Plus! r The Othe Custer to “ Tom ought e have been th I general and .” the captain –George Armstrong Custer Doomed at Chancellorsville stonewall’s killers The Tar Heels Who Shot Jackson Pounding Hooves horse racing in wartime Castle Pinckney charleston’s forgotten fort HISTORYNET.COM JULY 2018 Personalized Man-Style Dopp Bag Every guy needs this dependable bag to carry shave kit, toothbrush, deodorant, etc. Washed cotton canvas; 2 zippered compartments, 3 pockets. 4x6x11"W. Tan (right), or Dark Grey (below), $34.99 each (includes monogram) Durable, Monogrammed, large Canvas Duffel An essential travel basic, roomy bag has assorted exterior/interior sections, reinforced handles, adjustable strap. 10x16x24"W. Tan, or Dark Grey, $69.99 each (includes monogram) Customized Messenger Bag Manly good looks. Cottonlined canvas, 6 outer, 2 zip pockets; padded tablet/ laptop pouch, hand grip, shoulder strap; 3x11½x15"H. $49.99 (includes monogram) Personalized Laptop Tote Handsome, rugged, practical. Cotton-lined canvas, cushioned with foam, zip tote has 6 pockets, hand grip, shoulder strap. 3x11x16"W, $59.99 (includes monogram) OURTRAVEL BAGS COMEWITH OUR STAMP OF APPROVAL... JUST ADDYOURS. & !"$ !&!#% &!# # 8LI4IVWSREPM^EXMSR)\TIVXW7MRGIÿćăÿ H I S A C W 5 8 ! "## JULY 2018 28 Of and Running By the 1860s, horse racing had become incredibly popular in America. The widespread destruction and bloodshed brought about by civil war wouldn’t change that. By Jack Trammell On the Cover: Stonewall Jackson remains one of America’s most iconic generals. We are left to wonder whether the outcome of the war would have changed had he not been mortally wounded at Chancellorsville. 2 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR Departments 6 8 12 14 52 58 64 LETTERs Hats off to John Bell Hood THE BLOG ROLL Giving the wounded the care they deserved From the Crossroads <DQNVGHÀHGGRJPDZLWKEUHDVWZRUNVRQ&XOS·V+LOO hidden heroes Tom Custer escaped George’s shadow from time to time trailside The charming coastal town of Elizabeth City, N.C. Reviews Abraham Lincoln’s and Winston Churchill’s parallel journeys conversation piece Light from every angle 44 ‘Stand to it, Boys!’ Nathaniel McLean proved he was more than just a lawyer and the son of a famous Supreme Court justice when he helped save a Union army from catastrophe at Second Bull Run. By Scott C. Patchan 18 Killing Jackson The Branch-Lane Brigade was DUJXDEO\WKH6RXWK·VWRSÀJKWLQJ unit but would be tormented by a huge asterisk on its record: Stonewall Jackson’s mortal wounding at Chancellorsville. By Michael C. Hardy 36 Sumter’s Stepchild The role Fort Sumter played in the Civil War is wellestablished, but another fort in Charleston—Castle Pinckney—still has a few of its own secrets to reveal. By John Banks JULY 2018 3 Michael A. Reinstein Chairman & Publisher David Steinhafel Publisher Alex Neill Editor in Chief Vol. 31, No. 3 July 2018 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR ONLINE HISTORYNET.com/ AMERICAS-CIVIL-WAR CULP’S HILL SAVIOR At Getysburg, the Federals were lucky to have an old school general manning Culp’s Hill. HARBOR HIJINKS Cadets at Charleston’s The Citadel decided a litle fun was in order for a 1961 centennial celebration. UNBRIDLED CARNAGE With litle warning, the proud 5th New York Zouaves met a tragic end at Second Manassas. Sign up for our FREE monthly e-newsleter at: historynet.com/newsleters LET’S CONNECT Like America’s Civil War Magazine on Facebook FOLLOW US @ACWMag GO DIGITAL America’s Civil War is available on Zinio, Kindle, and Nook. A Complete America’s Civil War index from 1988 to present is available at aferguson.net 4 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR Chris K. Howland Editor Jerry Morelock Senior Editor Sarah Richardson Senior Editor Nancy Tappan Senior Editor Claire Barret Associate Editor Dana B. Shoaf Consulting Editor Stephen Kamifuji Creative Director Brian Walker Group Art Director Jennifer M. Vann Art Director Melissa A. Winn Senior Photo Editor/Social Media Coordinator ADVISORY BOARD Gordon Berg, Jim Burgess, Tom Clemens, Peter Cozzens, D. Scot Hartwig, Larry Hewit, John Hoptak, Robert K. Krick, Ethan S. 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PROUDLY MADE IN THE USA UNLIMITED TALK & TEXT FOR JUST $25/MONTH ✓ Choose a Data Plan That Fits Your Needs, From Small to Large ✓ No Contracts ✓ 100% Risk-Free Guarantee 15 JUST + $25 LOW PRICES VARIETY OF PHONES BRING YOUR OWN PHONE SAVINGS FOR TWO—OR MORE! Plans start as low as $15/month and unlimited talk and text is just $25/month! Select any device, from ﬂip phones to smartphones— including the latest iPhones. With our free SIM card, you can even bring your own phone if you’d like! Share your monthly plans for just $15/month for each additional line. NATIONWIDE COVERAGE 99% OF THE U.S. POPULATION RANKED #1 BY J.D. POWER WE’VE GOT YOU COVERED AARP MEMBER BENEFITS “Highest in Customer Service among Non-Contract Value Wireless Providers, 4 Times in a Row.” Enjoy superior service on the nation’s largest cellular networks. AARP members receive a 5% discount on service and usage every month. OUR MOST POPULAR PLANS FOR 1 & 2 LINES! See all of our plans at ConsumerCellular.com $15 A MONTH 1 LINE INCLUDED 250 MINUTES TALK $25 A MONTH 1 LINE INCLUDED UNLIMITED TALK UNLIMITED 250MB TEXT DATA CALL CONSUMER CELLULAR AT VISIT US ONLINE AT (888) 502-3585 ConsumerCellular.com/3585 $45 A MONTH 2 LINES INCLUDED UNLIMITED TALK UNLIMITED 1GB TEXT DATA © 2018 Consumer Cellular, Inc. New service activation on approved credit. Cellular service is not available in all areas and is subject to system limitations. Terms and Conditions subject to change. The totals shown here are costs for monthly Consumer Cellular service only. They do not include any state or local taxes. Consumer Cellular received the highest number among four non-contract value providers in the J.D. Power 2016 V2 - 2018 V1 U.S. Wireless Customer Care Performance Study. 2018 V1 based on 4,210 total responses measuring the experiences of current wireless service customers who made a sales transaction with their current carrier within the past three months, surveyed July-December 2017. Your experiences may vary. Visit jdpower.com. AARP member benefits are provided by third parties, not by AARP or its ailiates. Providers pay a royalty fee to AARP for the use of its intellectual property. These fees are used for the general purposes of AARP. Some provider ofers are subject to change and may have restrictions. Please contact the provider directly for details. LETTERS From our Facebook Page Regarding our May 2018 “Hidden Heroes” story on Confederate Colonel John “Rip” Ford by Ron Soodalter. John RIP Ford was one of the greatest soldiers of the South. Fighting Comanches, Mexicans, and Yankees as a Texas Ranger and Confederate state trooper. Doug Yarbrough Good material!...ran across reference to Ford in creating personnel database on Terry’s Texas Rangers from service records and reunion rosters… Michael A Peake Thanks for the article, enjoyed it. Rick Breze HIDDEN HE ROES No quit ‘RIP’ FORD KE PT THE YANKS IN CH EC SOUTHERN TE K IN XAS By Ron Soodal whittled away Your May 2018 “5 Questions” interview by Ethan Rafuse on Susannah Ural’s book on the Texas Brigade prompted me to write and comment on Kentuckian John Bell Hood, who raised a brigade of soldiers in his adopted state of Texas at the beginning of the Civil War and became the youngest man to command a ﬁeld army on either side. Ater losing the use of his let arm on the second day of the bloodiest three-day batle of the war, Getysburg (July 1-3, 1863), Hood subsequently lost his right leg at the war’s bloodiest two-day clash, the Batle of Chickamauga (September 19-20, 1863). Assuming command of Confederate forces defending Atlanta against Sherman’s onslaught in 1864, Hood’s aggressive style of leadership nevertheless failed to save the South’s most important city, and his rash atacks at Franklin and Nashville, Tenn., in November and December 1864, essentially doomed any chance the Confederacy might have had in redeeming its sinking fortunes in the Western Theater. Yet it was not Union ﬁrepower in the war’s bloodiest batles but, instead, a tiny insect—the Aedes aegypti mosquito—that killed one of the South’s most aggressive commanders. On August 30, 1879, Hood ignominiously died in New Orleans of Yellow Fever at age 48, just a few days ater his wife and oldest child succumbed to the disease. The old soldier, whitled away by the war, let behind 10 orphans. J.D.G. Hummel Tampa, Fla. 6 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR 14 ter Iron-Willed As a commer John Ford’s pros cial hub, pects Brownsville, Texas, paled probably wou compared with ld have the likes of New Orle been limited ans and Mob in the ile, Ala. All same, the town East, but he was the served as a the vital Gulf of Mexico lifeli right man at the right ne for the Confederacy, one the Unio time in Texas. n could not ignore. Fede IRUFHV EULHÁ ral \ FDSWXUHG %URZQVYLOOH 1863, only to LQ have it retaken the following year by a force under the command of Confederate Colonel John Salmon Ford olina native, . A South CarFord had mad it all he was e Texa 30 years. In s his home for a soldier—initi May 1865, with nearly ally in the nasc the Republic the end of the ing, Union troo ent Army of of Texas, then war nearps hoped they during the Mex a U.S. Army had seen the They weren’t ican War as regimental adju last of him. so lucky, as tant of the Texa 5LÁHVXQGHU they found out 5DQFK LQ ZKD s Mounted WKH OHJHQGDU at Palmito W ZRXOG EH WKH \-R KQ&RIIHH+D\ ing to oral trad &LYLO :DU·V ÀQDO Ford, born in HV$FFRUGition, wheneve EDWWOH 1815 to a fami r Ford subm of the regiment’s ly that boasted tionary War itted a list fatalities and veterans on Revoluwrote a cond ter to a dece both sides, spen youth in Tenn olence letased soldier’s t much of his essee. At 21 he family, he wou in Peace” next decided to seek in the vast, roili ld add “Rest to the name, his fortune ng Texas fron which eventual shortened to tier. Leaving and two child ly became “R.I.P.” He was behind a wife ren, Ford arriv soon known Lone Star Stat ed in June 1836 months after across the e as “Rip” Ford , just two the Battle of . San Jacinto and Not willing to tion of Texas be the restricted to independence declaraadministrativ )RUGUHFDVWKL from Mexico. After settling e duties, PVH OIDVDFRPED in east Texas WRIÀFHU DQG XWDWLRQDVDÀ he established practice, thou ZRQDUHSHUFHÀJKWLQJ a doctor’s gh he had no PDQ$IWHUWK QDPHG FRPPDQ medical degr ÀUVW LQ D ORQJ HZDUKHZDV ee. It was the GHU RI DOO 7H[D OLQH RI FDUHHUV V 5DQJHUV LQ waging successfu ODZ\HU VXUY paper editor, WKH ÀHOG l campaigns H\RU QHZVteacher, histo against the in the north rian, playwrig mayor, Texa Comanches and Mexican ht, printer, s Ranger, sher bandit Juan south. About iff, chief of polic Cortina in the shal, and state this time a phot e, city marand national ogra ing ph sena Ford was ran—unsucces tor. (At one poin in fringed buck taken showsfully—again skins and gaun t, he .44-caliber Wal st the “Sav tlets, with two himself, Sam ker Colt revo ior of Texa Houston.) In s” lvers holstere row waist. His 1845 it was mally proposed d on his nartireless efforts Ford who forthe annexatio and inexhaus had made him n of Texas to Ford was neve tible energy arguably the the Union. r one to let inex mos t famous man When Texas a lack of form perience, mod in Texas. seceded from esty, or al education the Union in the Secession stand in his early 1861, Convention way. Through assigned Ford ousting all 4,50 the task of 0 Federal troo AMERICA’S ps stationed CIVIL WAR along the Rio ACWP-18050 0-HEROES.in dd 14 WRITE TO US Send leters to America’s Civil War, Leters Editor, HistoryNet, 1919 Gallows Rd., Suite 400, Vienna, VA 22182-4038, or e-mail email@example.com. Leters may be edited. SPECIAL 19.95 $ GREAT AMERICAN HEROES AND FLAGS OF THE CIVIL WAR (a $99 .95 COLLE value) CTO PRICE R’S The Civil War pitted American against American, state against state, and hero against hero. General Robert E. Lee left the Union Army when his beloved Virginia seceded. He bravely commanded the Southern forces as they fought under the Battle Flag of the Confederacy. General Ulysses S. Grant took command of the Union forces to deliver battlefield victories that would preserve the United States, leading his own men to fight bravely under the Stars and Stripes. Both men were brave soldiers, beloved leaders and great American heroes. COMMEMORATING THE 150TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE CIVIL WAR Meticulously designed by American Mint – in conjunction with The National Civil War Museum – for the Sesquicentennial of the Civil War, this massive 2" coin features a highly detailed engraving of Generals Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant along with the Union and Confederate flags on the obverse. 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PLEASE REMIT PAYMENT IN ORDER FOR SHIPMENT TO BE PROCESSED Name MM / YY _________________________________________ ____________ Signature required below Please charge my: Credit Card Number Address Valid Through SIGNATURE REQUIRED ON ALL ORDERS MM / DD / YY _________________________________________ ____________ City State Customer Number (if known) Phone Zip Signature (All orders subject to acceptance by American Mint) Date Check / Money Order enclosed (made payable to American Mint) American Mint Satisfaction Guarantee E-mail Your Keycode: Mail to: P.O. Box 10, Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 ways to order: 3 easy • Mail in your completed order form and payment 735.02 By returning this form, you will have the privilege of receiving future issues in the collection through our FREE in-home approval service. No further action is required on your part. The American Mint Preferred Collector’s Price is guaranteed for you. You will be billed only for the items you decide to keep. If you pay by credit card, future shipments will not be charged until 25 days after the invoice date. You are under no obligation! If you are not satisfied with any item that is shipped to you, you may send it back within 20 days at our cost for replacement, credit or refund. American Mint has no minimum purchase requirements. You can cancel this service at any time by calling toll-free 1-877-807-MINT. All orders subject to acceptance by American Mint • Call us toll-free at 877-807-MINT (6468) © 2018 American Mint LLC • Or visit us at americanmint.com/735.02 THE BLOG ROLL prime care By William T. Campbell sunlight; cubic foot requirements per patient (ideally From the beginning the Civil War created a demand 800–1,200 cubic feet instead of the earlier accepted 500– for hospitals that neither the North nor the South could 600 cubic feet); nonporous building materials; building meet. Even before seeing combat, newly enlisted men length-to-width ratios; placement of doors; location of often contracted contagious diseases in camp. Once ÀJKWLQJ RFFXUUHG WKH ZRXQGHG ZRXOG VWUDLQ DOUHDG\ support rooms; and number of stories. The location of the sewers was also crucial (for more, sparse health care resources: limited doctors and ambusee www.civilwarmed.org/sewers). Water, preferably lances; untrained nurses; lack of medical supplies; not HYHQ DSSURSULDWH SODFHV IRU WKH DIÁLFWHG WR OD\ WKHLU both hot and cold, was needed for drinking, bathing, and wound care, but it was also vital for collecting and heads while recovering. Temporary hospital spaces were disposing of bodily wastes. Dr. William Hammond, usually needed after battles, so medical departments then surgeon general of the Union Army, set forth the resorted to using hotels, barns, farmhouses, tobacco basic principles of sanitation in 1863. He recommended warehouses, even the rotunda of the U.S. Capitol. one bathtub for every 26 patients, one water-closet (or As the war went on, it became clear that more permatoilet) for every 10, and one wash basin for every 10. nent hospital spaces were essential, and the surgeons Ventilation of the toilet area was deemed vital, and, if general for both governments soon determined that water was available, it was to be used to carry off fecal the pavilion-style hospital blueprint—already in use material immediately. throughout Europe, especially France and England— Many hospitals came close to or fully achieved these was the best. This design featured long narrow wards ideal suggested conditions. In some cases, however, the or units that incorporated multiple windows located in ZDWHUVXSSO\ZDVLQVXIÀFLHQWWRSHUopposing pairs for cross-ventilation. Eye on Design PLWFRQWLQXRXVÁRZWKURXJKWKHWRLAdditional features addressed other In this undated photo, Union OHWVVRWKH\ZHUHRQO\ÁXVKHGHYHU\ types of supplemental ventilation; wounded recover in a well-lit, few hours or so. Similarly, some hosVSHFLÀHG KHDW VRXUFHV EHG SODFHwell-aired ward at the McClellan pitals collected waste in outdoor pits ment and square-foot requirements U.S. Army Hospital in Philadelphia. or boxes that had to be emptied perifor windows to take advantage of 8 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR tile heroics at stones river Lee’s Shrinking Army Why was it so small at Antietam? Remarkable Fighters Michigan’s Indian Sharpshooters 1/29/16 3:48 PM HISTORYNET.COM JEB STUAR REVENGE Plus! Setting the 147th N.Y.’s Gettysburg Record Straight Them pect! Backroads Brawl on the Way to Get 10 heartless civil war profiteers LEE’s lucky retreat from gettysburg en silent storms How Acoustic Shadows Changed the W BEASTS OF BURDEN Photo Tribute to Army Horses SHERMAN EATS CROW Generals d to Know n grant Fly on the Wall HISTORYNET.COM ACWP-170300-COVER-DIGITAL.indd 1 How he nearly botched the South’s surrender legacy One to See MARCH 2018 HISTORYNET.COM 11/22/17 11:40 AM erate oicer puts his line to lead Army of e troops late in the war. 7/28/16 5:23 PM Beyo Gettys geor mead federacy’s adlY Comp Lega mat ots copycat Confederate and a tupelo t HistoryNet is the world’s largest publisher of history magazines; visit un Blast ry SHOP.HISTORYNET.COM nes to subscribe to any of our nine titles Federals Sto HISTORYNET.COM ACWP-170500-COVER-DIGITAL.indd 1 n HISTORYNET.COM T 9/23/16 3:54 PM “ HISTORYNET.COM Doomed at Chancellorsville stonewall Colonel Joshua Chamberlain leads the 20th Maine down Litle Round Top on July 2, 1863. killer THE BLOG ROLL pitals of comparable size quickly folodically. Great care was taken to venlowed above the Mason-Dixon Line. tilate the water-closets adequately. Due to the rapid increase in Death rates were much lower in the number of sick and wounded, some hospitals than in others, but many pavilion hospitals were “fastthe reasons why were not always tracked.” Satterlee had been quickly obvious. The famed Florence NightEXLOWDQGYDULRXVÁDZVZHUHGLVFRYingale led an augmented research ered as the war progressed, which effort into that by studying the fortunately led to improvements for design and survivability of hospitals future construction projects. used during the Crimean War. She Some pavilion hospitals were not later widened her study to include constructed from the ground up. other European hospitals, and even Instead, existing structures were LQFOXGHGVWDWLVWLFVLQKHUÀQGLQJV converted to the pavilion style. Nightingale was among those to Campbell Hospital in Washington, conclude that the pavilion design D.C., for example, had been built and typically offered the best outcomes Doing It Right used as a cavalry barracks. As such, for patients. Improved ventilation Above: A doctor’s chest used at LW WRR ZDV SODJXHG E\ GHVLJQ ÁDZV was a particularly important factor, Richmond’s Chimborazo Hospital. when it opened in September 1862 as were sanitation and the prevenTop: Mount Pleasant Hospital with 11 pavilions and 900 beds. tion of the spread of disease. was one of several pavilion care facilities built in Washington. The pavilion design would continue In an age many consider to be to be used throughout the Civil War, medically archaic, professionals and especially by the Union, and it became the premier hosepidemiologists were making connections between good pital design, both military and civilian, in the decades ventilation, cleanliness, and health (for an example, see IROORZLQJWKHFRQÁLFW7RGD\WKRXJKWKHGHVLJQLVFRQDr. Hammond’s 1863 A Treatise on Hygiene). Today, the sidered obsolete and outdated. Most hospitals now favor connection of greater cleanliness and ventilation to betprivate patient rooms, yet many of the design innovater health seems obvious, but in the Civil War era the tions, such as good ventilation and lighting, are still conGLVFRYHU\ZDVVLJQLÀFDQW 7KH ÀUVW SDYLOLRQVW\OH KRVSLWDO FRQVWUXFWHG GXULQJ sidered important. the war was Chimborazo in Richmond. Built in October 1861, it included 150 pavilions and 4,000 beds. It would William T. Campbell, Ed.D., RN, is an associate remain the South’s largest hospital during the war. professor of nursing at Salisbury (Md.) University. In the North, West Philadelphia U.S. General HospiHe has been a student of the Civil War for more tal (better known as Satterlee) opened in June 1862—a WKDQ\HDUVKLVLQWHUHVWÀUVWVSDUNHGDVD\RXWKLQ pet project of Hammond’s. It had 36 pavilions containVRXWKHUQ'HODZDUHWKDQNVWRIUHTXHQWWULSVZLWKKLV ing more than 3,500 beds, and 150 other tents were DXQWWR&LYLO:DUEDWWOHÀHOGV7KLVEORJÀUVWDSSHDUHG placed around the buildings in event of an emergency in the National Museum of Civil War Medicine’s blog or nearby engagement. Several other pavilion-style hos(civilwarmed.org/blog) on February 20, 2018. 