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2018-06-01 Americas Civil War

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Plus! r
The Othe
Custer
to
“ Tom ought e
have been th I
general and
.”
the captain
–George
Armstrong
Custer
Doomed at Chancellorsville
stonewall’s
killers
The Tar Heels Who Shot Jackson
Pounding Hooves
horse racing in wartime
Castle Pinckney
charleston’s forgotten fort
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JULY 2018
28
Of and Running
By the 1860s, horse racing had
become incredibly popular
in America. The widespread
destruction and bloodshed
brought about by civil war
wouldn’t change that.
By Jack Trammell
On the Cover:
Stonewall Jackson remains one of America’s most
iconic generals. We are left to wonder whether the
outcome of the war would have changed had he
not been mortally wounded at Chancellorsville.
2
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
Departments
6
8
12
14
52
58
64
LETTERs Hats off to John Bell Hood
THE BLOG ROLL Giving the wounded the care they deserved
From the Crossroads <DQNVGHÀHGGRJPDZLWKEUHDVWZRUNVRQ&XOS·V+LOO
hidden heroes Tom Custer escaped George’s shadow from time to time
trailside The charming coastal town of Elizabeth City, N.C.
Reviews Abraham Lincoln’s and Winston Churchill’s parallel journeys
conversation piece Light from every angle
44
‘Stand to it, Boys!’
Nathaniel McLean proved he was more than
just a lawyer and the son of a famous Supreme
Court justice when he helped save a Union
army from catastrophe at Second Bull Run.
By Scott C. Patchan
18
Killing Jackson
The Branch-Lane Brigade was
DUJXDEO\WKH6RXWK·VWRSÀJKWLQJ
unit but would be tormented by
a huge asterisk on its record:
Stonewall Jackson’s mortal
wounding at Chancellorsville.
By Michael C. Hardy
36
Sumter’s
Stepchild
The role Fort Sumter played
in the Civil War is wellestablished, but another
fort in Charleston—Castle
Pinckney—still has a few of
its own secrets to reveal.
By John Banks
JULY 2018
3
Michael A. Reinstein Chairman & Publisher
David Steinhafel Publisher
Alex Neill Editor in Chief
Vol. 31, No. 3 July 2018
AMERICA’S
CIVIL WAR
ONLINE
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AMERICAS-CIVIL-WAR
CULP’S HILL SAVIOR
At Getysburg, the Federals were
lucky to have an old school
general manning Culp’s Hill.
HARBOR HIJINKS
Cadets at Charleston’s The Citadel
decided a litle fun was in order
for a 1961 centennial celebration.
UNBRIDLED
CARNAGE
With litle warning, the proud
5th New York Zouaves met a
tragic end at Second Manassas.
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LETTERS
From our Facebook Page
Regarding our May 2018 “Hidden
Heroes” story on Confederate Colonel
John “Rip” Ford by Ron Soodalter.
John RIP Ford was one of the greatest
soldiers of the South. Fighting
Comanches, Mexicans, and Yankees
as a Texas Ranger and Confederate
state trooper.
Doug Yarbrough
Good material!...ran across reference
to Ford in creating personnel database
on Terry’s Texas Rangers from service
records and reunion rosters…
Michael A Peake
Thanks for the article, enjoyed it.
Rick Breze
HIDDEN HE
ROES
No
quit
‘RIP’ FORD KE
PT THE
YANKS IN CH
EC
SOUTHERN TE K IN
XAS
By Ron Soodal
whittled away
Your May 2018 “5 Questions” interview by Ethan Rafuse on Susannah
Ural’s book on the Texas Brigade prompted me to write and comment on
Kentuckian John Bell Hood, who raised a brigade of soldiers in his adopted
state of Texas at the beginning of the Civil War and became the youngest
man to command a field army on either side. Ater losing the use of his
let arm on the second day of the bloodiest three-day batle of the war,
Getysburg (July 1-3, 1863), Hood subsequently lost his right leg at the war’s
bloodiest two-day clash, the Batle of Chickamauga (September 19-20, 1863).
Assuming command of Confederate forces defending Atlanta against
Sherman’s onslaught in 1864, Hood’s aggressive style of leadership
nevertheless failed to save the South’s most important city, and his rash
atacks at Franklin and Nashville, Tenn., in November and December
1864, essentially doomed any chance the Confederacy might have had in
redeeming its sinking fortunes in the Western Theater. Yet it was not Union
firepower in the war’s bloodiest batles but, instead, a tiny insect—the
Aedes aegypti mosquito—that killed one of the South’s most aggressive
commanders. On August 30, 1879, Hood ignominiously died in New Orleans
of Yellow Fever at age 48, just a few days ater his wife and oldest child
succumbed to the disease. The old soldier, whitled away by the war, let
behind 10 orphans.
J.D.G. Hummel
Tampa, Fla.
6
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
14
ter
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pects
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n could not
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30 years. In
s his home for
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May 1865, with
nearly
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the end of the
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ly became
“R.I.P.” He was
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ren, Ford arriv
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months after
across the
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, just two
the Battle of
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Ford was neve
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AMERICA’S
ps stationed
CIVIL WAR
along the Rio
ACWP-18050
0-HEROES.in
dd 14
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would preserve the United States, leading his own men to fight
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THE BLOG ROLL
prime care
By William T. Campbell
sunlight; cubic foot requirements per patient (ideally
From the beginning the Civil War created a demand
800–1,200 cubic feet instead of the earlier accepted 500–
for hospitals that neither the North nor the South could
600 cubic feet); nonporous building materials; building
meet. Even before seeing combat, newly enlisted men
length-to-width ratios; placement of doors; location of
often contracted contagious diseases in camp. Once
ÀJKWLQJ RFFXUUHG WKH ZRXQGHG ZRXOG VWUDLQ DOUHDG\ support rooms; and number of stories.
The location of the sewers was also crucial (for more,
sparse health care resources: limited doctors and ambusee www.civilwarmed.org/sewers). Water, preferably
lances; untrained nurses; lack of medical supplies; not
HYHQ DSSURSULDWH SODFHV IRU WKH DIÁLFWHG WR OD\ WKHLU both hot and cold, was needed for drinking, bathing,
and wound care, but it was also vital for collecting and
heads while recovering. Temporary hospital spaces were
disposing of bodily wastes. Dr. William Hammond,
usually needed after battles, so medical departments
then surgeon general of the Union Army, set forth the
resorted to using hotels, barns, farmhouses, tobacco
basic principles of sanitation in 1863. He recommended
warehouses, even the rotunda of the U.S. Capitol.
one bathtub for every 26 patients, one water-closet (or
As the war went on, it became clear that more permatoilet) for every 10, and one wash basin for every 10.
nent hospital spaces were essential, and the surgeons
Ventilation of the toilet area was deemed vital, and, if
general for both governments soon determined that
water was available, it was to be used to carry off fecal
the pavilion-style hospital blueprint—already in use
material immediately.
throughout Europe, especially France and England—
Many hospitals came close to or fully achieved these
was the best. This design featured long narrow wards
ideal suggested conditions. In some cases, however, the
or units that incorporated multiple windows located in
ZDWHUVXSSO\ZDVLQVXIÀFLHQWWRSHUopposing pairs for cross-ventilation.
Eye on Design
PLWFRQWLQXRXVÁRZWKURXJKWKHWRLAdditional features addressed other
In this undated photo, Union
OHWVVRWKH\ZHUHRQO\ÁXVKHGHYHU\
types of supplemental ventilation;
wounded recover in a well-lit,
few hours or so. Similarly, some hosVSHFLÀHG KHDW VRXUFHV EHG SODFHwell-aired ward at the McClellan
pitals collected waste in outdoor pits
ment and square-foot requirements
U.S. Army Hospital in Philadelphia.
or boxes that had to be emptied perifor windows to take advantage of
8
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
tile heroics at stones river
Lee’s Shrinking Army
Why was it so small at Antietam?
Remarkable Fighters
Michigan’s Indian Sharpshooters
1/29/16 3:48 PM
HISTORYNET.COM
JEB STUAR
REVENGE
Plus!
Setting the
147th N.Y.’s
Gettysburg
Record
Straight
Them
pect!
Backroads Brawl on the Way to Get
10 heartless
civil war
profiteers
LEE’s lucky
retreat from
gettysburg
en
silent storms
How Acoustic Shadows Changed the W
BEASTS OF BURDEN
Photo Tribute to Army Horses
SHERMAN
EATS CROW
Generals
d to Know
n grant
Fly on the Wall
HISTORYNET.COM
ACWP-170300-COVER-DIGITAL.indd 1
How he nearly botched
the South’s surrender
legacy
One to See
MARCH 2018
HISTORYNET.COM
11/22/17 11:40 AM
erate oicer puts his
line to lead Army of
e troops late in the war.
7/28/16 5:23 PM
Beyo
Gettys
geor
mead
federacy’s
adlY
Comp
Lega
mat
ots
copycat
Confederate
and a
tupelo t
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n
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T
9/23/16 3:54 PM
“
HISTORYNET.COM
Doomed at Chancellorsville
stonewall
Colonel Joshua
Chamberlain leads
the 20th Maine down
Litle Round Top on
July 2, 1863.
killer
THE BLOG ROLL
pitals of comparable size quickly folodically. Great care was taken to venlowed above the Mason-Dixon Line.
tilate the water-closets adequately.
Due to the rapid increase in
Death rates were much lower in
the number of sick and wounded,
some hospitals than in others, but
many pavilion hospitals were “fastthe reasons why were not always
tracked.” Satterlee had been quickly
obvious. The famed Florence NightEXLOWDQGYDULRXVÁDZVZHUHGLVFRYingale led an augmented research
ered as the war progressed, which
effort into that by studying the
fortunately led to improvements for
design and survivability of hospitals
future construction projects.
used during the Crimean War. She
Some pavilion hospitals were not
later widened her study to include
constructed from the ground up.
other European hospitals, and even
Instead, existing structures were
LQFOXGHGVWDWLVWLFVLQKHUÀQGLQJV
converted to the pavilion style.
Nightingale was among those to
Campbell Hospital in Washington,
conclude that the pavilion design
D.C., for example, had been built and
typically offered the best outcomes
Doing It Right
used as a cavalry barracks. As such,
for patients. Improved ventilation
Above: A doctor’s chest used at
LW WRR ZDV SODJXHG E\ GHVLJQ ÁDZV
was a particularly important factor,
Richmond’s Chimborazo Hospital.
when it opened in September 1862
as were sanitation and the prevenTop: Mount Pleasant Hospital
with 11 pavilions and 900 beds.
tion of the spread of disease.
was one of several pavilion care
facilities built in Washington.
The pavilion design would continue
In an age many consider to be
to be used throughout the Civil War,
medically archaic, professionals and
especially by the Union, and it became the premier hosepidemiologists were making connections between good
pital design, both military and civilian, in the decades
ventilation, cleanliness, and health (for an example, see
IROORZLQJWKHFRQÁLFW7RGD\WKRXJKWKHGHVLJQLVFRQDr. Hammond’s 1863 A Treatise on Hygiene). Today, the
sidered obsolete and outdated. Most hospitals now favor
connection of greater cleanliness and ventilation to betprivate patient rooms, yet many of the design innovater health seems obvious, but in the Civil War era the
tions, such as good ventilation and lighting, are still conGLVFRYHU\ZDVVLJQLÀFDQW
7KH ÀUVW SDYLOLRQVW\OH KRVSLWDO FRQVWUXFWHG GXULQJ sidered important.
the war was Chimborazo in Richmond. Built in October
1861, it included 150 pavilions and 4,000 beds. It would
William T. Campbell, Ed.D., RN, is an associate
remain the South’s largest hospital during the war.
professor of nursing at Salisbury (Md.) University.
In the North, West Philadelphia U.S. General HospiHe has been a student of the Civil War for more
tal (better known as Satterlee) opened in June 1862—a
WKDQ\HDUVKLVLQWHUHVWÀUVWVSDUNHGDVD\RXWKLQ
pet project of Hammond’s. It had 36 pavilions containVRXWKHUQ'HODZDUHWKDQNVWRIUHTXHQWWULSVZLWKKLV
ing more than 3,500 beds, and 150 other tents were
DXQWWR&LYLO:DUEDWWOHÀHOGV7KLVEORJÀUVWDSSHDUHG
placed around the buildings in event of an emergency
in the National Museum of Civil War Medicine’s blog
or nearby engagement. Several other pavilion-style hos(civilwarmed.org/blog) on February 20, 2018.
10
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
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FROM THE CROSSROADS
Walls of Fame
QUICKLY BUILT BREASTWORKS SAVE THE DAY ON CULP’S HILL
By D. Scott Hartwig
When the Army of the Potomac’s 12th Corps
arrived on Culp’s Hill early in the morning July 2,
1863, 2nd Division commander Brig. Gen. John Geary
´VXEPLWWHGWKH TXHVWLRQ RI EXLOGLQJ ULÁHSLWVµ WR KLV
three brigade leaders—Colonel Charles Candy, Colo
nel George A. Cobham Jr., and Brig. Gen. George Sears
Greene. Doing so was not Geary’s choice. He was of the
PLQGVHW WKDW EXLOGLQJ GHIHQVLYH ZRUNV ´XQÀWWHG WKH
PHQIRUÀJKWLQJZLWKRXWWKHPµ
At this point of the war, Geary’s opinion was not
unusual on either side. Although both armies some
times built breastworks and earthworks in battles pre
ceding Gettysburg, their construction in the face of the
enemy was not standard doctrine, as it would become
in 1864. At Gettysburg, in fact, Culp’s Hill was the only
ORFDWLRQZKHUHWUXHÀHOGZRUNVZHUHFRQVWUXFWHG
7KHÀUVWZRUNVRQWKHKLOOZHUHHUHFWHGWKHHYHQLQJRI
July 1 by troops in Brig. Gen. James S. Wadsworth’s 1st
Division, 1st Corps. The division had suffered enormous
FDVXDOWLHVLQWKHÀJKWLQJWKDWGD\DQGDIWHUUHWUHDWLQJ
through the town to Cemetery Hill, the men were
12
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
ordered to occupy the northern slope of Culp’s Hill.
Upon arrival, Lt. Col. Rufus R. Dawes, commanding the
6th Wisconsin, ordered his regiment to entrench. They
set to work with a dozen spades and shovels, obtained
from their regimental wagon. The decision to entrench
did not come from above. Wrote Dawes: “There were no
orders to construct these breastworks, but the situation
SODLQO\ GLFWDWHG WKHLU QHFHVVLW\µ 7KH RWKHU UHJLPHQWV
saw the wisdom of Dawes’ actions and soon the whole
division was busy entrenching from Stevens’ Knoll to
the summit of Culp’s Hill by nightfall.
