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page54 A systemic analysis of an economic policy of regulating hydrocarbons flows worldwide under the conditions of the 'shale gas revolution' and liquefied natural gas market development in USA 2014

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A systemic analysis of an economic policy of regulating hydrocarbons flows worldwide under the conditions of the 'shale gas revolution' and liquefied natural gas market development The U.S. shale gas (and oil) production has led to a number of cons
в„–2 (85) l March l 2014
Nunquam petrorsum,
semper ingrediendum
Review of the Global
Polyimide Market
CIS Market in Salicylic
Acid and its Derivatives
Interplastica 2014:
Good Prospects
for Russia’s Plastics Industry
Chemical Industry
of Uzbekistan
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Polymers
2 A Review of the Global Polyimide Market
8
Interplastica 2014 : Solid Business and
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Polymers
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A Review of the Global
Polyimide Market
Polyimides (PIs) is a group of high performance polymers with excellent thermal, mechanical, and physical properties. Owing to their outstanding characteristics, they are useful over a wide range of applications
including the production of printed circuit boards, fasteners, and chemically resistant products. Polyimides
take an especial position in the development of innovative technologies, where light-weight materials with
high strength, flexibility, inertness, and a broad range of working temperatures are required.
2 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Polymers
w w w. chem mar ket. info
DuPont’s baby
The first information about the synthesis of aromatic polyimides dates back to
1908. A big contribution to the development and introduction of polyimides was
made by DuPont, which brought to market
Kapton H films, Vespel moulded parts,
and Pyre-ML insulating varnish. To obtain
its first Kapton polyimides, the company
employed pyromellitic anhydride (PMDA)
and 4,4’-oxydianiline (ODA). Figure 1
shows a diagram of the condensation of
these chemical products.
The process developed by DuPont
includes two stages: firstly, polyamic
acid is synthesised and secondly, the
acid undergoes imidization. Dianhydride
and diamine are used as mother substances (Table 1). The condensation is
Figure 1. Obtaining polyimide from PMDA and ODA
Table 1. Basic dianhydrides and diamines used for polyimide production
Dianhydride
Formula
Diamine
Abbreviation
Name
PMDA
Formula
Abbreviation
Name
Pyromellitic anhydride
pDA
p-phenylenediamine
BPDA
Diphenyl dianhydride
mDA
m-phenylenediamine
BTDA
Benzophenone dianhydride
DAB
Benzidine
DSDA
Diphenyl sulfone
dianhydride
DABP
Diamine-benzophenone
ODPA
Oxydiphthalic anhydride
DDS
Diaminodiphenyl
sulphone
HQDA
Oxydiphthalic anhydride
ODA
Oxydianiline
BPADA
Bisphenol-A-diphthalic
anhydride
BisDA
Bisphenol-A-diamine
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 3
Polymers
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Table 2. Comparison of chemical and thermal polyimide films
Polyimide film
Property
resins are obtained by adding low molecular
maleimide, acetylene, benzene dicarbinol
Chemical
Thermal
Physical properties (strength
and relative elongation)
Isotropic
Anisotropic (difference —
up to 40%)
Shrinkage (at 200 В°C during
two hours)
Less than 0,05%
Up to 1%
Dielectric breakdown, РєW/mm
Around 7
Around 5,5
Moisture absorption (during 24
hours)
Less than 2,8%
Around 4%
Width, РјРј (max.)
1570
1000
Length, Рј (max.)
4000
1500
Source: Saint-Gobain HPM
(benzocyclobutene) groups. These resins
find application in the impregnation of textile
fibres and in composites production.
A polymer basis of electronics
To synthesise polyimides, a broad set of
monomers are employed as well as various
methods. Therefore, properties of polymers
may vary within a wide range.