10 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR “To you, it’s the perfect lift chair. To me, it’s the best sleep chair I’ve ever had.” — J. 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He was of the PLQGVHW WKDW EXLOGLQJ GHIHQVLYH ZRUNV ´XQÀWWHG WKH PHQIRUÀJKWLQJZLWKRXWWKHPµ At this point of the war, Geary’s opinion was not unusual on either side. Although both armies some times built breastworks and earthworks in battles pre ceding Gettysburg, their construction in the face of the enemy was not standard doctrine, as it would become in 1864. At Gettysburg, in fact, Culp’s Hill was the only ORFDWLRQZKHUHWUXHÀHOGZRUNVZHUHFRQVWUXFWHG 7KHÀUVWZRUNVRQWKHKLOOZHUHHUHFWHGWKHHYHQLQJRI July 1 by troops in Brig. Gen. James S. Wadsworth’s 1st Division, 1st Corps. The division had suffered enormous FDVXDOWLHVLQWKHÀJKWLQJWKDWGD\DQGDIWHUUHWUHDWLQJ through the town to Cemetery Hill, the men were 12 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR ordered to occupy the northern slope of Culp’s Hill. Upon arrival, Lt. Col. Rufus R. Dawes, commanding the 6th Wisconsin, ordered his regiment to entrench. They set to work with a dozen spades and shovels, obtained from their regimental wagon. The decision to entrench did not come from above. Wrote Dawes: “There were no orders to construct these breastworks, but the situation SODLQO\ GLFWDWHG WKHLU QHFHVVLW\µ 7KH RWKHU UHJLPHQWV saw the wisdom of Dawes’ actions and soon the whole division was busy entrenching from Stevens’ Knoll to the summit of Culp’s Hill by nightfall. Seeing the works the 1st Corps troops had built might have prompted Geary’s breastworks query to his bri gade commanders. He might also have felt some pres sure by the actions of the 12th Corps’ other division commander, Brig. Gen. Alpheus Williams. When his division reached Culp’s Hill, Williams wrote, “I ordered at once a breastwork of logs to be built, having expe ULHQFHGWKHLUEHQHÀWVDW&KDQFHOORUVYLOOHµDGGLQJWKDW ´RXUPHQKDGOHDUQHGWRORYHHQWUHQFKLQJZLWKORJVµ It is possible General Greene was the one who sug FROM THE CROSSROADS DWWHPSWHGZLWKRXWWKHEHQHÀWRIWKHEUHDVWZRUNV-XVW gested building breastworks. before 7 p.m., Confederate Second Corps commander Lt. He was the only West Pointer Gen. Richard S. Ewell launched an attack on Greene’s among the division’s leaderposition, spearheaded by Maj. Gen. Edward Johnson’s ship and understood engineerDivision, more than 4,000 strong. The skirmishers sent ing. “[T]he saving of life,” he down the slope were soon seen running back uphill, “folsaid, “was of far more conselowed by a Confederate line of battle, yelping and howlquence...than any theories as ing in their peculiar manner. to breastworks, and so far as Behind the works, their colors concealed, Greene’s his men were concerned, they men waited for the enemy to come within range. “The would have them if they had time to build them.” Candy, pale faces, staring eye-balls, and nervous hands graspa former Regular Army enlisted man, shared Geary’s ing loaded muskets,” Collins wrote, “told how terrible doubts and insisted his brigade would not waste time were those moments of suspense.” The Confederates building works, but Cobham sided with Greene. Fortuwere allowed to approach to within 50 yards before the nately for the 12th Corps, Geary placed Candy’s brigade RUGHU WR ÀUH ZDV JLYHQ 7KRXJK WKH ÀUVW YROOH\ ´VWDJin reserve and Greene’s and Cobham’s on the front line. gered” the Rebels, it did not stop “The men grumbled a little,” their advance. But the Yankees recalled Captain George Collins continued to blaze away until the of the 149th New York, but they “smoke became so dense [they] nevertheless “brought sticks, were unable to distinguish the stones, and chunks of wood, and enemy and were governed more felled trees and shoveled dirt for by hearing than sight in directthree or four hours.” LQJÀUHµ Although some soldiers referThree times, Johnson’s men UHG WR WKHP DV ´ULÁH SLWVµ WKH\ came close to reaching the breastwere true breastworks. Captain works but were forced to fall back Jesse Jones of the 60th New York E\ WKH UHOHQWOHVV ÀUH HDFK WLPH described how the men “felled ÀQDOO\ FDOOLQJ RII WKH DWWDFNV the trees and blocked them into about 10 p.m. Greene’s men a close log fence,” and appropriUHSRUWHGO\ KDG ÀUHG XSZDUG RI ated nearby piles of cordwood. 80 rounds per man, and though The numerous boulders strewn the Confederates had seized the across the hill were incorporated lower summit, the top of Culp’s into the line, and head logs for Hill remained in Union hands. further cover were added along With Honor Heavily reinforced, Johnson’s much of the line. Efforts were A pin with Maj. Gen. John Geary’s Division attempted to carry image and a list of battles in which also made to conceal the works by he fought. After the war, Geary Culp’s Hill again the next mornplacing “heavy boughs and logs” served as Pennsylvania’s governor. ing. But the entire 12th Corps in front. The work was so well had returned by then and now done, Captain Charles P. Horton also had the services of a 6th Corps brigade. Johnson’s noted, the entrenchments “could not be distinguished attacks failed once more, with heavy losses. ÀIW\\DUGVWRWKHIURQWµ Had Geary’s disdain for breastworks carried the day, Culp’s Hill remained quiet most of the day, but when LW LV GLIÀFXOW WR HQYLVLRQ KRZ WKH $UP\ RI WKH 3RWRPDF Lt. Gen. James Longstreet launched his attack on the could have held onto Culp’s Hill. And had the hill fallen, Union left about 4 p.m., the summit came under ConfedHUDWHDUWLOOHU\ÀUH$VWKHFULVLVRQWKH8QLRQOHIWJUHZ the army’s position at Gettysburg would have been untenable. Whoever was behind the decision to build during the afternoon, Army of the Potomac commander WKRVHZRUNV³DQGDVZH·YHVKRZQVHYHUDORIÀFHUVFDQ Maj. Gen. George G. Meade ordered the entire 12th Corps WR UHLQIRUFH KLV HPEDWWOHG ÁDQN 7R WKH )HGHUDOV· JRRG be so recognized—deserves considerable credit for the Union’s Gettysburg victory. Without them, Captain fortune, 12th Corps commander Maj. Gen. Henry W. Collins would write, “the 3d Brigade could never have Slocum convinced Meade to keep one brigade—Greene’s held the position on the 2d day of July against the over3rd—on Culp’s Hill. Greene sent a skirmish line down whelming numbers brought against it.” the slope and aligned his brigade along a single line, each man separated by several feet in order to cover as Scott Hartwig writes from the crossroads of Gettysburg. much ground as possible—a tactic he never would have Firm Defense A post-battle photo of a Culp’s Hill breastwork that proved critical for the Federals in stopping repeated Rebel attacks on July 2-3. JULY 2018 13 HIDDEN HEROES the other custer GEORGE GOT THE HEADLINES, BUT TOM OFTEN OUTDID HIM ON THE BATTLEFIELD By Ron Soodalter Although it seemed he would always be relegated to serve in the giant shadow cast by his famous—and much more calculatedly ostentatious—brother George, Thomas Ward Custer actually succeeded in upstaging his ROGHUVLEOLQJRQVHYHUDO&LYLO:DUEDWWOHÀHOGV George had a three-month head start on Tom, entering the war at the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861, and then using his high-level conQHFWLRQVWR0DM*HQ*HRUJH%0F&OHOODQDQG others to manipulate his way to the top of the 8QLRQ$UP\FDYDOU\KLHUDUFK\7RPHQOLVWHGLQ6HSWHPber 1861 and served reliably—without the headlines— EHIRUHÀQDOO\RXWGRLQJ*HRUJHLQJUDQGIDVKLRQGXULQJ WKH$SSRPDWWR[&DPSDLJQ%\YDOLDQWO\FDSWXULQJWZR KHDYLO\GHIHQGHG&RQIHGHUDWHEDWWOHÁDJVDW1DPR]LQH &KXUFK RQ $SULO DQG WKHQ 6DLORU·V &UHHN RQ April 6, he was awarded Medals of Honor—in that era WKH RQO\ JDOODQWU\ DZDUG WKH 86 $UP\ ZDV DEOH WR SUHVHQW(YHQWKHQ7RPUHPDLQHGGRRPHGWROLYHDQG GLHVHFRQGÀGGOHWR*HRUJH7KHWZRSHULVKHGWRJHWKHU ÀJKWLQJ DW /LWWOH %LJKRUQ RQ -XQH EXW WKH ´&XVWHU·V/DVW6WDQGµODEHOVWDPSHGRQWKDWLQJORULRXV GHIHDW UHIHUV H[FOXVLYHO\ WR *HRUJH $UPVWURQJ &XVWHU 7KRPDV &XVWHU ZDV ERUQ LQ 1HZ 5XPOH\ 2KLR RQ March 15, 1845, nearly six years after George, whom 7RPSUHIHUUHGWRFDOO´$UPVWURQJµ-XVWLQ6HSWHPEHU7RPUHFHLYHGKLVSDUHQWV·SHUPLVVLRQWRHQOLVW LQ WKH VW 2KLR ,QIDQWU\ *HRUJH KDG JUDGXDWHG IURP West Point in the war-accelerated Class of June 1861, HPHUJLQJ³MXVWEDUHO\ZLWKDUHFRUGWRWDORIGHPHULWV³DVDFDYDOU\EUDQFKRIÀFHU7RPPHDQZKLOHEHJDQ as a private and had to earn his way up the ladder of 14 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR Regulation Pomp Sometime between 1873 and 1875, Tom Custer—then a 7th Cavalry lieutenant— donned his Medals of Honor for a photo session in Bismarck, Dakota Territory. UDQNRQHKDUGUXQJDWDWLPH During the Civil War, batWOH ÁDJV ZHUH RI WKH XWPRVW LPSRUWDQFHLQEDWWOHÀHOGFRPmunications and signaling, and they played a pivotal role in rallying the morale of the VROGLHUV LQ WKH UDQNV RI ERWK VLGHV $W D WLPH ZKHQ ´5DOO\ ·URXQG WKH ÁDJµ ZDV TXLWH OLWHUDOO\ D FRPPDQG DQG represented much more than a mere catchphrase, regLPHQWDO ÁDJV VHUYHG DV D VRXUFH RI ÀHUFH SULGH WR VROGLHUVDQGRIÀFHUVDOLNHDQGWKHVHEDQQHUVLQVSLUHGPHQ WRSHUIRUPEH\RQGWKHLURZQH[SHFWDWLRQV$VVXFKWKH\ ZHUH]HDORXVO\SURWHFWHGLQEDWWOHZLWKWKHÁDJEHDUHU UHYHUHG DQG RIWHQ SURWHFWHG XQWR GHDWK E\ KLV PDWHV 7KH FDSWXUH RI DQ HQHP\ EDWWOH ÁDJ UHSUHVHQWHG RQH of the most daunting challenges of Civil War combat, UHTXLULQJ ERXQGOHVV LQLWLDWLYH H[WUDRUGLQDU\ FRXUDJH DQGH[WUHPHOXFN 7RP ZDV DQ RIÀFHU RQ WKH VWDII RI &RORQHO +HQU\ &DSHKDUW RI WKH $UP\ RI WKH 3RWRPDF·V UG &DYDOU\ Actual size is 40.6 mm A New Way to Buy Silver 2018 U.S. Silver Dollars Layered in Black Ruthenium and 24k Gold D iscovered in 1844, Ruthenium belongs to the Platinum group on the periodic table, and sits just a few spots lower on the list of rare earth elements. 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These incredible Black Ruthenium and Gold-layered Silver Eagles are sure to become stand-out pieces in your collection. Don’t miss out on our limited supply—CALL NOW and secure yours in Brilliant Uncirculated (BU) condition today. Order three or more and get FREE domestic shipping. Order five or more and SAVE $10 per coin! 2018 Silver Eagle Black Ruthenium BU 1-4 Coins $69.95 ea. + s/h 5+ Coins $59.95 ea. + FREE SHIPPING One Ounce of 99.9% U.S. Silver Lavished in Black Ruthenium Accented with 24-Karat Gold FREE SHIPPING on 3 or More Limited time only. Product total over $149 before taxes (if any). Standard domestic shipping only. Not valid on previous purchases. Call today toll-free for fastest service 1-888-324-6498 Offer Code SBR126-01 Please mention this code when you call. GovMint.com • 14101 Southcross Dr. W., Suite 175, Dept. SBR126-01 • Burnsville, MN 55337 Prices and availability subject to change without notice. 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All rights reserved. © 2018 GovMint.com THE BEST SOURCE FOR COINS WORLDWIDE™ HIDDEN HEROES ‘In the Most Gallant Manner’ 7RP&XVWHUUHFHLYHGKLVÀUVW0HGDORI+RQRUIRU FDSWXULQJWKLVQG1RUWK&DUROLQD&DYDOU\ÁDJDW WKH%DWWOHRI1DPR]LQH&KXUFKRQ$SULO Division when he captured a 2nd North Carolina CavDOU\ÁDJDW1DPR]LQH&KXUFKDWWKHRXWVHWRIWKH$SSRPDWWR[&DPSDLJQ5HSRUWHGO\KHOHDSWKLVKRUVHRYHUD EDUULFDGHWRUHWKHÁDJRXWRIWKHKDQGVRIDVWDQGDUG EHDUHUDQGGHPDQGHGWKHLPPHGLDWHVXUUHQGHURIWKH 5HEHOV DURXQG KLP (OHYHQ VROGLHUV DQG WKUHH RIÀFHUV FRPSOLHG $OWKRXJK KLV KRUVH ZDV VKRW 7RP PLUDFXORXVO\HPHUJHGZLWKRXWDVFUDWFK $IWHUWKHEDWWOHDMXVWLÀDEO\SURXG%UHYHW0DM*HQ *HRUJH&XVWHUFRPPDQGLQJWKHUG'LYLVLRQZURWHWR KLVZLIH/LEELH´*RGKDVEOHVVHGXVZLWKYLFWRU\«7RP LQ WKH PRVW JDOODQW PDQQHU«FDSWXUHG WKH EDWWOH ÁDJ RI WKH 6HFRQG 1RUWK &DUROLQD &DYDOU\µ +H WKHQ SUHVFLHQWO\SUHGLFWHG7RPZRXOGUHFHLYHD0HGDORI+RQRU 7RP UHSHDWHG WKH IHDW DW 6DLORU·V &UHHN WKUHH GD\V ODWHU FKDUJLQJ RQ KLV KRUVH ZKLOH XQGHU KHDY\ ÀUH DJDLQVWHQWUHQFKHGLQIDQWU\RI/W*HQ5LFKDUG(ZHOO·V &RUSVDQGHQJDJLQJVHYHUDO5HEHOVZLWKRQO\KLVSLVWRO 8SRQVHHLQJDVWDQGDUGEHDUHUZKRVHFRORUVZHUHVHUYLQJDVDUDOO\LQJSRLQWKHUHGLUHFWHGKLVHIIRUWV$V&RORQHO&DSHKHDUWZURWHWR/LEELH&XVWHU ´+DYLQJFURVVHGWKHOLQHRIWHPSRUDU\ZRUNVLQWKH ÁDQNURDGZHZHUHFRQIURQWHGE\DVXSSRUWLQJOLQH ,WZDVIURPWKHVHFRQGOLQHWKDWKHZUHVWHGWKH FRORUVVLQJOHKDQGHGDQGRQO\DIHZSDFHVWRP\ ULJKW$VKHDSSURDFKHGWKHFRORUVKHUHFHLYHGDVKRW LQWKHIDFHZKLFKNQRFNHGKLPEDFNRQKLVKRUVHEXW LQDPRPHQWKHZDVXSULJKWLQKLVVDGGOH5HDFKLQJ RXWKLVULJKWDUPKHJUDVSHGWKHÁDJZKLOHWKHFRORU EHDUHUUHHOHG7KHEXOOHWIURP7RP·VUHYROYHUPXVW KDYHSLHUFHGKLVKHDUW$VKHZDVIDOOLQJ&DSWDLQ &XVWHUZUHQFKHGWKHVWDQGDUGIURPKLVJUDVSDQG ERUHLWDZD\LQWULXPSKµ ,Q KLV \RXWKIXO H[XEHUDQFH WKH ZRXQGHG 7RP JDOORSHG EDFN WRZDUG KLV RZQ OLQHV ZDYLQJ KLV WURSK\ $Q RIÀFHU RI WKH UG 1HZ -HUVH\ &DYDOU\³FRQFHUQHG 16 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR WKDW7RPPLJKWEHPLVWDNHQIRUDQDGYDQFLQJ5HEHO³ VKRXWHG´)RU*RG·VVDNH7RPIXUOWKDWÁDJRUWKH\·OO ÀUHRQ\RXµ6WLOOZDYLQJWKHHQHP\FRORUVDQGEOHHGLQJ FRSLRXVO\IURPKLVZRXQG7RPURGHXSWRKLVEURWKHU DQG FRPPDQGLQJ RIÀFHU VKRXWLQJ ´$UPVWURQJ WKH GDPQHG5HEHOVVKRWPHEXW,·YHJRWP\ÁDJµ :LWK7RPSUHSDULQJWRUHHQWHUWKHIUD\KLVVKDNHQ ROGHUEURWKHURUGHUHGKLPWRUHSRUWLPPHGLDWHO\WRWKH ÀHOGVXUJHRQ:KHQ7RPJDYHHYHU\LQGLFDWLRQRILJQRULQJ WKH FRPPDQG *HRUJH RUGHUHG KLP DUUHVWHG DQG FRQYH\HGXQGHUJXDUGWRWKHÀHOGKRVSLWDO7KHZRXQG ZDVEORRG\EXWSURYHGQRWIDWDOWKHEXOOHWKDYLQJWUDYHUVHG IURP KLV ORZHU MDZ WR KLV HDU ZLWKRXW VHYHULQJ DQ\PDMRUDUWHULHV,WZDVVHULRXVHQRXJKKRZHYHUWR UHTXLUHIXUWKHUWUHDWPHQWDQGLWZRXOGOHDYH7RPZLWK DQRWLFHDEOHVFDUIRUWKHUHPDLQGHURIKLVVKRUWOLIH )RU7RP&XVWHUWKHZDUZDVRYHUDVFDQWWKUHHGD\V EHIRUH /HH·V ÀQDO VXUUHQGHU DW $SSRPDWWR[ %\ ZDU·V HQGKHKDGEHHQSURPRWHGWREUHYHWOLHXWHQDQWFRORQHO DQGKLV6DLORU·V&UHHNKHURLFVOHGWRDVHFRQG0HGDORI +RQRU+HZDVWKHÀUVW$PHULFDQVROGLHUWRUHFHLYHWKH PHGDOWZLFHDQGRQHRIRQO\LQWKHQDWLRQ·VKLVWRU\ 5HPDLQLQJLQWKH$UP\7RPZHQWRQWRVHUYHZLWK GLVWLQFWLRQLQWKH:HVW+LVVHUYLFHLQFOXGHGWKH,QGLDQ :DUV·:DVKLWD&DPSDLJQLQZKLFKKHZDVDJDLQ ZRXQGHG DQG LQ WKH <HOORZVWRQH DQG %ODFN+LOOVH[SHGLWLRQV+HZDVZHOOOLNHGDQGKLJKO\ UHVSHFWHG E\ KLV PHQ %\ DOO UHSRUWV WKH KDUGGULQNLQJ RIÀFHU SOD\HG DV HQWKXVLDVWLFDOO\ DV KH VROGLHUHG FDURXVLQJZLWKVSRUWLQJZRPHQDUGHQWO\KXQWLQJEXIIDORDQGDQWHORSHDQGNHHSLQJVXFKH[RWLFFUHDWXUHVDV UDWWOHVQDNHVDQGZROYHVDVSHWV7RPZDVLQVWUXPHQWDO LQWKHDUUHVWRI6LRX[&KLHI5DLQLQWKH)DFHZKRODWHU FODLPHGWRKDYHFXWRXW7RP·VKHDUWDW/LWWOH%LJKRUQLQ UHYHQJHDQGIRUUHDVRQVWKDWKDYHORQJVLQFHEHFRPH REVFXUH FRQGXFWHG D ORQJVWDQGLQJ IHXG ZLWK IRUPHU FDYDOU\ VFRXW VRPHWLPH ODZPDQ DQG PXFKIHDUHG ´SLVWROHHUµ -DPHV %XWOHU ´:LOG %LOOµ +LFNRN ZLGHO\ DFFODLPHGWKHPRVWGDQJHURXVPDQRQWKHIURQWLHU ,Q0D\ZKHQ/W&RO*HRUJH$UPVWURQJ&XVWHU OHGWKHWK&DYDOU\RXWRI)RUW/LQFROQ'DNRWD7HUULWRU\RQLWVIDWHIXOPDUFKWRZDUG/LWWOH%LJKRUQ&DSWDLQ 7KRPDV:DUG&XVWHU³WKRXJKQRPLQDOO\LQFRPPDQG RI WKH UHJLPHQW·V & &RPSDQ\³URGH EHVLGH *HRUJH DV KLVDLGHGHFDPSVWLOOLQKLVELJEURWKHU·VVKDGRZ Ron Soodalter is a regular contributor to $PHULFD·V Civil War. s B Bu igg tt er on s t o N rac nt Co “My friends all hate their cell phones… I love mine!” FR EE Car Charg er Here’s why. 