Seeing the works the 1st Corps troops had built might
have prompted Geary’s breastworks query to his bri
gade commanders. He might also have felt some pres
sure by the actions of the 12th Corps’ other division
commander, Brig. Gen. Alpheus Williams. When his
division reached Culp’s Hill, Williams wrote, “I ordered
at once a breastwork of logs to be built, having expe
ULHQFHGWKHLUEHQHÀWVDW&KDQFHOORUVYLOOHµDGGLQJWKDW
´RXUPHQKDGOHDUQHGWRORYHHQWUHQFKLQJZLWKORJVµ
It is possible General Greene was the one who sug
FROM THE CROSSROADS
DWWHPSWHGZLWKRXWWKHEHQHÀWRIWKHEUHDVWZRUNV-XVW
gested building breastworks.
before 7 p.m., Confederate Second Corps commander Lt.
He was the only West Pointer
Gen. Richard S. Ewell launched an attack on Greene’s
among the division’s leaderposition, spearheaded by Maj. Gen. Edward Johnson’s
ship and understood engineerDivision, more than 4,000 strong. The skirmishers sent
ing. “[T]he saving of life,” he
down the slope were soon seen running back uphill, “folsaid, “was of far more conselowed by a Confederate line of battle, yelping and howlquence...than any theories as
ing in their peculiar manner.
to breastworks, and so far as
Behind the works, their colors concealed, Greene’s
his men were concerned, they
men waited for the enemy to come within range. “The
would have them if they had time to build them.” Candy,
pale faces, staring eye-balls, and nervous hands graspa former Regular Army enlisted man, shared Geary’s
ing loaded muskets,” Collins wrote, “told how terrible
doubts and insisted his brigade would not waste time
were those moments of suspense.” The Confederates
building works, but Cobham sided with Greene. Fortuwere allowed to approach to within 50 yards before the
nately for the 12th Corps, Geary placed Candy’s brigade
RUGHU WR ÀUH ZDV JLYHQ 7KRXJK WKH ÀUVW YROOH\ ´VWDJin reserve and Greene’s and Cobham’s on the front line.
gered” the Rebels, it did not stop
“The men grumbled a little,”
their advance. But the Yankees
recalled Captain George Collins
continued to blaze away until the
of the 149th New York, but they
“smoke became so dense [they]
nevertheless “brought sticks,
were unable to distinguish the
stones, and chunks of wood, and
enemy and were governed more
felled trees and shoveled dirt for
by hearing than sight in directthree or four hours.”
LQJÀUHµ
Although some soldiers referThree times, Johnson’s men
UHG WR WKHP DV ´ULÁH SLWVµ WKH\
came close to reaching the breastwere true breastworks. Captain
works but were forced to fall back
Jesse Jones of the 60th New York
E\ WKH UHOHQWOHVV ÀUH HDFK WLPH
described how the men “felled
ÀQDOO\ FDOOLQJ RII WKH DWWDFNV
the trees and blocked them into
about 10 p.m. Greene’s men
a close log fence,” and appropriUHSRUWHGO\ KDG ÀUHG XSZDUG RI
ated nearby piles of cordwood.
80 rounds per man, and though
The numerous boulders strewn
the Confederates had seized the
across the hill were incorporated
lower summit, the top of Culp’s
into the line, and head logs for
Hill remained in Union hands.
further cover were added along
With Honor
Heavily reinforced, Johnson’s
much of the line. Efforts were
A pin with Maj. Gen. John Geary’s
Division attempted to carry
image and a list of battles in which
also made to conceal the works by
he fought. After the war, Geary
Culp’s Hill again the next mornplacing “heavy boughs and logs”
served as Pennsylvania’s governor.
ing. But the entire 12th Corps
in front. The work was so well
had returned by then and now
done, Captain Charles P. Horton
also had the services of a 6th Corps brigade. Johnson’s
noted, the entrenchments “could not be distinguished
attacks failed once more, with heavy losses.
ÀIW\\DUGVWRWKHIURQWµ
Had Geary’s disdain for breastworks carried the day,
Culp’s Hill remained quiet most of the day, but when
LW LV GLIÀFXOW WR HQYLVLRQ KRZ WKH $UP\ RI WKH 3RWRPDF
Lt. Gen. James Longstreet launched his attack on the
could have held onto Culp’s Hill. And had the hill fallen,
Union left about 4 p.m., the summit came under ConfedHUDWHDUWLOOHU\ÀUH$VWKHFULVLVRQWKH8QLRQOHIWJUHZ the army’s position at Gettysburg would have been
untenable. Whoever was behind the decision to build
during the afternoon, Army of the Potomac commander
WKRVHZRUNV³DQGDVZH·YHVKRZQVHYHUDORIÀFHUVFDQ
Maj. Gen. George G. Meade ordered the entire 12th Corps
WR UHLQIRUFH KLV HPEDWWOHG ÁDQN 7R WKH )HGHUDOV· JRRG be so recognized—deserves considerable credit for the
Union’s Gettysburg victory. Without them, Captain
fortune, 12th Corps commander Maj. Gen. Henry W.
Collins would write, “the 3d Brigade could never have
Slocum convinced Meade to keep one brigade—Greene’s
held the position on the 2d day of July against the over3rd—on Culp’s Hill. Greene sent a skirmish line down
whelming numbers brought against it.”
the slope and aligned his brigade along a single line,
each man separated by several feet in order to cover as
Scott Hartwig writes from the crossroads of Gettysburg.
much ground as possible—a tactic he never would have
Firm Defense
A post-battle photo
of a Culp’s Hill
breastwork that
proved critical for the
Federals in stopping
repeated Rebel
attacks on July 2-3.
JULY 2018
13
HIDDEN HEROES
the other
custer
GEORGE GOT THE
HEADLINES, BUT TOM
OFTEN OUTDID HIM
ON THE BATTLEFIELD
By Ron Soodalter
Although it seemed he would always be
relegated to serve in the giant shadow cast
by his famous—and much more calculatedly
ostentatious—brother George, Thomas Ward
Custer actually succeeded in upstaging his
ROGHUVLEOLQJRQVHYHUDO&LYLO:DUEDWWOHÀHOGV
George had a three-month head start on Tom,
entering the war at the First Battle of Bull Run
in July 1861, and then using his high-level conQHFWLRQVWR0DM*HQ*HRUJH%0F&OHOODQDQG
others to manipulate his way to the top of the
8QLRQ$UP\FDYDOU\KLHUDUFK\7RPHQOLVWHGLQ6HSWHPber 1861 and served reliably—without the headlines—
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April 6, he was awarded Medals of Honor—in that era
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March 15, 1845, nearly six years after George, whom
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West Point in the war-accelerated Class of June 1861,
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as a private and had to earn his way up the ladder of
14
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
Regulation Pomp
Sometime between
1873 and 1875, Tom
Custer—then a 7th
Cavalry lieutenant—
donned his Medals
of Honor for a photo
session in Bismarck,
Dakota Territory.
UDQNRQHKDUGUXQJDWDWLPH
During the Civil War, batWOH ÁDJV ZHUH RI WKH XWPRVW
LPSRUWDQFHLQEDWWOHÀHOGFRPmunications and signaling,
and they played a pivotal role
in rallying the morale of the
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represented much more than a mere catchphrase, regLPHQWDO ÁDJV VHUYHG DV D VRXUFH RI ÀHUFH SULGH WR VROGLHUVDQGRIÀFHUVDOLNHDQGWKHVHEDQQHUVLQVSLUHGPHQ
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of the most daunting challenges of Civil War combat,
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Actual size
is 40.6 mm
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HIDDEN HEROES
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16
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
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Ron Soodalter is a regular contributor to $PHULFD·V
Civil War.
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killing
jackson
At Chancellorsville, one of
the Confederacy’s best fighting
brigades Doomed the South
By Michael C. Hardy
18
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
Moment of Truth
As portrayed in Don Troiani’s
“Before the Storm,” Stonewall
Jackson and elements of his
vaunted Second Corps begin
their epic march around
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afternoon of May 2, 1863.
JULY 2018
19
The obverse and reverse of the 18th North Carolina’s
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20
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
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their march and pursuit of the foe. Rodes called a halt to try
was thick, almost impassable in places. Confederate troops
reorganizing his command. The sun had set about an hour
lined both sides of the turnpike. Brigadier General William
before, and the moon, just one night shy of full, began to
D. Pender’s and Brig. Gen. Henry Heth’s brigades of the
rise, casting eerie shadows throughout the twisted woods.
Light Division were posted behind Colston, to the north of
Not only did the two lead divisions stop, but so did Lane,
the road. Lane’s Brigade, just coming up, stayed in column
who was following artillery, still standing in the road. Near
on the turnpike. Federal infantry lay a half mile to the east.
the brigade stood some earthworks the Federals had built
While not all of his infantry was up, after checking with
the previous day. Jackson was nearby, attempting to help
Rodes, Jackson gave the order to launch the assault around
RWKHURIÀFHUVUDOO\DQGXQWDQJOHWKH&RQIHGHUDWHLQIDQWU\
5:30 p.m. Bugles sounded, followed soon by a scattering of
As Jackson rode by the 18th North Carolina, one of its capshots from pickets and the blood-curdling screech of the
tains remembered making “that wilderness ring with their
Rebel Yell. The Confederates had caught the Federal line
cheers” as he passed. Jackson “took off his hat in recogniRQWKHÁDQNDQGTXLFNO\URXWHGDQHQWLUHFRUSV)HGHUDOVROWLRQ RI WKHLU VDOXWDWLRQµ 'XULQJ WKLV OXOO LQ WKH ÀJKWLQJ
diers “did run and no mistake about it—but I never blamed
Jackson ordered Hill to bring up his men. He meant to conthem,” wrote Lieutenant Octavius A. Wiggins. “I would
tinue the advance and cut off the Federal line of retreat
have done the same thing and so would you....I reckon the
at U.S. Ford over the Rappahannock River. Hill picked
Devil himself would have run with Jackson in his rear.”
Lane’s Brigade to spearhead a rare nighttime attack. He
Lane’s troops struggled to keep up with the advancordered Lane to throw out a regiment as skirmishers and
ing lines of battle. As the main Confederate lines crashed
WKURXJK WKH ZRRGV /DQH·V PHQ GRXEOHTXLFNHG GRZQ WKH form the rest of the brigade behind them. Once in position,
Hill wanted Lane “to push vigorously forward.”
road. Dead and wounded Federal soldiers lay
Confederate artillery on the road just ahead
on the road and in the woods. Lewis Battle of
‘In the Air’
RI/DQHRSHQHGÀUHGUDZLQJDUHVSRQVHIURP
the 37th North Carolina said, “Our spirits were
As shown in this
a nearby enemy battery. Shell fragments covso high we could scarcely hold ourselves to the
contemporary Robert
Knox Sneden map,
ered the road, and Lane ordered his men to lie
ground, for we could see as we passed along
the 11th Corps’
down where they were, while he and the rest of
the road at least ten dead Yankees to our one,”
isolated position on
his staff dismounted and sought shelter in the
including the wreckage of an ill-conceived Fedthe Union right made
woods on the left side of the road.
eral cavalry charge.
O.O. Howard’s unit
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By 7:30 p.m., the Confederate advance began
a tempting target for
why Lane’s Brigade was not deploying as
to falter. Rodes’ and Colston’s divisions became
Jackson to strike.
RUGHUHG/DQHWROGWKHRIÀFHUKHGLGQ·WZDQWWR
intermixed in the terrain and were spent by
JULY 2018
21
lose his brigade and was “unwilling to attempt to form my line in the
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the crest of a hill on its front, fanning out on either side of the Orange
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yards after the bombardment before deploying to either side of the road,
‘all old soldiers know how difficult
it is to maneuver the bravest troops
in the dark under a murderous fire’
-brig. gen. james H. lane
22
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
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right there was a pine thicket…to the left of
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to the Plank Road, seeking further orders from
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For Posterity
Jackson posed for this
photo in Fredericksburg
two weeks before he was
mortally wounded—
likely the last image
ever taken of him.
Facing page: One of the
unimproved woodland
roads Jackson traveled
as he reconnoitered his
lines on the night of
May 2, 1863.
JULY 2018
23
Lee’s Immortals
Brig. Gen. James H. Lane
Brig. Gen. Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
It is one of history’s sad ironies that the Branch-Lane Brigade probably
is most remembered for its tragic “friendly fire” incident that mortally
wounded Stonewall Jackson. Although “the death of the beloved Jackson
at the hands of the brigade cast a pall over its otherwise stellar history,”
few other brigades in the Army of Northern Virginia can lay claim to a
combat record which matched, let alone exceeded, that of these “immortal men” from North Carolina. Their staunch service in Robert E. Lee’s
army from 1862 until the biter end at Appomatox, Va., in April 1865 has
been favorably compared to that of the more famous Stonewall Brigade
or the Union’s splendid Iron Brigade.
In 35 pitched batles and smaller engagements, the Branch-Lane
Brigade had 1,197 men killed on the batlefield alone. In addition, nearly
2,000 succumbed to disease, sickness, accidents, or in Union POW
camps—bringing the total number who died during the war to 3,151. This
represents an astonishing 35 percent mortality rate for the 8,975 North
Carolinians who served in the brigade—and, of course, to this staggering
number of dead must be added several thousand who sufered nonfatal
combat wounds or who endured long-term debilitating efects of disease.
The list of major batles in which the brigade fought reads like an
Army of Northern Virginia honor roll: The Seven Days, Second Manassas,
Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Getysburg, the Wilderness,
Spotsylvania Court House, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, and Appomatox.
At Antietam on September 17, 1862, the brigade—part of Maj. Gen. A.P.
Hill’s “Light Division”—made the brutal march from Harpers Ferry to
help prevent Lee’s right wing from being overrun by surging Union forces
late in the day. But the cost was high. Killed during the fighting was its
commander, Brig. Gen. Lawrence O’Bryan Branch.
Ten months later, under Brig. Gen. James Lane’s lead, the unit took
part in perhaps the most famous tactical action of the Civil War—
Getysburg’s “Picket’s Charge” on July 3, 1863. Lane led the brigade as
part of Maj. Gen. Isaac Trimble’s Division in the three-division atack
against the Union’s strong defenses on Cemetery Ridge. Of the 1,355
who advanced, 660 fell killed or wounded—nearly half of the brigade’s
strength. Among the wounded were three of five regimental commanders, two of whom were subsequently captured.
Fierce fighting during the 1864 Overland Campaign and the nine-month
Petersburg siege whitled away the brigade’s numbers. By April 1865, only
738 Tar Heels remained in the ranks.–M.C.H.
24
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
“was the last time I ever saw him,” Lane later
wrote.