Polyimidies possess exclusively high thermal resistance. They begin decomposing only
at temperatures higher than 450 В°C. At the
same time, polyimides are resistant to oxida-
carried out at low and medium tem-
reaction, thus allowing for obtaining polyim-
tion, moisture, acids, alkalies, solutions of
peratures in a polar, aprotic solvent, for
ides with higher and more stable mechanical
salts, organic solvents and specialised liquids
instance,
N,N-dimethylformamide,
properties (Table 2). However, due to the
even at increased temperatures. However,
N,N-dimethylacetmide or in N-methyl-
usage of additional reagents, the final product
polyimides that contain fragments of PMDA
pyrrolidone.
is more expensive. Leading global producers
and monoaromatic amines, e.g. pDA, have
lower resistance to hydrolysis.
in
The process involving the obtaining of the
of polyimide films use namely this chemical
soluble prepolymer has been for more than
process of imidization, whereas the Chinese
Good dielectric properties of polyim-
fifty years the main technology of polyimide
producers - the thermal route. As a result, the
ides determine their wide application in
production. The point is that most polyimides
products of the first have an integral proce-
the electronic industry as dielectrics, flex-
are insoluble and high melting due to their
dural decomposition temperature of 200–240
ible substrates and wire insulation. Fluoride-
flat aromatic and heteroatomic structure.
°C and polyimides of the second – only about
containing polyimides possess the best
Therefore, their processing into some articles
130 В°C.
dielectric properties.
can only be possible provided that they are
Apart from the two-stage method there
Outstanding properties are conditioned by
solved in polyamic acid. The use of the solv-
is also a one-stage route for producing
a structure of a polymer chain and intermo-
ing route allowed for commercial production
polyimide used for polyimides soluble in
lecular interactions. Molecules of polyimide
of polyimides.
organic solvents at a polymerisation tem-
have rigid aromatic chains. There are two
The intermediate polyamic acid is con-
perature of (180–220 °C). Nitrobenzene,
types of interactions between polyimide
verted to polyimide by thermal or chemical
m-cresol, and high-boiling polar aprotonic
chains: firstly, between aromatic rings of
imidization. Thermal imidization is con-
amide solvents are used as solvents. The
fragments of dianhydride and diamine form-
ducted at 100–350 °C basically for manufac-
high temperature solving polymerisation
ing a complex with charge transfer and sec-
turing PI films, while chemical imidization is
occurred in the presence of such catalysts
ondly, between dipoles of carbonyl groups
used for producing moulded goods as well as
as quinoline, tertiary amines and carboxy-
of the dianhydride fragment (in this case the
films and fibres. At that point, aliphatic car-
lates of alkali metals or zinc. This method
polymer is nonpolar as a whole).
boxylic acid anhydride and tertiary amine are
is especially efficient for polymerising
Most polyimides are produced in the form
added to polyamic acid. The typical auxilliary
dianhydrides and diamines with low reac-
of films. Polyimide films have high mechani-
chemical reagents for this process are acetic
tivity and enables one to produce high
cal properties. Their relative elongation at
anhydride, pyridine and triethylamine. At the
crystallinity polyimides.
break amounts to 30–120%, tensile strength
final stage of the chemical imidization, the
Using bis-ester anhydride as a dianhydride
– 170–270 MPа, and modulus of elasticity
polymer is shortly heated up to around 300
component, polyesterimides
- amorphous
– no more than 3 GPa. Breakdown voltage
В°C so as to reach a higher conversion degree
thermoplastic polymers — are produced,
of polyimide film with a thickness of 1mcm
and to remove the remains of the solvent.
which can further be processed by injection
is no more than 200 V. Besides, these films
The chemical imidization excludes a counter
moulding methods. Shrinking polyimide
possess high radiation resistance. Polyimide
4 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Polymers
w w w. chem mar ket. info
films are coated with acrylic and organosilicon compounds for manufacturing self-adhesive tapes. Also, an adhesive layer is applied
to them in order to glue copper foil (on one
or two sides). Such films are further supplied
to manufacturers of printed circuit boards
for producing flexible circuits and cable
connections. When an extremely thin layer
of copper (less than 12 mcm) is required or
the presence of adhesives is undesirable, the
Space flight of polyimides
copper is applied to polyimide film either by
Owing to their properties, polyimides
evaporation deposition or by coating copper
are ideal materials for creating different
foil with polyimide varnish followed by its
elements of spacecraft. Foam polyimides
hardening. The films with reflective coatings
found application in the Space Shuttle
are obtained by adding organic silver salts,
programme as heat insulation and sound
e.g., complex acetates, to a polyamic acid
solution. While imidizing, it occurs silver
reduction. Silver further migrates to the surface of the film forming a reflective coating.