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Hardy 18 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR Moment of Truth As portrayed in Don Troiani’s “Before the Storm,” Stonewall Jackson and elements of his vaunted Second Corps begin their epic march around WKH8QLRQULJKWÁDQNWKH afternoon of May 2, 1863. JULY 2018 19 The obverse and reverse of the 18th North Carolina’s &KDQFHOORUVYLOOHÁDJFDSWXUHGE\D1HZ-HUVH\ UHJLPHQWRQ0D\WKHGD\DIWHU-DFNVRQ·VZRXQGLQJ From May 1862 through the Army of Northern Virginia’s biter end at Appomatox in April 1865, D ÀYHUHJLPHQW LQIDQWU\ EULJDGH RI 1RUWK &DUROLQD ´7DU +HHOVµ IRXJKW JDOODQWO\ LQ EDWWOHV DQG HQJDJH PHQWV.QRZQDVWKH%UDQFK/DQH%ULJDGHDIWHULWVWZRFRPPDQGHUV%ULJ*HQV/DZUHQFH2·%U\DQ%UDQFK DQG-DPHV+/DQHWKHXQLWFRQVLVWHGRIWKHWKWKWKUGDQGWK1RUWK&DUROLQD,QIDQWU\7KH FRXUDJHVDFULÀFHDQGÀJKWLQJSURZHVVH[KLELWHGRQPDQ\RIWKHZDU·VEORRGLHVWEDWWOHÀHOGVE\WKHEULJDGH·V VROGLHUV³KDLOHGE\RQHRIWKHLUQXPEHU&DSWDLQ5LGGLFN*DWOLQJ-URIWKHUG1RUWK&DUROLQDDV´WKHVH PRUHWKDQLPPRUWDOPHQµ³KDVEHHQXQIDLUO\RYHUVKDGRZHGE\DWUDJLFDFFLGHQWRQWKHQLJKWRI0D\ DW&KDQFHOORUVYLOOH,QWKHGDUNQHVVDQGFRQIXVLRQIROORZLQJ5REHUW(/HH·VURXWRIWKH8QLRQ$UP\RIWKH 3RWRPDF XQGHU 0DM *HQ -RVHSK +RRNHU PHPEHUV RI WKH EULJDGH·V WK 1RUWK &DUROLQD PLVWDNHQO\ ÀUHG LQWRDSDUW\RI&RQIHGHUDWHRIÀFHUVUHWXUQLQJIURPDQLJKWWLPHUHFRQQDLVVDQFHPRUWDOO\ZRXQGLQJ/W*HQ 7KRPDV-´6WRQHZDOOµ-DFNVRQ ¶'HVSLWHWKHORVVRIWKHLUUHSODFHDEOH-DFNVRQWKH%DWWOHRI&KDQFHOORUV YLOOH$SULO0D\LVKDLOHGDV/HH·VJUHDWHVWWDFWLFDOYLFWRU\DQRWDEOHWULXPSKSURGXFHGE\/HH DQG-DFNVRQ·VDXGDFLW\DQG+RRNHU·VWLPLGLW\DQGLQGHFLVLRQ'HI\LQJDOOFRQYHQWLRQDOZLVGRP/HHEROGO\ GLYLGHGKLVWURRSV³RXWQXPEHUHGPRUHWKDQWRE\+RRNHU·VPDQDUP\³DQGKHOGSDUWRI +RRNHU·VDUP\LQIURQWRI)UHGHULFNVEXUJZLWKDVPDOOIRUFHZKLOHVHL]LQJWKHWDFWLFDOLQLWLDWLYHWRPDQHXYHU DJDLQVWWKHEXONRIWKH)HGHUDODUP\WRWKHZHVWLQWKH:LOGHUQHVVUHJLRQ:KHQ+RRNHULQH[SOLFDEO\WDUULHG DURXQG&KDQFHOORUVYLOOH/HHDQG-DFNVRQGHYLVHGDQHYHQEROGHUSODQWRGHIHDWWKH)HGHUDOV7KH%UDQFK /DQH%ULJDGHZLWK/DQHLQFRPPDQGIROORZLQJ%UDQFK·VGHDWKDW$QWLHWDPWKHSUHYLRXV6HSWHPEHUDSDUW RI0DM*HQ$3+LOO·V/LJKW'LYLVLRQLQ-DFNVRQ·V&RUSVVRRQZRXOGEHLQWKHWKLFNRIWKHÀJKWLQJ DWH RQ 0D\ &RQIHGHUDWH FDYDOU\ UHFRQ QDLVVDQFH LQGLFDWHG WKDW WKH )HGHUDO ULJKW ÁDQNZDV´KDQJLQJµXQIRUWLÀHGDQGXQDQ FKRUHG ,Q OLJKW RI WKLV LQWHOOLJHQFH /HH DJDLQFKRVHWRGLYLGHKLVFRPPDQGVHQGLQJ -DFNVRQZLWKPHQKLVHQWLUHFRUSV DFURVV WKH IURQW RI WKH )HGHUDO DUP\ WR DWWDFN WKHLU H[SRVHG OLQHV 7KH PRYHPHQW OHIW/HHZLWKMXVWPHQVXSSRUWHGE\ DUWLOOHU\ WR GLVWUDFW +RRNHU DQG KLV DUP\ ZKLOH -DFNVRQ H[HFXWHGKLVÁDQNLQJPDQHXYHU :KLOH -DFNVRQ ZDQWHG WKH PDUFK WR EHJLQ DW VXQULVH 0D\LWZDVDPEHIRUHWKHOHDGHOHPHQWVVWHSSHGRII 7KH/LJKW'LYLVLRQEULQJLQJXSWKHUHDURIWKHFROXPQGLG QRW PRYH XQWLO DP -DFNVRQ ZDV VSRWWHG ULGLQJ WR WKH ULJKW:KHQKHUHWXUQHGDVKRUWWLPHODWHU/DQH·V%ULJDGH L 20 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR PRYHGRIIXQGHURUGHUVQRWWRFKHHU6WRQHZDOOLIKHSDVVHG $QRSHQLQJLQWKHZRRGVSURYLGHGWKH)HGHUDOVDJOLPSVH RIWKH&RQIHGHUDWHVDVWKH\PDUFKHGDQGJDYH8QLRQDUWLO OHU\DQRSSRUWXQLW\WRÀUHRQWKHPRYLQJFROXPQ)URPWKDW SRLQWRQWKH6RXWKHUQUHJLPHQWVPRYHGDWWKHGRXEOHTXLFN WKURXJK WKH RSHQLQJ 6HYHUDO )HGHUDOV UHSRUWHG WKH SUHV HQFHRI-DFNVRQ·VFRPPDQGEXW+RRNHUEHOLHYHGWKH&RQ IHGHUDWHDUP\ZDVUHWUHDWLQJWRZDUG*RUGRQVYLOOH $ERXW SP WKH KHDG RI -DFNVRQ·V FROXPQ WXUQHG ULJKW RQ WKH 2UDQJH 7XUQSLNH 7KH PHQ KDG FRYHUHG PLOHVEXWZHUHRQO\PLOHVIURPZKHUHWKH\KDGVWDUWHG DIHZKRXUVHDUOLHU,WWRRNWLPHWRGHSOR\WZRLQIDQWU\GLYL VLRQV%ULJ*HQ5REHUW(5RGHV·LQWKHIURQWIROORZHGE\ %ULJ*HQ5DOHLJK(&ROVWRQ·VLQWKHWKLFNZRRGVRQHLWKHU VLGH RI WKH WXUQSLNH )RU PDQ\ \HDUV WKH WUHHV KDG EHHQ KDUYHVWHGWRPDNHFKDUFRDODQGWKHUHWXUQLQJXQGHUJURZWK their march and pursuit of the foe. Rodes called a halt to try was thick, almost impassable in places. Confederate troops reorganizing his command. The sun had set about an hour lined both sides of the turnpike. Brigadier General William before, and the moon, just one night shy of full, began to D. Pender’s and Brig. Gen. Henry Heth’s brigades of the rise, casting eerie shadows throughout the twisted woods. Light Division were posted behind Colston, to the north of Not only did the two lead divisions stop, but so did Lane, the road. Lane’s Brigade, just coming up, stayed in column who was following artillery, still standing in the road. Near on the turnpike. Federal infantry lay a half mile to the east. the brigade stood some earthworks the Federals had built While not all of his infantry was up, after checking with the previous day. Jackson was nearby, attempting to help Rodes, Jackson gave the order to launch the assault around RWKHURIÀFHUVUDOO\DQGXQWDQJOHWKH&RQIHGHUDWHLQIDQWU\ 5:30 p.m. Bugles sounded, followed soon by a scattering of As Jackson rode by the 18th North Carolina, one of its capshots from pickets and the blood-curdling screech of the tains remembered making “that wilderness ring with their Rebel Yell. The Confederates had caught the Federal line cheers” as he passed. Jackson “took off his hat in recogniRQWKHÁDQNDQGTXLFNO\URXWHGDQHQWLUHFRUSV)HGHUDOVROWLRQ RI WKHLU VDOXWDWLRQµ 'XULQJ WKLV OXOO LQ WKH ÀJKWLQJ diers “did run and no mistake about it—but I never blamed Jackson ordered Hill to bring up his men. He meant to conthem,” wrote Lieutenant Octavius A. Wiggins. “I would tinue the advance and cut off the Federal line of retreat have done the same thing and so would you....I reckon the at U.S. Ford over the Rappahannock River. Hill picked Devil himself would have run with Jackson in his rear.” Lane’s Brigade to spearhead a rare nighttime attack. He Lane’s troops struggled to keep up with the advancordered Lane to throw out a regiment as skirmishers and ing lines of battle. As the main Confederate lines crashed WKURXJK WKH ZRRGV /DQH·V PHQ GRXEOHTXLFNHG GRZQ WKH form the rest of the brigade behind them. Once in position, Hill wanted Lane “to push vigorously forward.” road. Dead and wounded Federal soldiers lay Confederate artillery on the road just ahead on the road and in the woods. Lewis Battle of ‘In the Air’ RI/DQHRSHQHGÀUHGUDZLQJDUHVSRQVHIURP the 37th North Carolina said, “Our spirits were As shown in this a nearby enemy battery. Shell fragments covso high we could scarcely hold ourselves to the contemporary Robert Knox Sneden map, ered the road, and Lane ordered his men to lie ground, for we could see as we passed along the 11th Corps’ down where they were, while he and the rest of the road at least ten dead Yankees to our one,” isolated position on his staff dismounted and sought shelter in the including the wreckage of an ill-conceived Fedthe Union right made woods on the left side of the road. eral cavalry charge. O.O. Howard’s unit +LOO VHQW RQH RI KLV VWDII RIÀFHUV WR LQTXLUH By 7:30 p.m., the Confederate advance began a tempting target for why Lane’s Brigade was not deploying as to falter. Rodes’ and Colston’s divisions became Jackson to strike. RUGHUHG/DQHWROGWKHRIÀFHUKHGLGQ·WZDQWWR intermixed in the terrain and were spent by JULY 2018 21 lose his brigade and was “unwilling to attempt to form my line in the GDUNXQGHUVXFKDÀUHDQGLQVXFKDZRRGVµ,QDSRVWZDUOHWWHU/DQH ZURWH´$OOROGVROGLHUVNQRZKRZGLIÀFXOWLWLVWRPDQHXYHUWKHEUDYHVW WURRSVLQWKHGDUNXQGHUDPXUGHURXVÀUHWKURXJKVFUXEE\RDNVSLQH WKLFNHWVRYHUWKHDEDWLVRIWKHHQHP\·VDEDQGRQHGZRUNVµ /DQHVXJJHVWHGWKDW+LOORUGHUWKHDUWLOOHU\WRVWRSÀULQJZKLFKZRXOG SHUKDSV VLOHQFH WKH )HGHUDO DUWLOOHU\ 7KH VWDII RIÀFHU WUDYHUVHG WKH IUDJPHQWVWUHZQURDGDJDLQGHOLYHULQJ/DQH·VUHVSRQVHDQG+LOORU GHUHGWKH&RQIHGHUDWHDUWLOOHU\WRGHVLVW6RRQWKHUHDIWHUWKHHQHP\ FRXQWHUEDWWHU\ÀUHLQGHHGKDOWHGDVZHOO /DQHRUGHUHG&RORQHO&ODUN0$YHU\WRGHSOR\KLVUG1RUWK&DUROLQDDVVNLUPLVKHUV$YHU\WRRNWKHUHJLPHQWDQGDGYDQFHG\DUGVWR the crest of a hill on its front, fanning out on either side of the Orange 3ODQN5RDGWRSURYLGHFRYHU/DQHFDXWLRQHG$YHU\QRWWRÀUHLQWR5RGHV· PHQ ZKRP +LOO·V 'LYLVLRQ KDG FRPH WR UHOLHYH $YHU\ VRRQ UHSRUWHG QRRWKHU&RQIHGHUDWHVWRWKHLUIURQW7KHEULJDGHDGYDQFHGDERXW yards after the bombardment before deploying to either side of the road, ‘all old soldiers know how difficult it is to maneuver the bravest troops in the dark under a murderous fire’ -brig. gen. james H. lane 22 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR DFFRUGLQJ WR RQH &DUROLQLDQ 7KH WK DQG WKH WK1RUWK&DUROLQDÀOHGRIIWRWKHULJKWZLWK WKH WK·V OHIW DQFKRUHG RQ WKH 3ODQN 5RDG 7KHWKDQGWK1RUWK&DUROLQDÀOHGRIIWR WKHOHIWZLWKWKHULJKWRIWKHWKOLNHZLVHVWLOO RQ WKH URDG 3RUWLRQV RI 6WXDUW·V +RUVH $UWLOlery maintained a position on the Plank Road LQIURQWRIWKHEULJDGH·VFHQWHU´7KHZRRGVLQ front of our right was of large oaks with but litWOHXQGHUJURZWKµ/DQHZURWH´>,@QUHDURIRXU right there was a pine thicket…to the left of the road there was a dense growth of ‘scrubby RDNV·WKURXJKZKLFKLWZDVDOPRVWLPSRVVLEOH IRUWURRSVWRPRYHµ 2QFH/DQHIRUPHGWKHEULJDGHKHURGHEDFN to the Plank Road, seeking further orders from +LOO -DFNVRQ UHFRJQL]HG /DQH·V YRLFH LQ WKH GDUNQHVV HQJXOÀQJ WKH :LOGHUQHVV ´/DQH ZKRPDUH\RXORRNLQJIRU"µKHFDOOHGRXW´*HQHUDO+LOOµFDPHWKHUHSO\´ZKRRUGHUHGPHWR IRUPP\OLQHIRUDQLJKWDWWDFNZKLFK,KDYH GRQHDQG,QRZZLVKWRNQRZZKHWKHU,PXVW DGYDQFHRUDZDLWIXUWKHURUGHUV«EXW*HQHUDO ,GRQRWNQRZZKHUH*HQHUDO+LOOLVµ)RUH[SHGLHQF\ /DQH UHTXHVWHG RUGHUV ´3XVK ULJKW DKHDG/DQHµ-DFNVRQUHVSRQGHGJHVWXULQJLQ WKHGLUHFWLRQRIWKHHQHP\EHIRUHPRYLQJRQ,W For Posterity Jackson posed for this photo in Fredericksburg two weeks before he was mortally wounded— likely the last image ever taken of him. Facing page: One of the unimproved woodland roads Jackson traveled as he reconnoitered his lines on the night of May 2, 1863. JULY 2018 23 Lee’s Immortals Brig. Gen. James H. Lane Brig. Gen. Lawrence O’Bryan Branch It is one of history’s sad ironies that the Branch-Lane Brigade probably is most remembered for its tragic “friendly ﬁre” incident that mortally wounded Stonewall Jackson. Although “the death of the beloved Jackson at the hands of the brigade cast a pall over its otherwise stellar history,” few other brigades in the Army of Northern Virginia can lay claim to a combat record which matched, let alone exceeded, that of these “immortal men” from North Carolina. Their staunch service in Robert E. Lee’s army from 1862 until the biter end at Appomatox, Va., in April 1865 has been favorably compared to that of the more famous Stonewall Brigade or the Union’s splendid Iron Brigade. In 35 pitched batles and smaller engagements, the Branch-Lane Brigade had 1,197 men killed on the batleﬁeld alone. In addition, nearly 2,000 succumbed to disease, sickness, accidents, or in Union POW camps—bringing the total number who died during the war to 3,151. This represents an astonishing 35 percent mortality rate for the 8,975 North Carolinians who served in the brigade—and, of course, to this staggering number of dead must be added several thousand who sufered nonfatal combat wounds or who endured long-term debilitating efects of disease. The list of major batles in which the brigade fought reads like an Army of Northern Virginia honor roll: The Seven Days, Second Manassas, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Getysburg, the Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, and Appomatox. At Antietam on September 17, 1862, the brigade—part of Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill’s “Light Division”—made the brutal march from Harpers Ferry to help prevent Lee’s right wing from being overrun by surging Union forces late in the day. But the cost was high. Killed during the ﬁghting was its commander, Brig. Gen. Lawrence O’Bryan Branch. Ten months later, under Brig. Gen. James Lane’s lead, the unit took part in perhaps the most famous tactical action of the Civil War— Getysburg’s “Picket’s Charge” on July 3, 1863. Lane led the brigade as part of Maj. Gen. Isaac Trimble’s Division in the three-division atack against the Union’s strong defenses on Cemetery Ridge. Of the 1,355 who advanced, 660 fell killed or wounded—nearly half of the brigade’s strength. Among the wounded were three of ﬁve regimental commanders, two of whom were subsequently captured. Fierce ﬁghting during the 1864 Overland Campaign and the nine-month Petersburg siege whitled away the brigade’s numbers. By April 1865, only 738 Tar Heels remained in the ranks.–M.C.H. 24 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR “was the last time I ever saw him,” Lane later wrote. With several members of his staff and escort following behind him, Jackson rode down the Orange Plank Road, passing both the 37th and 18th North Carolina. A member of the regiment, Richard Reeves, later claimed that Jackson had ridden up and advised them to “watch and listen and at the least noise, Fire, as it would be the foe. He rode away looking the gallant soldier he was.” A moment later, Hill rode up with his staff, stopping on the Orange Plank Road to converse with Jackson. After urging Hill to push the attack forward, Jackson rode toward the 33rd and the Federal lines, leaving Hill there on the road between the 18th and 37th regiments. Lane rode back along his line to his brigade’s far right. Near 9 p.m., he instructed his colonels to “keep a bright lookout, as we were in front of everything & would soon be ordered forward to make a night attack.” However, as he approached, Lane encountered a dilemma. Nearby Federals were calling out to their enemies, wanting to know whose brigade they were. “General Lane’s” was the reply. “Tell General Lane to come in,” a Federal retorted. 8QVDWLVÀHG ZLWK WKHLU LQTXLU\ /W &RO /HYL Smith of the 128th Pennsylvania stumbled into the 7th North Carolina, bearing a white ÁDJ6PLWKVWDWHGKHZDVVLPSO\WU\LQJWROHDUQ whether the troops in front of him were friends or foes. Much to Smith’s chagrin, Lane refused to let him return to the Federal lines. Instead he sent his brother and aide, Oscar Lane, back to Hill for instructions about what to do with Smith. Meanwhile, Lt. Col. Junius Hill of the 7th North Carolina approached Lane, imploring him not to advance. Hill had heard “noises ZKLFKVDWLVÀHGWKHPWKDWWURRSVRIVRPHNLQG were on” the brigade’s right. Lane agreed, and Hill sent Lieutenant James Emack with four men to investigate. The 33rd was spread out in a line large enough to cover the brigade’s front. Once the line was posted, the regiment’s commanders, Colonel Robert Cowan and Captain Joseph Saunders, returned toward the main line and found General Hill, probably on the Orange Plank Road. The general told the pair their objective was Chancellorsville, that they were “to push on, drive the enemy out of that, then we would have them on the hip.” On the far right of the skirmish line Brig. Gen. Joseph F. Knipe of the 12th Corps’ 1st Division rode into the lines shouting for his commander, Brig. Gen. Alpheus Williams. ‘what are you firing at? are you trying to kill all my men in front of you? there are no yankees here.’ -captain marcellus n. moorman First Sergeant Thomas Cowan of the 33rd North Carolina called out to Knipe, who LGHQWLÀHG KLPVHOI DV D IULHQG ´>)@ULHQG WR which side?” Cowan inquired, to which Knipe DQVZHUHG ´WR WKH 8QLRQµ ´$OO ULJKWµ &RZDQ responded, stepping back to his company and RUGHULQJ KLV PHQ WR ÀUH LQWR WKH DUHD RI WKH YRLFH LQ WKH GDUNQHVV 7KLV EURXJKW D TXLFN UHVSRQVHIURP)HGHUDOLQIDQWU\DQGDUWLOOHU\ &RORQHO7KRPDV-3XUGLHSRVLWLRQHGWKHWK 1RUWK&DUROLQDWRWKHOHIWRIWKH2UDQJH3ODQN 5RDGZLWKWKHWK1RUWK&DUROLQDWRKLVOHIW +LV DGMXWDQW /W :LOOLDP 0F/DXULQ FODLPHG later he did not know that the 33rd North Carolina had been deployed on the brigade’s front DV VNLUPLVKHUV 8SRQ KHDULQJ QRLVHV RQ KLV XQLW·V IURQW 3XUGLH FDOOHG IRU 0F/DXULQ DQG the two of them walked out into the darkness DORQJWKH3ODQN5RDG6RRQWKH\HQFRXQWHUHG &RORQHO $YHU\ DQG &DSWDLQ *HRUJH 6DQGHUOLQ nets; load; prepare for action!” Someone in the of the 33rd North Carolina, whereupon a scatFog of War UHJLPHQW\HOOHG´&DYDOU\µDQGWKHPHQSRXUHG WHULQJRIVKRWVVRPHZKHUH´WZRRUWKUHHKXQThe fateful moment DYROOH\LQWRWKHZRRGV´&HDVHÀULQJ<RXDUH dred yards in our front, to the right side of the of Jackson’s mortal ÀULQJ LQWR RXU RZQ PHQµ FDPH D GHVSHUDWH URDGµOHG3XUGLHDQG0F/DXULQWRKDVWHQEDFN wounding by VKRXWWKURXJKWKHVPRNHDQGGDUNQHVV´:KR WRZDUGWKHWK members of the 18th JDYHWKDWRUGHUµUHWRUWHG0DMRU-RKQ'%DUU\ The 7th North Carolina had joined the 33rd North Carolina. RIWKHWK1RUWK&DUROLQD´,W·VDOLH3RXULW in blazing away at the Federals, raising a LQWR WKHP ER\Vµ :LWK WKDW VKHHWV RI ÁDPH UDFNHWWKDW´JDYHLWHYHU\VHPEODQFHRIDEDWWOHµ+DYLQJMXVWFDSWXUHGQHDUO\)HGHUDOVROGLHUVQRW IURP WKH ULÁHV DQG PXVNHWV OHDSW RXW RQFH DJDLQ LQWR WKH GDUNQHVV-RKQ)ULQNRIWKHWK1RUWK&DUROLQDUHFDOOHG far from their front, they assumed other enemy troops could DVWULFNHQKRUVHIDOOLQJMXVWWKUHHIHHWLQIURQWRIKLP7KH EHQHDUE\/DQHFDXWLRQHGKLVPHQWRNHHSD´EULJKWORRNRXWµDKHDG7KHWK1RUWK&DUROLQDWRWKHOHIWRIWKHWK WK1RUWK&DUROLQDOLNHZLVHÀUHGDYROOH\LQWRWKHQLJKW Nevertheless, the voices crying out in the wilderness had joined in emptying their muskets toward an unknown foe in EHHQFRUUHFW8QEHNQRZQVWWRWKHEULJDGH·VRIÀFHUVDQGDOO WKHGDUNQHVVWRZDUGWKH2UDQJH3ODQN5RDG7KHUH&DSWDLQ 0DUFHOOXV 1 0RRUPDQ·V DUWLOOHU\ KDG MXVW OLPEHUHG EXW D IHZ LQ WKH UDQNV 6WRQHZDOO -DFNVRQ DQG $3 +LOO XS ZDLWLQJ WR EH UHOLHYHG E\ D IUHVK EDWWHU\ 0RRUPDQ with their staffs, had ridden through the lines toward the UXVKHG WRZDUG WKH WK FU\LQJ RXW ´:KDW DUH \RX ÀULQJ HQHP\ 6RPH DFFRXQWV KDYH -DFNVRQ WDNLQJ WKH 0RXQDW"$UH\RXWU\LQJWRNLOODOOP\PHQLQIURQWRI\RX"7KHUH tain Road and stopping behind the 33rd’s skirmish line, listening to the Federals bringing up reinforcements and DUHQR<DQNHHVKHUHµ1RDK&ROOLQVRIWKHWK1RUWK&DUROLQDZURWHWKDWKHKDGÀUHGRQHURXQGDQGKDGORDGHGWR VWUHQJWKHQLQJ WKHLU OLQHV 2WKHU DFFRXQWV KDYH WKH JURXS DGYDQFLQJ RQ WKH 2UDQJH 3ODQN 5RDG $GMXWDQW 6SLHU ÀUHDJDLQZKHQWKHRIÀFHUVUHJDLQHGFRQWURORIWKHPHQ 7KHÀULQJUROOHGRQGRZQ/DQH·VOLQH,QIURQWRIWKHWK :KLWDNHU ODWHU ZURWH WKDW -DFNVRQ DQG KLV VWDII SDVVHG through the lines of the 33rd North Carolina, reconnoiterRegiment came the sound of horses in the woods, moving LQWKHLUGLUHFWLRQIURPWKH2UDQJH3ODQN5RDG3XUGLHVWLOO LQJWKH)HGHUDOSRVLWLRQ:LWKWKHÀULQJRQWKH&RQIHGHUDWH ULJKW-DFNVRQ·VHQWRXUDJH´FDPHJDOORSLQJEDFNDQGDFURVV RXWLQIURQWRIWKHUHJLPHQWRUGHUHGWKHPHQWR´)L[ED\RJULY 2018 25 ‘you have shot my friends! you have destroyed my staff!’ -Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill Not to be Forgoten Top: The Chandler Plantation outbuilding at Guinea Station, Va., where Jackson died eight days after being wounded at Chancellorsville. Above: Jackson’s gravesite in Lexington, next to the Virginia Military Institute campus where he taught before the war. 26 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR our line to the right of the road to escape the DUWLOOHU\ ÀUHµ ,Q DOO SUREDELOLW\ WKH PXVNHWV RIWKHWK1RUWK&DUROLQDGURYH-DFNVRQDQG KLVSDUW\IURPWKH2UDQJH3ODQN5RDGLQWRWKH ZRRGVLQIURQWRIWKHWK1RUWK&DUROLQDZKR PLVWRRNWKHPRXQWHGRIÀFHUVIRU)HGHUDOFDYDOU\ +LOO·V VWDII FORVHU WR WKH WK ZDV GHFLPDWHG E\ WKH ÀUH 7KRXJK PRVW RI -DFNVRQ·V VWDIIHUVVXUYLYHGWKHJHQHUDOZDVVWUXFNWKUHH WLPHV $PLG DQ RXWEXUVW RI ZLWKHULQJ VPDOO DUPV ÀUH +LOO UXVKHG WRZDUG WKH WK 1RUWK &DUROLQDKRZOLQJ´<RXKDYHVKRWP\IULHQGV <RXKDYHGHVWUR\HGP\VWDIIµ -DFNVRQ PHDQZKLOH OD\ ZRXQGHG LQ WKH GDUNQHVV+LOOVRRQIRXQGKLPDQGWHQGHGKLV wounds personally while sending orders for an DPEXODQFHDQGDVXUJHRQ-DFNVRQZDVPRYHG EHKLQG WKH OLQHV 0DMRU :* 0RUULV RI WKH WK1RUWK&DUROLQDFDXJKWDJOLPSVHRI-DFNVRQEHLQJFDUULHGRII´$SDUW\RIPHQFDUU\LQJ D ZRXQGHG PDQ RQ D OLWWHU KDOWHG ZLWKLQ WHQ RUÀIWHHQIHHWRIPHµKHZURWH´DQGVRPHRQH VDLG¶*HQHUDODUH\RXVXIIHULQJPXFK"·µ(DUO\ WKHQH[WPRUQLQJ-DFNVRQ·VUDYDJHGOHIWDUP ZDVDPSXWDWHG ,Q WKH ZDNH RI WKH IULHQGO\ÀUH PHOHH WKDW IHOOHG -DFNVRQ +LOO ZDV ZRXQGHG WRR IURP DUWLOOHU\ VKUDSQHO DFURVV WKH EDFN RI ERWK OHJV+LOOUHSRUWHGO\VWXPEOHGLQWRWKHOLQHVRI WKH WK GHPDQGLQJ WKH UHJLPHQW·V LGHQWLW\ +LOO OHDUQHG LW ZDV WKH WK DQG WKDW LW ZDV FRPPDQGHG E\ &RORQHO 3XUGLH :KHQ 3XUGLH DSSHDUHG +LOO FKDVWLVHG KLP ´IRU ÀULQJ DW D QRLVHµ2QHPHPEHURIWKHUHJLPHQWDFFRUGLQJ WR 0F/DXULQ EUD]HQO\ WDXQWHG +LOO ´$ ERG\ NQRZV WKH <DQNHH DUP\ FDQ·W UXQ WKH ¶/LJKW 'LYLVLRQ· DQG RQH OLWWOH JHQHUDO QHHGQ·W WU\µ :KHWKHU+LOOKHDUGWKHWDXQWLVXQFHUWDLQEXW WKHJHQHUDOVRXJKWRXW3XUGLHLQWKHQH[WIHZ KRXUVDQGSXEOLFO\DSRORJL]HG ´2XUUHJLPHQWZDVIXOO\DZDUHRIWKHWHUULEOH PLVWDNHWKDWWKH\KDGPDGHZLWKLQWHQPLQXWHV DIWHU LW KDSSHQHGµ &DSWDLQ $OIUHG 7RODU RIWKHWK1RUWK&DUROLQDZURWHDIWHUWKHZDU ´,PDJLQHLI\RXFDQIRUQRWRQJXHRUSHQZLOO HYHUEHDEOHWRGHVFULEHWKHDQJXLVKRIVRUURZ WKDW UDQNOHG LQ WKH ERVRP RI KLV GHYRWHG VROGLHUVDVLWZDVZKLVSHUHGIURPRQHWRDQRWKHU ¶*HQHUDO -DFNVRQ LV ZRXQGHG·µ FKURQLFOHG D What Really Killed Stonewall Jackson Stonewall Jackson survived amputation of his wounded let arm the night of May 2-3, 1863, only to die eight days later—purportedly of pneumonia. Eight doctors who cared for Jackson certainly believed so. Over the years, some even claimed that the notorious hypochondriac hastened his own death by deciding to take “cold baths,” accelerating the onset of pneumonia. Yet, according to an article by U.S. Navy officer and physician J.D. Haines in the November 2006 issue of Armchair General, Jackson did not die of pneumonia—he died of an unpreventable pulmonary embolism. Wrote Haines: Although Dr. Hunter H. McGuire, Jackson’s medical director, and atending physicians agreed that pneumonia was the cause— indeed, it is always given as Jackson’s cause of death—unbiased, modern-day analysis reveals the much more likely cause was pulmonary embolism. Jackson’s so-called pleuro-pneumonia aliction was presumed due to lung contusion incurred during his accidental fall from the liter the night of May 2. However, in any fall less than 