With several members of his staff and escort
following behind him, Jackson rode down the
Orange Plank Road, passing both the 37th
and 18th North Carolina. A member of the
regiment, Richard Reeves, later claimed that
Jackson had ridden up and advised them to
“watch and listen and at the least noise, Fire,
as it would be the foe. He rode away looking
the gallant soldier he was.” A moment later,
Hill rode up with his staff, stopping on the
Orange Plank Road to converse with Jackson.
After urging Hill to push the attack forward,
Jackson rode toward the 33rd and the Federal
lines, leaving Hill there on the road between
the 18th and 37th regiments.
Lane rode back along his line to his brigade’s
far right. Near 9 p.m., he instructed his colonels to “keep a bright lookout, as we were in
front of everything & would soon be ordered
forward to make a night attack.” However, as
he approached, Lane encountered a dilemma.
Nearby Federals were calling out to their enemies, wanting to know whose brigade they
were. “General Lane’s” was the reply. “Tell
General Lane to come in,” a Federal retorted.
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Smith of the 128th Pennsylvania stumbled
into the 7th North Carolina, bearing a white
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whether the troops in front of him were friends
or foes. Much to Smith’s chagrin, Lane refused
to let him return to the Federal lines. Instead
he sent his brother and aide, Oscar Lane, back
to Hill for instructions about what to do with
Smith. Meanwhile, Lt. Col. Junius Hill of the
7th North Carolina approached Lane, imploring him not to advance. Hill had heard “noises
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were on” the brigade’s right. Lane agreed, and
Hill sent Lieutenant James Emack with four
men to investigate.
The 33rd was spread out in a line large
enough to cover the brigade’s front. Once the
line was posted, the regiment’s commanders,
Colonel Robert Cowan and Captain Joseph
Saunders, returned toward the main line and
found General Hill, probably on the Orange
Plank Road. The general told the pair their
objective was Chancellorsville, that they were
“to push on, drive the enemy out of that, then
we would have them on the hip.”
On the far right of the skirmish line Brig.
Gen. Joseph F. Knipe of the 12th Corps’ 1st
Division rode into the lines shouting for his
commander, Brig. Gen. Alpheus Williams.
‘what are you firing
at? are you trying
to kill all my men in
front of you? there
are no yankees here.’
-captain
marcellus n. moorman
First Sergeant Thomas Cowan of the 33rd
North Carolina called out to Knipe, who
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which side?” Cowan inquired, to which Knipe
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responded, stepping back to his company and
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later he did not know that the 33rd North Carolina had been deployed on the brigade’s front
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the two of them walked out into the darkness
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nets; load; prepare for action!” Someone in the
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dred yards in our front, to the right side of the
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wounding by
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members of the 18th
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in blazing away at the Federals, raising a
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far from their front, they assumed other enemy troops could
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Nevertheless, the voices crying out in the wilderness had
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through the lines of the 33rd North Carolina, reconnoiterRegiment came the sound of horses in the woods, moving
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25
‘you have shot my
friends! you have
destroyed my staff!’
-Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill
Not to be Forgoten
Top: The Chandler Plantation outbuilding at Guinea Station,
Va., where Jackson died eight days after being wounded at
Chancellorsville. Above: Jackson’s gravesite in Lexington, next to the
Virginia Military Institute campus where he taught before the war.
26
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
our line to the right of the road to escape the
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What Really Killed Stonewall Jackson
Stonewall Jackson survived amputation of his wounded let arm the night of May 2-3, 1863, only to die eight days later—purportedly of pneumonia. Eight doctors who cared for Jackson certainly believed so. Over the years, some even claimed that the notorious hypochondriac hastened his own death by deciding to take “cold baths,” accelerating the onset of pneumonia. Yet, according
to an article by U.S. Navy officer and physician J.D. Haines in the November 2006 issue of Armchair General, Jackson did not die
of pneumonia—he died of an unpreventable pulmonary embolism. Wrote Haines:
Although Dr. Hunter H. McGuire, Jackson’s medical director, and atending physicians agreed that pneumonia was the cause—
indeed, it is always given as Jackson’s cause of death—unbiased, modern-day analysis reveals the much more likely cause was
pulmonary embolism. Jackson’s so-called pleuro-pneumonia aliction was presumed due to lung
contusion incurred during his accidental fall from the liter the night of May 2. However, in any
fall less than 3 feet, the subject’s ribs naturally absorb the impact, thereby protecting the lung from
serious damage. There also would be obvious external bruising and abrasion in any lung contusion.
Yet Jackson’s physicians found no external trauma evidence.
In terminal pneumonia, the clinical course regularly goes from bad to worse in a steady decline.
But, in Jackson’s case post-amputation, there were two distinct, sudden episodes of deterioration,
separated by a period of apparent recovery—not the expected pneumonia-induced steady decline.
His two well-documented episodes of side pain occurred May 3 and May 6-7, in addition to the
acute onset of chest/side pain, with accompanying nausea, shortness of breath, extreme fatigue
and, perhaps, fever.
These symptoms are consistent with pulmonary emboli, clearly revealing blood clots traveling to
the lungs. Among numerous complications following an extremity’s amputation are non-healing
Dr. Hunter H. McGuire
of the stump, infection, and thromboembolism—the oten-experienced formation of a blood clot
within a large vein. According to Dr. McGuire, Jackson’s arm wound appeared to be healing and any infection did not seem to be
significant enough to concern his atending doctors.
Today, it is known that an amputee significantly risks venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism. Patient
immobilization following amputation can allow blood to pool and clot within veins. However, clots can form in the large veins tied
off during the amputation. The veins tying off, termed “ligation,” leads to blood stagnation in the veins, leading to thrombus (blood
clot), which can travel to the lungs and kill the patient. Even with today’s advanced technology, as many as half of all pulmonary
emboli are undetected. The treatment of thromboembolism employing modern medical procedures is chemical blood thinning
agents, unavailable to Jackson.
Given the primitive medical treatment in 1863, Jackson’s post-amputation death could not be prevented; however, examination
of his well-documented symptoms reveals Jackson certainly died from thromboembolism—a direct consequence of his arm wound
and subsequent amputation, rather than pneumonia long incorrectly presumed. –Jerry Morelock
member of the 37th. Lane, still on the right of his brigade
dealing with the captured Federals, heard his name being
called. He found fellow brigade commander William Dorsey
Pender, who advised him of Jackson’s wounding and of the
likelihood that it had been caused by Lane’s command.
Upon reaching the 18th, Lane encountered Major Barry,
who confessed knowing nothing of Jackson’s and Hill’s riding to the front. Furthermore, “he could not tell friend from
foe in the dark & in such a woods, that when the skirmish
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horseman & the cry of cavalry & that he not only ordered
KLVPHQWRÀUHEXWWKDWKHSURQRXQFHGWKHFU\RIIULHQGVWR
EHDOLHµDQGNHSWKLVPHQÀULQJ0F/DXULQDGGHGWKDWQHLther Jackson nor Hill habitually rode to the front.
Some blamed Lane and his Tar Heels for the tragedy
played out in the darkness of the Wilderness. “General
/DQHJRWVFDUHGµZURWHRQHVWDIIRIÀFHULQKLVRIÀFLDOUHSRUW
´ÀUHG LQWR RXU PHQ DQG DFKLHYHG WKH XQHQYLDEOH UHSXWDtion of wounding severely Lieutenant-General Jackson and
wounding slightly Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill.” After the war, Lane
told an early Chancellorsville historian: “In all my intercourse with Genl. A.P. Hill I never heard him, nor have I
HYHUKHDUGDQ\RQHHOVHFHQVXUHWKHWKUHJLPHQWIRUÀULQJ
under the circumstances.” The debate continues.
Adapted with permission from General Lee’s Immortals:
The Battles and Campaigns of the Branch-Lane Brigade in
the Army of Northern Virginia, 1861-1865, by Michael C.
Hardy (Savas Beatie, 2018).
Michael C. Hardy, who in 2010 was named North Carolina’s Historian of the Year, is the author of 22 books,
including North Carolina Remembers Chancellorsville
and Remembering North Carolina’s Confederates.
JULY 2018
27
off and
running
America’s growing passion
for horse racing stayed
strong during the war
By Jack Trammell
28
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
Antebellum Tensions
Before the war, North–South rivalries were sometimes
settled on the racetrack. Here, in May 1845, Southern
mare Peytona (foreground) defeats Northern champion
Fashion in a $20,000 stakes race on Long Island, N.Y.,
in front of a reported 100,000 spectators.
JULY 2018
29
or all his inadequacies as a commander—
for all his bluster, his inclination to undermine fellow generals, and his checkered
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Joseph Hooker appreciated the value of
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little more than a month after the Federal
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Hooker also gave his blessing to one of the war’s most
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30
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
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by the civil war, horse
racing had become quite
fashionable in america,
on both sides of the
mason-dixon line.
Grand Spectacle
Artist Edwin Forbes attended
Brig. Gen. Thomas Meagher’s 1863
St. Patrick’s Day shindig and drew
a series of sketches of the Irish
Brigade’s steeplechase and other
events for +DUSHU·V:HHNO\. During
the race, riders had to clear both
ditches (top left) and hurdles (center)
while competing on the 2½-mile-long
oval course prepared at the brigade’s
Falmouth, Va., camp. Top right:
Several riders are thrown from their
mounts during a mule race. Left:
Meagher distributes prizes after the
competition. Far left: Attendees—some
no doubt having waged bets—watch
the race from the side of the course
and in a specially built grandstand.
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$FFRUGLQJWR'DPLDQ6KLHOVDXWKRURIWKHEORJThe Irish
in the American Civil WarWKHULGHUVGUHVVHGWKHSDUWIRU
WKH UDFH LQFOXGLQJ ´RQH *DOZD\ QDWLYH ZKR ZDV FODG LQ
VFDUOHW ZLWK D JUHHQYHOYHW VPRNLQJ FDS KDUNLQJ EDFN WR
WKHFRORXUVRIWKH*DOZD\%OD]HUV&OXEµ3HUKDSVÀWWLQJO\
0HDJKHU·VKRUVHJack HintonHPHUJHGWKHZLQQHU
JULY 2018
31
For many in the Irish Brigade, that St. Patrick’s Day,
and the gala itself, would be their last. In early May, the
Army of the Potomac was wrecked at Chancellorsville. Two
months later, the Federals triumphed at Gettysburg, but
the Irish Brigade—although with General Meagher out of
favor and no longer in command—suffered heavy losses in
WKH:KHDWÀHOGÀJKWLQJRQ-XO\
For many bored and
homesick soldiers,
their favorite diversion
was horse racing.
track sometimes overshadowed the extremely practical role
horses played in moving passengers and freight, pulling
plows and millstones, and working alongside other animals
in all varieties of industries. Yet the story of horse racing
during the Civil War is one of those aspects of civilian and
military camp life that tends to get overlooked. Although
racing horses was a popular prewar pastime enjoyed by soldiers on both sides, its association with gambling is perhaps
the reason for that.
There does appear to be some basis in fact to several
VWLOOSHUVLVWHQW KLVWRULFDO VWHUHRW\SHV ÀUVW WKDW 6RXWKHUQ
soldiers, coming from a more largely rural culture, tended
to be better horsemen on average; and second, that the cavalry branch in each army attracted men who were innately
interested in horses.
Horse racing had taken hold in the
South
more quickly than in Puritan New
Life and Limb
England,
and because of the stronger racFalling from horses
while jumping over
ing culture Southern horses were usually
ditches or hurdles was
considered superior to Northern mounts.
a common risk for
Still, by the time of the war the sport was
19th-century steeplechase
immensely popular throughout the ranks
riders. Such accidents
and branches on both sides, in spite of
could cost either the
many attempts to ban it or control it.
rider or the horse,
/HWWHUV GLDULHV DQG HYHQ VRPH RIÀFLDO
perhaps both, their lives.
records show how much it was enjoyed. For
many bored and homesick soldiers, and
especially those familiar with horses, the
“favorite diversion…was racing,” accordLQJ WR 5DQGROSK 7XFNHU $ FDYDOU\ RIÀcer in early wartime Richmond, Tucker
recounted for his mother: “We have had
two horseraces this week gotten up by way
of amusement. The soldiers using their
own horses. You know we are quartered at
the Ashland Race-Course.”
Before the war, communities sometimes laid out tracks or courses as a way
of improving civil order. Establishing them
VSHFLÀFDOO\IRUKRUVHUDFLQJDZD\IURPWKH
center of town and main roads reduced the
impact of the gambling, chaos, and accidents associated with racing. Confederate and Union leaders, however, generally
failed to adopt such a “proactive” approach.
Many unit regulations and edicts on both
sides tried to ban and discourage racing,
EXW VROGLHUV DQG RIÀFHUV URXWLQHO\ LJQRUHG
these attempts despite sometimes draconian punishments. Confederate General
Humans have long been passionate about horse racing, the so-called “Sport of Kings.” In America, equine and
human history literally moved forward together with the
creation of a new country, enjoying a uniquely symbiotic
UHODWLRQVKLS6SDQLVKH[SORUHUVÀUVWEURXJKWKRUVHVWRWKH
New World around 1519, but the British and Irish were
primarily responsible for bringing a horse-racing culture
to the continent, with a documented racetrack laid out as
early as 1665 on Long Island. Spanish, French, and other
cultures have incorporated horse racing as a sport or recreDWLRQEXWWKH$QJOR,ULVKWUDGLWLRQPRVWKHDYLO\LQÁXHQFHG
what would become the American horse racing experience.
The endless quest to breed excellence and win on the race-
Nathan Bedford Forrest, for example, famously watched
a banned race with deliberate stoicism, only to arrest the
men for breaking his rules once it ended. Some races were
organized at the divisional level and involved illicit bets in
thousands of dollars, drawing crowds of hundreds and even
thousands of men. A clear majority of the races involved
HQOLVWHGPHQEXWRWKHUVVDZRIÀFHUVWDNLQJWKHLUUXQVDV
jockeys and as spectators or speculators. Confederate General James Longstreet once bragged about being unbeaten
in all types of races, including jumping and other varied
competitions, such as the steeplechase.
Although the 1862 regulations for the Confederate Army,
which were adapted from the U.S. Army’s 1857 regulations, do not include an explicit prohibition of horse racing,
they do regulate gambling, the general behavior of soldiers,
and the treatment of horses. The regulations also specify
clearly that horses in various branches could be used only
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Early Confederate congressional legislation is also silent
on the matter, though lawmakers did choose to regulate
other entertainment, such as circuses. Generally, it was up
to individual commanders to issue their own orders, which
they very often did.