For many years, poyimides have been used
Figure 2. Breakdown of global
polyimide film capacity by company
as of early 2014
Films
insulation. They were used for protecting
propelling and steering control engines
of Mars rovers. Moreover, flexible printed
circuits and plate heaters in the Mars rovers were made of polyimide films. In May
in electrical engineering and the aerospace
2010, the JAXA (Japan Aerospace Explo-
industry for insulating special purpose wires.
Currently, the production of flexible
ration Agency) launched IKAROS — the
In the aerospace industry, they are used as
printed circuits accounts for 70% of PI con-
world’s first spacecraft propelled by solar
protective coating for solar cells and other
sumption worldwide. Due to specific require-
power sails made on the basis of square
important equipment.
ments of the final market and their properties,
polyimide film with a 7.5 mcm thickness
Also, microporous membranes, thin wall
polyimides are mostly produced in the form
and a 200 m2 total area.
tubes, fibres, foam materials are made from
of films. At present, global polyimide film
them. Polyimide tubes are manufactured
capacity totals 13,000 tonnes. Top three pro-
operated by the company’s fully-owned
by layer-by-layer application to the surface
ducers have at their disposal about two thirds
subsidiary — Kaneka Apical Malaysia. The
of a metal mandrel, which is subsequently
of world’s capacity including Kaneka – 24%,
launch of the Malaysian facility increased
retracted.
DuPont-Toray – 22% and SKC Kolon PI –
Kaneka’s total capacity for polyimide films
21% (Figure 2).
by 600 tonnes, to 3,200 tpy. By 2016, Kaneka
Such tubes find aplication gas chromotography as chromatographic columns as well
Kaneka produces polyimide films under
as in medicine in the capacity of catheters.
the brand Apical at three production plants in
Polyimide fibres production is notable for a
Japan, the USA, and Malaysia. The company
US-based DuPont became a pioneer
number of technical complexities. Therefore,
has been present in the market since 1984,
in the polyimide market setting industry
not many companies make these products.
when it put into operation its first manufac-
standards for a long period of time. It
Having excellent properties including a high
turing line for Apical films in Shiga prefec-
started commercial production of Kapton
stretch degree, PI fibres, nevertheless, cannot
ture (Japan). Today it operates seven lines
films in 1966. Since 1985, DuPont-Toray,
compete with aramid and other hi-tech fibres
with a total capacity of 2,400 tpy. In North
a JV between DuPont and Toray, has been
due to high manufacturing costs. These fibres
America, Kaneka began manufacturing poly-
responsible for polyimide business. The
are mainly used for producing industrial filter
imide films at a 200 tpy production line in
JV is completely owned by the American
bags and protective clothing.
the industrial park of Bayport (TX, USA)
chemical giant.
will invest USD 100m in further capacity
expansion.
DuPont-Toray expanded
PI membranes are widely used for sepa-
within the frames of a JV with Allied in 1990.
the plant in Tokai City (Aichi prefecture)
rating gases. В«PureВ» polyimide membranes
Kaneka Texas Corporation, a daughter com-
by 720 tpy in 2007 and that in Circleville
have, as a rule, low gas permeability. For this
pany of Kaneka, operates the line. Last year
(OH, USA) by 400 tpy in late 2012. As a
reason, they are modified with various alkyl
the company completed the construction of
result, the company boosted its total capac-
and fluoroalkyl substitutes.
its third plant in Gebeng (Pakhang, Malaysia)
ity up to 2,920 tonnes.
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 5
Polymers
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Table 3. Basic polyimide producers in China
Company
Location
Capacity, tpy
Ningpo, Zhejiang province
240
Changshu, Jiangsu province
160
Hipolyking Polyimide Materials Co. Ltd
Jilin City, Jilin province
300
Jiangsu Yabao Insulation Material Inc.