3 feet, the subject’s ribs naturally absorb the impact, thereby protecting the lung from serious damage. There also would be obvious external bruising and abrasion in any lung contusion. Yet Jackson’s physicians found no external trauma evidence. In terminal pneumonia, the clinical course regularly goes from bad to worse in a steady decline. But, in Jackson’s case post-amputation, there were two distinct, sudden episodes of deterioration, separated by a period of apparent recovery—not the expected pneumonia-induced steady decline. His two well-documented episodes of side pain occurred May 3 and May 6-7, in addition to the acute onset of chest/side pain, with accompanying nausea, shortness of breath, extreme fatigue and, perhaps, fever. These symptoms are consistent with pulmonary emboli, clearly revealing blood clots traveling to the lungs. Among numerous complications following an extremity’s amputation are non-healing Dr. Hunter H. McGuire of the stump, infection, and thromboembolism—the oten-experienced formation of a blood clot within a large vein. According to Dr. McGuire, Jackson’s arm wound appeared to be healing and any infection did not seem to be signiﬁcant enough to concern his atending doctors. Today, it is known that an amputee signiﬁcantly risks venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism. Patient immobilization following amputation can allow blood to pool and clot within veins. However, clots can form in the large veins tied off during the amputation. The veins tying off, termed “ligation,” leads to blood stagnation in the veins, leading to thrombus (blood clot), which can travel to the lungs and kill the patient. Even with today’s advanced technology, as many as half of all pulmonary emboli are undetected. The treatment of thromboembolism employing modern medical procedures is chemical blood thinning agents, unavailable to Jackson. Given the primitive medical treatment in 1863, Jackson’s post-amputation death could not be prevented; however, examination of his well-documented symptoms reveals Jackson certainly died from thromboembolism—a direct consequence of his arm wound and subsequent amputation, rather than pneumonia long incorrectly presumed. –Jerry Morelock member of the 37th. Lane, still on the right of his brigade dealing with the captured Federals, heard his name being called. He found fellow brigade commander William Dorsey Pender, who advised him of Jackson’s wounding and of the likelihood that it had been caused by Lane’s command. Upon reaching the 18th, Lane encountered Major Barry, who confessed knowing nothing of Jackson’s and Hill’s riding to the front. Furthermore, “he could not tell friend from foe in the dark & in such a woods, that when the skirmish OLQH ÀUHG WKHUH ZDV KHDUG WKH FODWWHULQJ RI DSSURDFKLQJ horseman & the cry of cavalry & that he not only ordered KLVPHQWRÀUHEXWWKDWKHSURQRXQFHGWKHFU\RIIULHQGVWR EHDOLHµDQGNHSWKLVPHQÀULQJ0F/DXULQDGGHGWKDWQHLther Jackson nor Hill habitually rode to the front. Some blamed Lane and his Tar Heels for the tragedy played out in the darkness of the Wilderness. “General /DQHJRWVFDUHGµZURWHRQHVWDIIRIÀFHULQKLVRIÀFLDOUHSRUW ´ÀUHG LQWR RXU PHQ DQG DFKLHYHG WKH XQHQYLDEOH UHSXWDtion of wounding severely Lieutenant-General Jackson and wounding slightly Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill.” After the war, Lane told an early Chancellorsville historian: “In all my intercourse with Genl. A.P. Hill I never heard him, nor have I HYHUKHDUGDQ\RQHHOVHFHQVXUHWKHWKUHJLPHQWIRUÀULQJ under the circumstances.” The debate continues. Adapted with permission from General Lee’s Immortals: The Battles and Campaigns of the Branch-Lane Brigade in the Army of Northern Virginia, 1861-1865, by Michael C. Hardy (Savas Beatie, 2018). Michael C. Hardy, who in 2010 was named North Carolina’s Historian of the Year, is the author of 22 books, including North Carolina Remembers Chancellorsville and Remembering North Carolina’s Confederates. JULY 2018 27 off and running America’s growing passion for horse racing stayed strong during the war By Jack Trammell 28 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR Antebellum Tensions Before the war, North–South rivalries were sometimes settled on the racetrack. Here, in May 1845, Southern mare Peytona (foreground) defeats Northern champion Fashion in a $20,000 stakes race on Long Island, N.Y., in front of a reported 100,000 spectators. JULY 2018 29 or all his inadequacies as a commander— for all his bluster, his inclination to undermine fellow generals, and his checkered UHVXOWVRQWKHEDWWOHÀHOG³8QLRQ0DM*HQ Joseph Hooker appreciated the value of PRUDOH$KDSS\VROGLHUKHJUDQWHGZDVD JRRGVROGLHU8SRQWDNLQJFRPPDQGRIWKH $UP\ RI WKH 3RWRPDF LQ -DQXDU\ D little more than a month after the Federal FDODPLW\DW)UHGHULFNVEXUJ+RRNHUEHJDQ UHÀWWLQJDQDUP\LQGLUHQHHGRIDQHZRXWORRN+HDSSURYHG DPQHVW\IRUGHVHUWHUVFUDFNHGGRZQRQFRUUXSWLRQZLWKLQ KLVRIÀFHUFRUSVDQGRIIHUHGOHQJWKLHUIXUORXJKVWRKLVPHQ DVZHOODVEHWWHUUDWLRQVDQGPHGLFDOFDUH Hooker also gave his blessing to one of the war’s most LURQLF HYHQWV D JUDQG JDOD LQ WKH $UP\ RI WKH 3RWRPDF·V F 30 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR FDPSVLQ)DOPRXWK9DRQ0DUFK7KHFDUQLYDO ZDVWKHLQVSLUDWLRQRI,ULVK%ULJDGHFRPPDQGHU7KRPDV) 0HDJKHUWREXLOGDUP\PRUDOHDQGVHUYHDVD6W3DWULFN·V 'D\ WULEXWH WR VRPH RI WKH VSOHQGRUV RI KLV IRUPHU OLIH RQ WKH(PHUDOG,VOH1RWWREHRXWGRQHWKH,ULVKWK0DVVDFKXVHWWV³SDUWRIWKHQG%ULJDGHVW'LYLVLRQLQ*HRUJH 0HDGH·VWK&RUSV³DOVRDUUDQJHGIRUIHVWLYLWLHVWKDWGD\ by the civil war, horse racing had become quite fashionable in america, on both sides of the mason-dixon line. Grand Spectacle Artist Edwin Forbes attended Brig. Gen. Thomas Meagher’s 1863 St. Patrick’s Day shindig and drew a series of sketches of the Irish Brigade’s steeplechase and other events for +DUSHU·V:HHNO\. During the race, riders had to clear both ditches (top left) and hurdles (center) while competing on the 2½-mile-long oval course prepared at the brigade’s Falmouth, Va., camp. Top right: Several riders are thrown from their mounts during a mule race. Left: Meagher distributes prizes after the competition. Far left: Attendees—some no doubt having waged bets—watch the race from the side of the course and in a specially built grandstand. $OORIWKHDUP\·VRIÀFHUVZHUHLQYLWHGWRDWWHQGWKH,ULVK %ULJDGH·VFHOHEUDWLRQZLWK+RRNHUFRQVSLFXRXVDPRQJWKRVH ZKR VKRZHG XS ,QFOXGHG LQ WKH VFKHGXOHG HYHQWV ZHUH D JUHDVHGSLJUDFHDJUHDVHGSROHFOLPEDZKHHOEDUURZUDFH DQGD\DUGVDFNMXPSLQJUDFH&DVK³DQGLQWKHFDVH RIWKHJUHDVHGSLJUDFHWKHSLJLWVHOI³ZRXOGEHSUHVHQWHG WRWKHZLQQHUV$QHODERUDWHSURJUDPZDVSULQWHGDODUJH YLHZLQJ VWDQG HUHFWHG DQG DQ HYHQLQJ IHDVW SUHSDUHG WR LQFOXGHURDVWHGR[GXFNKDPHYHQDSLJVWXIIHGZLWKERLOHG WXUNH\V³DQGSOHQW\RIFKDPSDJQHUXPDQGZKLVNH\ 7KHKLJKOLJKWRIWKHGD\KRZHYHUZDVWREHDKRUVHUDFH³ WKH VRFDOOHG ´*UDQG ,ULVK %ULJDGH 6WHHSOH&KDVHµ ZKLFK ZRXOGWDNHSODFHRQDODUJHRYDOWKDWZRUNHUVKDGFXWLQWKH JUDVV DW WKHLU FDPS 6XFK FRQWHVWV KDG ORQJ EHHQ SRSXODU LQ0HDJKHU·VKRPHODQGDQGE\WKH&LYLO:DUKRUVHUDFLQJ KDGEHFRPHTXLWHIDVKLRQDEOHLQ$PHULFDRQERWKVLGHVRI WKH0DVRQ'L[RQ/LQH$V0HDJKHUSURPRWHGWKHUDFH 7RFRPHRIIWKHWK0DUFKUDLQRUVKLQHE\KRUVHVWKH SURSHUW\RIDQGWREHULGGHQE\FRPPLVVLRQHGRIÀFHUV RIWKDW%ULJDGH7KHSUL]HVDUHDSXUVHRIVHFRQG KRUVHWRVDYHKLVVWDNHVWZRDQGDKDOIPLOHKHDWEHVW WZRLQWKUHHRYHUIRXUKXUGOHVIRXUDQGDKDOIIHHWKLJK DQGÀYHGLWFKIHQFHVLQFOXGLQJWZRDUWLÀFLDOULYHUVÀIWHHQ IHHWZLGHDQGVL[GHHSKXUGOHVWREHPDGHRIIRUHVWSLQH DQGEUDFHGZLWKKRRSV $FFRUGLQJWR'DPLDQ6KLHOVDXWKRURIWKHEORJThe Irish in the American Civil WarWKHULGHUVGUHVVHGWKHSDUWIRU WKH UDFH LQFOXGLQJ ´RQH *DOZD\ QDWLYH ZKR ZDV FODG LQ VFDUOHW ZLWK D JUHHQYHOYHW VPRNLQJ FDS KDUNLQJ EDFN WR WKHFRORXUVRIWKH*DOZD\%OD]HUV&OXEµ3HUKDSVÀWWLQJO\ 0HDJKHU·VKRUVHJack HintonHPHUJHGWKHZLQQHU JULY 2018 31 For many in the Irish Brigade, that St. Patrick’s Day, and the gala itself, would be their last. In early May, the Army of the Potomac was wrecked at Chancellorsville. Two months later, the Federals triumphed at Gettysburg, but the Irish Brigade—although with General Meagher out of favor and no longer in command—suffered heavy losses in WKH:KHDWÀHOGÀJKWLQJRQ-XO\ For many bored and homesick soldiers, their favorite diversion was horse racing. track sometimes overshadowed the extremely practical role horses played in moving passengers and freight, pulling plows and millstones, and working alongside other animals in all varieties of industries. Yet the story of horse racing during the Civil War is one of those aspects of civilian and military camp life that tends to get overlooked. Although racing horses was a popular prewar pastime enjoyed by soldiers on both sides, its association with gambling is perhaps the reason for that. There does appear to be some basis in fact to several VWLOOSHUVLVWHQW KLVWRULFDO VWHUHRW\SHV ÀUVW WKDW 6RXWKHUQ soldiers, coming from a more largely rural culture, tended to be better horsemen on average; and second, that the cavalry branch in each army attracted men who were innately interested in horses. Horse racing had taken hold in the South more quickly than in Puritan New Life and Limb England, and because of the stronger racFalling from horses while jumping over ing culture Southern horses were usually ditches or hurdles was considered superior to Northern mounts. a common risk for Still, by the time of the war the sport was 19th-century steeplechase immensely popular throughout the ranks riders. Such accidents and branches on both sides, in spite of could cost either the many attempts to ban it or control it. rider or the horse, /HWWHUV GLDULHV DQG HYHQ VRPH RIÀFLDO perhaps both, their lives. records show how much it was enjoyed. For many bored and homesick soldiers, and especially those familiar with horses, the “favorite diversion…was racing,” accordLQJ WR 5DQGROSK 7XFNHU $ FDYDOU\ RIÀcer in early wartime Richmond, Tucker recounted for his mother: “We have had two horseraces this week gotten up by way of amusement. The soldiers using their own horses. You know we are quartered at the Ashland Race-Course.” Before the war, communities sometimes laid out tracks or courses as a way of improving civil order. Establishing them VSHFLÀFDOO\IRUKRUVHUDFLQJDZD\IURPWKH center of town and main roads reduced the impact of the gambling, chaos, and accidents associated with racing. Confederate and Union leaders, however, generally failed to adopt such a “proactive” approach. Many unit regulations and edicts on both sides tried to ban and discourage racing, EXW VROGLHUV DQG RIÀFHUV URXWLQHO\ LJQRUHG these attempts despite sometimes draconian punishments. Confederate General Humans have long been passionate about horse racing, the so-called “Sport of Kings.” In America, equine and human history literally moved forward together with the creation of a new country, enjoying a uniquely symbiotic UHODWLRQVKLS6SDQLVKH[SORUHUVÀUVWEURXJKWKRUVHVWRWKH New World around 1519, but the British and Irish were primarily responsible for bringing a horse-racing culture to the continent, with a documented racetrack laid out as early as 1665 on Long Island. Spanish, French, and other cultures have incorporated horse racing as a sport or recreDWLRQEXWWKH$QJOR,ULVKWUDGLWLRQPRVWKHDYLO\LQÁXHQFHG what would become the American horse racing experience. The endless quest to breed excellence and win on the race- Nathan Bedford Forrest, for example, famously watched a banned race with deliberate stoicism, only to arrest the men for breaking his rules once it ended. Some races were organized at the divisional level and involved illicit bets in thousands of dollars, drawing crowds of hundreds and even thousands of men. A clear majority of the races involved HQOLVWHGPHQEXWRWKHUVVDZRIÀFHUVWDNLQJWKHLUUXQVDV jockeys and as spectators or speculators. Confederate General James Longstreet once bragged about being unbeaten in all types of races, including jumping and other varied competitions, such as the steeplechase. Although the 1862 regulations for the Confederate Army, which were adapted from the U.S. Army’s 1857 regulations, do not include an explicit prohibition of horse racing, they do regulate gambling, the general behavior of soldiers, and the treatment of horses. The regulations also specify clearly that horses in various branches could be used only IRU VSHFLÀF PLOLWDU\ WDVNV 6LPLODUO\ WKH 86 $UP\ UHJXODWLRQV KDYH QR VSHFLÀF SURKLELWLRQ RQ KRUVH UDFLQJ Early Confederate congressional legislation is also silent on the matter, though lawmakers did choose to regulate other entertainment, such as circuses. Generally, it was up to individual commanders to issue their own orders, which they very often did. Soldiers on furlough often set off immediately for the public races, which in Washington, D.C., meant a trip to the new National Racecourse. Washington had a history of such racetracks, dating back to the Washington City 5DFH &RXUVH RU +ROPHDG·V ÀUVW ODLG RXW LQ 3UHVLdents such as Andrew Jackson were known to frequent the tracks in and around the capital (and sometimes to wager). An early premonition of the coming Civil War occurred on this course in 1822 when a braggadocious Southern planter challenged the reigning Northern champion Eclipse to run against Sir Henry from Virginia. Sir Henry pulled up lame, to the delight of Northern fans who heckled the Southerners mercilessly while EclipseUDQDFURVVWKHÀQLVKOLQH During the Civil War, racecourses were described as being built on “any level stretch” and “all the rage.” Tracks ranged in length from one mile to several miles, and competitions were usually conducted in heats, recognizing that not only speed but endurance were the hallmarks of a superior horse. Most races required winning three out of ÀYHKHDWVRUSHUKDSVWZRRXWRIWKUHH:KHQHYHUDFDPS moved, racetracks were known to be laid out. When Union VROGLHUVDGMXVWHGWRWUHQFKZDUIDUHGXULQJWKH3HWHUVburg siege, for example, courses were created as part of “settling in.” In another race, there was a direct competition between two entire Union general staffs who only recently KDG FRPSHWHG ÀHUFHO\ IRU JORU\ RQ WKH EDWWOHÀHOG DQG QR record exists of who won the race). As Union armies conquered more and more Confederate territory, the federal government naturally gained control of a number of Southern racecourses. The popular Mount Vernon course in Alexandria, Va., for example, came under Union control early in the war. The Doswell racecourse Grand Irish Brigade Steeple-Chase Schedule ★ A foot-race ★ One half mile distance, best of heats; open to all non-commissioned oicers and privates, the winner to receive $7, and the second $3 ★ Casting weights ★ The weights to weigh from ten to fourteen pounds; the winner to receive $3 ★ Running after the soaped pig ★ To be the prize of the man who holds it ★ A hurdle-race ★ One-half mile distance, open to all non-commissioned oicers and privates; the winner to receive $7, the second $3 ★ The wheelbarrow-race ★ The contestants to be blindfolded, and limited to six soldiers of the Irish Brigade; the winner to receive $5; distance to be decided on the ground ★ Jumping in sacks ★ To the distance of ﬁve hundred yards; the winner to receive $5 ★ Contest on the light fantastic toe ★ Consisting of Irish reels, jigs, and hornpipes; the best dancer to receive $5, the second best $3, to be decided by a judge appointed by the chairman 9th Massachusets Celebration Schedule ★ Sack Race ★ ★ Race for a Greased Pig ★ ★ Climbing a Greased Pole ★ ★ Jumping Matches ★ ★ Horse Racing (afternoon) ★ ★ Mock Dress Parade ★ Source: Damian Shiels’ blog, The Irish in the American Civil War (irishamericancivilwar.com). Schedules are reprinted as they originally appeared. near Hanover Junction, Va., came under Union control during the 1864 Overland Campaign. A well-designed and preserved racecourse was captured in Beaufort, S.C., where the men naturally wanted to race. When such courses were captured or occupied, the men often set up to use them immediately if circumstances allowed. Both armies strongly discouraged gambling of all types and introduced various penalties and rules to stop it. These JULY 2018 33 racing between enemies was not unheard of. Sometimes troopers stopped shooting at each other and raced to compare horsemanship. ‘Faugh a Ballagh!’ Members of Meagher’s Irish Brigade would cry “Faugh a Ballagh!” (“Clear the way!”) as they headed into battle—a phrase Meagher (above) also surely didn’t mind his men using as they cut steeplechase courses in the grass at his various camps. efforts met with mixed success. U.S. Colonel William Kirkwood, racing with his favorite mount Archy, won more than 11 additional horses from competitors as part of the spoils of victory. A Texas cavalryman in trouble for going around shirtless literally kept betting on his supposedly fast horse Dick and repeatedly losing his shirt again. Billy, a part-mustang racehorse who went to war, was reportedly worth $5,000 (the equivalent of more than $125,000 today), at a time when soldiers were paid $13 per month. Virginius Dabney recounts that central Virginians hardly needed any excuse to mount their favorite horse and “run” an errand. By the 1850s, Richmond racing had “degenerated” in spite of building a new track at the fairgrounds in EXWWKHZDUVDZDUHPDUNDEOHUHYLYDOZLWKDQLQÁX[ of horses, soldiers, and gamblers. Horse racing was also fraught with personal risk. It was not uncommon for either horses or riders to be seriously 34 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR injured, and a score of both human and equine fatalities occurred during or because of racing. For example, in the race held by the 9th Massachusetts the same day as Meagher’s St. Patrick’s Day gala, two riders collided violently, with both horses killed and one of the riders—Lieutenant Thomas Mooney, the regiment’s quartermaster— knocked unconscious. Mooney died in a nearby hospital 10 days later. During the Petersburg siege, where boredom constantly challenged military diligence, new racetracks would sometimes appear as the siege lines expanded westward. “Horse racing has become quite the rage in all ranks of the army,” one Northern observer noted. Tracks included those located on Halifax Road, and New Market Road, and races often included rival staffs of larger units. But these races also turned deadly, as, in one example, when a spooked horse crashed into an onlooking soldier and killed him. It was also not unheard of for racing to take place between enemies. Sometimes troopers stopped shooting DWHDFKRWKHUDQGVLPSO\UDFHGWRFRPSDUHKRUVHÁHVKDQG horsemanship. At Appomattox Court House, Va., at the end of the war, Confederate Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton won a jumping competition on his horse Butler, besting Union Maj. Gen. Hugh Judson Kilpatrick, riding Old Spot. Some worried that the impact of the Civil War might temporarily set back the American equine industry, as well as racing. Along with physical and human devastation, the South’s horse population had been severely reduced by the war. There is evidence, however, to suggest that the losses were short-lived, and especially in the North, the post–Civil War racing scene became one of the top three national pastimes (along with baseball and boxing). Ultimately horse racing enjoyed a zenith in the postwar years, growing ever more popular. By 1890, reportedly 314 tracks were operating across the United States. Jack Trammell is an associate professor of sociology at Randolph-Macon College in Ashland, Va., where he teaches and writes social history. Photo Finish Major General William T. Sherman’s forces captured the popular Beaufort, S.C., racecourse during the 1865 Carolinas Campaign. Here, soldiers are formed up on the track, likely lamenting they’d have to spend the day marching instead of watching a few races. JULY 2018 35 sumter’s stepchild Overlooked in Charleston Harbor, Castle Pinckney has a few of its own tales to tell By John Banks Ghosts of Its Own A 2013 aerial photo of dilapidated Castle Pinckney, here Á\LQJWKHVRFDOOHG “Stainless Banner”—the Confederacy’s Second 1DWLRQDO)ODJ7KHIRUW has been owned since 2011 by the Sons of Confederate Veterans’ Fort Sumter &DPS1R 36 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR JULY 2018 37 onstructed in 1809-10 to replace an earlier log-and-earth fort, the brick-and-mortar Castle Pinckney, named after South Carolina politician Charles Pinckney, guarded Charleston Harbor during the War of 1812. Given its feudal appearance, it was called a “castle.” During that 2½-year conÁLFW WKH IRUW VDZ QR DFWLRQ ,Q WKH \HDUV leading up to the Civil War, Castle Pinckney was part of the defenses of Charleston and the U.S. Army maintained a limited presence there. Then came the winter of 1860–61. War fever was intense. 