sein
4
than
has
cities
more
on
grisly
its
London
share
crimes
of
SOLUTIONS : 1. No other murderer is as famous as Jack the Ripper. 2. More than a million people
take London tours each year. 3. The Ripper tour is more popular with women. 4. London has
more than its share of grisly crimes. 5. It is one of the world’s best cities to explore on foot.
18
• VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
Retrouvez Yves Cotten sur et-compagnie.blogspot.fr
/ Prononciation & Orthographe
Retrouvez plus d’infos sur www.vocable.fr
Soignez votre orthographe !
Le saviez-vous ?
1
Trouvez les erreurs.
L’expression
Quels sont les quatre mots qui se terminent en “-efy” et non en “-ify” ?
“knocked for six”
crucify pacify exemplify liquify glorify
(voir l’expression idiomatique
page 7) est une expression
putrify petrify rarify
empruntée à l’un des sports
stupify solidify modify rectify
préférés des Anglais – le
cricket !
SOLUTIONS : liquefy, putrefy, rarefy, stupefy
Ce sport nous donne
2
également :
Tendez l’oreille
a sticky wicket une situation
Dans cet exercice, chaque mot contient le son “aw” comme dans “saw”.
difficile
1
(wicket = les guichets et le
2
3 terrain entre les deux
5
4 guichets)
7
(sticky = difficile)
11
to be stumped sécher, ne
pas avoir de réponse
6 8 1. W
atch the weather ……………………….
to see if it’s going to rain
2. He’s very rich.
9 He’s not ……………….
3. Remember
4. M
ake a sketch with a pencil
5. To enforce …………… and order
10
6. T
he opposite of peace
7. Oil is one of the world’s natural ……………………
8. Not interesting
9. L ock the ................ before you leave
10. t o spread out
11. I always have …………………..flakes for breakfast
12. H
it the ……………. over the net
(the stump = le piquet)
(to stump = éliminer le joueur
12
en faisant tomber le piquet)
it’s not cricket cela ne se fait
pas, ce n’est pas correct
... le summum de l’étiquette
britannique !!
sur www.vocable.fr
Retrouvez beaucoup plus d'exercices de
grammaire, d'orthographe et de culture
générale sur notre site internet !
VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
• 19
SOLUTIONS :1. forecast, 2. poor, 3. recall, 4. draw, 5. law, 6. war, 7. resources, 8. boring, 9. door, 10. sprawl, 11. corn,
12. ball
PRATIC’ABLE / Vocabulaire
www.vocable.fr
Jeux de mots
1
A retenir
U
tilisez les mots ou terminaisons de l’encadré jaune pour
compléter chaque mot.
5 mots à mémoriser
dans ce numéro
itiveness
vacuum cleaner aspirateur
killer
itively
remote-control
télécommande
ful
laptop PC portable
pain…………...
compet…………...
itor
hair clippers tondeuse
pain…………...
compet…………...
ness
kettle bouilloire
pain…………...
compet…………...
felt
pain…………...
compet…………...
itive
less
kind……………
heart……………
heartedness
kind……………
heart……………
less
kind……………
heart……………
staking
kind……………
heart……………
hearted
ly
ily
breaking
SOLUTIONS :
painful competitor kind-heartedheartless
painlesscompetitive kindness
heartily
painkiller competitivenesskindly
heartfelt
painstakingcompetitively kindheartednessheartbreaking
2
Complétez ce texte avec le vocabulaire proposé.
subservient in-laws childhood be quiet
conditioned classes dowries
hold back argues customs
Traditional practices still ................... Indian women ................... . The problem is
not just specific …………....………, such as the payment of ……....………….or living
with ……………....….. . Deepa Narayan, a development consultant, ................... in
a new book titled Chup—meaning “.... ............... ” in Hindi—that women across
social ...................are still ................... from early ................... to be ................... .
L'expression idiomatique
“Virginal Therese is
knocked for six and falls
in love”
(page 7 § 3)
to be knocked for six recevoir
un choc brutal
D’autres expressions
comportant des chiffres :
to be all sixes and sevens être
dans tous ses états
six of one and half a dozen of
the other blanc bonnet et
bonnet blanc
to be on cloud nine être au
septième ciel
to dress up to the nines se
mettre sur son trente et un
he talks nineteen to the
dozen c’est un vrai moulin à
paroles
two wrongs don’t make a
right on ne répare pas une
injustice par une autre
SOLUTIONS : hold ... back, customs, dowries, in-laws, argues, be quiet, classes, conditioned, childhood,
subservient
Ne manquez pas dans le prochain numéro la nouvelle page PRATIC’ABLE : Les sucreries
20
• VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
Enjeux
I Politique I
NOUVELLE-ZÉLANDE
I  B2-C1
NIVEAU BASIQUE ET AVANCÉ DU
SUPPLÉMENT SONORE
SUPPLÉMENT VIDÉO
Pourquoi Jacinda Ardern a-t-elle
interdit aux spéculateurs étrangers
d'acheter une maison en NouvelleZélande? Découvrez le reportage sur
www.vocable.fr/videos-anglais
Les Néo-Zélandais Nikki Slade Robinson et Jim
Robinson nous parlent de l'amour et des espoirs
qu'ils ont pour leur pays.
CD audio ou téléchargement MP3 (sur abonnement)
LOS ANGELES TIMES JESSICA MEYERS
‘JACINDAMANIA’ IN NEW
ZEALAND
La "Jacindamania" déferle sur la Nouvelle-Zélande
Jacinda Ardern a fait couler beaucoup d’encre depuis qu’elle a pris les rênes du Labour Party, puis a été élue Première Ministre de
Nouvelle-Zélande le 26 octobre dernier. Elle n’est pas seulement la plus jeune dirigeante du pays depuis 1856, elle est aussi la
première dirigeante néo-zélandaise à avoir un enfant pendant son mandat. Retour sur un engouement sans précédent pour une
figure politique…
W
ELLINGTON, New Zealand
— New Zealanders call their
seat of power the Beehive, a sparkle of Kiwi
humor for a spiralling concrete building that
looks exactly as it sounds. On the ninth floor,
the country’s leader greets visitors in an
unassuming office with posters of women
in wartime and a view of the Wellington
harbor. “I’m Jacinda,” she says, extending her
hand. A MOVIE-WORTHY RISE
2. The calm belies a movie-worthy first 100
days for Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern,
who in October, at 37, became the world’s
youngest female leader. Ardern took control
after jumping into the race seven weeks
before the vote. She formed a coalition government of rivals, akin to Bernie Sanders
sharing power with Ted Cruz. Then, in
January, Ardern announced her pregnancy
— which means this year she’ll become the
only elected world leader besides the late
Jacinda Ardern takes a selfie with school children during a visit to Christchurch, a couple of months before
the general election. (Mark Baker/AP/SIPA)
Pakistan Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto to
give birth in office. 3. She rose to power on a platform of positivity
1. seat of power ici, siège du Parlement / beehive ruche /
sparkle ici, touche, note / Kiwi surnom des habitants de
N.-Z., d'après le nom de l'oiseau éponyme / spiralling en
forme de spirale / concrete (en) béton / to greet
accueillir / unassuming simple, sans prétention /
wartime en temps de guerre / harbor (US) = harbour
(GB) port / to extend tendre.
2. movie-worthy digne d'un film / rise ascension / to
belie démentir, contredire / to jump into se lancer dans /
race course, ici élection / akin analogue à / pregnancy
grossesse / besides outre / late défunt(e) /
and optimism, more in line with Canadian
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau than President
Donald Trump. It’s not just her age or pregnancy that has sparked the rush of adulation
known as “Jacindamania.” It’s her message.
Ardern offers a vision of hope for liberal democracy in a region where those values face a resurgent threat and America’s role is shrinking. PRECARIOUS TIMES
Ardern begins her tenure at a precarious
time for the Asia-Pacific region, and the world.
China — New Zealand’s largest trading part4.
in office au pouvoir.
to face être confronté à / resurgent recrudescent /
threat menace / to shrink, shrank, shrunk régresser.