Yangzhou, Jiangsu province
300
Jiangyin Tianhua Technology Co. Ltd
Jiangyin, Jiangsu province
100
Liang, Jiangsu province
230
Tianjin
200
Shanghai
N/A
Shenzhen Ruihuatai Film Technology
Shenzhen, Guandong province
350
Tecnidd Enterprises Co. Ltd
Hangzhou, Zhejiang province
1000
Tianjin Jiayi Insulation Material Co. Ltd
Tianjin
100
Wuxi Di’Ao Insulating Material Co. Ltd
Wuxi, Jiangsu province
60
Wuxi Goto Polymer Materials Co. Ltd
Wuxi, Jiangsu province
N/A
CEN Electronic Material Co. Ltd
Changshu Zhongxun Space Flight Insulating Material Co. Ltd
Liyang Huajing Electronic Material Co. Ltd
New Century (Tianjin) Polyimide Films Insulating Materials
Co. Ltd
Shanghai Research Institute of Synthetic Resins
SKC Kolon PI is a JV established in 2008
on the basis of polyimide assets of Korea-
duction capacity, from 1,500 tonnes to 2,700
unit. At the second stage, there will come on
tonnes.
stream a 40,000 tpy polyimide monomer and
based companies SK Chemical Рё Kolon
China is home to one fourth of world’s pol-
fine organic chemicals plant, a 35,000 tpy
Industries. SK Chemical was the first in
yimide film capacity. There are ten producers
polyimide and multilayer coextrusion film
Korea to manufacture polyimides. In 2004,
with 3,000 tpy overall capacity in the country
unit, and 5,000 tpy polyimide fibres produc-
it launched a 40 tpy pilot production line at
(Table 3). Moreover, the moment when China
tion. The second stage will be completed in
its manufacturing site in Suvon. The com-
will become the main player on the polyimide
2017.
mercial production of polyimide films began
market is not too far away. In late 2012, Amer
Other polyimide manufacturers account for
at a 300 tpy unit in Chinchkhon. In 2008, the
International Group and Genhwa proceeded
9% or 1,000 tpy of total global capacity. This
second 600 tpy line became operational in
to building a large-scale polyimide complex
group includes Saint-Gobain Performance
Chinchkhon. Kolon Industries started poly-
in Yingkou (Liaoning province). The first
Plastics producing Norton films in Xinzhu
imide production in 2005. By the moment of
stage of the project envisages the construc-
(Taiwan); IST Corporation, which puchased
the merger, it operates two production lines
tion of a 11,000 polyimide monomer unit, a
polyimide
in Kumi with a total capacity of 600 tpy. In
30,000 tpy polyimide and multilayer coextru-
DuPont
2012, SKC Kolon PI almost doubled its pro-
sion film plant, and a 30,000 tpy composites
Monsanto (Indian Ochard, Springfield, MA);
businesses
Pyre-MLВ®
from
(Parlin, NJ) and SkybondВ® from
Japanese companies Ube Industries (Ube,
Yamaguchi prefecture and Sakai, Osaka
prefecture) and Mitsubishi Gas Chemical
(Hiratsuka, Kanagawa) producing Upilex
and Neopulim films respectively.
Fibres
In the early 80s of the 20th century, Lenzing,
a leading producer of viscose fibre, began
developing a new kind of fibre for protective
clothing. Polyimide was selected as a polymer
base. The company obtained a licence for a
polycondensation process from Upjohn (Dow
Flexible circuits — the main application of polyimide films
6 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Polymers
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Chemical), whereas a thread drawing technol-
space programmes. The latter required non-
Inspec Fibres, Qinyang Tianyi Chemical,
ogy was developed by Lenzing on its own.
combustible, light-weight foam material for
Hipolyking
As a result, new polyimide product P84В® was
heat and sound insulation of Space Shuttles.
Shuangma New Materials Tech Polyimide
launched onto the market.
Later polyimide foam was utilised in space-
are producers of polyimide powder.
Polyimide
Materials,
and
In 1996, Lenzing AG sold its business to
crafts of other countries, in the International
In addition, polyimides are processed into
Inspec Fibres GmbH (Evonik Fibres GmbH,
Space Station, Mars rovers, and cryogenic
round bars, slabs, sheets, tubes, and other
part of Evonik). Today, Inspec Fibres is vir-
vessels. Polyimide foam remains its elasticity
ready-to-use, customizsed products. We
tually the only large producer of polyimide
even at extremely low temperatures, which is
should mention the following companies
fibres. In small quantities, however, polyim-
of paramount importance for operations on
in this market niche: DuPont-Toray, IST
ide fibres are manufactured by Hipolyking
the surface of Mars.