2Q 'HFHPEHU 6RXWK &DUROLQD EHFDPH WKH ÀUVW state to secede from the Union. A week later, a 150-man battalion of South Carolina militia led by Colonel James J. Pettigrew gathered on the green at The Citadel in Charleston. The soldiers, most of whom were unaware of their destination, boarded the steamer Nina, which immediately headed for Castle Pinckney. The Federal bastion was manned by a FRPPDQGLQJRIÀFHUDQRUGQDQFHVHUJHDQWIRXUPHFKDQLFV and 30 laborers. Reported a Charleston newspaper on December 28, 1860: “On nearing the fort, a number of men were observed on the wharf, one of whom, in advance of the others, was observed holding what appeared to be a paper in his hand. This was said to have been the Riot Act.” Presumably, the fort’s commander intended to dissuade further action by the intrudHUV E\ SXEOLFO\ UHDGLQJ WKHP WKH 5LRW $FW WKXV RIÀFLDOO\ placing them on notice that their assembly was unlawful and thereby subject to the use of force. Riot Act or not, the bare-bones garrison relinquished the installation, eventually withdrawing to Fort Sumter, nearly three miles farther out into the harbor. Lieutenant 5LFKDUG.0HDGHWKHFRPPDQGLQJRIÀFHUUHIXVHGSDUROH and joined the Union garrison in Fort Sumter. After that fort’s surrender, he was released along with the rest of the garrison. But with the secession of Virginia, he would resign and join the Confederacy. ,QDQRWKHULQWHUHVWLQJWZLVWDPRQJWKHWURRSVWKDWFDStured Castle Pinckney were the Meagher Guards, named DIWHU ,ULVK QDWLRQDOLVW OHDGHU 7KRPDV )UDQFLV 0HDJKHU ZKR ODWHU EHFDPH D UHQRZQHG 8QLRQ RIÀFHU 2Q 6W 3DWULFN·V'D\DW&KDUOHVWRQ·V+LEHUQLDQ6RFLHW\WKHÀHU\ Meagher delivered a speech so impressive that an honorary membership was conferred upon him. His membership was revoked in 1861 by the society, noting Meagher “has been carried away by the fanaticism of the North, and has enrolled himself in the ranks of our enemies, taking arms against us in this most unholy war.” No surprise that the 0HDJKHU*XDUGZDVUHQDPHGWKH(PHUDOG/LJKW,QIDQWU\ Meanwhile, a Northern newspaper soon speculated how &DVWOH3LQFNQH\PLJKWEHUHWXUQHGWRWKH8QLRQIROG´>,@Q case it should become necessary to land national troops at Charleston,” The New York Times reported in early JanuDU\´>&DVWOH3LQFNQH\·V@FDSWXUHZKLFKZRXOGEHDQ indispensable preliminary, might give serious trouble. Perhaps, however, a broadside from one of our new frigates of C Web-Footed Garrison Pelicans have become historic Castle Pinckney’s primary residents. On an unseasonably hot afternoon in Charleston, S.C., last fall, a few intrepid civil warriors were fully prepared for a boat “assault” on a small fortress in Charleston Harbor. Sunscreen. Check. Life jackets. Check. Cough suppressant topical analgesic. Ah...check? Our major worry during the one-mile cruise from the Carolina Yacht Club to Castle Pinckney—the long-abandoned Civil War fortress on obscure Shutes Folly—was whether we could stand the stench of the myriad droppings of pelicans, the tiny marsh island’s PDLQLQKDELWDQWV6RZHÀJXUHGDFRDWLQJRIFKHVWUXE (a.k.a. “topical analgesic”) under our snouts might blunt the work of the pesky Pinckney pelicans. We needn’t have worried. The odor wasn’t nearly as bad as we were led to believe. Stepping past a rat carcass or two was a far greater challenge. 2XUYLVLWWKHÀQDOHYHQWRIWKHH[FHOOHQW&HQWHU for Civil War Photography “Image of War” seminar, was optional. Only 10 bold souls decided to go to the LVODQGIRUWUHVV³ZKLFKH[LVWVPHUHO\DVDFXULRVLW\ for most Charleston sightseers and boaters. To access the historic property, which is not open to the public, special permission was secured in advance from its current owners: the local Sons of Confederate Veterans post. Scores of photographs were taken at the fort during the Civil War, so our main aim was to identify present-day sites of those images. Of course, for us KLVWRU\QHUGVDQRSSRUWXQLW\WRH[SORUHWKHVHOGRP seen site was too tantalizing to pass up. Who wouldn’t ZDQWWRVHHWKHÀUVWSORWRIODQGHYHUVHL]HGE\WKH Confederate military? 38 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR ZHLJKW\DUPDPHQWPLJKWVXIÀFHIRUWKHEXVLQHVVµ'HVSLWH WKHEOXVWHUWKH8QLRQ1DY\QHYHUJRWFORVHHQRXJKWRSXOO RIIVXFKGHUULQJGR 2Q$SULO&DVWOH3LQFNQH\SURYLGHGDELUG·VH\H YLHZRIWKH5HEHOV·VKHOOLQJRI)RUW6XPWHUZKLFKLJQLWHG WKH &LYLO :DU 7KUHH PRQWKV ODWHU WKH IRUW VHUYHG DV D SULVRQIRUPRUHWKDQ8QLRQVROGLHUVZKRKDGEHHQFDS WXUHG DW WKH )LUVW %DWWOH RI %XOO 5XQ 0DQDVVDV 7KRVH FDSWLYHVDFFRUGLQJWRD6RXWKHUQQHZVSDSHUZHUHVHOHFWHG ´FKLHÁ\IURPDPRQJWKRVH«ZKRKDGHYLQFHGWKHPRVWLQVR OHQWDQGLQVXERUGLQDWHGLVSRVLWLRQµ 'XULQJ WKH GD\ SULVRQHUV ZDQGHUHG IUHHO\ DERXW WKH SODFH$WQLJKWWKH\ZHUHFRQÀQHGWRFHOOVLQWKHIRUW$IWHU VL[ ZHHNV WKH FDVWOH SURYHG WR EH LQDGHTXDWH IRU SHUPD QHQW FRQÀQHPHQW DQG SULVRQHUV ZHUH WUDQVIHUUHG EDFN WR &KDUOHVWRQ 2Q 'HFHPEHU WKH 32:V ZHUH KDXOHGEDFNWR&DVWOH3LQFNQH\EHFDXVHDPDVVLYHÀUHKDG GHVWUR\HGDYDVWVZDWKRIWKHFLW\LQFOXGLQJWKHMDLOZKHUH WKH)HGHUDOVZHUHKHOG´+RZWKH<DQNHHVZLOOKRZOZLWK GHOLJKWµD6RXWK&DUROLQDQHZVSDSHUZURWHDERXWWKHGLVDV WHU´+RZWKHLUFKXUFKHVZLOOWKXQGHUZLWKKDOOHOXMDKRYHU WKLVYLVLWDWLRQIURPtheir*RGµ8QLRQFDSWLYHVUHPDLQHGDW WKHIRUWIRUDOLWWOHPRUHWKDQDZHHNEHIRUHWKH\ZHUHWUDQV IHUUHGHOVHZKHUH ,Q)HGHUDO32:VDWWKHFDVWOHSURYHGFRPSHOOLQJ VXEMHFWPDWWHUIRUD6RXWKHUQSKRWRJUDSKHU-XGJLQJIURP WKHSULVRQHUV·DSSHDUDQFHLQWKRVHLPDJHVFDSWLYLW\DWWKH IRUW ZDV D IDU FU\ IURP WKH KRUURUV RI $QGHUVRQYLOOH DQG RWKHU6RXWKHUQSULVRQVODWHULQWKHZDU 3URYLQJ WKHLU VHQVHV RI KXPRU ZHUH VWLOO LQWDFW )HG HUDO32:VPHPEHUVRID=RXDYHUHJLPHQWSRVHGLQDSKR WRJUDSKQHDUDQHQWUDQFHZD\DQGEHORZDKDQGPDGHVLJQ WKDW UHDG ´+RWHO GH =RXDYHµ ,Q DQRWKHU LPDJH <DQNHH SULVRQHUV JDWKHUHG QHDU WKH FDVHPDWH E\ DQ HQWUDQFHZD\ DQGXQGHUDKDQGSDLQWHGVLJQWKDWUHDG´0XVLF+DOO %URDGZD\µ,QWKDWVDPHSKRWRJUDSKPRUHWKDQWZRGR]HQ RIWKH8QLRQVROGLHUV·FDSWRUV³LQFOXGLQJIRXUE\DPDVVLYH FDQQRQWXEH³UHOD[HGDERYHWKHPRQDSDUDSHW It’s Yours Members of the Charleston Militia (below) take control of Pinckney on December 27, ³WKHÀUVW U.S. installation so occupied by Rebel forces. The fort’s commander, Lt. Richard K. Meade (left) refused parole and joined the Union garrison on nearby Fort Sumter. JULY 2018 39 The Hotel de Zouave In its short existence as a Civil War prison, Castle Pinckney boasted a Zouave presence in both its Confederate garrison, which included the Charleston Zouave Cadets, and a contingent of prisoners captured at First Bull Run: the 11th New York Fire Zouaves. Security bordered on nonchalant. Prisoners were permitted to roam about the fort during the day, and were restricted to their cells only at night. 40 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR ‘castle pinckney has been overshadowed by more historic and more effective forts in the harbor... in the hearts of the people’ Of course, for Yankee prisoners, Castle Pinckney was more or less unappealing. “Our greatest need is clothing,” a Union POW wrote to his brother in November 1861. “The men, particularly, require everything from shoes to overcoats.” At least one Southern soldier also found Charleston and the fort on the harbor island especially bleak. “I arrived here last night and am sorry I ever saw such a place,” the young Rebel wrote in a letter to a friend in the spring of 1861. “If I could get out of it, I would do so with the utmost pleasure. We arrived here Sunday morning at 9 o’clock, and were immediately taken to Castle Pinckney, where we were set to work (on Sunday morning, too) transporting two heavy 48-pounders to the wharf. “We are treated worse than negroes here. We don’t get enough to eat, and what we do get is the coursest [sic] and most common description. If you hear of anyone getting the Southern Rights Fever as strongly as I had it, just show them this, and if it does not cure him, nothing will.” During the Union siege of Charleston in 1863, Castle Pinckney was targeted infrequently, mainly because of black POWs being held there beginning in July. According to the 3rd Rhode Island Heavy Artillery regimental history, gunners on Morris Island—a little more than three miles away—targeted Pinckney with a 200-pound Parrott on June 29, 1863: and a lighthouse to guide ships in the harbor was added on the island. In 1897, a bill was introduced in Congress by a South Carolina senator to turn Shutes Folly and Castle Pinckney—described as a location of “great beauty and salubrity”—into a rest home for disabled veterans and other U.S. Army and Navy personnel. “The matter certainly has support of all South Carolina,” The National Tribune, a newspaper for Union veterans noted, “and the press of Charleston has given it much space. It is intended as a sort of social and patriotic peace offering. The people of the birthplace of the rebellion want to take part in the new era of National sentiment that pervades the country.” But despite the backing of the Charleston Grand Army of the Republic post as well as the governor of South Carolina and mayor of Charleston, the proposal went nowhere. By 1899, Castle Pinckney was “practically a wreck,” according to a newspaper report, “and useless for further purposes of defense.” “While a little over 100 years old,” the Baltimore Sun noted, “Castle Pinckney has been overshadowed by more historic and more effective forts in the harbor—Moultrie and Sumter—in the hearts of the people.” -baltimore sun ´>7@KUHHRXWRIÀYHVKRWVVPRWHWKHFDVWOH:HGURSSHG our shells into Charleston whenever we pleased; but the size of the castle made it the smallest armed target that we had selected; and its occupants, feeling that they were exempt from our regards, and safe, were sitting and strolling about on the work. 2XUPDJQLÀFHQWVKRWVSURGXFHGDPRQJWKHPDQ indescribable excitement. From that hour the work began to undergo a change, and soon, by sand-bags and timbers, it became transformed into quite a solid earthwork. Yet it was never regarded as a point of vital military importance.” For the most part, the castle remained out of sight and RXWRIPLQGRI)HGHUDOPLOLWDU\IRUFHV8QLRQWURRSVÀQDOO\ reoccupied the fort after the Confederates abandoned it on February 18, 1865. Fittingly perhaps, Castle Pinckney drifted into obscurity after the Civil War. For a short time, it was used as a prison, housing vagrants and other civilian prisoners. There’s even a story of the execution of mutinous black prisoners, whose remains reportedly were buried somewhere on the island, perhaps in the fort structure itself. Sometime after the war, Castle Pinckney’s interior was ÀOOHGZLWKWRQVRIVDQGSUREDEO\IURPDQHDUE\VDQGEDU$ large warehouse and caretaker’s dwelling were constructed, A Step Back in Time Attendees of the Center for Civil War Photography’s “Image of War” seminar last October, including our author, begin their select tour of Castle Pinckney. JULY 2018 41 On June 6, 1902, Castle Pinckney, used for storage, narrowly escaped destruction late one night thanks to the “violent barking of watch dogs,” who roused the keeper from his slumber. Wooden casks had somehow been set ablaze, threatening to ignite a nearby oil house that held 15,000 gallons of kerosene. The keeper and his family rolled the casks into the harbor, saving themselves and 12 sleeping LQKDELWDQWV´7KHÁDPHVZHUHVZHHSLQJZLWKVXFKKHDGZD\ when discovered that the oil house would have exploded within ten minutes,” a local newspaper reported, “and the entire island property would have been destroyed.” In 1924, Castle Pinckney was given national monument status, but the federal government eventually soured on that, largely because of its inauspicious Civil War history. It lost its august designation in 1956. (Nevertheless, in 1970 it was added to the National Register of Historic Places.) By 1958, Castle Pinckney was taken off the hands of the federal government for $12,000 by the South Carolina State Ports Authority, which intended to use it as a dump for soil GUHGJHGIURPWKHKDUERU,QDQRWKHUÀUHRQWKHLVODQG 42 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR Tour Stops 7KH6WDUVDQG%DUVÁLHVSURXGO\DERYH&DVWOH 3LQFNQH\·VGHEULVÀOOHGLQWHULRU7KHKLVWRULFIRUWZDV FRQVWUXFWHGLQRQWKH&KDUOHVWRQ+DUERU LVODQG6KXWHV)ROO\DQGQRZSURYLGHVDYLHZRIWKH $UWKXU5DYHQHO-U%ULGJHVSDQQLQJWKH&RRSHU5LYHU IDFLQJSDJH7KHHQWUDQFHZD\VKRZQWRSULJKWLV WKHRULJLQDOEXWWKHUXLQVVKRZQDERYHDUHSRVWZDU %\WKHWLPHRIWKH&LYLO:DUWKHIRUWZDVDGHTXDWHO\ GHIHQGHGZLWKFDQQRQVLQFOXGLQJSRXQGHUV IRXUSRXQGHUVDQGIRXULQFKKRZLW]HUV destroyed an old, wooden structure associated with the lighthouse. Vacant for years, it had been a frequent target of vandals. Various plans to restore the fort hit dead ends, and it was sold by the state to the Fort Sumter Camp No. 1269, Sons of Confederate Veterans, in 2011 for $10 Confederate, seemingly a bargain. “We didn’t want to see something out there like a sports bar, with neon lights,” Philip Middleton, the SCV commander, said at the time. Motivated by buried treasure of a sort, Middleton wants to someday excavate the fort. “We know there are two and perhaps four large Civil War cannon there,” he said recently. “We would like to be able to retrieve them and put them on display.” But such work, Middleton admitted, would be “tedious and incredibly expensive.” Soon after the small boat with our curious group landed on Shutes Folly, we realized a harsh reality. Battered by time and the elements, the fort’s exterior is deteriorating. A pile of bricks, perhaps some dating to the Civil War, lay near its massive, exterior wall. The muddy route to the fort’s lone entrance was choked by weeds and debris. Nimbleness was required to make our way through the narrow brick gateway, up a steep hill and into the foreboding castle. 1HDUWKDWHQWUDQFHZHLGHQWLÀHGWKHORFDWLRQRIDSRVWZDU image of a young African-American, a thrill for some of us. Amid palm trees and island scrub in the fort’s interior, we examined an old gun port and ruins of a postwar chimney. In the far distance, the majestic Arthur Ravenel Jr. Bridge gleamed in the sunlight. At least one of us imagined from RXUDPD]LQJYDQWDJHSRLQWWKHDUFRI8QLRQFDQQRQÀUHLQ Charleston Harbor during the 1863 siege. Given vast changes since the Civil War, we speculated about sites of wartime images taken inside the fort. Pointing to an exterior wall, one of our group surmised he had found where the young Charleston Zouave Cadets had posed in 1861. Thankfully, scores of pelicans seemed largely unmoved by our presence. Some of us wondered what else might lie beneath tons of sand and debris dumped at Castle Pinckney long ago. Civil War ordnance? The remains of the prison for Union POWs? A pelican graveyard? Perhaps someday Fort Sumter’s poor stepchild in Charleston Harbor will give up those secrets. John Banks, a regular America’s Civil War contributor, is author of two books on the Civil War, Connecticut Yankees at Antietam and Hidden History of Connecticut Union Soldiers, both by The History Press. He thanks Craig Swain for his contributions to this story. JULY 2018 43 ‘stand to it, boys’ A Buckeye brigade’s bravado on chinn ridge saves the union army from annihilation at second bull run By Scott C. Patchan 44 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR Nathaniel Collins McLean wasn’t exactly an unknown in the Union Army. His father, after all, was the eminent John McLean, one of two Supreme Court justices who voted in the minority in the court’s infamous 1857 Dred Scott decision—a verdict that helped accelerate WKHUDFHWRFLYLOZDUIRXU\HDUVODWHU:KHQRXWULJKWZDUÀQDOO\HUXSWHGLQ$SULO1DWKDQLHO D\HDUROG+DUYDUG/DZ6FKRROJUDGXDWHOHIWKLVODZSUDFWLFHLQ&LQFLQQDWLDQGYROXQWHHUHG WRÀJKWIRUWKH8QLRQ+HUDLVHGWKHWK2KLR,QIDQWU\VRRQWRMRLQ0DM*HQ-RKQ)UpPRQW·V Mountain Department, operating in western Virginia, and was commissioned its colonel on Sep tember 18. ¶,QWKHVSULQJRIGXULQJ&RQIHGHUDWH0DM*HQ7KRPDV-´6WRQHZDOOµ-DFN son’s legendary Shenandoah Valley Campaign, McLean was at last given a true opportunity WRVKRZKHZDVQ·WVLPSO\DODZ\HUEXWDÀJKWHUWRR7KDWWKUHHPRQWKFDPSDLJQZRXOGSURYH XQGHQLDEO\IRUJHWWDEOHIRU8QLRQIRUFHVEXWDWWKH0D\%DWWOHRI0F'RZHOOZLWKWKH)HGHU DOVLQSHULO0F/HDQOHGWKHWK2KLRDQGWK2KLRLQDGDULQJDWWDFNXSDVWHHSKLOOWRZUHVW DZD\WKHWDFWLFDOLQLWLDWLYHIURP-DFNVRQDQGDOORZDQRXWJXQQHGIRUFHWRZLWKGUDZXQGHUFRYHU RIGDUNQHVV0F/HDQ·VFRPPDQGHU%ULJ*HQ5REHUW+0LOUR\ZDVTXLFNWRSUDLVHWKHFRORQHO DQGKLVPHQIRUWKHLU´XQGDXQWHGEUDYHU\µLQWKHIDFHRIDVXSHULRUIRH¶)RXUPRQWKVODWHURQ WKH´3ODLQVRI0DQDVVDVµ0F/HDQ·VEUDYHU\ZKLOHIDFLQJDIRUPLGDEOHRSSRQHQWZRXOGEHWKUXVW LQWRWKHVSRWOLJKW\HWDJDLQ7KLVWLPHWKHVWDNHVHYHQKLJKHUWKHPLGGOHDJHGODZ\HUIURP&LQ FLQQDWLDQGKLVSOXFN\%XFNH\HVVDYHGWKH8QLRQ$UP\RI9LUJLQLDIURPSRVVLEOHDQQLKLODWLRQ» “Surprise” Atack &KLQQ5LGJHWKHVLWHRIGHFLVLYH'D\ÀJKWLQJDWWKH Second Battle of Bull Run, was referred to as that “bald hill” by Union commander John Pope. This drawing by Edwin Forbes depicts the attack by James Longstreet’s wing on the outmanned Union defenses on Chinn Ridge. JULY 2018 45 WRQHZDOO -DFNVRQ ÀUVW GUHZ WKH HQPLW\ RI 1RUWKHUQ RSSRQHQWV ZLWK KLV LPPRUWDO VWDQG RQ +HQU\ +LOO DW WKH )LUVW %DWWOH RI %XOO 5XQ³WKH WXUQLQJ SRLQW RI D VKRFNLQJ &RQIHGHUDWHYLFWRU\RQ-XO\9LFWRULHV GXULQJ WKH 9DOOH\ &DPSDLJQ DQG DW&HGDU0RXQWDLQ9DRQ$XJXVW KDGRQO\DGGHGWRKLVORUH³VRPXFKVRWKDW KH EHFDPH DOPRVW WKH VLQJXODU IRFXV RI $UP\ RI 9LUJLQLD FRPPDQGHU0DM*HQ-RKQ3RSHZKHQKHVTXDUHGRIIZLWK -DFNVRQDWWKH6HFRQG%DWWOHRI%XOO5XQODWHUWKDWVXPPHU 2Q$XJXVWWKHEDWWOH·VWKLUGGD\3RSHKDGFRQYLQFHG KLPVHOIWKDWKHZDVRQWKHYHUJHRIFUXVKLQJ6WRQHZDOOZKR ZDVDOLJQHGRQDZLGHIURQWEHKLQGDQXQÀQLVKHGUDLOURDG FXW%XWLQPDVVLQJKLVIRUFHVRQ-DFNVRQ·VIURQW3RSHKDG XQZLWWLQJO\RYHUORRNHGWKHSUHVHQFHRIWKH$UP\RI1RUWKHUQ9LUJLQLD·VRWKHUZLQJFRPPDQGHGE\0DM*HQ-DPHV /RQJVWUHHW 3RSH KDG OHIW D OLPLWHG IRUFH RQ /RQJVWUHHW·V IURQW RQ &KLQQ 5LGJH WR WKH OHIW RI WKH :DUUHQWRQ 7XUQSLNH %ULJ *HQ -RKQ ) 5H\QROG·V 3HQQV\OYDQLD 5HVHUYHV DQGWZRVPDOOEULJDGHV:KHQDQDIWHUQRRQDWWDFNRQWKH 'HHS &XW OHG E\ 0DM *HQ )LW]-RKQ 3RUWHU ZDV EORRGLO\ UHSXOVHG WKH SRWHQWLDO GHVWUXFWLRQ RI 3RSH·V HQWLUH FRPPDQGVXGGHQO\VHHPHGTXLWHSRVVLEOH 2QH RI WKH WZR EULJDGHV VXSSRUWLQJ 5H\QROGV RQ &KLQQ 5LGJH ZDV 