Soldiers on furlough often set off immediately for the
public races, which in Washington, D.C., meant a trip to
the new National Racecourse. Washington had a history
of such racetracks, dating back to the Washington City
5DFH &RXUVH RU +ROPHDG·V ÀUVW ODLG RXW LQ 3UHVLdents such as Andrew Jackson were known to frequent the
tracks in and around the capital (and sometimes to wager).
An early premonition of the coming Civil War occurred on
this course in 1822 when a braggadocious Southern planter
challenged the reigning Northern champion Eclipse to run
against Sir Henry from Virginia. Sir Henry pulled up lame,
to the delight of Northern fans who heckled the Southerners mercilessly while EclipseUDQDFURVVWKHÀQLVKOLQH
During the Civil War, racecourses were described as
being built on “any level stretch” and “all the rage.” Tracks
ranged in length from one mile to several miles, and competitions were usually conducted in heats, recognizing
that not only speed but endurance were the hallmarks of
a superior horse. Most races required winning three out of
ÀYHKHDWVRUSHUKDSVWZRRXWRIWKUHH:KHQHYHUDFDPS
moved, racetracks were known to be laid out. When Union
VROGLHUVDGMXVWHGWRWUHQFKZDUIDUHGXULQJWKH3HWHUVburg siege, for example, courses were created as part of
“settling in.” In another race, there was a direct competition
between two entire Union general staffs who only recently
KDG FRPSHWHG ÀHUFHO\ IRU JORU\ RQ WKH EDWWOHÀHOG DQG QR
record exists of who won the race).
As Union armies conquered more and more Confederate
territory, the federal government naturally gained control
of a number of Southern racecourses. The popular Mount
Vernon course in Alexandria, Va., for example, came under
Union control early in the war. The Doswell racecourse
Grand Irish Brigade
Steeple-Chase Schedule
★ A foot-race ★
One half mile distance, best of heats; open to
all non-commissioned oicers and privates,
the winner to receive $7, and the second $3
★ Casting weights ★
The weights to weigh from ten to fourteen pounds;
the winner to receive $3
★ Running after the soaped pig ★
To be the prize of the man who holds it
★ A hurdle-race ★
One-half mile distance, open to all non-commissioned
oicers and privates; the winner to receive $7, the second $3
★ The wheelbarrow-race ★
The contestants to be blindfolded, and limited
to six soldiers of the Irish Brigade; the winner to
receive $5; distance to be decided on the ground
★ Jumping in sacks ★
To the distance of five hundred yards;
the winner to receive $5
★ Contest on the light fantastic toe ★
Consisting of Irish reels, jigs, and hornpipes;
the best dancer to receive $5, the second best $3,
to be decided by a judge appointed by the chairman
9th Massachusets
Celebration Schedule
★ Sack Race ★
★ Race for a Greased Pig ★
★ Climbing a Greased Pole ★
★ Jumping Matches ★
★ Horse Racing (afternoon) ★
★ Mock Dress Parade ★
Source: Damian Shiels’ blog, The Irish in the
American Civil War (irishamericancivilwar.com).
Schedules are reprinted as they originally appeared.
near Hanover Junction, Va., came under Union control
during the 1864 Overland Campaign. A well-designed and
preserved racecourse was captured in Beaufort, S.C., where
the men naturally wanted to race. When such courses were
captured or occupied, the men often set up to use them
immediately if circumstances allowed.
Both armies strongly discouraged gambling of all types
and introduced various penalties and rules to stop it. These
JULY 2018
33
racing between
enemies was
not unheard of.
Sometimes troopers
stopped shooting
at each other and
raced to compare
horsemanship.
‘Faugh a Ballagh!’
Members of Meagher’s Irish Brigade would cry
“Faugh a Ballagh!” (“Clear the way!”) as they headed
into battle—a phrase Meagher (above) also surely
didn’t mind his men using as they cut steeplechase
courses in the grass at his various camps.
efforts met with mixed success. U.S. Colonel William Kirkwood, racing with his favorite mount Archy, won more
than 11 additional horses from competitors as part of the
spoils of victory. A Texas cavalryman in trouble for going
around shirtless literally kept betting on his supposedly
fast horse Dick and repeatedly losing his shirt again. Billy,
a part-mustang racehorse who went to war, was reportedly
worth $5,000 (the equivalent of more than $125,000 today),
at a time when soldiers were paid $13 per month.
Virginius Dabney recounts that central Virginians hardly
needed any excuse to mount their favorite horse and “run”
an errand. By the 1850s, Richmond racing had “degenerated” in spite of building a new track at the fairgrounds in
EXWWKHZDUVDZDUHPDUNDEOHUHYLYDOZLWKDQLQÁX[
of horses, soldiers, and gamblers.
Horse racing was also fraught with personal risk. It was
not uncommon for either horses or riders to be seriously
34
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
injured, and a score of both human and
equine fatalities occurred during or because
of racing. For example, in the race held by
the 9th Massachusetts the same day as
Meagher’s St. Patrick’s Day gala, two riders
collided violently, with both horses killed
and one of the riders—Lieutenant Thomas
Mooney, the regiment’s quartermaster—
knocked unconscious. Mooney died in a
nearby hospital 10 days later.
During the Petersburg siege, where boredom constantly challenged military diligence, new racetracks would sometimes
appear as the siege lines expanded westward. “Horse racing has become quite the
rage in all ranks of the army,” one Northern observer noted. Tracks included those
located on Halifax Road, and New Market
Road, and races often included rival staffs
of larger units. But these races also turned deadly, as, in
one example, when a spooked horse crashed into an onlooking soldier and killed him.
It was also not unheard of for racing to take place
between enemies. Sometimes troopers stopped shooting
DWHDFKRWKHUDQGVLPSO\UDFHGWRFRPSDUHKRUVHÁHVKDQG
horsemanship. At Appomattox Court House, Va., at the end
of the war, Confederate Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton won a
jumping competition on his horse Butler, besting Union
Maj. Gen. Hugh Judson Kilpatrick, riding Old Spot.
Some worried that the impact of the Civil War might
temporarily set back the American equine industry, as well
as racing. Along with physical and human devastation, the
South’s horse population had been severely reduced by the
war. There is evidence, however, to suggest that the losses
were short-lived, and especially in the North, the post–Civil
War racing scene became one of the top three national pastimes (along with baseball and boxing). Ultimately horse
racing enjoyed a zenith in the postwar years, growing ever
more popular. By 1890, reportedly 314 tracks were operating across the United States.
Jack Trammell is an associate professor of sociology at
Randolph-Macon College in Ashland, Va., where he teaches
and writes social history.
Photo Finish
Major General William T.
Sherman’s forces captured
the popular Beaufort, S.C.,
racecourse during the 1865
Carolinas Campaign. Here,
soldiers are formed up on
the track, likely lamenting
they’d have to spend the
day marching instead of
watching a few races.
JULY 2018
35
sumter’s
stepchild
Overlooked in Charleston Harbor,
Castle Pinckney has a few of
its own tales to tell
By John Banks
Ghosts of Its Own
A 2013 aerial photo
of dilapidated Castle
Pinckney, here
Á\LQJWKHVRFDOOHG
“Stainless Banner”—the
Confederacy’s Second
1DWLRQDO)ODJ7KHIRUW
has been owned since 2011
by the Sons of Confederate
Veterans’ Fort Sumter
&DPS1R
36
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
JULY 2018
37
onstructed in 1809-10 to replace an earlier
log-and-earth fort, the brick-and-mortar
Castle Pinckney, named after South Carolina politician Charles Pinckney, guarded
Charleston Harbor during the War of
1812. Given its feudal appearance, it was
called a “castle.” During that 2½-year conÁLFW WKH IRUW VDZ QR DFWLRQ ,Q WKH \HDUV
leading up to the Civil War, Castle Pinckney was part of the defenses of Charleston and the U.S.
Army maintained a limited presence there.
Then came the winter of 1860–61. War fever was intense.
2Q 'HFHPEHU 6RXWK &DUROLQD EHFDPH WKH ÀUVW
state to secede from the Union. A week later, a 150-man battalion of South Carolina militia led by Colonel James J. Pettigrew gathered on the green at The Citadel in Charleston.
The soldiers, most of whom were unaware of their destination, boarded the steamer Nina, which immediately headed
for Castle Pinckney. The Federal bastion was manned by a
FRPPDQGLQJRIÀFHUDQRUGQDQFHVHUJHDQWIRXUPHFKDQLFV
and 30 laborers.
Reported a Charleston newspaper on December 28, 1860:
“On nearing the fort, a number of men were observed on the
wharf, one of whom, in advance of the others, was observed
holding what appeared to be a paper in his hand. This was
said to have been the Riot Act.” Presumably, the fort’s commander intended to dissuade further action by the intrudHUV E\ SXEOLFO\ UHDGLQJ WKHP WKH 5LRW $FW WKXV RIÀFLDOO\
placing them on notice that their assembly was unlawful
and thereby subject to the use of force.
Riot Act or not, the bare-bones garrison relinquished
the installation, eventually withdrawing to Fort Sumter,
nearly three miles farther out into the harbor. Lieutenant
5LFKDUG.0HDGHWKHFRPPDQGLQJRIÀFHUUHIXVHGSDUROH
and joined the Union garrison in Fort Sumter. After that
fort’s surrender, he was released along with the rest of
the garrison. But with the secession of Virginia, he would
resign and join the Confederacy.
,QDQRWKHULQWHUHVWLQJWZLVWDPRQJWKHWURRSVWKDWFDStured Castle Pinckney were the Meagher Guards, named
DIWHU ,ULVK QDWLRQDOLVW OHDGHU 7KRPDV )UDQFLV 0HDJKHU
ZKR ODWHU EHFDPH D UHQRZQHG 8QLRQ RIÀFHU 2Q 6W 3DWULFN·V'D\DW&KDUOHVWRQ·V+LEHUQLDQ6RFLHW\WKHÀHU\
Meagher delivered a speech so impressive that an honorary membership was conferred upon him. His membership
was revoked in 1861 by the society, noting Meagher “has
been carried away by the fanaticism of the North, and has
enrolled himself in the ranks of our enemies, taking arms
against us in this most unholy war.” No surprise that the
0HDJKHU*XDUGZDVUHQDPHGWKH(PHUDOG/LJKW,QIDQWU\
Meanwhile, a Northern newspaper soon speculated how
&DVWOH3LQFNQH\PLJKWEHUHWXUQHGWRWKH8QLRQIROG´>,@Q
case it should become necessary to land national troops at
Charleston,” The New York Times reported in early JanuDU\´>&DVWOH3LQFNQH\·V@FDSWXUHZKLFKZRXOGEHDQ
indispensable preliminary, might give serious trouble. Perhaps, however, a broadside from one of our new frigates of
C
Web-Footed Garrison
Pelicans have become historic
Castle Pinckney’s primary residents.
On an unseasonably hot afternoon in Charleston,
S.C., last fall, a few intrepid civil warriors were fully
prepared for a boat “assault” on a small fortress in
Charleston Harbor.
Sunscreen. Check.
Life jackets. Check.
Cough suppressant topical analgesic. Ah...check?
Our major worry during the one-mile cruise from
the Carolina Yacht Club to Castle Pinckney—the
long-abandoned Civil War fortress on obscure Shutes
Folly—was whether we could stand the stench of the
myriad droppings of pelicans, the tiny marsh island’s
PDLQLQKDELWDQWV6RZHÀJXUHGDFRDWLQJRIFKHVWUXE
(a.k.a. “topical analgesic”) under our snouts might
blunt the work of the pesky Pinckney pelicans.
We needn’t have worried. The odor wasn’t nearly
as bad as we were led to believe. Stepping past a rat
carcass or two was a far greater challenge.
2XUYLVLWWKHÀQDOHYHQWRIWKHH[FHOOHQW&HQWHU
for Civil War Photography “Image of War” seminar,
was optional. Only 10 bold souls decided to go to the
LVODQGIRUWUHVV³ZKLFKH[LVWVPHUHO\DVDFXULRVLW\
for most Charleston sightseers and boaters. To access
the historic property, which is not open to the public,
special permission was secured in advance from
its current owners: the local Sons of Confederate
Veterans post.
Scores of photographs were taken at the fort during
the Civil War, so our main aim was to identify
present-day sites of those images. Of course, for us
KLVWRU\QHUGVDQRSSRUWXQLW\WRH[SORUHWKHVHOGRP
seen site was too tantalizing to pass up. Who wouldn’t
ZDQWWRVHHWKHÀUVWSORWRIODQGHYHUVHL]HGE\WKH
Confederate military?
38
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
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FDQQRQWXEH³UHOD[HGDERYHWKHPRQDSDUDSHW
It’s Yours
Members of
the Charleston
Militia (below)
take control of
Pinckney on
December 27,
³WKHÀUVW
U.S. installation
so occupied by
Rebel forces. The
fort’s commander,
Lt. Richard K.
Meade (left)
refused parole
and joined the
Union garrison
on nearby Fort
Sumter.
JULY 2018
39
The Hotel de Zouave
In its short existence
as a Civil War prison,
Castle Pinckney boasted
a Zouave presence in
both its Confederate
garrison, which included
the Charleston Zouave
Cadets, and a contingent of
prisoners captured at First
Bull Run: the 11th New
York Fire Zouaves. Security
bordered on nonchalant.
Prisoners were permitted to
roam about the fort during
the day, and were restricted
to their cells only at night.
40
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
‘castle pinckney
has been
overshadowed
by more historic
and more
effective forts
in the harbor...
in the hearts
of the people’
Of course, for Yankee prisoners,
Castle Pinckney was more or less
unappealing. “Our greatest need is
clothing,” a Union POW wrote to
his brother in November 1861. “The
men, particularly, require everything
from shoes to overcoats.” At least one
Southern soldier also found Charleston and the fort on the harbor island
especially bleak.
“I arrived here last night and am
sorry I ever saw such a place,” the
young Rebel wrote in a letter to a
friend in the spring of 1861. “If I could
get out of it, I would do so with the
utmost pleasure. We arrived here
Sunday morning at 9 o’clock, and were
immediately taken to Castle Pinckney, where we were set
to work (on Sunday morning, too) transporting two heavy
48-pounders to the wharf.
“We are treated worse than negroes here. We don’t get
enough to eat, and what we do get is the coursest [sic] and
most common description. If you hear of anyone getting the
Southern Rights Fever as strongly as I had it, just show
them this, and if it does not cure him, nothing will.”
During the Union siege of Charleston in 1863, Castle
Pinckney was targeted infrequently, mainly because of
black POWs being held there beginning in July. According
to the 3rd Rhode Island Heavy Artillery regimental history, gunners on Morris Island—a little more than three
miles away—targeted Pinckney with a 200-pound Parrott
on June 29, 1863:
and a lighthouse to guide ships in the
harbor was added on the island.