Corporation,
Saint-Gobain
Performance
Polyimide Materials (Yilun fibre, China), and
In addition to spacecraft, polyimide foam is
Plastics, Hipolyking Polyimide Materials,
Russia-based Lirsot Ltd (Arimid, Pion, and
used in military and civil shipbuilding and the
and Shanghai Research Institute of Synthetic
Tvim brands).
aircraft industry. Owing to this foam, the weight
Resins. Polyimides varnishes – solvents of
Because of increased demand for its prod-
of some U.S. Navy cruisers was decreased by
polyamic acid - are also available on the mar-
ucts, Inspec Fibres expanded its capacity
50 tonnes, and that of Boeing 747 — by 160
ket. They are used for producing composites
by 35% in 2006 and by 40%, to 1,400 tpy in
kg. Reducing weight even by several dozen
and adhesives. The most popular and wide-
2009. Except for the fibres, the company pro-
kilograms of such massive and heavy objects
spread brands among them are Pyralin (HD
duces powdered polyimides for manufacturing
as airplanes seem to be insignificant at first
MicroSystems), U-Varnish (Ube Industries),
moulded goods and actively develop a poly-
glance. However, this allows for transporting
Pyre-ML and Skybond (IST Corporation).
imide film production technology. Polyimide
more cargo and substantially improves fuel
fibres are predominantly used in the produc-
economy, which is especially important tak-
tion of high temperature filter systems for
ing into account a long service period. Due to
metallurgical works, cement plants, and other
high prices, polyimides find application only in
Polyimides are quite widely used products
industrial facilities. These fibres have irregular
demanding environments. The main producer
owing to their outstanding properties. They
cross-sectional shapes consequently possess-
is Evonic Foams manufacturing polyimide
can meet strictest requirements of customers.
ing twice as much surface area as compared to
foam under the trade mark Solimide at its plant
Flexible circuits are the biggest and most fast-
traditional fibres with round or elliptical cross-
in Magnolia (AK, USA). Its product range
growing application field of polyimide films.
sections. Therefore, polyimide fibres display
includes four polyimide grades:
According to Kaneka, annual growth rates
Prospects
the best filtering capacity. This advantage is
– TA-301 (for industrial applications
in this market make up 20-30%. Demand
complemented with high thermal and chemical
including insulation of rail cars, ships, and
for special purpose products made of poly-
resistance over a wide СЂРќ range. These fibres
mining equipment;
imide films including bar code labels, voice
are used as an additive enhancing filtering
– AC-550 and AC-530 (for aircraft and
coils, helically coiled tubes, gaskets, and
capacity and increasing service life of filter fab-
spacecraft industries and cryogenic materials
diaphragms, thermal blankets, insulation of
ric in industrial filters both on their own or in
production);
particle accelerators, conveyor belts, sensors,
combination with various polyester fibres and
glass fibres.
The second most significant application
– HT-340 (for using in heat resistant mate-
etc., increases 10% yearly. Polyimide con-
rials including insulation of pipes, air ducts,
sumption in the production of self-adhesive
furnaces, and water heaters;
tapes grow 5% and in mechanical engineer-
of polyimide fibres is the manufacture of
Apart from Evonik Foams, polyimide foam
ing, and the cable and automotive industries
protective clothing for racing drivers, fire
is manufactured by DuPont (Vespel), Ube
— by 2% per year. SMP Corporation (a pro-
brigades and military units. It is to be noted
Industries (Upilex Foam) Рё IST Corporation
ducer of polyimide films, in particular, SKC
that usually polyimide fibres are not used in
(Skybond).
Kolon PI films) forecasts that the capacity of
a pure form but are mixed with aramid and
fire-resistant viscose fibres.
Foam polyimides
the global polyimide film market will go up
Resins and other products
from 7,000 tpy in 2010 to 10,000 tpy in 2015,
with the biggest growth rates in electronics
Polyimide resins are made in small vol-
engineering and display production. In geo-
umes because of processing complexities.
graphical terms, China and Korea will be
Polyimide foam was first synthesised in
Powdered polyimide is one of the main
the most rapid-growing polyimide markets
the 1970s by Evonik Foams for NASA’s
forms of polyimide products. Ube Industries,
expanding by more than 15% annually.