0F/HDQ·V³FRQVLVWLQJ RI WKH WK WK UG DQG WK 2KLR ,QIDQWU\ (DUOLHU LQ WKH DIWHUQRRQ SLFNHWV IURP WKH WK 1HZ <RUN &DYDOU\ KDG LQIRUPHG VW &RUSV FRPPDQGHU 0DM *HQ )UDQ] 6LJHO WKDW WKH HQHP\ ´ZHUH PRYLQJDJDLQVWRXUOHIWµ6LJHOUHOD\HGDPHVVDJHWR3RSH ZKR UHSRUWHGO\ KDG DOUHDG\ UHFHLYHG VLPLODU LQWHOOLJHQFH IURP5H\QROGV3RUWHUDQG0DM*HQ,UYLQ0F'RZHOO(YHQ S 46 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR ZLWK6LJHO·VUHSRUWWKHFRPPDQGHULQFUHGLEO\IDLOHGWRJLYH WKHVHZDUQLQJVWKHFUHGHQFHWKH\GHVHUYHG3RSHUHPDLQHG VHHPLQJO\ DORRI WR WKH H[WHQW RI WKH &RQIHGHUDWH GLVSRVLWLRQVDQGGHFLGHGWRPDNHRQO\DWRNHQJHVWXUHWRUHLQIRUFH KLV OHIW LQVWUXFWLQJ KLV FKLHI RI VWDII &RORQHO *HRUJH ' 5XJJOHVWRRUGHU6LJHOWRVHQGDEULJDGHWR´WKDWEDOGKLOOµ $ERXW SP 5XJJOHV URGH WR 6LJHO·V KHDGTXDUWHUV RQ 'RJDQ 5LGJH WR ÀQG WKH *HUPDQ JHQHUDO FRQYHUVLQJ ZLWK D JURXS RI RIÀFHUV LQFOXGLQJ %ULJ *HQ 5REHUW 6FKHQFN D GLYLVLRQ FRPPDQGHU DQG WKH EOXHH\HG EXVK\EHDUGHG &RORQHO0F/HDQDQDFWLQJEULJDGLHU5XJJOHVGLUHFWHG6LJHO WRSODFHDEULJDGH´XSRQWKHEDOGKHDGHGKLOOµVRXWKRIWKH :DUUHQWRQ 7XUQSLNH PLPLFNLQJ WKH DSDWKHWLF ZDYH WKDW 3RSHKDGXVHGWRLGHQWLI\WKHSRVLWLRQ ´:KDWEDOGKLOO"µ6LJHOUHWRUWHG0F/HDQSRLQWHGVRXWKZDUGWR&KLQQ5LGJHDQGDVNHG5XJJOHVLIWKDWZDVWKHKLOO LQ TXHVWLRQ ´*HQHUDO 3RSH GLUHFWHG PH WR RUGHU WKH EULJDGH WR RFFXS\ WKDW EDOG KLOOµ 5XJJOHV UHSOLHG DQG DJDLQ LPLWDWHG3RSH·VYDJXHZDYHWRZDUG+HQU\+LOODQG&KLQQ 5LGJH +DYLQJ ZLWQHVVHG WKH H[FKDQJH &DSWDLQ (GZDUG +$OOHQRIWKHUG2KLRFRQFOXGHGWKDW´5XJJOHVGLGQRW IHHOFRQÀGHQWRIKLVRZQNQRZOHGJHRIWKLVVSHFLÀFSRVLWLRQ ZKLFKWKLVEULJDGHZDVWRRFFXS\µDQGRIIHUHGRQO\DYHUEDWLPUHSHWLWLRQRI3RSH·VRUGHU 6LJHOGXWLIXOO\RUGHUHG6FKHQFNWRVHQG0F/HDQ·VEULJDGH DQG &DSWDLQ 0LFKDHO :LHGULFK·V %DWWHU\ , VW 1HZ <RUN /LJKW$UWLOOHU\WRVXSSRUWWKH3HQQV\OYDQLD5HVHUYHVWKHQ SRVWHGRQWKHULGJH·VVRXWKZHVWIDFH:KHQ0F/HDQDUULYHG KHGHSOR\HG:LHGULFK·VIRXUJXQEDWWHU\RQ5H\QROGV·ULJKW ÁDQNDQGSRVLWLRQHGKLVLQIDQWU\UHJLPHQWVRQWKHHDVWHUQ VORSHDVKRUWGLVWDQFHEHKLQGWKHJXQV6WLOOIHDULQJIRUWKH VDIHW\RIWKHDUP\·VOHIWÁDQN5H\QROGVZDVUHOLHYHGWRVHH Patchy Performances A sampling of the leadership involved in the Union neardebacle on Chinn Ridge, from left to right: Brig. Gen. John F. Reynolds, Colonel Nathaniel Collins McLean, Maj. Gen. Franz Sigel, and Maj. Gen. John Pope. Of this foursome, only Pope could be blamed. The myopic Army of Virginia commander ignored repeated warnings of an extensive Rebel EXLOGXSRQKLVOHIWÁDQNLQFOXGLQJIURPERWK5H\QROGVDQG Sigel, as well as 3rd Corps leader Irvin McDowell. McLean, telling him: “I will call upon you when necessary.” About then, McDowell would be responsible for one of the war’s most ill-timed commands. It was nearly 4 p.m., and Porter’s men were retreating furiously from their setback at the Deep Cut. Although Sigel’s troops and Union cavalry had managed to restore some order, McDowell rode to 5H\QROGV·SRVLWLRQQHDUWKH&KLQQ+RXVHDQGXSRQÀQGLQJ him, gesticulated across the turnpike and shouted: “General Reynolds! General Reynolds! Get every man into line and get away there.” $QDVWRQLVKHG0F/HDQÀUVWOHDUQHGRI5H\QROGV·GHSDUture when the Pennsylvanians marched across his front. 0F/HDQ VHQW DQ RIÀFHU WR 5H\QROGV UHTXHVWLQJ RUGHUV The general warned of the strong Confederate force on WKHDUP\·VOHIWÁDQNDQGLPSORUHG0F/HDQ´WRWDNHFDUHRI himself.” McLean pondered his options: Should he follow 5H\QROGVQRUWKZDUGDFURVVWKHSLNHRUVWD\DQGÀJKWZKDW would certainly be a losing proposition? With little hesitation, McLean determined that “the object was to maintain the position on Bald Hill [Chinn Ridge], and it seemed to me clearly my duty to hold the position until I was either ‘it seemed to me clearly my duty to hold the position until i was either ordered to retire or driven off by a superior force.’ -nathaniel collins mclean ordered to retire or driven off by a superior force.” McLean attempted to stretch his 1,500-man command to cover the ground that Reynolds’ Reserves had abandoned. The Ohioans trudged up the ridge and deployed into line facing west, with Wiedrich’s battery in the center and two regiments on each side of it. For McLean, the prospects were not promising. He had to buy as much time as he could. Longstreet’s massive attack, led by Brig. Gen. John Bell Hood’s Division, opened about 4 p.m. McLean and his men plainly saw the onslaught beginning to wreak havoc south of the Warrenton Turnpike. They watched as Hood’s Texans overran Colonel Gouverneur K. Warren’s diminutive Zouave brigade on a ridge just west of Young’s Branch. Then they witnessed the swift defeat of a brigade of Pennsylvania Reserves and Captain Mark Kern’s Battery G, 1st Pennsylvania Light Artillery, units that McDowell had rushed back when he realized to his dismay what was happening. Hood’s men occupied the rise upon which those Federals had been overrun, but Wiedrich’s German gunners opened ÀUHZLWKWKHLUIRXUSRXQGHU3DUURWWJXQVWRGLVUXSWWKH Confederate advance. The Texans pulled back momentarily into woods farther to the south of McLean’s main position, and then began to scatter in some confusion under the BuckH\HV·ÀUH,QGLYLGXDOUHJLPHQWVFKDUJHGXSWKHULGJHWRZDUG the Ohioans, only to be hurled back with heavy losses. Brigadier General James L. Kemper’s Virginia Division KDG DGYDQFHG RQ +RRG·V ULJKW ÁDQN KRZHYHU DQG VRRQ emerged as another threat to McLean’s tenuous position. The colonel ordered Wiedrich to “turn two pieces of artilOHU\ XSRQ WKHPµ EXW EHIRUH WKH JXQV FRXOG EH ÀUHG KH ZDVDVVXUHGE\DQXQLGHQWLÀHG´VRPHRQHZKRSURIHVVHGWR know” that Kemper’s battalions were Federals moving to KLVVXSSRUW0F/HDQ·V´ÀUVWDQGEHWWHUMXGJPHQWµKDGEHHQ correct, but the fog of war had obscured reality. He counWHUPDQGHG WKH RUGHUV WR :LHGULFK DQG ´DVVXUHGµ WKH RIÀcers of the 73rd Ohio that the troops moving toward them were friendly. Only temporary confusion in Kemper’s ranks granted McLean a brief reprieve, allowing the Buckeyes the time to deal exclusively with a fresh rush of Confederates pouring out of the woods in their front. The South Carolina brigade of Brig. Gen. Nathaniel “Shanks” Evans advanced toward Chinn Ridge so closely behind the 18th Georgia Infantry and the Hampton Legion that the Ohioans were convinced the Confederates were DWWDFNLQJLQFROXPQV$OWKRXJKVHYHUDORIWKHLURIÀFHUVIHOO as the Carolinians approached the ridge, the contingent continued to surge forward, “yelling like demons.” But, recalled JULY 2018 47 Metle on Dual Fronts Courage—both moral and physical—ran deep in the McLean family bloodline. In 1857, ﬁve years before Nathaniel McLean’s display of physical resolve at Chinn Ridge saved a Union army from annihilation, his father, U.S. Supreme Court Justice John McLean, exhibited exceptional moral courage in the Dred Scot decision that became a catalyst for the Civil War. In Dred Scot v. Sandford, the Supreme Court considered the appeal of African-American Dred Scot, born into slavery in Virginia in 1795. By the early 1830s, Scot had been sold to Dr. John Emerson, an army surgeon who took Scot to a military post in Illinois, a free state. They resided there two years, then moved to Wisconsin Territory, where slavery also was prohibited. In 1843, having returned to Missouri, Scot atempted to purchase from Emerson’s widow the freedom of his wife, whom he had married in Wisconsin (she was owned by another man who sold her to Emerson so the couple could remain together), and two daughters. The widow spurned his ofer, so Scot sought freedom through the courts, initially winning his victory before a jury in 1850. Two years later, the Missouri Supreme Court reversed the decision, returning the Scots to bondage. Scot lost an appeal in the U.S. Circuit Court and took his case to the Supreme Court. Not surprisingly, that court—packed with seven of nine justices appointed by proslavery presidents—did not restore the Scot family’s freedom. Instead, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney of Maryland ruled Scot had no legal standing to sue, stating: “They [African-American slaves] had no rights which the white man was bound to respect; and that the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery.” Although Scot lost his case, it reinvigorated the issue of slavery as a topic of nationwide political discussion. McLean opined for the minority (joined by Justice Benjamin Robbins Curtis) and highlighted the 7-2 decision’s contradictions. He ripped into Taney’s faulty historical assumptions regarding the Founders’ views on slavery and took him to task on the longstanding precedent of courts honoring the freedom of slaves taken into free states. To Taney’s reasoning that African-Americans were not citizens as a result of their race, McLean opined that argument was “more a mater of taste than of law.” McLean’s position surprised no one. He served 32 years on the Supreme Court and was an 1856 presidential candidate, and even received votes on the ﬁrst ballot at the 1860 Republican Convention. On April 4, 1861—eight days before Confederate forces ﬁred upon Fort Sumter— Justice McLean passed away. He was 76. –S.P. 48 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR one Ohioan: “We poured such a murderous volley into them that they retreated to the cover of the woods again.” McLean’s ordeal was far from over, however. To the south of his position, Confederate cavalry commander Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart advanced every battery he could get his hands RQ DQG HQÀODGHG WKH 2KLRDQV· EDWWOH OLQH ´7KH VKRW DQG shell came plowing down our line,” wrote Major Sam Hurst RIWKHUG2KLR$IWHU&RQIHGHUDWHRIÀFHUVVRUWHGRXWWKHLU jumbled ranks, Colonel Jerome B. Robertson rallied the 5th Texas to the right of Evans’ South Carolinians. Colonel Peter F. Stevens, commanding Evans’ Brigade, attempted an advance against McLean, but “found the line halted and VWDJJHULQJXQGHUWKHPXUGHURXVÀUHRIJUDSHFDQLVWHUDQG musketry.” He shouted “charge” but “found it impossible for RIÀFHUVWRPDNHWKHPVHOYHVEHREH\HGµXQGHUWKH%XFNH\HV· PXUGHURXVÀUH+RRGDUULYHGDQGLPSORUHGWKH6RXWK&DUolinians to capture Wiedrich’s battery, but McLean’s men quickly blunted that attack. $VDWK2KLRRIÀFHUYLYLGO\UHFDOOHG They marched up like mad men, not a charge, but PDUFKHGXSLQVROLGFROXPQZLWKRXWÀULQJDVKRW$V fast as one regiment was mowed down like grass by the scythe, another stepped up in its place. I know that our brigade killed and wounded more than their own number. Although McLean had held his ground, a crisis had developed on his left with a determined push by Robertson’s 5th Texas. The Federals were forced to yield, particularly with a subsequent attack by a second line of troops in Kemper’s command. Union reinforcements had arrived in an attempt to extend McLean’s line, but it was too late—those fresh troops were swept back as the 73rd Ohio retreated on McLean’s left. Evans’ South Carolinians then surged out of the woods and again charged up the ridge, emboldened by the success of the 5th Texas. With Rebel bullets zipping through the air, McLean ordered the balance of his brigade to change front to the left. The 25th Ohio attempted to execute the PDQHXYHUEXW´WKHÀUHZDVVRWHUULEOHDQGWKHQRLVHRIEDWtle so great that it was impossible to be heard or do anything without confusion.” Seeing the colors of the 73rd Ohio falling to the ground and Confederates rushing to capture them, the 25th Ohio broke. Caught in the same vise that shredded the 73rd Ohio, the 25th streamed over the crest of Chinn Ridge and retreated toward the woods in their rear. Wiedrich’s gunners quickly limbered up and raced back toward Henry Hill, narrowly avoiding capture. The next regiment to the right, the 75th Ohio, fared little better. Its line “doubled up like a hinge so that the right and left companies came together.” As a result, only two of its companies successfully changed front. Colonel John C. Lee of the 55th Ohio, on the far right of McLean’s line, saw the 75th Ohio waver and called out to his regiment: “Stand to it, boys, and do not run!” Then, XQGHUDKHDY\FURVVÀUHWKHWK2KLRZKHHOHGWRWKHOHIW and advanced toward the charging South Carolinians and Texans. As the Ohioans wheeled to face their enemy, Lee QRWLFHG WKDW WKH UHJLPHQWDO ÁDJ ZDV FRQFHDOHG LQ LWV FDV- Dogs of War Momentum was already in the Rebels’ favor when Longstreet was ordered to attack Chinn Ridge about 4 p.m. McLean’s Buckeyes succeeded in turning back Hood’s initial assault (top), but Longstreet’s numbers were too great. The 55th Ohio’s stoic but short-lived stand (bottom) SUHYHQWHGDURXWEXW0F/HDQÀQDOO\KDG to order a retreat toward Henry Hill. JULY 2018 49 LQJDQGEHOORZHGRXW´8QIXUODQGOHWWKHPVHHWKDWÁDJµ 7KH WK·V FRORUEHDUHU ´GDVKHG LW RXW XSRQ WKH DLUµ LQ D VFHQH RI PDUWLDO JUDQGHXU :LWK À[HG ED\RQHWV WKH WK 2KLR DQG WZR FRPSDQLHV RI WKH WK 2KLR ÀUHG VHYHUDO GHVWUXFWLYHYROOH\VLQWRWKHOHIWRIWKH7H[DQVDQG&DUROLQLDQVVXUURXQGLQJWKH&KLQQ+RXVHDWDUDQJHRIOHVVWKDQ \DUGV 7KH &DUROLQLDQV EURNH IRU WKH ZRRGV ´OLNH WKH GHYLOZDVDIWHUWKHPµDFFRUGLQJWRRQH%XFNH\H:KHQ3ULYDWH'+*LOOLODQGRIWKHWK2KLRVDZWKH&DUROLQLDQVLQ KHDGORQJÁLJKWKHMXPSHGXSLQWKHDLUDQGVKRXWHG´*LYH LWWRWKHPER\VZHKDYHWKHPDJRLQJQRZµ 0F/HDQSURXGO\UHFDOOHG´0\PHQREH\HGP\RUGHUVLQ WKLVJUHDWH[WUHPLW\XQGHUDKHDY\ÀUHLQJUDQGVW\OHGHOLYHULQJ WKHLU ÀUHVR VWHDGLO\ DQG ZLWK VXFK WHUULEOH HIIHFW WKDWWKHDGYDQFHRIWKHHQHP\ZDVFKHFNHGDWRQFHµ7KH FRORQHOTXLFNO\UDOOLHGVRPHPHQIURPKLVRWKHUUHJLPHQWV and posted them behind a fence line facing southward, and awaited the approach of Kemper’s rear line. Union reinIRUFHPHQWVMRLQHG0F/HDQ·VOLQH :KHQ WKH 9LUJLQLDQV FORVHG WR ZLWKLQ \DUGV RI 0F/HDQ·V SRVLWLRQ WKH )HGHUDOV URVH XS DQG ÀUHG D YROOH\WKDW´FXWWKHPDOOWRSLHFHVµDFFRUGLQJWR2KLR3ULYDWH -RKQ:5XPSHO7KHVXFFHVVZDVWHPSRUDU\³WKHWLGHKDG ÀQDOO\WXUQHG2QFH.HPSHU·V'LYLVLRQVRUWHGRXWLWVUDQNV DQGUHDWWDFNHG0F/HDQKDGOLWWOHFKRLFHEXWWRSXOOEDFN 7KHÀHOGVZHVWRIWKH&KLQQ+RXVHÁDPHGZLWKPXVNHWU\ DVWKH&RQIHGHUDWHVEOD]HGDZD\DWWKHVORZO\ZLWKGUDZLQJ Federals. McLean sat on his horse and watched the remQDQWV RI KLV EULJDGH VWUHDP SDVW KLP 7DNLQJ D ODVW ORRN 50 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR DWWKHHQHP\EHIRUHOHDYLQJWKHULGJHD8QLRQEDWWOHÁDJ ZDYLQJLQWKHZLQGFDXJKWKLVDWWHQWLRQ7KHÁDJZDVWKH WK 2KLR·V DQG LWV EHDUHU \HDUROG ,ULVK ODG 0LFKDHO %UDG\KDGEHHQZRXQGHGDQGZDVQRZVLWWLQJXSULJKWVXSSRUWLQJ WKH FRORUV $W WKH %DWWOH RI 0F'RZHOO LQ 0D\ WKH IRRW%UDG\DWRQHSRLQWKDGOHDSWRYHUDFUHVWWRVQDWFK WKHWK·VIDOOHQÁDJ)RUKLVEUDYHU\WKHPHQRIWKHUHJLPHQWGHPDQGHGWKDW%UDG\EHDSSRLQWHGWKHLUFRORUEHDUHU :KHQ WKH 6RXWKHUQHUV ÀUVW DSSHDUHG RQ $XJXVW /LHXWHQDQW*HRUJH%)R[MRNLQJO\FDOOHGWR%UDG\´7KH\ ZLOO JHW WKH FRORUV WRGD\µ 7XUQLQJ WR ORRN %UDG\ ORXGO\ GHFODUHG ´,I WKH\ JHW WKH ÁDJ WKH\·OO JHW ROG 0LNH 1RZ PLQG WKDW /LHXWHQDQWµ $V WKH &RQIHGHUDWHV HQYHORSHG 0F/HDQ·VÀQDOSRVLWLRQ%UDG\UXVKHGIRUZDUGDQGZDYHG WKHÁDJ´EDFNDQGIRUWKLQDGHÀDQWPDQQHUµ$&RQIHGHUDWHEXOOHWVRRQVKDWWHUHGWKHÁDJVWDIIDQGDQRWKHUSLHUFHG WKHJDOODQW%UDG\·VERG\+HIHOOWRWKHJURXQGEXWTXLFNO\ VDWXSDQGKHOGWKHÁDJDORIW6HHLQJWKHLUUHJLPHQWDOÁDJ although mortally wounded, brady refused to release his grip on the flag. harris had to pry each finger off the staff to free it. Ground Zero After the battle, Edwin Forbes drew this view of Chinn Ridge, occupied late in the battle by McLean’s Ohio brigade. On the horizon, along the Warrenton Turnpike (modern Rte. 29), is the village of Groveton. McLean, Captain Andrew Harris, and a few others ran back to retrieve the colors. Although mortally wounded, Brady UHIXVHG WR UHOHDVH KLV JULS RQ WKH ÁDJ +DUULV KDG WR SU\ HDFKÀQJHURIIWKHVWDIIWRIUHHLW%UDG\ZDVFDUULHGRIIEXW soon died in a military hospital. He is buried in the Alexandria, Va., National Cemetery.) McLean’s brigade—by now, mostly men from the 55th and 75th Ohio—retreated along the western slope of Chinn 5LGJHVFUHHQHGIURP.HPSHU·VOHIWÁDQNE\DQLQWHUYHQLQJ FUHVW2QWKHRWKHUVLGHRIWKHFUHVWWKHPHQLQ%ULJ*HQ Zealous B. Tower’s 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 3rd Corps, were getting pounded, all part of an onslaught that threatened to unravel the army’s defenses on this sector of the ÀHOG 'XULQJ WKH UHWUHDW 0F/HDQ WXUQHG WR KLV DGMXWDQW DQGODPHQWHG´:HKDGEHHQVHQWXSWKHUHDQGVDFULÀFHGµ later recalling, “I do not know that I was ever so angry...in DOOP\OLIHµ Confederate artillery wreaked havoc on the departing blue ranks. Sergeant Luther Mesnard of the 55th Ohio wrote of one devastating moment: “As I fell in on the right, I saw [our] color bearer[’s]...head strike the ground some twenty feet in rear of the line, while his body with the colors fell forward, a VROLGVKRWKDYLQJVWUXFNKLPLQWKHFKLQµ7KH2KLRDQVVRRQ crossed Young’s Branch and then followed the Warrenton Turnpike past the Stone House, below Henry Hill. As the sun sank behind the Bull Run Mountains, casting shadows across the Virginia Piedmont, McLean rode solemnly alongside his shattered brigade. At one point, he approached Colonel Lee, the two exchanging a somber glance and shaking hands without speaking. They didn’t have to. The tears streaming down their cheeks plainly told of the suffering their soldiers had endured during the battle. <HW WKH 2KLRDQV· VDFULÀFH KDG QRW EHHQ LQ YDLQ 7KH courageous stand on Chinn Ridge prevented Longstreet’s attack from overrunning the left of Pope’s army, and bought the embattled Union commander the precious time needed to establish a defensive line east of the ridge on Henry Hill. Instead of being annihilated, Pope’s battered army managed to successfully withdraw. Within days of the defeat, Pope was relieved of command DQGVKXIÁHGRIIWR0LQQHVRWD7HUULWRU\0F/HDQKRZHYHU received a promotion to brigadier general. He would go on to serve notably at the Battle of Chancellorsville and in the 1864 Atlanta Campaign, but his contributions at Second Bull Run would not be surpassed. Scott C. Patchan, a regular contributor to America’s Civil War, is the author of Second Manassas: Longstreet’s Attack and the Struggle for Chinn Ridge and The Last Battle of Winchester: Phil Sheridan, Jubal Early and the 1864 Shenandoah Valley Campaign. JULY 2018 51 TRAILSIDE Sunrise at Mariner’s Wharf On February 10, 1862, Union ships and the Confederate “Mosquito Fleet” clashed in the Pasquotank River near Cobb’s Point. Even with the help of a four-gun battery on Cobb’s Point, the Rebels lost four ships and Elizabeth City itself. Elizabeth City, N.C. coastal charm Trailside is produced in partnership with Civil War Trails Inc., which connects visitors to lesser-known sites and allows them to follow in the footsteps of the great campaigns. Civil War Trails has to date 1,552 sites DFURVVÀYHVWDWHV and produces more than a dozen maps. Visit civilwartrails. org and check in at your favorite sign #civilwartrails. Control of coastal North Carolina was critical in the Civil War. The inlets and sounds behind the Outer Banks sheltered ships running the Union blockade. Elizabeth City, N.C., on the Pasquotank River, was at the southern terminus of the Dismal Swamp Canal, which offered ocean access at Norfolk, Va. Although the city was not the target of a sustained campaign, it was frequently witness to military and guerrilla activity from early in the war to the end. On February 10, 1862, 14 Union gunboats steamed up Albemarle Sound to capture the town and block the Dismal Swamp Canal. In a brief confrontation, four of six defending gunboats in the Confederate “Mosquito Fleet” were sunk or captured. The city was let all but deserted, and Virginia troops had burned the courthouse and several homes to deny their use to the Yankees. Lawlessness soon became rampant. Bushwhackers waylaid Federal patrols, and Union troops armed freed slaves and stripped Confederate sympathizers of livestock. On January 5, 1863, guerrillas ambushed a party of Union soldiers and civilians on Main Street, killing a Union lieutenant and a Northern sympathizer. One bushwhacker would be hanged in reprisal. In August 1863, the 1st United States Colored Troops were brieﬂy stationed in the town. That December, Union Brig. Gen. Edward A. Wild led a raid of eastern North Carolina with a force that included African-American detachments. And in March 1864, the Confederate ironclad Albemarle menaced Union strongholds in the region until sunk. For the rest of the war, Federal authority in eastern North Carolina remained essentially unchallenged. Not only did President Lincoln allow trade between Norfolk and the Albemarle region, but the U.S. Internal Revenue Service collected taxes. Today, Elizabeth City is a charming destination along the Intracoastal Waterway that also offers boaters superb harbor facilities. Several wildlife refuges feature hiking, kayaking, and bird-watching. The Albemarle Sound resounds with the history of the Underground Railroad. —Nancy Tappan Special thanks to Bruce Long and A.Christopher Meekins for their help with this guide. 