3. platform programme (électoral) / in line with dans le
droit fil de / to spark déclencher / rush ici, bouffée, essor /
4. tenure ici, mandat / trading partner partenaire
commercial /
VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
• 21
>>>
Enjeux
I Politique I
NOUVELLE-ZÉLANDE
>>> ner — just announced it would abolish term
limits, setting up President Xi Jinping to stay
in power indefinitely and wield greater control. Strongman leaders in the Philippines and
Cambodia threaten to unravel fledgling democracies. Trump has pulled the U.S. out of a
global climate change agreement and the
massive trade deal known as the Trans-Pacific Partnership. 5. When Trump met Ardern at a summit in
Vietnam in November, he noted that her surprise
win caused “a lot of upset in her country.” She
chuckled and replied: “No one marched when I
was elected.” Ardern has helped
craft a new version of the trade
deal. She trumpets the need to
combat climate change and is
reinforcing the country’s commitment to reduce nuclear weapons internationally. “We feel
quite proud that she is leading us,
in comparison to the rest of the
world,” said Ruby Topzand, 22, a
communications student at Massey University’s Wellington campus. “She’s the rebellion.” I  B2-C1
7. Neither side won enough seats for a major-
ity government, so the decision about the
country’s future came down to the grouchy,
anti-immigration leader of the New Zealand
First party, Winston Peters. (He became deputy prime minister and foreign minister as
part of the deal.) Ardern, whose partner is
fishing show host Clarke Gayford, discovered
she was pregnant six days before learning she
would become New Zealand’s third female
prime minister. 8. “I certainly didn’t set out to necessarily do
any of these things in this order,” said Ardern,
flashing one of her wide, trademark smiles. “But I’m determined that people see that the
trade-offs that women have
been asked to make in the past
don’t have to be.” Her new role
has drawn global attention to
this former British colony: a
congratulatory letter from
Hillary Clinton, a Vogue photo
shoot, an Australian interviewer who wanted to discuss her
baby’s conception. Her new role
has drawn
global
attention to
this former
British
colony.
A SURPRISE VICTORY
6. Ardern wasn’t even supposed to be in the
election — at least not this one. Last March,
she took over as deputy leader of the Labor
Party. By July, its head, Andrew Little, announced his resignation amid record-low poll
ratings. That left Ardern to dive in mid-race
and duke out a victory for Labor against the
conservative, longtime incumbent National
Party. Ardern’s slogan sprang from one of her
social media sign-offs: “Let’s do this.” term ici, mandat (présidentiel) / to set, set, set up ici,
ouvrir la possibilité (à) / to wield exercer / strongman ici,
dirigeant autoritaire / to unravel ici, mettre en péril, saper
/ fledgling jeune, tout nouveau / Trans-Pacific
Partnership (TPP) traité multilatéral de libre-échange
(fév. 2016) qui vise à intégrer les économies des régions
Asie-Pacifique et Amérique.
5. to note (faire) remarquer / upset bouleversement,
surprise / to chuckle glousser, rire doucement / to march
ici, manifester / to craft élaborer, concocter / to trumpet
affirmer haut et fort / commitment engagement.
6. to take, took, taken over ici, prendre le relais /
deputy leader chef adjointe / Labor (US) = Labour
(GB) Party Parti travailliste / resignation démission /
amid ici, dans un contexte (de) / poll ratings cote de
popularité dans les sondages / to dive ici, se lancer / in
mid-race en milieu de campagne / to duke out (US) ici,
arracher / longtime depuis longtemps / incumbent ici,
au pouvoir / to spring, sprang, sprung from venir de /
sign-off ici, (phrase de) conclusion.
22
• VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE
"New Zealanders call
their seat of power the
Beehive" (§ 1) la ruche.
On peut supposer que le nom a été
choisi, non seulement à cause de la
structure architecturale, mais
également en raison de l'activité qui
s’y passe :
to be as busy as a bee débordant
d'activité
ou bien encore :
she's the queen bee c'est elle qui
commande
it's the bee's knees c'est extra, c'est
super
D’autres expressions un peu plus
imagées :
to have a bee in one's bonnet avoir
une idée fixe
like bees round a honeypot comme
des mouches sur un pot de confiture
he thinks he's the bee's knees il se
croit sorti de la cuisse de Jupiter
CAPTURING THE IMAGINATION
OF WOMEN
Curtin, a University of Auckland professor
who researches women in politics. piercing and occasionally DJs. She won fans
worldwide when, during the campaign, a radio
show host asked whether she planned on having children. Ardern said she could respond,
but pointed a finger at him. “For other women,
it is totally unacceptable in 2017 to say that
women should have to answer that question
in the workplace,” she said. People started
crafting tote bags and internet memes. Jacindamania had begun. “She’s captured the imagination of a lot of women out there who
might have political ambitions,” said Jennifer
PROBLEMS TO SOLVE
9. Ardern is a Scotch lover, used to have a nose
7. seat siège (au Parlement) / to come, came, come
down to échoir à / grouchy maussade, grognon /
partner compagnon / show émission / host
présentateur.
8. to set, set, set out to ici, avoir l'intention de / to flash
ici, décocher / trademark ici, caractéristique / trade-off
compromis / to draw, drew, drawn attirer /
congratulatory de félicitations / photo shoot séance
photo.
9. scotch scotch (whisky écossais) / to DJ officier comme
DJ (disc jockey) / to point a finger at sb ici, réprimander
qqn / to craft confectionner / tote bag grand sac,
fourre-tout / meme mème (phrase, élément ou concept
repris et décliné à grande échelle sur Internet) /
10. New Zealand, with a population under 5
million and incredible natural beauty, is often
cast as paradise at the bottom of the world.
But Ardern faces a less serene reality. Housing
prices rank among the highest in the world.
Homelessness is the worst among developed
countries. Signs on farmhouses warn against
child abuse. Ardern named inequality and
child poverty as priorities for her administration. As one of her first deal-making moves,
Ardern outlined a plan to ban foreign home
buyers. She said it followed through on a
promise to lower soaring property prices and
equalize opportunity. l
to research effectuer des recherches (sur).
10. to be cast as ici, être présenté comme / to face
devoir faire face à / housing (de l')immobilier / to rank se
classer, figurer / homelessness ici, proportion de
personnes sans abri / sign panneau, affiche / farmhouse
corps de ferme / to warn against sth mettre en garde
contre qqch / child abuse maltraitance des enfants /
administration gouvernement / deal-making (de)
négociation / move geste, initiative / to outline exposer
(à grands traits) / to follow through on faire suite à /
soaring en très forte hausse / property (de l') immobilier
/ to equalize niveler, égaliser.
 facile A2-B1 /  moyen B2-C1 /  difficile C1-C2
Enjeux
I Economie I
CANADA
I  B2-C1
The Canadian government will
financially help firms working
on food protein.
(Patrick Aventurier/SIPA)
THE ECONOMIST
WHAT'S NEXT
FOR CANADA'S
ECONOMY
Que va devenir
l'économie canadienne?
Alors que les Etats-Unis, principal partenaire commercial du Canada, sont en train d’imposer leurs exigences dans le cadre des
renégociations de l’accord de libre-échange nord américain et viennent d’imposer des droits de douanes prohibitifs sur l’acier et
l’aluminium, l’économie canadienne semble en mauvaise posture. Comment le gouvernement canadien compte-t-il redynamiser
l’économie du pays ?
E
VERYBODY thinks this is a 50-pound
sack of seeds,” says Steven Fabijanski as he hefts a large white bag onto a table.
“Actually, it’s 8,000 litres of jet fuel.” That is
what Agrisoma Biosciences, the company Mr
Fabijanski runs in Quebec, plans to make
from the bagful of carinata, or Ethiopian
mustard seed. 2. Biofuel looks like an industry of the future
in a country that depends on those of the
past. Oil and vehicles, Canada’s two biggest
exports, are both declining, and may continue to do so. Oil from Alberta’s tar sands is
expensive to produce. The United States, by
far its biggest foreign customer, is fracking
more and importing less. Car manufacturing
has never fully recovered from a recession
in the United States in 2008. 1. pound livre (453,6 grammes) / to heft soulever,
hisser / actually en fait/réalité / jet fuel kérosène / to
run, ran, run ici, diriger / to plan to projeter de /
bagful sac (plein) / mustard seed graine de
moutarde.
2. to look like ressembler à, donner l’impression de /
oil pétrole / export exportation, produit exporté /
both ici, toutes les deux / so ici, ainsi, de même / tar
sands sables bitumineux / by far de loin / foreign
étranger / customer client / fracking fracturation
hydraulique / manufacturing fabrication,
construction / to recover from se remettre de, se
rétablir suite à.