In 1897, a bill was introduced in
Congress by a South Carolina senator to turn Shutes Folly and Castle
Pinckney—described as a location of
“great beauty and salubrity”—into a
rest home for disabled veterans and
other U.S. Army and Navy personnel.
“The matter certainly has support of
all South Carolina,” The National Tribune, a newspaper for Union veterans
noted, “and the press of Charleston
has given it much space. It is intended
as a sort of social and patriotic peace
offering. The people of the birthplace of
the rebellion want to take part in the
new era of National sentiment that pervades the country.”
But despite the backing of the Charleston Grand Army of
the Republic post as well as the governor of South Carolina
and mayor of Charleston, the proposal went nowhere.
By 1899, Castle Pinckney was “practically a wreck,”
according to a newspaper report, “and useless for further
purposes of defense.”
“While a little over 100 years old,” the Baltimore Sun
noted, “Castle Pinckney has been overshadowed by more
historic and more effective forts in the harbor—Moultrie
and Sumter—in the hearts of the people.”
-baltimore sun
´>7@KUHHRXWRIÀYHVKRWVVPRWHWKHFDVWOH:HGURSSHG
our shells into Charleston whenever we pleased;
but the size of the castle made it the smallest armed
target that we had selected; and its occupants,
feeling that they were exempt from our regards, and
safe, were sitting and strolling about on the work.
2XUPDJQLÀFHQWVKRWVSURGXFHGDPRQJWKHPDQ
indescribable excitement. From that hour the work
began to undergo a change, and soon, by sand-bags
and timbers, it became transformed into quite a solid
earthwork. Yet it was never regarded as a point of
vital military importance.”
For the most part, the castle remained out of sight and
RXWRIPLQGRI)HGHUDOPLOLWDU\IRUFHV8QLRQWURRSVÀQDOO\
reoccupied the fort after the Confederates abandoned it on
February 18, 1865.
Fittingly perhaps, Castle Pinckney drifted into obscurity
after the Civil War. For a short time, it was used as a prison,
housing vagrants and other civilian prisoners. There’s even
a story of the execution of mutinous black prisoners, whose
remains reportedly were buried somewhere on the island,
perhaps in the fort structure itself.
Sometime after the war, Castle Pinckney’s interior was
ÀOOHGZLWKWRQVRIVDQGSUREDEO\IURPDQHDUE\VDQGEDU$
large warehouse and caretaker’s dwelling were constructed,
A Step Back in Time
Attendees of the Center for Civil War Photography’s
“Image of War” seminar last October, including our
author, begin their select tour of Castle Pinckney.
JULY 2018
41
On June 6, 1902, Castle Pinckney, used for storage, narrowly escaped destruction late one night thanks to the “violent barking of watch dogs,” who roused the keeper from
his slumber. Wooden casks had somehow been set ablaze,
threatening to ignite a nearby oil house that held 15,000
gallons of kerosene. The keeper and his family rolled the
casks into the harbor, saving themselves and 12 sleeping
LQKDELWDQWV´7KHÁDPHVZHUHVZHHSLQJZLWKVXFKKHDGZD\
when discovered that the oil house would have exploded
within ten minutes,” a local newspaper reported, “and the
entire island property would have been destroyed.”
In 1924, Castle Pinckney was given national monument
status, but the federal government eventually soured on
that, largely because of its inauspicious Civil War history.
It lost its august designation in 1956. (Nevertheless, in 1970
it was added to the National Register of Historic Places.)
By 1958, Castle Pinckney was taken off the hands of the
federal government for $12,000 by the South Carolina State
Ports Authority, which intended to use it as a dump for soil
GUHGJHGIURPWKHKDUERU,QDQRWKHUÀUHRQWKHLVODQG
42
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
Tour Stops
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destroyed an old, wooden structure associated with the
lighthouse. Vacant for years, it had been a frequent target
of vandals. Various plans to restore the fort hit dead ends,
and it was sold by the state to the Fort Sumter Camp No.
1269, Sons of Confederate Veterans, in 2011 for $10 Confederate, seemingly a bargain. “We didn’t want to see something out there like a sports bar, with neon lights,” Philip
Middleton, the SCV commander, said at the time.
Motivated by buried treasure of a sort, Middleton wants
to someday excavate the fort. “We know there are two
and perhaps four large Civil War cannon there,” he said
recently. “We would like to be able to retrieve them and
put them on display.” But such work, Middleton admitted,
would be “tedious and incredibly expensive.”
Soon after the small boat with our curious group landed
on Shutes Folly, we realized a harsh reality. Battered by
time and the elements, the fort’s exterior is deteriorating.
A pile of bricks, perhaps some dating to the Civil War, lay
near its massive, exterior wall. The muddy route to the
fort’s lone entrance was choked by weeds and debris. Nimbleness was required to make our way through the narrow
brick gateway, up a steep hill and into the foreboding castle.
1HDUWKDWHQWUDQFHZHLGHQWLÀHGWKHORFDWLRQRIDSRVWZDU
image of a young African-American, a thrill for some of us.
Amid palm trees and island scrub in the fort’s interior, we
examined an old gun port and ruins of a postwar chimney.
In the far distance, the majestic Arthur Ravenel Jr. Bridge
gleamed in the sunlight. At least one of us imagined from
RXUDPD]LQJYDQWDJHSRLQWWKHDUFRI8QLRQFDQQRQÀUHLQ
Charleston Harbor during the 1863 siege.
Given vast changes since the Civil War, we speculated
about sites of wartime images taken inside the fort. Pointing to an exterior wall, one of our group surmised he had
found where the young Charleston Zouave Cadets had
posed in 1861. Thankfully, scores of pelicans seemed largely
unmoved by our presence.
Some of us wondered what else might lie beneath tons of
sand and debris dumped at Castle Pinckney long ago. Civil
War ordnance? The remains of the prison for Union POWs?
A pelican graveyard?
Perhaps someday Fort Sumter’s poor stepchild in
Charleston Harbor will give up those secrets.
John Banks, a regular America’s Civil War contributor, is
author of two books on the Civil War, Connecticut Yankees
at Antietam and Hidden History of Connecticut Union
Soldiers, both by The History Press. He thanks Craig
Swain for his contributions to this story.
JULY 2018
43
‘stand to
it, boys’
A Buckeye brigade’s bravado on
chinn ridge saves the union army from
annihilation at second bull run
By Scott C. Patchan
44
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
Nathaniel Collins McLean wasn’t exactly an unknown in the Union Army.
His father, after all, was the eminent John McLean, one of two Supreme Court justices who voted
in the minority in the court’s infamous 1857 Dred Scott decision—a verdict that helped accelerate
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WRÀJKWIRUWKH8QLRQ+HUDLVHGWKHWK2KLR,QIDQWU\VRRQWRMRLQ0DM*HQ-RKQ)UpPRQW·V
Mountain Department, operating in western Virginia, and was commissioned its colonel on Sep
tember 18. ¶,QWKHVSULQJRIGXULQJ&RQIHGHUDWH0DM*HQ7KRPDV-´6WRQHZDOOµ-DFN
son’s legendary Shenandoah Valley Campaign, McLean was at last given a true opportunity
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“Surprise” Atack
&KLQQ5LGJHWKHVLWHRIGHFLVLYH'D\ÀJKWLQJDWWKH
Second Battle of Bull Run, was referred to as that “bald
hill” by Union commander John Pope. This drawing by
Edwin Forbes depicts the attack by James Longstreet’s
wing on the outmanned Union defenses on Chinn Ridge.
JULY 2018
45
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Patchy Performances
A sampling of the leadership involved in the Union neardebacle on Chinn Ridge, from left to right: Brig. Gen. John
F. Reynolds, Colonel Nathaniel Collins McLean, Maj. Gen.
Franz Sigel, and Maj. Gen. John Pope. Of this foursome,
only Pope could be blamed. The myopic Army of Virginia
commander ignored repeated warnings of an extensive Rebel
EXLOGXSRQKLVOHIWÁDQNLQFOXGLQJIURPERWK5H\QROGVDQG
Sigel, as well as 3rd Corps leader Irvin McDowell.
McLean, telling him: “I will call upon you when necessary.”
About then, McDowell would be responsible for one of the
war’s most ill-timed commands. It was nearly 4 p.m., and
Porter’s men were retreating furiously from their setback
at the Deep Cut. Although Sigel’s troops and Union cavalry had managed to restore some order, McDowell rode to
5H\QROGV·SRVLWLRQQHDUWKH&KLQQ+RXVHDQGXSRQÀQGLQJ
him, gesticulated across the turnpike and shouted: “General Reynolds! General Reynolds! Get every man into line
and get away there.”
$QDVWRQLVKHG0F/HDQÀUVWOHDUQHGRI5H\QROGV·GHSDUture when the Pennsylvanians marched across his front.
0F/HDQ VHQW DQ RIÀFHU WR 5H\QROGV UHTXHVWLQJ RUGHUV
The general warned of the strong Confederate force on
WKHDUP\·VOHIWÁDQNDQGLPSORUHG0F/HDQ´WRWDNHFDUHRI
himself.” McLean pondered his options: Should he follow
5H\QROGVQRUWKZDUGDFURVVWKHSLNHRUVWD\DQGÀJKWZKDW
would certainly be a losing proposition? With little hesitation, McLean determined that “the object was to maintain
the position on Bald Hill [Chinn Ridge], and it seemed to
me clearly my duty to hold the position until I was either
‘it seemed to me clearly my
duty to hold the position
until i was either ordered
to retire or driven off
by a superior force.’
-nathaniel collins mclean
ordered to retire or driven off by a superior force.”
McLean attempted to stretch his 1,500-man command to
cover the ground that Reynolds’ Reserves had abandoned.
The Ohioans trudged up the ridge and deployed into line
facing west, with Wiedrich’s battery in the center and two
regiments on each side of it. For McLean, the prospects were
not promising. He had to buy as much time as he could.
Longstreet’s massive attack, led by Brig. Gen. John Bell
Hood’s Division, opened about 4 p.m. McLean and his men
plainly saw the onslaught beginning to wreak havoc south
of the Warrenton Turnpike. They watched as Hood’s Texans
overran Colonel Gouverneur K. Warren’s diminutive Zouave brigade on a ridge just west of Young’s Branch. Then
they witnessed the swift defeat of a brigade of Pennsylvania
Reserves and Captain Mark Kern’s Battery G, 1st Pennsylvania Light Artillery, units that McDowell had rushed back
when he realized to his dismay what was happening.
Hood’s men occupied the rise upon which those Federals
had been overrun, but Wiedrich’s German gunners opened
ÀUHZLWKWKHLUIRXUSRXQGHU3DUURWWJXQVWRGLVUXSWWKH
Confederate advance. The Texans pulled back momentarily
into woods farther to the south of McLean’s main position,
and then began to scatter in some confusion under the BuckH\HV·ÀUH,QGLYLGXDOUHJLPHQWVFKDUJHGXSWKHULGJHWRZDUG
the Ohioans, only to be hurled back with heavy losses.
Brigadier General James L. Kemper’s Virginia Division
KDG DGYDQFHG RQ +RRG·V ULJKW ÁDQN KRZHYHU DQG VRRQ
emerged as another threat to McLean’s tenuous position.
The colonel ordered Wiedrich to “turn two pieces of artilOHU\ XSRQ WKHPµ EXW EHIRUH WKH JXQV FRXOG EH ÀUHG KH
ZDVDVVXUHGE\DQXQLGHQWLÀHG´VRPHRQHZKRSURIHVVHGWR
know” that Kemper’s battalions were Federals moving to
KLVVXSSRUW0F/HDQ·V´ÀUVWDQGEHWWHUMXGJPHQWµKDGEHHQ
correct, but the fog of war had obscured reality. He counWHUPDQGHG WKH RUGHUV WR :LHGULFK DQG ´DVVXUHGµ WKH RIÀcers of the 73rd Ohio that the troops moving toward them
were friendly. Only temporary confusion in Kemper’s ranks
granted McLean a brief reprieve, allowing the Buckeyes the
time to deal exclusively with a fresh rush of Confederates
pouring out of the woods in their front.
The South Carolina brigade of Brig. Gen. Nathaniel
“Shanks” Evans advanced toward Chinn Ridge so closely
behind the 18th Georgia Infantry and the Hampton Legion
that the Ohioans were convinced the Confederates were
DWWDFNLQJLQFROXPQV$OWKRXJKVHYHUDORIWKHLURIÀFHUVIHOO
as the Carolinians approached the ridge, the contingent continued to surge forward, “yelling like demons.” But, recalled
JULY 2018
47
Metle on Dual Fronts
Courage—both moral and physical—ran deep in the
McLean family bloodline. In 1857, five years before
Nathaniel McLean’s display of physical resolve at Chinn
Ridge saved a Union army from annihilation, his father,
U.S. Supreme Court Justice John McLean, exhibited
exceptional moral courage in the Dred Scot decision that
became a catalyst for the Civil War.
In Dred Scot v. Sandford, the Supreme Court
considered the appeal of African-American Dred Scot,
born into slavery in Virginia in 1795. By the early 1830s,
Scot had been sold to Dr. John Emerson, an army surgeon
who took Scot to a military post in Illinois, a free state.
They resided there two years, then moved to Wisconsin
Territory, where slavery also was prohibited. In 1843,
having returned to Missouri, Scot atempted to purchase
from Emerson’s widow the freedom of his wife, whom
he had married in Wisconsin (she was owned by another
man who sold her to Emerson so the couple could remain
together), and two daughters. The widow spurned his
ofer, so Scot sought freedom through the courts, initially winning his victory before a jury in 1850. Two years
later, the Missouri Supreme Court reversed the decision,
returning the Scots to bondage. Scot lost an appeal in the
U.S. Circuit Court and took his case to the Supreme Court.
Not surprisingly, that court—packed with seven of
nine justices appointed by proslavery presidents—did not
restore the Scot family’s freedom. Instead, Chief Justice
Roger B. Taney of Maryland ruled Scot had no legal
standing to sue, stating: “They [African-American slaves]
had no rights which the white man was bound to respect;
and that the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced
to slavery.”
Although Scot lost his case, it reinvigorated the issue
of slavery as a topic of nationwide political discussion.
McLean opined for the minority (joined by Justice Benjamin Robbins Curtis) and highlighted the 7-2 decision’s
contradictions. He ripped into Taney’s faulty historical
assumptions regarding the Founders’ views on slavery and
took him to task on the longstanding precedent of courts
honoring the freedom of slaves taken into free states.
To Taney’s reasoning that African-Americans were not
citizens as a result of their race, McLean opined that
argument was “more a mater of taste than of law.”