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 7
Polymers
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Interplastica 2014: Solid Business
and Good Prospects for Russia’s
Plastics and Rubber Industry
Victor
Nemera,
Atlant
CJSC,
Baranovichi/Belarus: �We participate
regularly in Interplastica, know what
we want and usually get it. It satisfies our expectations. It’s important
to note that this year there are more
professional visitors than in previous
years. It’s obviously very good.’
Maxim Grishin, Country Representative A/O Bayer Polycarbonates,
Moscow/Russia:
�At
Interplastica
2014 we basically met with our old,
established partners. This exhibition
is well known in the plastic and rubber industry and every year we meet
with lots of customers and get in
contact with new customers.’
The CIS market for plastic and rubber
plastics and rubber. They reported a keen
products stands for solid business and posi-
interest among specialist visitors, promis-
tive prospects. Despite the dampening effect
ing customer contacts and several signed
of political vagaries and the current weak-
contracts. Between 28 and 31 January 2014,
ness of the rouble on the demand for plastic
20,000 visitors from all members of the CIS
and rubber products, the country still has a
attended Interplastica and the packaging fair
significant need for investment. Production
Upakovka/Upak Italia, both of which took
capacities
and
place at the same time in Moscow. This result
expanded, particularly in the packaging and
ties in with the one achieved by both trade
medical technology segment. The consumer
fairs in the previous year.
are
being
modernised
Alexei Stolyarov, Chief Expert, Department of Advertising, Exhibition
Activities and Branding, LLC Sibur/
Sibur Holding OJSJ, Moscow/Russia:
�We have long and fruitful cooperation and ties with Messe Düsseldorf
Moscow. We are always satisfied by
the attentive attitude and professionalism of the organisers’ team..
Next year we plan to expand our
stand area and to occupy the central
goods and automotive segments are growing
Erhard Wienkamp, Division Director of
steadily, and the infrastructure of the largest
Messe DГјsseldorf, was delighted with this posi-
European country with a population of 143m
tive result: “Thanks to its representative inter-
is facing major challenges. In this situation,
national portfolio, Interplastica is perceived and
innovative solutions for all areas of the plas-
valued as an outstanding platform for techno-
tics and rubber processing industry are very
logical innovation in Russia. This positive feed-
times, they rely on Interplastica to present
much in demand, particularly because issues
back and the fact that there was even a slight
their innovations to customers from the CIS
such as energy efficiency and recycling are
increase in the demand for exhibition space
market, to maintain their customer contacts
becoming increasingly important.
- only a few weeks after the flagship fair
and to initiate new relations. Introducing
part of the first pavilion. We had active and large work with our clients
during Interplastica and it’s time to
expand and reveal.’
Accordingly, exhibitors at Interplastica
K 2013 - underlines the importance of this
a clearer structure to the fair, the new hall
2014 gave a predominantly positive feedback
event. The companies know how important
distribution elicited predominantly positive
on the four-day international trade fair for
their market presence is. Even in turbulent
feedback from visitors and exhibitors.“
8 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Polymers
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Sebastian
Schneider,
Key-Account-
in the CIS states along with the inter-
Europe GmbH, Moscow/Russia: �Dow
Manager PM Rezyklate, DKR –Deutsche
est in high-quality recycled products. At
took part with an own booth in Inter-
Gesellschaft fГјr Kreislaufwirtschaft und
Interplastica, we had some interesting
plastica 2014 for the first time ever. We
Rohstoffe mbH, Cologne/Germany: �As
new contacts, and the prospects for
consider that the exhibition is very suc-
we are new to the Russian market, it
long-term business cooperations seem
cessful. The customers appreciated our
presents some challenges, one of which
positive. However, we are well aware
desire to participate in the exhibition
is the language barrier. Also, recycled
that this market requires a lot of pa-
highly. Our approach is to work in co-
products do not have a good reputation
tience.’
operation with distributors. In the previ-
in Russia, mainly because very few such
Dragan Visekruna, Director of the
ous years we joined the booths of our
products are available in high quality.