THE TRUMP THREAT
A METHODICAL APPROACH
Canadians worry that things will get worse.
No one knows what will come out of the
renegotiation demanded by Mr Trump of the
North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with the United States and Mexico, under
which the trade in vehicles takes place. Businessmen also worry about the new American
tax law, which slashes the tax on corporate
profits from 35% to 21%, below the average
Canadian rate of 26.7%. Jack Mintz, an economist, has called it a “tax tsunami” for Canada. This comes on top of other discouragements to growth. The workforce is shrinking
as ageing baby-boomers retire. Economists
worry that consumers, who have built up
record levels of debt, will spend less as interest rates rise. when Bill Morneau, the finance minister,
presented the government’s budget in parlia-
3. With Donald Trump in the White House,
3. threat menace / to get, got, got worse empirer /
to come, came, come out of ressortir de (fig.) / to
demand exiger, imposer / NAFTA = North American
Free Trade Agreement ALENA (accord de libre-échange
nord-américain) / under which... takes place qui
régit... / tax law droit fiscal / to slash réduire
(considérablement) / corporate d'entreprise,
commercial / profit bénéfice / below en dessous/deçà
de / average moyen / rate taux / to come, came,
come survenir, tomber (fig.) / on top of en plus de /
discouragement ici, frein / growth croissance /
workforce main-d’œuvre, population active / to
shrink, shrank, shrunk diminuer / to retire partir à la
retraite / consumer consommateur / to build, built,
built up accumuler / debt dette(s) / to spend, spent,
spent dépenser / to rise, rose, risen augmenter.
4. These gloomy expectations were in the air
4. gloomy pessimiste / expectation prévision /
SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE
"Mind the gap !"
(attention à la marche
en descendant du
train).
Cette expression est bien connue de
tous ceux qui circulent en métro à
Londres, le gap étant l'espace entre
le train et le quai.
Mais on parle également de :
pay gap (§ 5) les inégalités de salaires
gender gap (voir l'article India's
gender gap) les inégalités entre
hommes et femmes
generation gap le conflit des
générations
ou bien
a gap between teeth un écart entre
les dents
a gap in the clouds une trouée dans
les nuages
a gap in one's timetable un trou
dans son emploi du temps
VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
• 23
>>>
Enjeux
Améliorez votre prononciation en écoutant tous les articles sur le supplément audio de lecture.
>>> ment on February 27th. Business-people were TRADING WITH MORE COUNhoping he would give the economy a quick TRIES
boost, perhaps by reducing taxes to match 6. More appealing to the Liberal government
Mr Trump’s corporate cut or with a dose of is the idea of trading more with countries
deregulation. Mr Morneau disappointed besides the United States. The value of forthem. The budget coneign trade is equivalent
tinues the governto 64% of Canada’s GDP.
ment’s methodical apThe United States buys
Tomorrow’s winners
proach to fixing the
three-quarters of its
will come from adding
economy’s problems.
exports. Apart from
technology to
Mr Morneau and the
threatening NAFTA,
yesterday’s successes.
prime minister, Justin
the Trump administraTr udeau, prefer to
tion has slapped tariffs
plant patiently rather
on Canadian softwood
than to drill aggressively. That was evident and newsprint, and may impose them on
in the “equality and growth” budget’s big steel and aluminium. Canada needs friendidea: putting more women to work. Just over lier partners. 61% of working-age women have a job or are
looking for one, compared with around 70% 7. It is making progress. An economic and
of men. If female participation in the labour trade deal with the European Union, negotiforce rose to that of men, an unlikely sce- ated by the previous government, took effect
nario, the economy would be 4% larger, ac- last September. Canada signed a deal with
cording to the bank RBC. ten Pacific countries, including Japan and
Vietnam, on March 8th. But its quest for
A WOMAN’S PLACE IS IN THE
further agreements has faltered. Mr Trudeau
OFFICE
failed to launch trade talks with China on a
5. Mr Morneau quoted that prediction to visit there in December. His recent trip to
justify a range of female-friendly policies. India, with which Canada has been conductHe will raise the child benefit, which parents ing fruitless talks since 2010, was a disapcan spend on day care, and improve incen- pointment. Mr Morneau did not mention
tives for new fathers to take time off work. India when he listed “new markets” Canada
There will be extra money for female entre- hopes to enter. preneurs and to fight sexual harassment. The
federal government will close its own pay NEW INDUSTRIES
gap, Mr Morneau promised. Female-friend- 8. Canada is unlikely to make much impresliness is fashionable, but it also fits with the sion on those markets with the same old
strategy of removing economic roadblocks industries. That is where companies like
advocated by Mr Barton, a Canadian who Agrisoma come in. It exemplifies the idea,
leads a panel that advises the government on promoted by Mr Barton among others, that
how to promote growth. tomorrow’s winners will come from adding
technology to yesterday’s successes, especially agriculture. The Saskatchewan Food
to match faire correspondre à, s'aligner sur / cut
réduction, allègement (fiscal) / deregulation
déréglementation, libération (prix) / to disappoint
décevoir / to fix résoudre (ici, redresser), trouver une
solution à / rather than plutôt que / to drill forer; ici,
agir / just over un peu plus de / around environ /
labour force main-d’œuvre / unlikely peu probable /
according to d'après.
5. to quote citer, faire référence à / range gamme; ici,
série / female-friendly en faveur des femmes /
policy politique, mesure(s) / to raise augmenter /
child benefit allocations familiales / day care garde
d'enfants, garderie / to improve améliorer, développer
/ incentive mesure d’incitation / new ici, jeune / time
off congé (ici, de paternité) / harassment
harcèlement / to close ici, réduire, mettre fin à / own
propre / pay gap écart salarial (entre hommes et
femmes) / to fit with s'intégrer/correspondre à / to
remove supprimer / roadblock ici, obstacle, frein
(aussi, barrage routier) / to advocate prôner, plaider
en faveur de / to advise conseiller.
24
• VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
6. to trade commercer / appealing attractif /
besides autre que / GDP = gross domestic product PIB
(produit intérieur brut) / to slap appliquer, imposer /
tariff droit de douane (impôt prélevé sur une
marchandise importée lors de son passage à la
frontière) / softwood bois tendre / newsprint papier
journal / steel acier.
7. deal accord / previous précédent / to take, took,
taken effect entrer en vigueur / quest quête,
recherche / further ici, d'autres / to falter ici, ne pas
aboutir / to fail to ne pas parvenir à / to launch ici,
entamer / talks négociations / to conduct mener /
fruitless infructueux, vain, sans résultat.
8. to come, came, come in ici, intervenir / among
parmi, entre / especially surtout /
NAFTA
NAFTA is a trade agreement that was
signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United
States in 1994. The goal was to eliminate
barriers to trade and investment between
the three countries. With NAFTA, tariffs on
most of the goods traded between these
countries were progressively eliminated.
Thanks to NAFTA, Canada has seen strong
gains in cross-border investment: since
1993, US and Mexican investments in
Canada have tripled.
trade agreement accord commercial / tariff
droit de douane (impôt prélevé sur une
marchandise importée lors de son passage à la
frontière) / goods marchandise(s) / thanks to
grâce à, du fait de / to see, saw, seen ici,
connaître, enregistrer / cross-border de part et
d'autre de la frontière, transfrontalier; ici, en
provenance des États-Unis et du Mexique.
Industry Development Centre, a non-profit
lab in Saskatoon, is working with growers
of pulses, wheat and soya beans to produce
meat substitutes. James Cameron, a Hollywood director, has invested in a plant in
Vanscoy, Saskatchewan, to make new foods
from peas. In January, BlackBerry, a Canadian technology company, announced a partnership
with Baidu, a big Chinese Internet firm, to
work on ways to use artificial intelligence in
cars. Last month the government said that it
would spend nearly C$1bn over five years to
help groups of firms and research institutes
working on artificial intelligence, food protein, marine vehicles, advanced manufacturing and digital technology. It hopes that these
projects will lead to the development of Silicon Valley-like “superclusters”. The government’s patient planting strategy makes
sense, as long as a storm does not ruin the
harvest. l
9.
non-profit à but non lucratif / lab = laboratory /
pulse légumineuse / wheat blé / soya beans germes/
graines de soja / director ici, réalisateur / plant ici,
usine / pea petit pois.