McLean’s position surprised no one. He served 32
years on the Supreme Court and was an 1856 presidential
candidate, and even received votes on the first ballot at
the 1860 Republican Convention. On April 4, 1861—eight
days before Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter—
Justice McLean passed away. He was 76. –S.P.
48
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
one Ohioan: “We poured such a murderous volley into them
that they retreated to the cover of the woods again.”
McLean’s ordeal was far from over, however. To the south
of his position, Confederate cavalry commander Maj. Gen.
J.E.B. Stuart advanced every battery he could get his hands
RQ DQG HQÀODGHG WKH 2KLRDQV· EDWWOH OLQH ´7KH VKRW DQG
shell came plowing down our line,” wrote Major Sam Hurst
RIWKHUG2KLR$IWHU&RQIHGHUDWHRIÀFHUVVRUWHGRXWWKHLU
jumbled ranks, Colonel Jerome B. Robertson rallied the
5th Texas to the right of Evans’ South Carolinians. Colonel
Peter F. Stevens, commanding Evans’ Brigade, attempted
an advance against McLean, but “found the line halted and
VWDJJHULQJXQGHUWKHPXUGHURXVÀUHRIJUDSHFDQLVWHUDQG
musketry.” He shouted “charge” but “found it impossible for
RIÀFHUVWRPDNHWKHPVHOYHVEHREH\HGµXQGHUWKH%XFNH\HV·
PXUGHURXVÀUH+RRGDUULYHGDQGLPSORUHGWKH6RXWK&DUolinians to capture Wiedrich’s battery, but McLean’s men
quickly blunted that attack.
$VDWK2KLRRIÀFHUYLYLGO\UHFDOOHG
They marched up like mad men, not a charge, but
PDUFKHGXSLQVROLGFROXPQZLWKRXWÀULQJDVKRW$V
fast as one regiment was mowed down like grass by the
scythe, another stepped up in its place. I know that our
brigade killed and wounded more than their own number.
Although McLean had held his ground, a crisis had developed on his left with a determined push by Robertson’s 5th
Texas. The Federals were forced to yield, particularly with
a subsequent attack by a second line of troops in Kemper’s
command. Union reinforcements had arrived in an attempt
to extend McLean’s line, but it was too late—those fresh
troops were swept back as the 73rd Ohio retreated on
McLean’s left.
Evans’ South Carolinians then surged out of the woods
and again charged up the ridge, emboldened by the success
of the 5th Texas. With Rebel bullets zipping through the
air, McLean ordered the balance of his brigade to change
front to the left. The 25th Ohio attempted to execute the
PDQHXYHUEXW´WKHÀUHZDVVRWHUULEOHDQGWKHQRLVHRIEDWtle so great that it was impossible to be heard or do anything without confusion.”
Seeing the colors of the 73rd Ohio falling to the ground and
Confederates rushing to capture them, the 25th Ohio broke.
Caught in the same vise that shredded the 73rd Ohio, the
25th streamed over the crest of Chinn Ridge and retreated
toward the woods in their rear. Wiedrich’s gunners quickly
limbered up and raced back toward Henry Hill, narrowly
avoiding capture. The next regiment to the right, the 75th
Ohio, fared little better. Its line “doubled up like a hinge
so that the right and left companies came together.” As a
result, only two of its companies successfully changed front.
Colonel John C. Lee of the 55th Ohio, on the far right
of McLean’s line, saw the 75th Ohio waver and called out
to his regiment: “Stand to it, boys, and do not run!” Then,
XQGHUDKHDY\FURVVÀUHWKHWK2KLRZKHHOHGWRWKHOHIW
and advanced toward the charging South Carolinians and
Texans. As the Ohioans wheeled to face their enemy, Lee
QRWLFHG WKDW WKH UHJLPHQWDO ÁDJ ZDV FRQFHDOHG LQ LWV FDV-
Dogs of War
Momentum was already in the Rebels’
favor when Longstreet was ordered to
attack Chinn Ridge about 4 p.m. McLean’s
Buckeyes succeeded in turning back Hood’s
initial assault (top), but Longstreet’s
numbers were too great. The 55th Ohio’s
stoic but short-lived stand (bottom)
SUHYHQWHGDURXWEXW0F/HDQÀQDOO\KDG
to order a retreat toward Henry Hill.
JULY 2018
49
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and posted them behind a fence line facing southward, and
awaited the approach of Kemper’s rear line. Union reinIRUFHPHQWVMRLQHG0F/HDQ·VOLQH
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Federals. McLean sat on his horse and watched the remQDQWV RI KLV EULJDGH VWUHDP SDVW KLP 7DNLQJ D ODVW ORRN
50
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
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although mortally
wounded, brady refused
to release his grip on
the flag. harris had to
pry each finger off
the staff to free it.
Ground Zero
After the battle, Edwin Forbes drew this view of
Chinn Ridge, occupied late in the battle by McLean’s
Ohio brigade. On the horizon, along the Warrenton
Turnpike (modern Rte. 29), is the village of Groveton.
McLean, Captain Andrew Harris, and a few others ran back
to retrieve the colors. Although mortally wounded, Brady
UHIXVHG WR UHOHDVH KLV JULS RQ WKH ÁDJ +DUULV KDG WR SU\
HDFKÀQJHURIIWKHVWDIIWRIUHHLW%UDG\ZDVFDUULHGRIIEXW
soon died in a military hospital. He is buried in the Alexandria, Va., National Cemetery.)
McLean’s brigade—by now, mostly men from the 55th
and 75th Ohio—retreated along the western slope of Chinn
5LGJHVFUHHQHGIURP.HPSHU·VOHIWÁDQNE\DQLQWHUYHQLQJ
FUHVW2QWKHRWKHUVLGHRIWKHFUHVWWKHPHQLQ%ULJ*HQ
Zealous B. Tower’s 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 3rd Corps,
were getting pounded, all part of an onslaught that threatened to unravel the army’s defenses on this sector of the
ÀHOG 'XULQJ WKH UHWUHDW 0F/HDQ WXUQHG WR KLV DGMXWDQW
DQGODPHQWHG´:HKDGEHHQVHQWXSWKHUHDQGVDFULÀFHGµ
later recalling, “I do not know that I was ever so angry...in
DOOP\OLIHµ
Confederate artillery wreaked havoc on the departing blue
ranks. Sergeant Luther Mesnard of the 55th Ohio wrote of
one devastating moment: “As I fell in on the right, I saw [our]
color bearer[’s]...head strike the ground some twenty feet in
rear of the line, while his body with the colors fell forward, a
VROLGVKRWKDYLQJVWUXFNKLPLQWKHFKLQµ7KH2KLRDQVVRRQ
crossed Young’s Branch and then followed the Warrenton
Turnpike past the Stone House, below Henry Hill.
As the sun sank behind the Bull Run Mountains, casting shadows across the Virginia Piedmont, McLean rode
solemnly alongside his shattered brigade. At one point,
he approached Colonel Lee, the two exchanging a somber
glance and shaking hands without speaking. They didn’t
have to. The tears streaming down their cheeks plainly told
of the suffering their soldiers had endured during the battle.
<HW WKH 2KLRDQV· VDFULÀFH KDG QRW EHHQ LQ YDLQ 7KH
courageous stand on Chinn Ridge prevented Longstreet’s
attack from overrunning the left of Pope’s army, and bought
the embattled Union commander the precious time needed
to establish a defensive line east of the ridge on Henry Hill.
Instead of being annihilated, Pope’s battered army managed to successfully withdraw.
Within days of the defeat, Pope was relieved of command
DQGVKXIÁHGRIIWR0LQQHVRWD7HUULWRU\0F/HDQKRZHYHU
received a promotion to brigadier general. He would go on
to serve notably at the Battle of Chancellorsville and in the
1864 Atlanta Campaign, but his contributions at Second
Bull Run would not be surpassed.
Scott C. Patchan, a regular contributor to America’s Civil
War, is the author of Second Manassas: Longstreet’s
Attack and the Struggle for Chinn Ridge and The Last
Battle of Winchester: Phil Sheridan, Jubal Early and the
1864 Shenandoah Valley Campaign.
JULY 2018
51
TRAILSIDE
Sunrise at Mariner’s Wharf
On February 10, 1862, Union ships and the
Confederate “Mosquito Fleet” clashed in the
Pasquotank River near Cobb’s Point. Even with
the help of a four-gun battery on Cobb’s Point, the
Rebels lost four ships and Elizabeth City itself.
Elizabeth City, N.C.
coastal charm
Trailside is produced
in partnership with
Civil War Trails Inc.,
which connects visitors
to lesser-known sites
and allows them to
follow in the footsteps
of the great campaigns.
Civil War Trails has
to date 1,552 sites
DFURVVÀYHVWDWHV
and produces more
than a dozen maps.
Visit civilwartrails.
org and check in at
your favorite sign
#civilwartrails.
Control of coastal North Carolina was critical
in the Civil War. The inlets and sounds behind
the Outer Banks sheltered ships running
the Union blockade. Elizabeth City, N.C., on
the Pasquotank River, was at the southern
terminus of the Dismal Swamp Canal, which
offered ocean access at Norfolk, Va.
Although the city was not the target of a
sustained campaign, it was frequently witness
to military and guerrilla activity from early in
the war to the end. On February 10, 1862, 14
Union gunboats steamed up Albemarle Sound
to capture the town and block the Dismal
Swamp Canal. In a brief confrontation, four
of six defending gunboats in the Confederate
“Mosquito Fleet” were sunk or captured.
The city was let all but deserted, and
Virginia troops had burned the courthouse
and several homes to deny their use to the
Yankees. Lawlessness soon became rampant.
Bushwhackers waylaid Federal patrols, and
Union troops armed freed slaves and stripped
Confederate sympathizers of livestock. On
January 5, 1863, guerrillas ambushed a party
of Union soldiers and civilians on Main Street,
killing a Union lieutenant and a Northern
sympathizer. One bushwhacker would be
hanged in reprisal.
In August 1863, the 1st United States Colored
Troops were briefly stationed in the town. That
December, Union Brig. Gen. Edward A. Wild
led a raid of eastern North Carolina with a force
that included African-American detachments.
And in March 1864, the Confederate ironclad
Albemarle menaced Union strongholds in
the region until sunk. For the rest of the war,
Federal authority in eastern North Carolina
remained essentially unchallenged. Not only
did President Lincoln allow trade between
Norfolk and the Albemarle region, but the U.S.
Internal Revenue Service collected taxes.
Today, Elizabeth City is a charming
destination along the Intracoastal Waterway
that also offers boaters superb harbor facilities.
Several wildlife refuges feature hiking,
kayaking, and bird-watching. The Albemarle
Sound resounds with the history of the
Underground Railroad. —Nancy Tappan
Special thanks to Bruce Long and A.Christopher Meekins for their help with this guide.
52
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
TRAILSIDE
Christ Episcopal Church
200 S. McMorrine St.
Rector Edward M. Forbes stayed behind during
the Batle of Elizabeth City on February 10, 1862.
Dressed in his clerical vestments, the Rev. Forbes
met the Union commander at the waterfront and
negotiated a peaceful surrender of the town to
save it from destruction. christchurchecity.org
Pasquotank County Courthouse
206 E. Main St.
The courthouse was built in 1882 to replace the 1799 wood-frame
courthouse Virginia troops burned during the Batle of Elizabeth City
to prevent its use by Federals. A historical marker at the site recalls the
heroics of livery stable owner Arthur Jones, who hid the courthouse
records in a barn in the countryside. Jones died penniless and blind.
Oak Grove Cemetery
Peartree Road
A Grand Army of the Republic post was formed
by former United States Colored Troops in the last
quarter of 1885. Their post, the Fletcher GAR Post
No. 20, purchased plots in Oak Grove Cemetery for
the burials of former USCT soldiers and AfricanAmerican sailors who served in the Union Navy.
Martin House
405 E. Church St.
The Martin family lived in the house currently occupied by Twiford’s
Funeral Home. William Martin was the first doctor in Elizabeth City.
His sons, Brig. Gen. James G. Martin and Colonel William F. Martin,
served as oicers in the Confederate Army. James Martin was adjutant
general for the state of North Carolina at the outbreak of the war. The
Martin family had a shipyard on Poindexter Creek where shipbuilder
Gilbert Elliot was building a wooden gunboat for the Confederate
“Mosquito Fleet” prior to the Batle of Elizabeth City. The ship was
burned on the stocks to prevent its capture.
JULY 2018
53
TRAILSIDE
6
2
elizabeth city
4
1. Christ Episcopal Church
2. Pasquotank County
Courthouse
3. Martin House
4. Grice-Fearing House B&B
5. Museum of the Albemarle
6. Muddy Waters
Cofeehouse
7. Oak Grove Cemetery
1
3
5
7
Grice-Fearing
House Bed &
Breakfast
200 S. Road Street
The 1798 Grice-Fearing House is the
oldest house in Elizabeth City and is
on the National Register of Historic
Places. The two-story front part of
the house retains its Federal design.
In 1861, homeowner John Bartlet
Fearing, captain of Company I,
17th North Carolina Infantry, was
captured at Hateras Inlet and held as
a prisoner of war. In 1863, he resigned
his Confederate commission, took
the Union Oath of Allegiance and
paid Federal taxes. He died in 1888.
gricefearinghouse.com
Civil War
History
captured
here
The Museum of the Albemarle
tells the story of Elizabeth
City’s unique relationship
with the sea, land, and rivers.
Civil War artifacts on exhibit
include the uniform frock
coat and epaulets worn by
Confederate Brig. Gen. James
G. Martin; a Confederate First
National Flag (one of three
flags captured at the 1862
Batle of New Bern by the
21st and 25th Massachusets),
and the damaged smokestack
from the ironclad CSS
Albemarle. 501 S. Water St.,
across from Waterfront Park
museumothealbemarle.com
Muddy Waters
This coffeehouse overlooks the intersection where, on January 5, 1863,
a party including Union Lieutenant Nathaniel Sanders and local
Unionist Joseph T. McCabe were ambushed when guerrillas hidden in
the ruins of the Nichols Hotel—current site of the Southern Hotel—
fired on them. McCabe was killed instantly. Sanders managed to get
back to Union headquarters on Shepard Street before dying from his
wounds. The atack spurred Yankee reprisals, including the hanging
of a captured guerrilla. 100 W. Main St. muddyscoffee.com
54
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
HOW MUCH
TIME DID IT
TAKE FOR
ABRAHAM
LINCOLN TO
DELIVER HIS
GETTYSBURG
ADDRESS?
14 minutes, 2-3 minutes,
16-17 minutes or 7 minutes?