Plastics Sales Units in Central and East-
partners and this year we invited them
But appreciation for regrinds is growing
ern Europe, Greece and Turkey, Dow
to work on our own booth.’
from China, Germany, France, Italy, Austria
exporting a total of 32.2 % to this segment,
exports from plastics and rubber machinery
and Portugal. The largest contingencies of
followed by Italy (15.5 %) and China (13.9
manufacturers to Russia increased by 7.5%,
exhibitors came from Russia, Germany and
%). In the first eleven months of 2013,
corresponding to an overall value of about
China.
German exports in this segment amounted
EUR 640m.
Organised by Messe DГјsseldorf and its
subsidiary Messe DГјsseldorf Moskau Ltd,
the 17th Interplastica was again hosted at
Moscow’s trade fair grounds of Krasnya
Presnya. A total of 687 exhibitors from 28
countries presented their products and services on 13,500 sq.m net exhibition area,
the “Forum” as well as exhibition halls 1
and 8 and, for the first time, hall 3 were fully
booked, the latter by a cluster of extrusion
and injection moulding machinery manufacturers. Official national participations came
Germany remains to be number one among
to EUR 204 million, up 10,2 % on the result
the most important suppliers to the Russian
posted for the same period during the previ-
Association
plastics and rubber processing industry,
ous year. Between 2011 and 2012, global
Machinery within the VDMA (Verband
For Bernd Nötel from the German
for
Plastics
and
Rubber
Robert F. Binder, Area Sales Manager,
of our business relations with the CIS
this segment. We expect to continue
EREMA, Ansfelden/Austria : �Our equip-
states, because we have consolidated
our business in Russia successfully.
ment has met with a keen interest. As
our position and won the trust of our
The Russian economy will continue
a supplier of recycling systems for all
customers in that market – not only be-
to grow, the Olympic Games and
thermoplastic materials, we have been
cause of our training programmes and
the World Cup 2018 will trigger fur-
active in Russia for sixteen years. So far,
cooperation with research institutes but
ther growth. There is a lot to do and
our core business focused on in-house
also because of our tenacity.’
enough money for investment, par-
recycling of waste scrap directly at the
Rauf Rustamov, Sales & Marketing
ticularly in window construction, in the
processing company’s site. Recently
Director,
Gebze-Kocaeli/
infrastructure of this vast country and
however, the post-consumer market
Turkey: �We have been exporting
in centralised heating. These projects
seems to have become more active as
pipe and profile extrusion machinery
are supported by state funding. We
the population demands recycling regu-
and pelletisers to Russia since 1991.
participate in Interplastica because
lations. This development could open
With more than 1,000 machines in-
we want to promote our good repu-
up a major market for us! We are op-
stalled in that country, we have be-
tation, maintain our existing customer
timistic about the future development
come established as a major player in
contacts and make new ones.’
Mikrosan,
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 9
Polymers
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Ulrich Reifenhäuser, Managing Di-
ability and comprehensive service are
ties in that region, initially with one
rector Reifenhäuser GmbH & Co. KG,
the key to success! For me, the current
sales agency. Only recently, we set
Troisdorf/Germany : �’The CIS market
weakness of the rouble does not con-
up our own subsidiary there, so as to
continues to have a lot of potential for
stitute a major problem, but an oppor-
provide a localised services and spare
the plastics processing industry. The ex-
tunity: the export of finished products
parts supply and support for our sales
hibition was livelier and the visitors even
such as packaging has become more
team. As a leading global plant engi-
more professional than expected. But
expensive, hence domestic products will
neering company for the handling of
the currency problem is a real dampen-
be in demand. Arburg customers from
high-quality bulk materials and liquids
er, particularly as the Russian mentality
the packaging segment are enjoying full
we work in a wide variety of industry
seems to have a bias towards pessimism
order books. The Russian automotive
sectors, i.e. polymer producers and
when confronted with such problems.