9. partnership partenariat, association, collaboration
/ way façon, manière / nearly près de / bn = billion
milliard / over ici, au cours de / manufacturing (de)
fabrication / digital numérique / cluster ici, centre / to
make, made, made sense avoir du sens, sembler
logique, rimer à qch / as long as tant/pour autant que
/ storm orage / harvest récolte, moisson.
 facile A2-B1 /  moyen B2-C1 /  difficile C1-C2
Échos
Retrouvez plus d’infos sur www.vocable.fr
(Todd Heisler/The New York Times)
Brèves de culture
(SIPA)
Taking on
Shakespeare
Art over barbarity
The new sculpture that will decorate the famous Fourth Plinth in London's Trafalgar Square has been unveiled. Michael Rakowitz’s installation, entitled “The
Invisible Enemy Should Not Exist”, is the recreation of an ancient statue representing a lamassu – a winged bull creature with the head of a man. The original
lamassu statue stood at the Nergal Gate of Nineveh, in Iraq, from 700 BC until
February 2015, when it was destroyed by Isis. Iraqi-American artist Michael Rakowitz constructed his sculpture from 10,500 empty cans of date syrup. Dates
were one of Iraq's most important exports before the two Gulf Wars. The Fourth
Plinth has featured temporary contemporary artworks since 1999.
Australian actress Margot Robbie will create
a new television series based on
Shakespeare’s works. Each of the 10
standalone episodes will be based on a
different play by Shakespeare, updated to
comment on modern society. An all-female
creative team will work on the series, and
the stories will be told from female points
of view. Margot Robbie’s production
company will team up with several other
Australian production companies for this
project.
to take, took, taken on entreprendre /
standalone indépendant / play pièce (de
théâtre) / to update mettre au goût du jour,
actualiser, moderniser / to comment commenter
/ all-female 100% féminin / to team up with
s’associer à / several plusieurs.
(Universal Pictures)
over ici, l’emporte sur / (the) Fourth Plinth (le) quatrième socle est l’un des quatre piédestaux situés à chacun
des coins de Trafalgar Square à Londres (il a la particularité de ne porter aucune statue) / to unveil dévoiler,
présenter au public / entitled intitulé / winged ailé / bull taureau / to stand, stood, stood se trouver/
dresser / gate porte (ici, de ville) / BC = Before Christ avant Jésus-Christ / empty vide / can boîte (conserve),
cannette / to feature comporter, présenter / artwork œuvre d’art.
English heritage
(Istock)
Coventry monastery, founded in
1385 by Richard II, will be open
to the public for the first time in
80 years. With Coventry being
named the UK's city of culture
for 2021, the Charterhouse, a
complex of medieval and later
Grade I listed buildings that
includes Coventry monastery,
will be restored to reopen in
2020.
heritage patrimoine / monastery
monastère / to found fonder
/ Grade I édifices d’un intérêt
exceptionnel / listed classé
(monument historique).
Back to the Jurassic
Steven Spielberg has confirmed that Colin
Trevorrow will direct the third instalment
of the Jurassic World trilogy. Trevorrow
will return to the franchise after directing
its first film, which was released in 2015
and grossed over $1.5bn at the box office
worldwide. The second instalment, Jurassic
World: Fallen Kingdom, directed by J.A.
Bayona, is set to open in June.
to direct réaliser (film) / instalment volet / to
return retourner, revenir / to release sortir / to
gross rapporter (recette brute) / over ici, plus de
/ bn = billion milliard / worldwide au niveau
mondial / to be set to être prévu pour / to open
ici, sortir.
VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
• 25
Culture
I Industrie du livre I
ETATS-UNIS
I  B2-C1
SUPPLÉMENT VIDÉO
Argosy Book Store est la plus vieille librairie indépendante
de New York, et elle se porte très bien. Découvrez le
reportage vidéo et testez votre compréhension sur
www.vocable.fr/videos-anglais
(FRANCES M. ROBERTS/NEWSCOM/SIPA)
New York
THE NEW YORK TIMES AIMEE LEE BALL
SHAKESPEARE AND
COMPANY IS BACK
Retour de la librairie Shakespeare and Company à l'Upper West Side
La librairie Shakespeare & Co., ouverte dans le West Side en 1983, était emblématique de ce quartier de New York dans lequel
fleurissaient alors les librairies indépendantes. Elle avait été contrainte de fermer en 1996 face à la pression exercée par un
magasin de la chaîne Barnes & Noble, le plus gros libraire des Etats-Unis, installé dans le quartier. Elle rouvre enfin ses portes. Un
triomphe pour les librairies indépendantes de New York ?
W
hatever way that people read
books, I’m going to get them into
my store — I don’t care if I have to stock contact
lenses that let the words scroll across your eyes.”
Let’s hope it doesn’t come to that for Noëlle Santos,
who will open The Lit Bar in the Bronx this spring
— part of a continuing resurgence of independent
booksellers in New York City. Shakespeare and
Company is opening two new stores this year, in
Greenwich Village and on the Upper West Side.
The latter is considered a homecoming for the
original Shakespeare and Company, which was
an institution in that neighborhood from 1982 to
1996, and it will be joining a robust range of indies
1. way façon / to get, got, got sb into faire entrer/attirer
qn dans / I don't care peu m'importe / contact lens
lentille de contact / to let, let, let ici, faire en sorte que /
to scroll (faire) défiler / across ici, devant /
the latter ce dernier / homecoming retour /
neighborhood quartier / to join rejoindre, s'ajouter à /
robust en bonne santé, solide / range gamme, variété,
groupe / indie (ici, librairie) indépendant(e) /
26
• VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
in the area including Word Up, Books of Wonder,
Bank Street Bookstore and several branches of
Book Culture. 2. Maybe, just maybe, the late great Nora Ephron
was wrong. Twenty years ago, her film You’ve Got
area secteur, quartier / several plusieurs.
2. late défunt(e) / to be wrong avoir tort, se tromper /
You've Got Mail Vous avez un message /
 facile A2-B1 /  moyen B2-C1 /  difficile C1-C2
Téléchargez l’appli Vocable offerte à nos abonnés ! www.vocable.fr/applimobile
Mail seemed to punctuate the death sentence of
independent bookstores. Between 1995 and 2000,
the number of indies in the United States declined
by 43 percent, according to the American Booksellers Association, a trade organization for independently owned bookstores. Over the past two
decades, New York City institutions such as St.
Mark’s Bookshop, Coliseum Books and Murder
Ink bit the dust. Big boxes — really big boxes —
seemed to be winning. E-books entered the market. And then there was Amazon. GOING BACK TO THE OLD NEW
YORK
3. “We’re never going to beat Amazon at Amazon’s
game, but I think there is a craving for going back
to the old New York,” said Dane Neller, chief executive of Shakespeare and Company. Multiple
branches and plans for a national presence (with
a Philadelphia store opening this summer) put
Shakespeare and Company in the small chain
category, but Mr. Neller wants to create “the biggest little bookshop in the world,” intimate and
localized, with a high level of service. 4. Any New Yorker knows that indies in many
fields have struggled in recent years. But when
the product is books, the losses feel particularly
egregious. to seem sembler / to punctuate the death sentence
of signer l'arrêt de mort de / by ici, de / according to
d'après / trade organization association professionnelle
/ to own posséder, détenir / over au cours de / decade
décennie / such as tel(les) que / to bite, bit, bit the
dust mordre la poussière (mourir); ici, disparaître, fermer /
big box (store) grande chaîne de magasins.
3. craving (forte) envie / chief executive directeur
général / plan projet.
4. field domaine, secteur d’activité / to struggle
éprouver des difficultés / to feel, felt, felt ici, sembler /
egregious intolérable.
SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE
"let the words scroll
across your eyes" (§ 1)
to scroll défiler
A l’origine, scroll était un rouleau de
parchemin qu’il fallait dérouler pour
pouvoir le lire ou un manuscrit comme
the Dead Sea Scrolls les manuscrits
de la Mer Morte.
A l'ère de l'informatique, on peut
utiliser le scroll bar (barre de
défilement) to scroll up or down the
page (faire défiler vers le haut ou vers
le bas).
Barnes and Noble employs 30,000 people. (Istock)
“The popular presumption was that independent booksellers were a thing of the past, some
vestige of a different time and place,” said Oren
Teicher, chief executive of the A.B.A. “It was inaccurate as a depiction then as now, but it’s pretty
difficult to convince people otherwise.” 5.