For more, visit
WWW.HISTORYNET.COM/
MAGAZINES/QUIZ
HistoryNet.com
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
ANSWER: 2-3 MINUTES. DELIVERED FOUR AND A
HALF MONTHS AFTER THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG,
LINCOLN’S ICONIC ADDRESS FRAMED THE CIVIL WAR AS
NOT A STRUGGLE FOR THE UNION, BUT A STRUGGLE TO
PRESERVE THE PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN EQUALITY, AS
OUTLINED IN THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.
HERITAGE TRAVEL &
LIFESTYLE SHOWCASE
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Home to more than 400 sites, the Civil
War’s impact on Georgia was greater
than any other event in the state’s
history. Visit www.gacivilwar.org to
learn more.
Explore Maryland with once-in-alifetime commemorations—all at one
destination. Create your family history
by exploring ours. Go to visitmaryland.
org to plan your trip today.
here’s no other place that embodies
the heart and soul of the True South
in all its rich and varied expressions—
Mississippi. Find Your True South.
To discover more about Tennessee and
to order your free oicial Tennessee
Vacation Guide, visit:
TNVACATION.COM
or call 1-800-GO2-TENN
Known for sublime natural beauty,
captivating history and heritage and
warm hospitality, West Virginia really
is the great escape. Start planning your
getaway today.
Walk where Civil War soldiers fought
and died. A short trip from Nashville and
a long journey into America’s history!
Call (800) 716-7560.
ReadySetRutherford.com
Join us for our Civil War Anniversary
Commemoration including
atractions and tours, exhibitions,
memorials and a selection of artifacts
from Fort Fisher.
Lebanon, KY is home to the Lebanon
National Cemetery, its own
Civil War Park, and it’s part of the
John Hunt Morgan Trail.
VisitLebanonKY.com today.
History lives in Tupelo, Mississippi.
Visit Brice’s Crossroads National
Batleield, Natchez Trace Parkway,
Tupelo National Batleield, Mississippi
Hills Exhibit Center and more.
“Part of the One and Only Bluegrass!”
Visit National Historic Landmark,
National Civil War Trust tour, historic
ferry, and the third largest planetarium
of its kind in the world!
Visit Chatanooga’s pivotal Civil War sites
that changed America forever. Combine
your stay in this top rated tourism destination with other world-class atractions,
music festivals and unique dining.
A vacation in Georgia means
great family experiences that can
only be described as prety sweet.
Explore Georgia’s Magnolia Midlands.
Experience the Civil War in Jacksonville
at the Museum of Military History.
Relive one of Arkansas’ irst stands at
the Reed’s Bridge Batleield.
jacksonvillesoars.com/museum.php
Explore the past in Baltimore during
two commemorative events: the War of
1812 Bicentennial and Civil War 150.
Plan your trip at Baltimore.org.
Are you a history and culture buf?
here are many museums and
atractions, Civil War, and Civil Rights
sites just for you in Jackson, Mississippi.
Experience living history for
he Batles of Marieta Georgia,
featuring reenactments, tours and
a recreation of 1864 Marieta.
www.marietacivilwar.com
Experience the Old West in action with
a trip through Southwest Montana.
For more information on our 15 ghost
towns, visit southwestmt.com or
call 800-879-1159, ext 1501.
he Mississippi Hills National Heritage
Area highlights the historic, cultural,
natural, scenic and recreational treasures
of this distinctive region.
www.mississippihills.org
Once Georgia’s last frontier outpost,
now its third largest city, Columbus is
a true destination of choice. History,
theater, arts and sports—Columbus
has it all.
Over 650 grand historic homes in three
National Register Historic Districts.
Birthplace of America’s greatest playwright, Tennessee Williams. he ultimate
Southern destination—Columbus, MS.
Six major batles took place in Winchester
and Frederick County, and the town
changed hands approximately 72 times—
more than any other town in the country!
www.visitwinchesterva.com
Greeneville, TN
Founded in 1783, Greeneville has a rich
historical background as the home for
such important igures as Davy Crocket
and President Andrew Johnson.
Plan your visit now!
Richmond,
Kentucky
H I S T O R I C
Roswell, Georgia
Tishomingo County, MS
Fayeteville/Cumberland County, North
Carolina is steeped in history and patriotic traditions. Take a tour highlighting
our military ties, status as a transportation hub, and our Civil War story.
Whether you love history, culture, the
peacefulness of the great outdoors, or the
excitement of entertainment, Roswell
ofers a wide selection of atractions and
tours. www.visitroswellga.com
With a variety of historic atractions
and outdoor adventures,
Tishomingo County is a perfect
destination for lovers of history
and nature alike.
History surrounds Cartersville, GA,
including Allatoona Pass, where a ierce
batle took place, and Cooper’s Furnace,
the only remnant of the bustling
industrial town of Etowah.
Tennessee’s Farragut Folklife Museum
is a treasure chest of artifacts telling the
history of the Farragut and Concord
communities, including the Admiral
David Glasgow Farragut collection.
Seven museums, an 1890 railroad, a
British fort and an ancient trade path can
be found on the Furs to Factories Trail
in the Tennessee Overhill, located in the
corner of Southeast Tennessee.
hrough personal stories, interactive
exhibits and a 360° movie, the Civil War
Museum focuses on the war from the
perspective of the Upper Middle West.
www.thecivilwarmuseum.org
he National Civil War Naval Museum
in Columbus, GA, tells the story of the
sailors, soldiers, and civilians, both free
and enslaved as afected by the navies
of the American Civil War.
Williamson County, Tennessee, is rich in
Civil War history. Here, you can visit the
Lotz House, Carnton Plantation, Carter
House, Fort Granger and Winstead Hill
Park, among other historic locations.
Explore the Natchez Trace. Discover
America. Journey along this 444-mile
National Scenic Byway stretching
from the Mississippi River in Natchez
through Alabama and then Tennessee.
Come to Helena, Arkansas and see
the Civil War like you’ve never seen
it before. Plan your trip today!
www.CivilWarHelena.com
www.VisitHelenaAR.com
Join us as we commemorate the 150th
anniversary of Knoxville’s Civil War
forts. Plan your trip today!
www.knoxcivilwar.org
Charismatic Union General Hugh
Judson Kilpatrick had legions of
admirers during the war. He just wasn’t
much of a general, as his men often
learned with their lives.
Sandy Springs, Georgia, is the perfect
hub for exploring Metro Atlanta’s Civil
War sites. Conveniently located near
major highways, you’ll see everything
from Sandy Springs!
Treat yourself to Southern Kentucky
hospitality in London and Laurel
County! Atractions include the Levi
Jackson Wilderness Road State Park and
Camp Wildcat Civil War Batleield.
Hip and historic Frederick County,
Maryland is home to the National
Museum of Civil War Medicine, unique
shopping, dining covered bridges and
outdoor recreation. www.visitfrederick.org
Just 15 miles south of downtown
Atlanta lies the heart of the true
South: Clayton County, Georgia,
where heritage comes alive!
St. Mary’s County, Maryland. Visit Point
Lookout, site of the war’s largest prison
camp, plus Confederate and USCT
monuments. A short drive from the
nation’s capital.
ALABAMA HISTORICAL COMMISSION
Confederate Memorial Park is the site of
Alabama’s only Home for Confederate
veterans (1902-1939). he museum interprets Alabama’s Confederate period and
the Alabama Confederate Soldiers’ Home.
Cleveland, TN
Near Chatanooga, ind glorious
mountain scenery and heart-pounding
white-water rafting. Walk in the footsteps
of the Cherokee and discover a charming
historic downtown.
$ODEDPD·V
*XOI&RDVW
If you’re looking for an easy stroll
through a century of ine architecture or
a trek down dusty roads along the Blues
Trail, you’ve come to the right place.
www. visitgreenwood.com
Southern hospitality at its inest, the
Classic South, Georgia, ofers visitors a
combination of history and charm mixed
with excursion options for everyone
from outdoorsmen to museum-goers.
Relive the rich history of the Alabama
Gulf Coast at Fort Morgan, Fort Gaines,
the USS Alabama Batleship, and the
area’s many museums.
Fort-Morgan.org • 888-666-9252
CIVIL WAR MUSEUM
of the Western Theater
Vicksburg, Mississippi is a great place
to bring your family to learn American
history, enjoy educational museums and
check out the mighty Mississippi River.
Follow the Civil War Trail in Meridian,
Mississippi, where you’ll experience
history irst-hand, including Merrehope
Mansion, Marion Confederate Cemetery
and more. www.visitmeridian.com.
Fitzgerald, Georgia...100 years of bringing people together. Learn more about
our story and the commemoration of the
150th anniversary of the Civil War’s
conclusion at www.itzgeraldga.org.
Hundreds of authentic artifacts.
Voted fourth inest in U.S. by North &
South Magazine. Located in historic
Bardstown, Kentucky.
www.civil-war-museum.org
Come to Cleveland, Mississippi—the
birthplace of the blues. Here, you’ll ind
such legendary destinations as Dockery
Farms and Po’ Monkey’s Juke Joint.
www.visitclevelandms.com
+LVWRULF%DUGVWRZQ.HQWXFN\
Dstination
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Prestonsburg, KY - Civil War &
history atractions, and reenactment
dates at PrestonsburgKY.org. Home to
Jenny Wiley State Park, country music
entertainment & Dewey Lake.
Search over 10,000 images and primary
documents relating to the Civil War Batle
of Hampton Roads, now available in he
Mariners’ Museum Library Online Catalog!
www.marinersmuseum.org/catalogs
History, bourbon, shopping, sightseeing
and relaxing—whatever you enjoy,
you’re sure to ind it in beautiful
Bardstown, KY. Plan your visit today.
www.visitbardstown.com
Confederate Memorial Park in Marbury,
Alabama, commemorates the Civil
War with an array of historic sites and
artifacts. Experience the lives of Civil
War soldiers as never before.
STEP BACK IN TIME at Camp Nelson
Civil War Heritage Park, a Union Army
supply depot and African American
refugee camp. Museum, Civil War
Library, Interpretive Trails and more.
Interview by Nancy Tappan
REVIEWS
lessons in
leadership
5 Questions
with
Lewis E.
Lehrman
Lewis E. Lehrman, co-founder of the
Gilder Lehrman Institute of American
History, received the National
Humanities Medal for his work in
American History in 2005. In Lincoln
& Churchill: Statesman at War
(Stackpole Books, 2018, $34.95), he
discusses the bonds of character and
courage that link two statesmen who
saved their countries from destruction.
58
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
1
How did their backgrounds afect
their abilities as war leaders?
2
Who was more ready for war, Churchill or Lincoln?
Each was essentially self-educated. Churchill was an indifferent
student at the elite private school Harrow. Instead of university,
he went to Sandhurst, the military academy. When he graduated, he was
sent to India as a subaltern in the cavalry, where he began an extensive
self-study program in history and military strategy, among other subjects.
Lincoln, by contrast, had fewer than 12 months of formal education. As a
young man, he taught himself trigonometry in order to master the art of
surveying. He never went to law school, but by his own diligent study, he
was granted entrance to the Illinois bar. Their similarities were equally
important. As Mr. Churchill said, “Courage is the most important virtue.”
As a young cavalry oicer, Churchill distinguished himself in combat
on four continents. Mr. Lincoln served only a few weeks in the Illinois
militia, but he exhibited courage throughout his early life. Having already
made two trips down the Mississippi on pole rats, Lincoln migrated
alone to New Salem, Ill., at 22. There he impressed townsfolk with his
physical strength and bested the town bully in a wrestling match.
As First Lord of the Admiralty in 1940, Churchill had eight
months of the Phoney War to get ready. He knew the key players
and how government worked. The basic outlines of the European
conflict were clear to him. When he became prime minister in May
REVIEWS
1940, all hell broke loose immediately and he had to deal
with political, military, and public relations problems at
the same time. Lincoln had four months to observe the
outlines of the conflict before he took oice in March
1861, but the realities were not as clear. There was no
team in place with which to work, with the first largescale armed conflict still a few months away. Lincoln
had less experience but had more time to get his plans
in order. Lincoln did not have to handle the same 24/7
crisis management as did Churchill.
3
Did Lincoln continue to
educate himself as president?
He had to learn military strategy and tactics on
the job. He went to the Library of Congress, took
out the best texts available and mastered the essentials
of military strategy. His careful study, combined with his
natural intelligence and his understanding of maps and
geography, gave him superior natural strategic insight.
4
How did Britain’s parliamentary system
afect Churchill’s leadership? How did the
American republican system afect Lincoln’s?
In the parliamentary form of the government
Churchill inherited, the prime minister did not have
direct control over the military chiefs of staff. During
World War I, he had served both as a Cabinet minister
and as a lieutenant colonel in the trenches of Belgium. Having witnessed
first-hand how incompetent
leadership led to an unbelievable waste of human
life, in 1940 he was determined to run this new war
himself. He created a Ministry of Defense and named
himself as defense minister.
He personally appointed the
War Cabinet. To build consensus, he spoke frequently
to the all-powerful House
of Commons and to the public. Lincoln was chief executive and commander in chief, but he had to deal with the
Radical Republicans and Peace Democrats in Congress,
who oten tried to override his decisions. Although Lincoln generally prevailed, the American form of government limited his freedom of action.
5
What lesson did Churchill learn
from his study of Lincoln?
Churchill had studied the Civil War and how
Lincoln had stood up to his challengers and had
intervened in military strategy. Churchill learned from
Lincoln not to leave the war entirely to the generals. He
also admired Lincoln’s determination to survive and
persevere, and to fight on to unconditional victory.
Lee’s Tigers
Revisited:
The Louisiana
Infantry in
the Army of
Northern Virginia
Terry L. Jones
Louisiana State
University Press
2017, $39.95
It did not take long for the men who let Louisiana
to serve the Confederacy in 1861 to earn notoriety both
on and off the batlefield. Their reputation for alcoholfueled rowdiness alone filled communities both north
and south of the Potomac River with a sense of dread
at the prospect of hosting them for any period of time.
But these Pelican State boys were also unique in that
they aptly reflected the diverse, cosmopolitan character of both Louisiana and its most important city, New
Orleans, which set them apart from the more ethnically
and culturally homogenous units that came from other
Southern states. Still, it could not be denied that the fittingly named Tigers were a decidedly valuable asset to
the commanders they served on the batlefields of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. The honors and
fame they earned, though, came at a heavy cost. While
about 12,800 Tigers served during the war, when Colonel Eugene Waggaman, commander of the single brigade
of Louisianans still in the field at Appomatox Court
House, Va., returned to New Orleans in May 1865, he was
accompanied by roughly only 700 men.