52 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR TRAILSIDE Christ Episcopal Church 200 S. McMorrine St. Rector Edward M. Forbes stayed behind during the Batle of Elizabeth City on February 10, 1862. Dressed in his clerical vestments, the Rev. Forbes met the Union commander at the waterfront and negotiated a peaceful surrender of the town to save it from destruction. christchurchecity.org Pasquotank County Courthouse 206 E. Main St. The courthouse was built in 1882 to replace the 1799 wood-frame courthouse Virginia troops burned during the Batle of Elizabeth City to prevent its use by Federals. A historical marker at the site recalls the heroics of livery stable owner Arthur Jones, who hid the courthouse records in a barn in the countryside. Jones died penniless and blind. Oak Grove Cemetery Peartree Road A Grand Army of the Republic post was formed by former United States Colored Troops in the last quarter of 1885. Their post, the Fletcher GAR Post No. 20, purchased plots in Oak Grove Cemetery for the burials of former USCT soldiers and AfricanAmerican sailors who served in the Union Navy. Martin House 405 E. Church St. The Martin family lived in the house currently occupied by Twiford’s Funeral Home. William Martin was the ﬁrst doctor in Elizabeth City. His sons, Brig. Gen. James G. Martin and Colonel William F. Martin, served as oicers in the Confederate Army. James Martin was adjutant general for the state of North Carolina at the outbreak of the war. The Martin family had a shipyard on Poindexter Creek where shipbuilder Gilbert Elliot was building a wooden gunboat for the Confederate “Mosquito Fleet” prior to the Batle of Elizabeth City. The ship was burned on the stocks to prevent its capture. JULY 2018 53 TRAILSIDE 6 2 elizabeth city 4 1. Christ Episcopal Church 2. Pasquotank County Courthouse 3. Martin House 4. Grice-Fearing House B&B 5. Museum of the Albemarle 6. Muddy Waters Cofeehouse 7. Oak Grove Cemetery 1 3 5 7 Grice-Fearing House Bed & Breakfast 200 S. Road Street The 1798 Grice-Fearing House is the oldest house in Elizabeth City and is on the National Register of Historic Places. The two-story front part of the house retains its Federal design. In 1861, homeowner John Bartlet Fearing, captain of Company I, 17th North Carolina Infantry, was captured at Hateras Inlet and held as a prisoner of war. In 1863, he resigned his Confederate commission, took the Union Oath of Allegiance and paid Federal taxes. He died in 1888. gricefearinghouse.com Civil War History captured here The Museum of the Albemarle tells the story of Elizabeth City’s unique relationship with the sea, land, and rivers. Civil War artifacts on exhibit include the uniform frock coat and epaulets worn by Confederate Brig. Gen. James G. Martin; a Confederate First National Flag (one of three ﬂags captured at the 1862 Batle of New Bern by the 21st and 25th Massachusets), and the damaged smokestack from the ironclad CSS Albemarle. 501 S. Water St., across from Waterfront Park museumothealbemarle.com Muddy Waters This coffeehouse overlooks the intersection where, on January 5, 1863, a party including Union Lieutenant Nathaniel Sanders and local Unionist Joseph T. McCabe were ambushed when guerrillas hidden in the ruins of the Nichols Hotel—current site of the Southern Hotel— ﬁred on them. McCabe was killed instantly. Sanders managed to get back to Union headquarters on Shepard Street before dying from his wounds. The atack spurred Yankee reprisals, including the hanging of a captured guerrilla. 100 W. Main St. muddyscoffee.com 54 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR HOW MUCH TIME DID IT TAKE FOR ABRAHAM LINCOLN TO DELIVER HIS GETTYSBURG ADDRESS? 14 minutes, 2-3 minutes, 16-17 minutes or 7 minutes? For more, visit WWW.HISTORYNET.COM/ MAGAZINES/QUIZ HistoryNet.com LIBRARY OF CONGRESS ANSWER: 2-3 MINUTES. DELIVERED FOUR AND A HALF MONTHS AFTER THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG, LINCOLN’S ICONIC ADDRESS FRAMED THE CIVIL WAR AS NOT A STRUGGLE FOR THE UNION, BUT A STRUGGLE TO PRESERVE THE PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN EQUALITY, AS OUTLINED IN THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. HERITAGE TRAVEL & LIFESTYLE SHOWCASE For ree information about these advertisers, ill out the atached reply card. Home to more than 400 sites, the Civil War’s impact on Georgia was greater than any other event in the state’s history. Visit www.gacivilwar.org to learn more. Explore Maryland with once-in-alifetime commemorations—all at one destination. Create your family history by exploring ours. Go to visitmaryland. org to plan your trip today. here’s no other place that embodies the heart and soul of the True South in all its rich and varied expressions— Mississippi. Find Your True South. To discover more about Tennessee and to order your free oicial Tennessee Vacation Guide, visit: TNVACATION.COM or call 1-800-GO2-TENN Known for sublime natural beauty, captivating history and heritage and warm hospitality, West Virginia really is the great escape. Start planning your getaway today. Walk where Civil War soldiers fought and died. A short trip from Nashville and a long journey into America’s history! Call (800) 716-7560. ReadySetRutherford.com Join us for our Civil War Anniversary Commemoration including atractions and tours, exhibitions, memorials and a selection of artifacts from Fort Fisher. Lebanon, KY is home to the Lebanon National Cemetery, its own Civil War Park, and it’s part of the John Hunt Morgan Trail. VisitLebanonKY.com today. History lives in Tupelo, Mississippi. Visit Brice’s Crossroads National Batleield, Natchez Trace Parkway, Tupelo National Batleield, Mississippi Hills Exhibit Center and more. “Part of the One and Only Bluegrass!” Visit National Historic Landmark, National Civil War Trust tour, historic ferry, and the third largest planetarium of its kind in the world! Visit Chatanooga’s pivotal Civil War sites that changed America forever. Combine your stay in this top rated tourism destination with other world-class atractions, music festivals and unique dining. A vacation in Georgia means great family experiences that can only be described as prety sweet. Explore Georgia’s Magnolia Midlands. Experience the Civil War in Jacksonville at the Museum of Military History. Relive one of Arkansas’ irst stands at the Reed’s Bridge Batleield. jacksonvillesoars.com/museum.php Explore the past in Baltimore during two commemorative events: the War of 1812 Bicentennial and Civil War 150. Plan your trip at Baltimore.org. Are you a history and culture buf? here are many museums and atractions, Civil War, and Civil Rights sites just for you in Jackson, Mississippi. Experience living history for he Batles of Marieta Georgia, featuring reenactments, tours and a recreation of 1864 Marieta. www.marietacivilwar.com Experience the Old West in action with a trip through Southwest Montana. For more information on our 15 ghost towns, visit southwestmt.com or call 800-879-1159, ext 1501. he Mississippi Hills National Heritage Area highlights the historic, cultural, natural, scenic and recreational treasures of this distinctive region. www.mississippihills.org Once Georgia’s last frontier outpost, now its third largest city, Columbus is a true destination of choice. History, theater, arts and sports—Columbus has it all. Over 650 grand historic homes in three National Register Historic Districts. Birthplace of America’s greatest playwright, Tennessee Williams. he ultimate Southern destination—Columbus, MS. Six major batles took place in Winchester and Frederick County, and the town changed hands approximately 72 times— more than any other town in the country! www.visitwinchesterva.com Greeneville, TN Founded in 1783, Greeneville has a rich historical background as the home for such important igures as Davy Crocket and President Andrew Johnson. Plan your visit now! Richmond, Kentucky H I S T O R I C Roswell, Georgia Tishomingo County, MS Fayeteville/Cumberland County, North Carolina is steeped in history and patriotic traditions. Take a tour highlighting our military ties, status as a transportation hub, and our Civil War story. Whether you love history, culture, the peacefulness of the great outdoors, or the excitement of entertainment, Roswell ofers a wide selection of atractions and tours. www.visitroswellga.com With a variety of historic atractions and outdoor adventures, Tishomingo County is a perfect destination for lovers of history and nature alike. History surrounds Cartersville, GA, including Allatoona Pass, where a ierce batle took place, and Cooper’s Furnace, the only remnant of the bustling industrial town of Etowah. Tennessee’s Farragut Folklife Museum is a treasure chest of artifacts telling the history of the Farragut and Concord communities, including the Admiral David Glasgow Farragut collection. Seven museums, an 1890 railroad, a British fort and an ancient trade path can be found on the Furs to Factories Trail in the Tennessee Overhill, located in the corner of Southeast Tennessee. hrough personal stories, interactive exhibits and a 360° movie, the Civil War Museum focuses on the war from the perspective of the Upper Middle West. www.thecivilwarmuseum.org he National Civil War Naval Museum in Columbus, GA, tells the story of the sailors, soldiers, and civilians, both free and enslaved as afected by the navies of the American Civil War. Williamson County, Tennessee, is rich in Civil War history. Here, you can visit the Lotz House, Carnton Plantation, Carter House, Fort Granger and Winstead Hill Park, among other historic locations. Explore the Natchez Trace. Discover America. Journey along this 444-mile National Scenic Byway stretching from the Mississippi River in Natchez through Alabama and then Tennessee. Come to Helena, Arkansas and see the Civil War like you’ve never seen it before. Plan your trip today! www.CivilWarHelena.com www.VisitHelenaAR.com Join us as we commemorate the 150th anniversary of Knoxville’s Civil War forts. Plan your trip today! www.knoxcivilwar.org Charismatic Union General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick had legions of admirers during the war. He just wasn’t much of a general, as his men often learned with their lives. Sandy Springs, Georgia, is the perfect hub for exploring Metro Atlanta’s Civil War sites. Conveniently located near major highways, you’ll see everything from Sandy Springs! Treat yourself to Southern Kentucky hospitality in London and Laurel County! Atractions include the Levi Jackson Wilderness Road State Park and Camp Wildcat Civil War Batleield. Hip and historic Frederick County, Maryland is home to the National Museum of Civil War Medicine, unique shopping, dining covered bridges and outdoor recreation. www.visitfrederick.org Just 15 miles south of downtown Atlanta lies the heart of the true South: Clayton County, Georgia, where heritage comes alive! St. Mary’s County, Maryland. Visit Point Lookout, site of the war’s largest prison camp, plus Confederate and USCT monuments. A short drive from the nation’s capital. ALABAMA HISTORICAL COMMISSION Confederate Memorial Park is the site of Alabama’s only Home for Confederate veterans (1902-1939). he museum interprets Alabama’s Confederate period and the Alabama Confederate Soldiers’ Home. Cleveland, TN Near Chatanooga, ind glorious mountain scenery and heart-pounding white-water rafting. Walk in the footsteps of the Cherokee and discover a charming historic downtown. $ODEDPD·V *XOI&RDVW If you’re looking for an easy stroll through a century of ine architecture or a trek down dusty roads along the Blues Trail, you’ve come to the right place. www. visitgreenwood.com Southern hospitality at its inest, the Classic South, Georgia, ofers visitors a combination of history and charm mixed with excursion options for everyone from outdoorsmen to museum-goers. Relive the rich history of the Alabama Gulf Coast at Fort Morgan, Fort Gaines, the USS Alabama Batleship, and the area’s many museums. Fort-Morgan.org • 888-666-9252 CIVIL WAR MUSEUM of the Western Theater Vicksburg, Mississippi is a great place to bring your family to learn American history, enjoy educational museums and check out the mighty Mississippi River. Follow the Civil War Trail in Meridian, Mississippi, where you’ll experience history irst-hand, including Merrehope Mansion, Marion Confederate Cemetery and more. www.visitmeridian.com. Fitzgerald, Georgia...100 years of bringing people together. Learn more about our story and the commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the Civil War’s conclusion at www.itzgeraldga.org. Hundreds of authentic artifacts. Voted fourth inest in U.S. by North & South Magazine. Located in historic Bardstown, Kentucky. www.civil-war-museum.org Come to Cleveland, Mississippi—the birthplace of the blues. Here, you’ll ind such legendary destinations as Dockery Farms and Po’ Monkey’s Juke Joint. www.visitclevelandms.com +LVWRULF%DUGVWRZQ.HQWXFN\ Dstination -HVVDPLQH.< Prestonsburg, KY - Civil War & history atractions, and reenactment dates at PrestonsburgKY.org. Home to Jenny Wiley State Park, country music entertainment & Dewey Lake. Search over 10,000 images and primary documents relating to the Civil War Batle of Hampton Roads, now available in he Mariners’ Museum Library Online Catalog! www.marinersmuseum.org/catalogs History, bourbon, shopping, sightseeing and relaxing—whatever you enjoy, you’re sure to ind it in beautiful Bardstown, KY. Plan your visit today. www.visitbardstown.com Confederate Memorial Park in Marbury, Alabama, commemorates the Civil War with an array of historic sites and artifacts. Experience the lives of Civil War soldiers as never before. STEP BACK IN TIME at Camp Nelson Civil War Heritage Park, a Union Army supply depot and African American refugee camp. Museum, Civil War Library, Interpretive Trails and more. Interview by Nancy Tappan REVIEWS lessons in leadership 5 Questions with Lewis E. Lehrman Lewis E. Lehrman, co-founder of the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, received the National Humanities Medal for his work in American History in 2005. In Lincoln & Churchill: Statesman at War (Stackpole Books, 2018, $34.95), he discusses the bonds of character and courage that link two statesmen who saved their countries from destruction. 58 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR 1 How did their backgrounds afect their abilities as war leaders? 2 Who was more ready for war, Churchill or Lincoln? Each was essentially self-educated. Churchill was an indifferent student at the elite private school Harrow. Instead of university, he went to Sandhurst, the military academy. When he graduated, he was sent to India as a subaltern in the cavalry, where he began an extensive self-study program in history and military strategy, among other subjects. Lincoln, by contrast, had fewer than 12 months of formal education. As a young man, he taught himself trigonometry in order to master the art of surveying. He never went to law school, but by his own diligent study, he was granted entrance to the Illinois bar. Their similarities were equally important. As Mr. Churchill said, “Courage is the most important virtue.” As a young cavalry oicer, Churchill distinguished himself in combat on four continents. Mr. Lincoln served only a few weeks in the Illinois militia, but he exhibited courage throughout his early life. Having already made two trips down the Mississippi on pole rats, Lincoln migrated alone to New Salem, Ill., at 22. There he impressed townsfolk with his physical strength and bested the town bully in a wrestling match. As First Lord of the Admiralty in 1940, Churchill had eight months of the Phoney War to get ready. He knew the key players and how government worked. The basic outlines of the European conﬂict were clear to him. When he became prime minister in May REVIEWS 1940, all hell broke loose immediately and he had to deal with political, military, and public relations problems at the same time. Lincoln had four months to observe the outlines of the conﬂict before he took oice in March 1861, but the realities were not as clear. There was no team in place with which to work, with the ﬁrst largescale armed conﬂict still a few months away. Lincoln had less experience but had more time to get his plans in order. Lincoln did not have to handle the same 24/7 crisis management as did Churchill. 3 Did Lincoln continue to educate himself as president? He had to learn military strategy and tactics on the job. He went to the Library of Congress, took out the best texts available and mastered the essentials of military strategy. His careful study, combined with his natural intelligence and his understanding of maps and geography, gave him superior natural strategic insight. 4 How did Britain’s parliamentary system afect Churchill’s leadership? How did the American republican system afect Lincoln’s? In the parliamentary form of the government Churchill inherited, the prime minister did not have direct control over the military chiefs of staff. During World War I, he had served both as a Cabinet minister and as a lieutenant colonel in the trenches of Belgium. Having witnessed ﬁrst-hand how incompetent leadership led to an unbelievable waste of human life, in 1940 he was determined to run this new war himself. He created a Ministry of Defense and named himself as defense minister. He personally appointed the War Cabinet. To build consensus, he spoke frequently to the all-powerful House of Commons and to the public. Lincoln was chief executive and commander in chief, but he had to deal with the Radical Republicans and Peace Democrats in Congress, who oten tried to override his decisions. Although Lincoln generally prevailed, the American form of government limited his freedom of action. 