6. “In New York, it was never about attracting the
customers but about the landlords who kept raising the rent,” Mr. Teicher said. “Independent
bookstores play a vital role in communities.
There’s a passion and a knowledge about putting
the right book into the customer’s hand, and it’s
something we do far better than anyone else.” REINVENTING ONESELF
7. There is an opportunity for certain industries
to reinvent themselves after a large shock in their
business model or in technology, according to
Ryan L. Raffaelli, assistant professor at Harvard
Business School, who has been studying independent bookstores for about five years. (He even
took a course in how to open one.) “What I’ve
found is that the indies are able to compete on
several dimensions,” he said. “One is community.
They championed the notion of ‘shop local’ and
‘Small Business Saturday.’ 5. time ici, époque / place lieu / inaccurate ici, erroné /
depiction représentation, description / then ici, à
l'époque / pretty ici, plutôt / to convince convaincre,
persuader / otherwise ici, du contraire.
6. customer client / landlord propriétaire / to keep,
kept, kept (+ ger.) ne (pas) cesser de / to raise
augmenter / rent loyer / far ici, bien.
7. about environ / even même / to take, took, taken ici,
suivre (fig.) / course ici, formation / to find, found,
found ici, découvrir / to compete rivaliser / dimension
ici, aspect; on several dimensions à différents égards / to
champion prôner / Small Business Saturday
opération ayant lieu aux États-Unis le lendemain de Black
Friday (qui suit Thanksgiving), encourageant les
consommateurs à acheter auprès de magasins
indépendants plutôt qu'en ligne.
8. Another is curation: They’re not just offering
best-sellers but diamonds in the rough. They’ve
taken back a sense of pride in what they can
provide: a deeper and ongoing relationship with
their customers. In high-rent districts, because
profit margins are relatively thin, success must
come from multiple repeat customers, so that the
customer can’t imagine not visiting as part of his
or her monthly routine. They’re also flirting with
adapting newer forms of technology.” EMBRACING NEW TECHNOLOGIES
9. That’s what Mr. Neller is banking on. Each of
the planned new Shakespeare and Company
stores will have an Espresso Book Machine (Mr.
Neller is also head of the manufacturer, On Demand Books) that has the potential to print and
bind any book not on the shelves while you’re
having a cappuccino at the store’s cafe. 10. “It’s really a renaissance,” he said, “a new per-
mutation that will have elements of the mom-andpop blended with technology, allowing a store to
have a practically infinite selection in a small
setting. We’ll take a digital file and convert it into
an analog product, putting the warehouse inside
a small footprint. That’s transformative.” It’s almost like a new happy ending to You’ve Got Mail.
Somewhere, Nora is smiling. l
8. curation sélection / to offer proposer / diamond in
the rough diamant brut / to take, took, taken back ici,
regagner / sense sentiment / pride fierté / deep profond
/ ongoing ici, sur le long terme / profit margin marge
bénéficiaire / thin mince, faible / to visit ici, se rendre en
librairie / to flirt with ici, songer à.
9. to embrace adopter, intégrer / to bank on miser/
compter sur / manufacturer fabricant / potential ici,
possibilité / to bind, bound, bound ici, relier / on the
shelves litt. sur les étagères; ici, en librairie.
10. permutation transformation / element ici, aspect /
mom-and-pop petite entreprise familiale / to blend
with associer à / setting cadre, décor; ici, endroit / digital
numérique / file dossier, fichier / warehouse entrepôt /
footprint empreinte / transformative révolutionnaire /
almost presque.
VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
• 27
Découverte
Recife
Salvador
Rio de Janeiro
I Epidémie I
BRÉSIL
I  B2-C1
170,535
cases of Zika in Brazil in 2016.
THE GUARDIAN DOM PHILLIPS
BRITISH SCIENTISTS
SET TO WORK ON
ZIKA VACCINE
Des scientifiques britanniques à la recherche d'un vaccin
contre le virus Zika (to set, set, set to work se mettre au travail)
Depuis 2015, la maladie à virus Zika fait partie des dix maladies classées
« prioritaires » par l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé. Due à un virus transmis
principalement par un type de moustique, elle touche fortement le nord-est du Brésil
depuis deux ans, où elle est à l’origine de nombreux cas de microcéphalie. Des
chercheurs britanniques ont commencé à étudier le virus pour le gouvernement
brésilien. Réussiront-ils à mettre au point un vaccin ?
S
cientists in the UK have started work
on developing a vaccine to protect
women against the Zika virus. The £4.7m
project, involving the universities of Manchester and Liverpool, and Public Health England,
aims to have trials on humans up and running
within the next three years. 2. The news comes two and a half years after
the Zika virus, which can lead to foetal abnormalities, began to appear in Brazil. When
cases of babies born with abnormally small
heads were first reported in late 2015, Brazilians were frightened and bewildered. Few had
heard of the rare birth defect microcephaly, or
were aware that it restricts growth of the skull
and can cause learning, cognitive and motor
difficulties. Nor did scientists know why
1. to develop mettre au point / to involve impliquer,
mobiliser / health santé / to aim to viser à / trial ici, essai
clinique / up and running ici, effectif / within au cours de.
2. to come, came, come ici, survenir / to lead, led, led
to provoquer, engendrer, entraîner / abnormality
anomalie, malformation / to report ici, signaler / in late...
à la fin de l'année... / bewildered perplexe / defect
anomalie, malformation / aware au courant, informé / to
restrict limiter, freiner, entraver / growth croissance,
développement / skull boîte crânienne / to cause
provoquer, engendrer, entraîner / nor did [they] know...
de la même façon, |ils] ne savaient pas... /
28
• VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
cases were concentrated in Brazil’s impoverished, dry north-east. Two and a half years
later, they still don’t. OUTBREAK IN BRAZIL
3. The Brazilian government quickly blamed
Zika – an obscure, mosquito-borne virus,
previously unknown in the Americas. The
World Health Organization declared a public
health emergency, and panic grew as Zika
spread across the region. Then the outbreak
petered out, leaving Brazil with more than
3,000 babies affected by what its government
calls “developmental and growth alterations
possibly related to Zika virus infection”. 4. Two-thirds of those children are here in the
north-east. As of December, 438 were in the
state of Pernambuco. Yet just 700-odd cases of
what is now called congenital Zika syndrome
impoverished (très) pauvre / dry sec, aride.
3. outbreak (début d')épidémie / to blame imputer à /
obscure peu connu / mosquito-borne (trans)porté/ici,
transmis par les moustiques / previously jusqu'alors /
World Health Organization Organisation mondiale de
la santé (OMS) / emergency urgence (ici, sanitaire) / to
spread, spread, spread across gagner (fig.) l'ensemble
de / to peter out s'estomper/épuiser/essouffler/éteindre;
ici, disparaître / related to lié/ici, dû à.
4. as of ici, en / yet cependant, toutefois / -odd environ /
Scientists in the UK are trying
to develop a vaccine to protect
women against the Zika virus.
(Allison V. Smith/The New York Times)
have been confirmed across the whole of the
rest of the Americas, according to the Pan
American Health Organization. And nobody
can explain the discrepancy. “We were braced
for a large epidemic of microcephaly. We
didn’t see that,” said Albert Ko, professor of
epidemiology and medicine at the Yale School
of Public Health, who has studied the epidemic. TRANSMISSION CHAINS
5. Zika was first discovered in Uganda in 1947,
and spread quietly through Asia. An outbreak
in French Polynesia in 2013-14 caused a noticeable upswing in microcephaly cases. A 2016
study concluded that Zika arrived in the Americas between May-December 2013, when air
travel from Zika-infected countries to Brazil
was increasing. the whole of tout / according to d'après / PanAmerican panaméricain (concernant les nations du
continent américain tout entier) / discrepancy (telle)
différence / to brace for se préparer à.