Despite their distinguished and colorful history, it was
not until 1987 that a comprehensive, scholarly study
of the Tigers and their contributions from Manassas to
Hatcher’s Run appeared. That work, Terry L. Jones’ Lee’s
Tigers, won immediate acclaim upon publication, and
in the decades since has enjoyed an enviable reputation
among students of the war in the Eastern Theater.
Of course, no mater how positive a reception a book
receives, it is the rare author who does not wish at some
point to have the opportunity to revisit a topic, take
advantage of new sources and fresh perspectives contained in subsequent scholarship, and improve his or her
treatment of that subject. Here, Jones fully and superbly
seizes upon his good fortune to have that opportunity,
producing a work that even those with well-worn copies
of his 1987 study will be eager to add to their libraries.
Those who have yet to make their acquaintance with the
“drunken, lawless renegades” who are the subject of this
book, or are looking for the sort of insights and information that well-constructed unit histories can offer, will
find Lee’s Tigers Revisited an eminently satisfying work.
–Ethan S. Rafuse
JULY 2018
59
REVIEWS
Finding Beauty
within the carnage
Sally Mann: A Thousand Crossings
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Until May 28, 2018
he first major international
traveling exhibit of photographer Sally Mann, which
premiered at the National
Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., in
March, showcases more than 100 of
her photographs, including nearly a
dozen views of Civil War batlefields,
such as Antietam, Cold Harbor, the
Wilderness, and Fredericksburg. The
full scope of the exhibit Sally Mann:
A Thousand Crossings, which also
features architectural views, portraits, figure studies, and even family
snapshots and keepsakes, explores
Mann’s relationship with the American South, particularly its history
and heritage relating to the Civil War,
race, family, and identity.
The exhibit is organized into five
sections: Family, The Land, Last
Measure, Abide With Me, and What
Remains. The first section features
some of Mann’s most famous images
from the 1980s, of her children
frolicking, oten unclothed, on the
family’s Virginia farm. The photos,
most of which were shot in black
and white with a large-format 8- by
10-inch camera, helped bring Mann
to the public stage. Abandoning
the popular fine art portrait, Mann
sought to capture childhood in all
its tenderness and innocence, but
without ignoring the messiness,
anger, stress, and children’s struggle
for individuality.
In the 1990s, Mann began to
photograph Southern landscapes,
T
60
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
showcased in the second section
of the exhibit, The Land. She also
began to experiment with other
forms of photography, including the
19th-century photographic process of
making wet plate collodion negatives,
used by Civil War photographers such
as Mathew Brady and Alexander
Gardner.
In 2001, Mann said she began
photographing Civil War batlefields
to explore the violent histories that
lay beneath the oten beautiful,
serene landscapes. “Does the earth
remember? Do these fields, upon
which unspeakable carnage occurred,
where unknowable numbers of bodies
are buried, bear witness in some
way?” In Last Measure, the exhibit’s
third section, 10 of Mann’s batlefield
images hang in a slightly darkened
gallery, the lighting meant to evoke
Abraham Lincoln’s proclamation
about the miseries of the Civil War,
“The heavens are hung in black.”
Mann’s batlefield images are dark,
mysterious, and somber. Here she
takes full advantage of flaws in the
wet plate collodion process to create
metaphorical resonance, including
specks of dust that create comet or
star effects in “Starry Night” on the
Antietam batlefield and streaked
dust specks in “Cold Harbor” that fly
across the landscape like bullets.
In the fourth section, Abide With
Me, Mann specifically explores
how race and history shaped the
landscapes of the South, but also the
A Certain Splendor
Cold Harbor, Va., held haunting
memories for the Federals. In a
2003 photo, Mann found a way to
FDSWXUHWKHEDWWOHÀHOG·VPDMHVW\
people of the South, including her
own family. This section includes a
series of tintypes of the Great Dismal
Swamp, formerly a home to many
fugitive slaves, interspersed with
large prints of African-American
men. Representing Mann’s desire
to reach across “the seemingly
untraversable chasm of race in the
American South,” she wanted to
address the “rivers of blood” AfricanAmericans had poured into the
land and their courage during their
journeys to escape slavery.
The last section of the exhibit,
What Remains, and a final piece of
the fourth section, are more autobiographical in nature, including
self-portraits of Mann, photos of her
husband, and snapshots and scrapbook keepsakes of Virginia “Gee-Gee”
REVIEWS
In addition to declaring 4 million enslaved people free, the Emanci-
Carter, the African-American woman
who worked for Mann’s family for 50
years and mostly raised her. Haunted
by her youthful acceptance of the
woman’s presence in her Caucasian home, Mann says she combed
through the keepsakes seeking to
understand beter “the mystery of
it—the blindness and our silence.”
Her full exploration of the history
and heritage of the South is eloquent
and stirring, prompting viewers to
admire the beauty of the land and its
people, while pondering its provocative past.
“I’ve been coming to terms with the
history into which I was born, the people within that history, and the land
in which I live, since before I could
tie my shoes,” Mann once said. “Now,
in the present, there is an urgent cry
rising, one that compels me again and
again to try to reconcile my love for
this place with its brutal history.”
Sally Mann: A Thousand Crossings
will be in Washington until May 28,
then traveling internationally until
January 2020. –Melissa A. Winn
pation Proclamation included an oten-overlooked phrase that forever
changed how the Union armies waged war, occupied conquered Southern
territory, and policed the defeated Confederacy during the volatile years
of Reconstruction. Andrew Lang has examined the many ramifications of
that phrase in a deeply researched, elegantly writen, and brilliantly argued
examination that explores how American military policy evolved during
the Civil War and how African-American soldiers were used during it and
later Reconstruction. In the process,
he reveals why and how the hard-won
benefits of citizenship gained by African-Americans as a result of the war
were sacrificed in the name of reunion
and reconciliation.
The phrase “that such persons of suitable condition, will be received into the
armed service of the United States to
garrison forts, positions, stations, and
other places,” indicates, for Lang, that
President Lincoln initially intended
that United States Colored Troops serve
In the Wake of War:
only in rear echelons, not as front line
Military Occupation,
combat troops, in order to free up white
Emancipation, and
volunteers to fulfill their historical role
Civil War America
as citizen-soldiers to fight the war to
Andrew F. Lang
preserve the Union. For white volunLSU Press, 2017, $47.50
teers, Lang writes, “serving in garrisons
and governing peoples and domestic
territory—led soldiers to see themselves as the embodiment of a standing
bureaucratic army, which aroused great suspicion and dismay.” The citizen-soldier ideal mandated that volunteers do their duty by answering
the president’s call, fighting their country’s batles, and then going home.
African-American soldiers saw things quite differently. For them,
according to Lang, garrisoning occupied territory, serving as provost marshals, defending transportation routes, and guarding prisoners of war,
allowed them to demonstrate to whites in the South that their days of mastery were over. “That a majority of USCT regiments remained behind the
lines,” he argues, “was, ironically, one of the most revolutionary implications of the black military experience.” For black soldiers, military service
was their vehicle to transform civil society, solidify their rights of citizenship, and “clear a path for a new national and racial landscape.”
By the autumn of 1865, USCT regiments comprised 36 percent of what
was let of the U.S. Army. That meant black troops would assume much
of the burden of enforcing Reconstruction on a recalcitrant, and oten
violent, South. But the overwhelming desire by whites, North and South,
to reestablish the ideology of American constitutional republicanism and
return to social stability resulted in the removal of all USCT regiments
from the old Confederacy by early 1867.
A golden opportunity for social transformation was lost. Destructive
and catastrophic results befell the newly emancipated freed people. We
live with the biter fruits of those long ago decisions today. –Gordon Berg
JULY 2018
61
REVIEWS
With 2,000 batles and engagements,
Virginia endured the greatest number
of armed clashes during the Civil War,
followed by Tennessee. But many may
find it surprising that the important
border state of Missouri is third on that
list, with more than 1,000 total clashes.
Indeed, Missouri hosted the first and
last pitched batles west of the Mississippi River (Wilson’s Creek in August
1861 and Westport in October 1864).
Yet most fighting in the state was
waged as actions involving Federal
detachments (including Missouri volunteer infantry and cavalry units
serving in the Union Army) and local
Union-ailiated militia forces against
numerous Confederate mounted partisan bands in guerrilla fighting that,
arguably, was extended beyond the
war’s end by former guerrillas such as
Jesse and Frank James, and the Younger
Brothers. Although unfairly and inaccurately demonized as “Border Ruffians,” “Bushwhackers,” and “Pukes,”
most Southern-supporting partisan
band leaders held Confederate Army
commissions and, when possible, the
Southern government supported them,
trying with occasional success to coordinate their combat actions.
This outstanding, compact regional
history of the war is cleverly conceived
to serve a dual purpose: It is a terrific
introduction for general readers to the
war in Missouri but also a handy visitor’s guide. Organized chronologically
by year, it presents fully 300 (hence
“Almost Unabridged”) of the approximately 1,200 pitched batles and
engagements fought. Each engagement
lists date(s); a brief summary; casualties on both sides; and, oten, a concise
analysis of “Why It Maters.”
Abraham Lincoln was so determined
to keep Missouri in the Union that he
resorted to naked force and draconian
extra-constitutional methods to ensure
it. Those “methods” prompted a bloody,
extended guerrilla fighting that raged
within the state the entire war. This
outstanding regional history explains
and guides readers through this fratricidal conflict. –Jerry Morelock
The Civil War
Missouri Compendium:
Almost Unabridged
By Joseph W. McCoskrie Jr.
and Brian Warren
The History Press, 2017, $21.99
Union and Confederate armies had already given the nation a sense of the horrors
The Generals of Shiloh:
Character in Leadership,
April 6-7, 1862
By Larry Tagg
Savas Beatie, 2017, $32.95
62
AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR
of war with notable engagements at Manassas, Va., Belmont, Mo., Mill Springs, Ky.,
and Fort Donelson, Tenn., but the blood shed in the two days of fighting at Shiloh,
Tenn., in April 1862 would prove the most shocking early in the war—a true wake-up
call for the nation. Among the approximately 3,500 killed during the batle was Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston, a particularly powerful blow to Southern
morale. Moreover, although Union Generals Ulysses S. Grant and William T. Sherman performed well once the fighting began, the fact that they allowed Johnston’s
Confederate army to catch their commands unprepared remains among the most
serious stains on the records of the North’s two most celebrated generals.
Given the signature batle’s importance, it is not surprising that there have been a
number of excellent studies on it over the years. In The Generals of Shiloh, Larry Tagg
offers a fiting supplement to the previous works of Timothy Smith, Larry Daniel, O.
Edward Cunningham, and others. As he did in his 1998 book The Generals of Gettysburg, Tagg provides biographical sketches of the men who commanded armies,
corps, divisions, and brigades at Shiloh and describes what their units did both prior
to and during the batle. As Shiloh brought together nearly all of the forces of the
Confederacy and Union between the Appalachian Mountains and Mississippi River
and was in many ways a testing ground for many who would go on to greater things
in the war, the product of Tagg’s efforts is an informative, well-writen work that
offers much that will appeal to those interested not just in Shiloh, but the larger war
in the West as well.
That being said, the author’s decision not to include footnotes or endnotes has a
downside. It would have been good if Tagg had provided a more thorough critical
bibliography showing how participants in the batle—and historians since—contributed to various controversies that have emerged about Shiloh and some of its commanders, such as Union Maj. Gen. Benjamin Prentiss. Also, because of the book’s
organization by commander and unit, rather than geography or sequence of events,
a few more maps would have been welcome. –Ethan S. Rafuse
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Cover: National Archives/
Photo Illustration: Brian Walker;
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Clockwise From Top Let: Library
of Congress; Private Collection/
Peter Newark Military Pictures/
Bridgeman Images; Photo by
Shana Harbuck; P. 4: National
Archives; P. 6: PVDE/Bridgeman
Images; P. 8: Library of Congress;
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Congress; Heritage Auctions,
Dallas; P. 12: Library of Congress;
P. 13: Library of Congress; P. 14:
Captain Tom Custer, 1870s (b/w
photo), Barry, David Frances
(1854-1934)/Denver Public
Library, Western History
Collection/Bridgeman Images;
P. 16: The American Civil War
Museum; P. 18: Before the Storm,
1982, Troiani, Don (b.1949)/
Private Collection/Bridgeman
Images; P. 20: Courtesy North
Carolina Museum of History;
P. 21: Library of Congress; P. 22:
Library of Congress; P. 23: Library
of Congress; P. 24: The Valentine,
Richmond; Documenting the
American South, UNC-Chapel
Hill Library; P. 25: Private
Collection/Peter Newark Military
Pictures/Bridgeman Images;
P. 26: Top: Library of Congress;
Botom: Mark Summerfield/
Alamy Stock Photo; P. 27:
USAHEC; P. 28-29: Library of
Congress; P. 30-31: Library of
Congress (5); P. 32: Artokoloro
Quint Lox Limited/Alamy Stock
Photo; P. 34: Montana State
University Library; P. 35: Library
of Congress; P. 36-37: Richard
Ellis/Alamy Stock Photo; P. 38:
John Banks; P. 39: From Top: The
American Civil War Museum;
Corbis via Gety Images; P. 40:
Library of Congress (2); P. 41:
Photo by Shana Harbuck; P.
42-43: Clockwise From Top Let:
John Banks; Photo by Shana
Harbuck; John Banks (2);
P. 45-46: Library of Congress;
P. 46-47: From Let: National
Archives (2); Library of Congress
(2); P. 50-51: Library of Congress;
P. 52-54: Melissa A. Winn (9);
P. 58: Top: Universal History
Archive/UIG via Gety Images;
Courtesy Lewis Lehrman;
P. 60: National Gallery of Art,
Washington, Git of the Collectors
Commitee and The Sarah and
William L Walton Fund; P. 64:
armyotennesseerelics.com.
STEEN CANNONS
Manufacturer of:
Full Scale, Authentic
Reproduction Artillery
Phone/www
515 29th Street
606-326-1188
Ashland KY 41101
www.steencannons.com
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CONVERSATION PIECE
LET THERE
BE LIGHT
Campfires and candlelight were generally the only nightime illumination sources
available for Civil War soldiers. And, as soldiers on both sides tended to be prolific leter
writers and diarists, much of that writing necessarily was done during darkness. This unusual
artifact—reportedly excavated in “a Federal camp near Savannah, Tennessee,” not far from
the site of the April 1862 Batle of Shiloh—appears to be an ingeniously devised candleholder. Although purportedly a “double candle-holder,” upon closer examination it seems
capable of holding a candle in either the vertical or horizontal positions, depending on the
circumstances of the soldier’s bivouac. Most likely, the small, solid, cylindrical extension
could be easily inserted into the open circular socket of a triangular bayonet, allowing the
candle to be held either vertically or horizontally in the larger holes. –Jerry Morelock
64
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