5 What lesson did Churchill learn from his study of Lincoln? Churchill had studied the Civil War and how Lincoln had stood up to his challengers and had intervened in military strategy. Churchill learned from Lincoln not to leave the war entirely to the generals. He also admired Lincoln’s determination to survive and persevere, and to ﬁght on to unconditional victory. Lee’s Tigers Revisited: The Louisiana Infantry in the Army of Northern Virginia Terry L. Jones Louisiana State University Press 2017, $39.95 It did not take long for the men who let Louisiana to serve the Confederacy in 1861 to earn notoriety both on and off the batleﬁeld. Their reputation for alcoholfueled rowdiness alone ﬁlled communities both north and south of the Potomac River with a sense of dread at the prospect of hosting them for any period of time. But these Pelican State boys were also unique in that they aptly reﬂected the diverse, cosmopolitan character of both Louisiana and its most important city, New Orleans, which set them apart from the more ethnically and culturally homogenous units that came from other Southern states. Still, it could not be denied that the ﬁttingly named Tigers were a decidedly valuable asset to the commanders they served on the batleﬁelds of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. The honors and fame they earned, though, came at a heavy cost. While about 12,800 Tigers served during the war, when Colonel Eugene Waggaman, commander of the single brigade of Louisianans still in the ﬁeld at Appomatox Court House, Va., returned to New Orleans in May 1865, he was accompanied by roughly only 700 men. Despite their distinguished and colorful history, it was not until 1987 that a comprehensive, scholarly study of the Tigers and their contributions from Manassas to Hatcher’s Run appeared. That work, Terry L. Jones’ Lee’s Tigers, won immediate acclaim upon publication, and in the decades since has enjoyed an enviable reputation among students of the war in the Eastern Theater. Of course, no mater how positive a reception a book receives, it is the rare author who does not wish at some point to have the opportunity to revisit a topic, take advantage of new sources and fresh perspectives contained in subsequent scholarship, and improve his or her treatment of that subject. Here, Jones fully and superbly seizes upon his good fortune to have that opportunity, producing a work that even those with well-worn copies of his 1987 study will be eager to add to their libraries. Those who have yet to make their acquaintance with the “drunken, lawless renegades” who are the subject of this book, or are looking for the sort of insights and information that well-constructed unit histories can offer, will ﬁnd Lee’s Tigers Revisited an eminently satisfying work. –Ethan S. Rafuse JULY 2018 59 REVIEWS Finding Beauty within the carnage Sally Mann: A Thousand Crossings National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Until May 28, 2018 he ﬁrst major international traveling exhibit of photographer Sally Mann, which premiered at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., in March, showcases more than 100 of her photographs, including nearly a dozen views of Civil War batleﬁelds, such as Antietam, Cold Harbor, the Wilderness, and Fredericksburg. The full scope of the exhibit Sally Mann: A Thousand Crossings, which also features architectural views, portraits, ﬁgure studies, and even family snapshots and keepsakes, explores Mann’s relationship with the American South, particularly its history and heritage relating to the Civil War, race, family, and identity. The exhibit is organized into ﬁve sections: Family, The Land, Last Measure, Abide With Me, and What Remains. The ﬁrst section features some of Mann’s most famous images from the 1980s, of her children frolicking, oten unclothed, on the family’s Virginia farm. The photos, most of which were shot in black and white with a large-format 8- by 10-inch camera, helped bring Mann to the public stage. Abandoning the popular ﬁne art portrait, Mann sought to capture childhood in all its tenderness and innocence, but without ignoring the messiness, anger, stress, and children’s struggle for individuality. In the 1990s, Mann began to photograph Southern landscapes, T 60 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR showcased in the second section of the exhibit, The Land. She also began to experiment with other forms of photography, including the 19th-century photographic process of making wet plate collodion negatives, used by Civil War photographers such as Mathew Brady and Alexander Gardner. In 2001, Mann said she began photographing Civil War batleﬁelds to explore the violent histories that lay beneath the oten beautiful, serene landscapes. “Does the earth remember? Do these ﬁelds, upon which unspeakable carnage occurred, where unknowable numbers of bodies are buried, bear witness in some way?” In Last Measure, the exhibit’s third section, 10 of Mann’s batleﬁeld images hang in a slightly darkened gallery, the lighting meant to evoke Abraham Lincoln’s proclamation about the miseries of the Civil War, “The heavens are hung in black.” Mann’s batleﬁeld images are dark, mysterious, and somber. Here she takes full advantage of ﬂaws in the wet plate collodion process to create metaphorical resonance, including specks of dust that create comet or star effects in “Starry Night” on the Antietam batleﬁeld and streaked dust specks in “Cold Harbor” that ﬂy across the landscape like bullets. In the fourth section, Abide With Me, Mann speciﬁcally explores how race and history shaped the landscapes of the South, but also the A Certain Splendor Cold Harbor, Va., held haunting memories for the Federals. In a 2003 photo, Mann found a way to FDSWXUHWKHEDWWOHÀHOG·VPDMHVW\ people of the South, including her own family. This section includes a series of tintypes of the Great Dismal Swamp, formerly a home to many fugitive slaves, interspersed with large prints of African-American men. Representing Mann’s desire to reach across “the seemingly untraversable chasm of race in the American South,” she wanted to address the “rivers of blood” AfricanAmericans had poured into the land and their courage during their journeys to escape slavery. The last section of the exhibit, What Remains, and a ﬁnal piece of the fourth section, are more autobiographical in nature, including self-portraits of Mann, photos of her husband, and snapshots and scrapbook keepsakes of Virginia “Gee-Gee” REVIEWS In addition to declaring 4 million enslaved people free, the Emanci- Carter, the African-American woman who worked for Mann’s family for 50 years and mostly raised her. Haunted by her youthful acceptance of the woman’s presence in her Caucasian home, Mann says she combed through the keepsakes seeking to understand beter “the mystery of it—the blindness and our silence.” Her full exploration of the history and heritage of the South is eloquent and stirring, prompting viewers to admire the beauty of the land and its people, while pondering its provocative past. “I’ve been coming to terms with the history into which I was born, the people within that history, and the land in which I live, since before I could tie my shoes,” Mann once said. “Now, in the present, there is an urgent cry rising, one that compels me again and again to try to reconcile my love for this place with its brutal history.” Sally Mann: A Thousand Crossings will be in Washington until May 28, then traveling internationally until January 2020. –Melissa A. Winn pation Proclamation included an oten-overlooked phrase that forever changed how the Union armies waged war, occupied conquered Southern territory, and policed the defeated Confederacy during the volatile years of Reconstruction. Andrew Lang has examined the many ramiﬁcations of that phrase in a deeply researched, elegantly writen, and brilliantly argued examination that explores how American military policy evolved during the Civil War and how African-American soldiers were used during it and later Reconstruction. In the process, he reveals why and how the hard-won beneﬁts of citizenship gained by African-Americans as a result of the war were sacriﬁced in the name of reunion and reconciliation. The phrase “that such persons of suitable condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places,” indicates, for Lang, that President Lincoln initially intended that United States Colored Troops serve In the Wake of War: only in rear echelons, not as front line Military Occupation, combat troops, in order to free up white Emancipation, and volunteers to fulﬁll their historical role Civil War America as citizen-soldiers to ﬁght the war to Andrew F. Lang preserve the Union. For white volunLSU Press, 2017, $47.50 teers, Lang writes, “serving in garrisons and governing peoples and domestic territory—led soldiers to see themselves as the embodiment of a standing bureaucratic army, which aroused great suspicion and dismay.” The citizen-soldier ideal mandated that volunteers do their duty by answering the president’s call, ﬁghting their country’s batles, and then going home. African-American soldiers saw things quite differently. For them, according to Lang, garrisoning occupied territory, serving as provost marshals, defending transportation routes, and guarding prisoners of war, allowed them to demonstrate to whites in the South that their days of mastery were over. “That a majority of USCT regiments remained behind the lines,” he argues, “was, ironically, one of the most revolutionary implications of the black military experience.” For black soldiers, military service was their vehicle to transform civil society, solidify their rights of citizenship, and “clear a path for a new national and racial landscape.” By the autumn of 1865, USCT regiments comprised 36 percent of what was let of the U.S. Army. That meant black troops would assume much of the burden of enforcing Reconstruction on a recalcitrant, and oten violent, South. But the overwhelming desire by whites, North and South, to reestablish the ideology of American constitutional republicanism and return to social stability resulted in the removal of all USCT regiments from the old Confederacy by early 1867. A golden opportunity for social transformation was lost. Destructive and catastrophic results befell the newly emancipated freed people. We live with the biter fruits of those long ago decisions today. –Gordon Berg JULY 2018 61 REVIEWS With 2,000 batles and engagements, Virginia endured the greatest number of armed clashes during the Civil War, followed by Tennessee. But many may ﬁnd it surprising that the important border state of Missouri is third on that list, with more than 1,000 total clashes. Indeed, Missouri hosted the ﬁrst and last pitched batles west of the Mississippi River (Wilson’s Creek in August 1861 and Westport in October 1864). Yet most ﬁghting in the state was waged as actions involving Federal detachments (including Missouri volunteer infantry and cavalry units serving in the Union Army) and local Union-ailiated militia forces against numerous Confederate mounted partisan bands in guerrilla ﬁghting that, arguably, was extended beyond the war’s end by former guerrillas such as Jesse and Frank James, and the Younger Brothers. Although unfairly and inaccurately demonized as “Border Rufﬁans,” “Bushwhackers,” and “Pukes,” most Southern-supporting partisan band leaders held Confederate Army commissions and, when possible, the Southern government supported them, trying with occasional success to coordinate their combat actions. This outstanding, compact regional history of the war is cleverly conceived to serve a dual purpose: It is a terriﬁc introduction for general readers to the war in Missouri but also a handy visitor’s guide. Organized chronologically by year, it presents fully 300 (hence “Almost Unabridged”) of the approximately 1,200 pitched batles and engagements fought. Each engagement lists date(s); a brief summary; casualties on both sides; and, oten, a concise analysis of “Why It Maters.” Abraham Lincoln was so determined to keep Missouri in the Union that he resorted to naked force and draconian extra-constitutional methods to ensure it. Those “methods” prompted a bloody, extended guerrilla ﬁghting that raged within the state the entire war. This outstanding regional history explains and guides readers through this fratricidal conﬂict. –Jerry Morelock The Civil War Missouri Compendium: Almost Unabridged By Joseph W. McCoskrie Jr. and Brian Warren The History Press, 2017, $21.99 Union and Confederate armies had already given the nation a sense of the horrors The Generals of Shiloh: Character in Leadership, April 6-7, 1862 By Larry Tagg Savas Beatie, 2017, $32.95 62 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR of war with notable engagements at Manassas, Va., Belmont, Mo., Mill Springs, Ky., and Fort Donelson, Tenn., but the blood shed in the two days of ﬁghting at Shiloh, Tenn., in April 1862 would prove the most shocking early in the war—a true wake-up call for the nation. Among the approximately 3,500 killed during the batle was Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston, a particularly powerful blow to Southern morale. Moreover, although Union Generals Ulysses S. Grant and William T. Sherman performed well once the ﬁghting began, the fact that they allowed Johnston’s Confederate army to catch their commands unprepared remains among the most serious stains on the records of the North’s two most celebrated generals. Given the signature batle’s importance, it is not surprising that there have been a number of excellent studies on it over the years. In The Generals of Shiloh, Larry Tagg offers a ﬁting supplement to the previous works of Timothy Smith, Larry Daniel, O. Edward Cunningham, and others. As he did in his 1998 book The Generals of Gettysburg, Tagg provides biographical sketches of the men who commanded armies, corps, divisions, and brigades at Shiloh and describes what their units did both prior to and during the batle. As Shiloh brought together nearly all of the forces of the Confederacy and Union between the Appalachian Mountains and Mississippi River and was in many ways a testing ground for many who would go on to greater things in the war, the product of Tagg’s efforts is an informative, well-writen work that offers much that will appeal to those interested not just in Shiloh, but the larger war in the West as well. That being said, the author’s decision not to include footnotes or endnotes has a downside. It would have been good if Tagg had provided a more thorough critical bibliography showing how participants in the batle—and historians since—contributed to various controversies that have emerged about Shiloh and some of its commanders, such as Union Maj. Gen. Benjamin Prentiss. Also, because of the book’s organization by commander and unit, rather than geography or sequence of events, a few more maps would have been welcome. –Ethan S. Rafuse CREDITS Wow! A Simple to Use Computer Designed Especially for Seniors! Easy to read. Easy to see. Easy to use. Just plug it in! Call now toll free for the lowest price ever. 1-888-834-0355 Please mention promotional code 108752. 81177 Cover: National Archives/ Photo Illustration: Brian Walker; P. 2: Library of Congress; P. 3: Clockwise From Top Let: Library of Congress; Private Collection/ Peter Newark Military Pictures/ Bridgeman Images; Photo by Shana Harbuck; P. 4: National Archives; P. 6: PVDE/Bridgeman Images; P. 8: Library of Congress; P. 10: From Top: Library of Congress; Heritage Auctions, Dallas; P. 12: Library of Congress; P. 13: Library of Congress; P. 14: Captain Tom Custer, 1870s (b/w photo), Barry, David Frances (1854-1934)/Denver Public Library, Western History Collection/Bridgeman Images; P. 16: The American Civil War Museum; P. 18: Before the Storm, 1982, Troiani, Don (b.1949)/ Private Collection/Bridgeman Images; P. 20: Courtesy North Carolina Museum of History; P. 21: Library of Congress; P. 22: Library of Congress; P. 23: Library of Congress; P. 24: The Valentine, Richmond; Documenting the American South, UNC-Chapel Hill Library; P. 25: Private Collection/Peter Newark Military Pictures/Bridgeman Images; P. 26: Top: Library of Congress; Botom: Mark Summerﬁeld/ Alamy Stock Photo; P. 27: USAHEC; P. 28-29: Library of Congress; P. 30-31: Library of Congress (5); P. 32: Artokoloro Quint Lox Limited/Alamy Stock Photo; P. 34: Montana State University Library; P. 35: Library of Congress; P. 36-37: Richard Ellis/Alamy Stock Photo; P. 38: John Banks; P. 39: From Top: The American Civil War Museum; Corbis via Gety Images; P. 40: Library of Congress (2); P. 41: Photo by Shana Harbuck; P. 42-43: Clockwise From Top Let: John Banks; Photo by Shana Harbuck; John Banks (2); P. 45-46: Library of Congress; P. 46-47: From Let: National Archives (2); Library of Congress (2); P. 50-51: Library of Congress; P. 52-54: Melissa A. Winn (9); P. 58: Top: Universal History Archive/UIG via Gety Images; Courtesy Lewis Lehrman; P. 60: National Gallery of Art, Washington, Git of the Collectors Commitee and The Sarah and William L Walton Fund; P. 64: armyotennesseerelics.com. STEEN CANNONS Manufacturer of: Full Scale, Authentic Reproduction Artillery Phone/www 515 29th Street 606-326-1188 Ashland KY 41101 www.steencannons.com Sign up for our free monthly E-NEWSLETTER at historynet.com/newsleters For information on placing a Direct Response or Marketplace ad in Print and Online contact us today: America’s Civil War 800.649.9800 / Fax: 800.649.6712 / firstname.lastname@example.org / www.russelljohns.com CONVERSATION PIECE LET THERE BE LIGHT Campfires and candlelight were generally the only nightime illumination sources available for Civil War soldiers. And, as soldiers on both sides tended to be proliﬁc leter writers and diarists, much of that writing necessarily was done during darkness. This unusual artifact—reportedly excavated in “a Federal camp near Savannah, Tennessee,” not far from the site of the April 1862 Batle of Shiloh—appears to be an ingeniously devised candleholder. Although purportedly a “double candle-holder,” upon closer examination it seems capable of holding a candle in either the vertical or horizontal positions, depending on the circumstances of the soldier’s bivouac. Most likely, the small, solid, cylindrical extension could be easily inserted into the open circular socket of a triangular bayonet, allowing the candle to be held either vertically or horizontally in the larger holes. –Jerry Morelock 64 AMERICA’S CIVIL WAR in de ma Exclusives From 'CÖWQ@SPE dy a e R Get ays! d i l o eH h t r o f The Original Gettysburg Cigar!® Hand crafted and American made cigars available in a variety of sizes and wrappers exclusively from Great Gettysburg Tobacco Company.® We only sell cigars to adults who meet the legal age requirement to purchase tobacco products. Small Batch Roasted Coffee Our gourmet cofee beans are hand roasted in small batches providing the most delicious and aromatic cup of cofee you can imagine. Available exclusively from Great Gettysburg Cofee Company.™ Premium Beans. Perfect Roasting. Great Cofee. Hand Cast Aluminum Hand cast and hand painted pieces make for truly unique home decor. 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