5. quietly discrètement / through à travers /
noticeable non négligeable, fort / upswing progression,
augmentation / to increase augmenter, se développer.
 facile A2-B1 /  moyen B2-C1 /  difficile C1-C2
Retrouvez plus d’infos dans la newsletter Vocable www.vocable.fr/newsletter
the cooler, drier winter. The north-east had
more cases. CRITICAL THRESHOLD
8. As one dose of Zika is believed to give im-
munity, when a second, less intense Zika
outbreak followed in 2016, north-eastern cities
like Recife and Salvador – capital of Bahia state,
which had the most microcephaly cases, at 509
– had reached “critical threshold”. “That’s the
proportion of people that need to be infected
for the disease to die out,” Brady said. 9. Ernesto Marques, a profes-
sor of infectious diseases and
vaccines at the University of
Pittsburgh, said investigating
hypotheses is hampered by a
lack of reliable data on how
many people caught Zika. It is
tricky to diagnose: in most
cases, the virus is asymptomatic, retrospective tests are
not conclusive, and it is easily
confused with viruses like
dengue. “There are a lot of unknowns in this
story,” Marques said. ASSUMPTIONS
Some scientists have hypothesised that
dengue, another mosquito-spread disease
present in Brazil, could increase the risk of Zika
infection. And a new sibling study from researchers at the University of São Paulo, published in February, provided intriguing evidence that genetics could make some babies
more susceptible to congenital Zika syndrome
than others. 12.
13. In Recife, the city government reduced
the density of mosquitoes
by cleaning areas where the
insects were intensely concentrated, educating citizens, and even monitoring
water containers without
lids from traffic control
cameras, city health secretary Jailson Correia said.
Now they are planning to
release sterile mosquitoes.
But as officials from the UN
and World Health Organization argued in 2016, improving Brazil’s
woeful sanitation is also vital to stopping
Zika. l
Investigating
hypotheses is
hampered by
a lack of
reliable data.
FIRST ANSWERS
10. Marques is also a researcher at Brazilian
6. By 2015, the virus was infecting huge num-
bers in Brazil’s north-east, said Ko, including
up to 60% of all pregnant women. “It’s this
proverbial perfect storm-type situation,” Ko
said. “There are some transmission chains that
create large epidemics and others that just
burn out and die.” Zika reached much more
populous states in Brazil’s south-east, like Rio
de Janeiro. But Rio has almost half the congenital Zika cases of Pernambuco, and twice
the population. 7. Oliver Brady is an assistant professor in ar-
boviral epidemiology at the London School of
Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, who is studying the virus for the Brazilian government. He
said Zika’s spread was much patchier in Rio,
where mosquitoes are also much less active in
6. by ici, en / huge ici, grand / pregnant enceinte /
perfect storm catastrophe due à une combinaison de
facteurs aggravants / to burn, burned or burnt, burned
or burnt out s'essouffler/estomper; ici, disparaître
(progressivement) / to die ici, disparaître (complètement)
/ to reach atteindre, gagner / populous peuplé / almost
près de.
7. patchy irrégulier, inégal.
government research institute Fiocruz in Recife, which set up a microcephaly epidemic
research group to study the outbreak. Last
December, the group published a study confirming the association between microcephaly and congenital Zika virus infection. 11. A further study this year found higher levels
of microcephaly associated with precarious
living conditions, with poor or open sewage
and irregular water supplies favouring the
proliferation of the Aedes aegypti mosquito
that spreads Zika. In Pernambuco, 11% of people don’t have a fresh water supply and only
32% get their sewage treated. 12. assumption hypothèse / sibling ici, portant sur les
frères et sœurs/fratries / to provide fournir, apporter /
evidence (inv.) preuve(s), indication(s), suggestion(s) /
to make, made, made ici, rendre.
13. to clean nettoyer, désinfecter / citizen citoyen / even
même / to monitor surveiller / lid couvercle, dessus / to
plan to projeter de / to release lâcher / official
responsable, haut fonctionnaire / to argue affirmer / to
improve améliorer / woeful déplorable / sanitation
hygiène publique, assainissement, installations sanitaires.
SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE
"It had reached critical
threshold” (§ 8)
8. threshold seuil, niveau / dose ici, infection, exposition
/ at ici, au nombre de / disease maladie.
9. to investigate enquêter sur; ici, étudier / to hamper
rendre difficile / lack manque, absence, insuffisance /
reliable fiable / data données / tricky difficile /
conclusive concluant, probant / to confuse with
confondre avec.
10. to set, set, set up mettre sur pied, créer.
11. further ici, nouvelle / poor ici, mauvais / open ici, à ciel
ouvert / sewage (évacuation des) eaux usées / water
supply approvisionnement en eau / fresh water eau
douce.
threshold = seuil , pas de la porte
Exemples :
to cross the threshold franchir le
seuil
on the threshold of ... (figurative
use) au bord ou au seuil de ...
below the threshold of
consciousness subliminaire
to have a high/low pain threshold
avoir un seuil de tolérance à la douleur
élevé/peu élevé
VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
• 29
Découverte
I Technologie I
ETATS-UNIS
I  B2-C1
Tempe
A GM Chevrolet Bolt electric
vehicle, operated with
self-driving technology.
(Jim Wilson/The New York Times)
THE NEW YORK TIMES DAISUKE WAKABAYASHI
PALL ON TESTING OF
SELF-DRIVING CARS
Un accident mortel sème le doute sur les expérimentations de conduite
autonome (to cast pall on jeter un froid)
En mars dernier, un véhicule autonome d’Uber tuait une cycliste dans la ville de Tempe, en Arizona. Jusqu’à ce drame, l’Arizona
était l’un des états américains autorisant les tests de voitures autonomes sur les routes publiques. Ce dramatique accident a
relancé le débat sur ces véhicules censés être aptes à rouler sans l’intervention d’un conducteur. Cette technologie est-elle
vraiment au point ?
S
AN FRANCISCO — Arizona officials
saw opportunity when Uber and other
companies began testing driverless cars a few
years ago. Promising to keep oversight light,
they invited the companies to test their robotic vehicles on the state’s roads. Then on
Sunday night, an autonomous car operated by
Uber — and with an emergency backup driver
behind the wheel — struck and killed a woman
on a street in Tempe, Arizona. It was believed
to be the first pedestrian death associated with
self-driving technology. The company quickly
suspended testing in Tempe as well as in Pittsburgh, San Francisco and Toronto. 1. official (haut) responsable / driverless sans
conducteur / oversight supervision, contrôle / to
operate opérer, mettre en circulation / emergency
d'urgence, de secours / backup de secours / wheel
volant / to strike, struck, struck renverser /
pedestrian piéton /
self-driving (de) véhicule(s) autonome(s) / to
suspend interrompre.
30
• VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
A YOUNG TECHNOLOGY
2. The accident was a reminder that self-driving
technology is still in the experimental stage,
and governments are still trying to figure out
how to regulate it. Uber, Waymo and a long list
of tech companies and automakers have begun
to expand testing of their self-driving vehicles
2. reminder rappel / stage ici, stade / to figure out
déterminer, trouver / to regulate réglementer / tech =
technology / automaker (US) = car manufacturer
(GB) constructeur automobile /
in cities around the country. The companies
say the cars will be safer than regular cars
simply because they take easily distracted
humans out of the driving equation. But the
technology is still only about a decade old, and
just now starting to experience the unpredictable situations that drivers can face. ATTRACTING TESTING
OPERATIONS
3. Much of the testing of autonomous cars has
taken place in a piecemeal regulatory environ-
regular normal, conventionnel / distracted distrait /
unpredictable imprévisible / to face être confronté à.
3. operation ici, activité / piecemeal fragmentaire,
morcelé / regulatory environment cadre réglementaire /
 facile A2-B1 /  moyen B2-C1 /  difficile C1-C2
Retrouvez plus de tests dans la newsletter Vocable www.vocable.fr/newsletter
4. The Uber car, a Volvo XC90 SUV outfitted
with the company’s sensing system, was in
autonomous mode with a human safety driver
at the wheel but carrying no passengers when
it struck Elaine Herzberg, a 49-year-old woman.
Tempe, with its dry weather and wide roads,
was considered an ideal place to test autonomous vehicles. In 2015, Arizona officials declared the state a regulation-free zone in order
to attract testing operations from companies
like Uber, Waymo and Lyft. “We needed our
message to Uber, Lyft and other entrepreneurs
in Silicon Valley to be that Arizona was open
to new ideas,” Doug Ducey, Arizona’s governor,
said in an interview in June 2017. WITH OR WITHOUT DRIVERS
5. Since late last year, Waymo, the self-driving
car unit of Google’s parent company Alphabet,
has been using cars without a human in the
driver’s seat to pick up and drop off passengers
in Arizona. Most testing of driverless cars occurs with a safety driver in the front seat who
is available to take over if something goes
wrong. It can be challenging, however, to take
control of a fast-moving vehicle. 6. California requires companies to report the
number of instances when human drivers are
lenient souple, permissif / to lure out of persuader de
quitter, "piquer" à / accommodating arrangeant /
lately ces derniers temps / policymaker responsable
politique / a lighter touch ici, une réglementation
moins pesante / bill projet de loi / to pass adopter, voter
/ to free affranchir, exempter (de) / safety standard
norme de sécurité / to pre-empt sb from doing sthg
ici, empêcher qqn de faire qqch (en le prenant de vitesse).
4. SUV = sport-utility vehicle 4x4 / to be outfitted
with être équipé de / sensing system système de
détection.
5. parent company société mère / to pick up (passer)
prendre / to drop off déposer / to take, took, taken
over ici, prendre le relais, intervenir / challenging
difficile / fast-moving ici, lancé à pleine vitesse.
forced to take over for the autonomous vehicle,
called “disengagements.” Between December
2016 and November 2017, Waymo’s self-driving
cars drove about 350,000 miles and human
drivers retook the wheel 63 times — an average
of about 5,600 miles between every disengagement. TEACHING THE SYSTEM TO
ADJUST
7. Researchers working on autonomous tech-
nology have struggled with how to teach the
systems to adjust for unpredictable human
driving or behavior. Still, most researchers
believe self-driving cars will ultimately be
safer than their human counterparts. 8. In 2016, a man driving his Tesla using Auto-
pilot, the car company’s self-driving feature,
died on a state highway in Florida when his car
crashed into a tractor-trailer that was crossing
the road. Federal regulators later ruled there
were no defects in the system to cause the accident. average moyenne.
7. researcher chercheur / to struggle with éprouver
des difficultés à / ultimately à terme / counterpart
pendant, équivalent.
8. feature fonctionnalité / highway (US) =
motorway (GB) autoroute / to crash into percuter /
tractor-trailer (US) = articulated lorry (GB)
semi-remorque / regulator organisme de
réglementation / to rule décréter, déclarer / defect
anomalie, défaut.
SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE
"to pre-empt states
from creating their own
vehicle safety laws" (§ 3)
to pre-empt = anticiper, devancer
Exemples :
you can pre-empt pain by taking a
painkiller vous pouvez prévenir la
douleur en prenant un calmant
the government pre-empted a
threatened strike le gouvernement a
pris les devants pour empêcher la grève
annoncée.
9. But the crash in Tempe will draw attention
among the general public to self-driving cars,
said Michael Bennett, an associate research
professor at Arizona State University who has
been looking into how people respond to driverless cars and artificial intelligence. “We’ve
imagined an event like this as a huge inflection
point for the technology and the companies
advocating for it,” he said. “They’re going to
have to do a lot to prove that the technology is
safe.” l
9. crash accident, collision / general public grand
public / to respond to réagir à / inflection point
point d'inflexion ici, tournant / to advocate for plaider
pour, défendre.
SÉJOURS
LINGUISTIQUES
& VACANCES
JEUNES
IM012100014
ment. Some states, like Arizona, have taken a
lenient approach to regulation. Arizona officials
wanted to lure companies working on selfdriving technology out of neighboring California, where regulators had been less receptive.
But regulators in California and elsewhere have
become more accommodating lately. Federal
policymakers have also considered a lighter
touch. A Senate bill, if passed, would free autonomous-car makers from some existing
safety standards and pre-empt states from
creating their own vehicle safety laws. 05 65 77 10 47
www.verdiehello.com
destinations
humaines
6. to report ici, déclarer / instance cas /
VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
• 31
(Sipa)
Bons plans I Langues
PAR LAETITIA MORENI
SÉJOURS JUNIORS ANGLAIS
Si votre enfant souhaite partir à l’étranger pour apprendre l’anglais, sachez qu’il existe de nombreux séjours proposés par les
organismes linguistiques. Outre des programmes dits classiques « cours avec multi-activités », chez l’habitant ou en résidence
internationale, les organismes labellisés Unosel proposent de nombreuses formules thématiques. Voici une sélection adaptée à
chaque personnalité.
POUR
LES SPORTIFS
Des séjours langues et sports
sont proposés par de nombreux
organismes labellisés Unosel.
Football, tennis, basket, danse,
golf, handball, rugby, équitation,
sports nautiques, surf, karting…
Parmi les plus originaux, Nacel
propose aux jeunes entre 14 et
19 ans une formule Anglais et
Sport à San Diego en Californie sans cours en classe mais
avec 20h de leur activité favorite
32
• VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
(surf, vélo, kayak, etc.) conduite
en anglais, dont les premiers
prix débutent à 3650€ pour une
vingtaine de jours en pension
complète incluant le voyage.
Si vos enfants ont entre 14 et
17 ans, sont passionnés d’activités nautiques et souhaitent
rester en Europe, le CEI a mis
en place à Paignton, une station
balnéaire en Angleterre, un programme regroupant 15 heures
de cours d’anglais par semaine
et des activités comme le surf,
le kayak, le beach-volley, le tout
durant une quinzaine de jours
à partir de 1820€ voyage inclus.
Toujours pour les 14/17 ans, EF
propose des séjours en Irlande,
ou en Grande-Bretagne s’ils
sont amateurs d’équitation.
www.nacel.fr
www.cei-sejour-linguistique.fr
www.ef.fr/
POUR
LES AVENTURIERS
Pour les 10/14 ans, la formule
« Summer Camp » organisée
par EF dans un pensionnat en
Angleterre, propose du sport,
des jeux d’aventure, des excursions et quelques cours pour revenir sur le vocabulaire abordé
lors des activités. Le tarif est de
2510€ pour 2 semaines (incluant
transports, transferts, encadrement, activités, cours, hébergement, pension, etc.). Pour
ceux qui cherchent davantage
d’aventure, le CEI propose un
Summer Camp au Canada (une
à cinq semaines) avec activités
sportives et excursions dans
Retrouvez plus d’infos sur www.vocable.fr
des paysages époustouflants,
et possibilité de prendre 15h de
cours d’anglais par semaine.
Le coût de cette formule s’élève
à 2680€ pour deux semaines
(voyage non inclus) et 165€
supplémentaires pour l’option
cours d’anglais.
www.cei-sejour-linguistique.fr
www.ef.fr/
POUR
LES CINÉPHILES
Votre enfant est fan d’Harry
Potter ? Le CLC propose pour
les 11-16 ans, un séjour composé
de 12h de cours d’anglais dispensés par des professeurs britanniques et de visites des sites
de tournage de la saga Harry
Potter (St Pancras, Leadenhall
Market, le Millenium Bridge
à Londres, la cathédrale d’Oxford…). Cette formule débute
à 799€, voyage inclus pour six
nuits en pension complète. Le
CLC a également mis en place
une formule originale « Anglais
et Comédie musicale ». Le but :
s’initier au rôle d’acteur ou de
metteur en scène par le biais
d’une comédie musicale. Les
24h de cours sont focalisées
sur les différentes étapes de la
mise en scène : improvisation,
interprétation de textes, chorégraphie, etc. Cette formule
qui se déroule en Grande-Bretagne s’adresse aux 12/16 ans
et s’élève à 1299€ voyage inclus.
Dans un univers assez proche,
Nacel a mis en place un séjour
« Production Cinéma » avec
8 journées de tournage sur la
presqu’île de Wirral, à l’ouest de
Manchester (à partir de 1750€).
www.clc.fr
www.nacel.fr
de ces sessions animées, des
excursions ont lieu à Londres.
L’hébergement se fait en campus universitaire. Le tarif pour
la formule « Studios » débute à
2400€ pour 15 jours. Toujours
dans le cadre de cette formule
un programme s’adresse aux
jeunes à partir de 7 ans et mêle
ateliers interactifs LEGO Education et cours d’anglais. « Pour
les 14/18 ans, il existe aussi une
thématique intitulée : gagner
en leadership », indique Quentin Levert, directeur des Programmes Séjours Linguistiques
chez EF. Enfin, pour ceux qui
rêvent de devenir vlogger, EF
propose à vos enfants de rencontrer des blogueurs vidéos
connus, une visite du studio
Youtube à Londres et des sessions pour apprendre comment
promouvoir sa propre chaîne
sur le net.
www.ef.fr/
POUR
LES ARTISTES
Pour les créatifs et les enfants
passionnés de mode, d’activités
artistiques et culturelles, la formule « Studios » proposée par
EF saura s’adapter à toutes les
personnalités. Ces activités sont
proposées au Royaume-Uni et
aux Etats-Unis. La formule
« Londres Studio » propose des
leçons de musique (deux leçons
en classe et deux sessions par
jour pour apprendre à composer
et mixer la musique), de mode
pour apprendre à créer des vêtements, d’art (photographie,
techniques de mode avec un
défilé en fin de séjour). En plus
POUR
LES GEEKS
Faire du coding à Londres, c’est
désormais possible. La nouvelle formule du groupe NACEL
propose 45H de coding, 15h de
cours d’anglais dispensés par
des professeurs anglophones
et une journée d’excursion.
Les cours de coding sont axés
autour de trois sujets : développement d’applications iOS avec
Swift et Xcode, d’applications
Android avec App Inventor et de
jeux avec Java. L’hébergement
est prévu en famille sur une
période de 14 jours. La formule
destinée aux 14/17 ans est proposée à partir de 2595€.
www.nacel.fr
POUR
LES SCIENTIFIQUES
Les matheux auront leur place
à Ocala aux Etats-Unis. Nacel
organise en effet en Floride un
programme d’apprentissage de
l’anglais à travers l’étude des
sciences, technologie et mathématiques (STEM program). Pas
de cours d’anglais en revanche,
tout est basé sur la réalisation
d’expériences, comme par
exemple l’élaboration de plans
de fusées, de programmation
de robots, etc. Il faut compter au
minimum 3195€ hébergement
et billets d’avion inclus pour
deux semaines.
www.nacel.fr
Séjours linguistiques
Séjours linguistiques
en famille
Rejoignez
la
communauté
Vocable
sur
Séjours Linguistiques
Primaires
Collégiens
l Lycéens
l Étudiants
l Adultes
Vacances intélligentes
et immersion complète
Grande-Bretagne
Allemagne
l Espagne
l Etats-Unis
l Et bien d’autres ...
l
l
l
l
Nouveautés 2018
contactez-nous !
03 20 63 11 00
Découvrez nos formules sur www.vivalangues.fr
Association loi 1901 n° W595009847 - Agrément Jeunesse et Sports 59 JEP1815
Registre des Opérateurs de Voyages et Séjours n° IMO59100010
RÉSERVATIONS PUBLICITAIRES
CONTACTEZ-NOUS
Bordeaux, Lille, Lyon, Nice, Paris, Strasbourg & Toulouse
www.esl.fr
France - Etranger
01 44 37 97 79 - publicite@vocable.fr
VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
• 33
Les sorties
Retrouvez plus de coups de cœur sur www.vocable.fr
sur www.vocable.fr jouez et gagnez...
Des entrées pour des films et des expositions, des CD et des DVD, des romans, des voyages…
CINEMA
DAPHNÉ
de Peter Mackie Burns
Daphné est une jeune femme à la vie plutôt ordinaire : elle
travaille comme chef dans un pub londonien, sort beaucoup
et se dispute souvent avec sa mère, atteinte d’un cancer.
Jusqu’au jour où elle assiste à un braquage qui tourne mal
dans une petite épicerie… Elle commence alors à remettre en
question tout ce qu’elle croyait savoir. Ce premier film du
réalisateur écossais Peter Mackie Burns met en scène un
personnage flamboyant et attachant, c’est une véritable
bouffée d’air frais. C’est aussi un bel hommage à la ville de
Londres et à ses habitants – non pas le Londres de carte
postale mais le Londres populaire où les communautés se
mélangent dans la joie de vivre. Un film d’une authenticité
désarmante.
Des places à gagner !
sur www.vocable.fr
Avec Emily Beecham, Tom Vaughan-Lawlor,
Nathaniel Martello-White
En salles le 2 mai.
LIVRE
DVD
SOS BAC ANGLAIS
LE GRAND JEU
De Anne-Isabelle Pinéda
Si l’anglais est votre LV1 ou votre
LV2 et que vous vous apprêtez à
passer l’épreuve écrite du Bac, pas
de panique, l’ouvrage SOS Bac
Anglais vous permettra de réviser
de façon efficace, et, nous
l’espérons, de passer l’épreuve
haut la main ! Chaque chapitre est
dédié à un type de sujet, allant du
type narratif au type dialogue. Des
copies d’élèves sont aussi
analysées et corrigées dans une
démarche interactive.
Editions Ophrys - 16€
De Aaron Sorkin
L’ancienne championne de ski Molly Bloom
a tout juste 23 ans lorsqu’elle débarque à
Los Angeles. Elle y devient l’assistante du
propriétaire de la célèbre boîte de nuit
Viper Room, qui la charge d’organiser des
soirées de poker clandestines. Lorsqu’elle
se fait virer sans ménagement, elle décide
de monter son propre club de poker
clandestin. Le succès est très vite au
rendez-vous, mais les choses prennent une
tournure dangereuse… Ce film, basé sur une
histoire vraie et réalisé par Aaron Sorkin
– le scénariste de Steve Jobs –, nous tient
en haleine du début à la fin tout en étant magnifiquement interprété.
Avec Jessica Chastain, Idris Elba et Kevin Costner
M6 Vidéo - 19€99
SERIE
LES 7 VÉRITÉS
De Tony Ayres et Amanda Higgs
Ce thriller psychologique australien met en scène
le kidnapping avorté d’un enfant. Pourquoi Simon
Heywood a-t-il tenté d’enlever le fils de son amour
de jeunesse ? Les six épisodes de la série donnent
à voir différentes perspectives sur cet événement.
On y retrouve l’acteur australien Alex Dimitriades,
révélé au grand public dans les années 1990 avec
la série Hartley, cœurs à vif.
A voir sur Arte à partir du 10 mai, à 20h55.
34
• VOCABLE Du 3 au 16 mai 2018
DVD
THE FLORIDA PROJECT
de Sean Baker
Moonee, six ans, vit avec sa mère
dans un motel de la banlieue
d’Orlando, à côté de Disney World.
Elle y fait les 400 coups avec ses
deux acolytes Jancey et Scooty,
Halley, sa jeune mère, étant trop
occupée à mettre au point de
petites combines financières pour la
surveiller. Le gérant du motel,
interprété par un Willem Dafoe
splendide et extrêmement
attachant, veille comme il le peut
sur ces enfants laissés en liberté. Ce
film à l’esthétique soignée –
couleurs pastels et iconographie
Walt Disney sont de rigueur – met
au premier plan le point de vue des
enfants, et décrit avec une profonde
humanité l’Amérique des déclassés.
Avec Brooklynn Prince, Bria Vinaite,
Willem Dafoe
Le Pacte - 19€99
le
dessin
I Décryptage I
ETATS-UNIS
border frontière (ici, avec le Mexique) / to march ici, défiler.
bon
à savoir
US Bank
Holidays
In the United
States, Veterans
Day on November 11, is an
annual holiday that honours all
the military veterans that have
served in the US military. The
Fourth of July, also referred to
as Independence Day, is a
holiday that commemorates
the adoption of the Declaration
of Independence on July 4, 1776.
holiday ici, jour férié.
VOCABLE
SENDING TROOPS TO THE BORDER
During a conference with leaders of three Baltic nations, US President Donald
Trump said that he would send military forces to guard the border with Mexico
from what he called a growing threat of illegal immigrants, drugs and crime, until
the wall he promised is built. For the time being, it is unclear if the plan will go
ahead. In interviews, several military officials said Trump’s announcement came
as a surprise. In February, Donald Trump said that he was inspired by the Bastille
Day Parade in France and that he would like a military parade to take place on
Veterans Day or the Fourth of July in Washington. It would be “something great
for the spirit of the country,” he said.
growing grandissant, de plus en plus grand / threat menace / for the time being à l’heure qu’il est / to go, went, gone ahead
ici, se concrétiser, voir le jour, aboutir / several plusieurs / official responsable, représentant / to come, came, come as a
surprise surprendre / to take, took, taken place avoir lieu; ici, être organisé / spirit engouement, moral.
SERVICE ABONNÉS 03 27 61 10 11. www.vocable.fr
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