and medical technology segments are
processors, the rubber and tire indus-
Therefore, some projects will likely be
also experiencing an upturn, and they
try and plastic cable sheathing. We
delayed. �’
are now investing in modern, efficient
also operate a separate division with a
machinery. �’
special focus on the food segment. We
Antonio Cappadono, General Director Transtechnika-Vostok – Representa-
Dr. Semen Chlesberg, Senior Sales
provide our customers, mainly major
tion of Arburg, Moscow/Russia : �’While
Manager,
Frie-
corporations, with a complete service
the Russian market is characterised by
drichshafen/Germany : �’Moving into
package from the delivery of complete
steady ups and downs, it offers excel-
the CIS market requires money and
lines right through to training. This
lent long-term prospects. We have been
patience. In the long-term however,
will consolidate our long-term success
active in this market for a long time and
this commitment will bear fruit. Twelve
even if this market is prone to ups and
have become well established – reli-
years ago, Zeppelin started its activi-
downs.’’
Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau
injection moulding and thermoforming
Dr. RГјdiger Baunemann, Director General
- German Engineering Federation), the
segments, and rubber processing machines
PlasticsEurope Deutschland e.V., recognises
Russian market remains promising, despite
are in high demand. Thanks to state fund-
a lot of potential in the raw material segment,
the dampening effect of political vagaries
ing, investments into plastic pipe produc-
both for polymer producers as well as for
and the current weakness of the rouble on
tion and into the production of insulation
suppliers of additives such as stabilisers and
the demand for plastic and rubber machin-
material are rising. The emergence of
flame retardants. At Interplastica’s “Meeting
ery: “Negotiations drag on, some projects
recycling as an important issue in Russia is
Point Raw Materials”, Dr. Baunemann’s
are postponed. In other areas however,
rated as a positive development. So far, this
presentations on resource and energy effi-
there is still a great willingness to invest,
development is still in its infancy, but there
ciency as a driving force for innovation and
contracts that were prepared at K 2013 in
is a growing awareness that even countries
sustainability attracted a lot of attention and
DГјsseldorf for example, are now being
with an abundance of natural resources
met with keen interest. For the second time at
signed. Business is going strong in the
must economise.“
Interplastica, open seminars for exhibitors on
Zeppelin
Systems,
new developments in raw material production and application were again conducted in
cooperation with the Russian plastics portal
Plastinfo.ru.
The exhibitors were impressed with
the high level of professionalism among
Interplastica’s visitors, who appeared to be
well prepared and approached the exhibitors
with practical inquiries. In turn, visitors were
delighted with the wide range of international
exhibits presented at Interplastica.
The next Interplastica will take place in
Moscow from 27 until 30 January, 2015, as
usual in tandem with Upakovka/Upak Italia.
10 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Polymers
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Prices
Prices for polymers and polymer compounds of Russian, Uzbek, Turkmenistan, Belarus,
Ukraine manufacturers in 1Q, 2014
Product
Company
City
Country
Notes
Price per
tonnes, ex. VAT
83333 UAH
Oligoester acrylates MGF-9
Armoplast PJSC
Severodonetsk
(Luhansk region)
Ukraine
For reinforced plastics,
coatings, building
materials, electrical
insulating compounds,
lacquers, enamels,
adhesives
Oligoester acrylates TGM-3
Armoplast PJSC
Severodonetsk
(Luhansk region)
Ukraine
For production of resins
85000 UAH
Phenol-formaldehyde resin
solution in ethyl alcohol
(lacquer bakelite) LBS-20,
71-78%
Armoplast PJSC
Severodonetsk
(Luhansk region)
Ukraine
For production of
reinforced plastic
22000 UAH
Polyamide PA 6 210/310
Anid Ltd
Yekaterinburg
(Sverdlovsk region)
Russia
For manufacturing of
technical products used
in mechanical engineering
101695 RUR
Polyamide PA 6 210/311
Anid Ltd
Yekaterinburg
(Sverdlovsk region)
Russia
Polyamide PA 6 66-3
Anid Ltd
Yekaterinburg
(Sverdlovsk region)
Russia
Moulding grade
355932 RUR
Polyamide PA 6 66-4
Anid Ltd
Yekaterinburg
(Sverdlovsk region)
Russia
Moulding grade
355932 RUR
Polyamide PA 6 66/610
Anid Ltd
Yekaterinburg
(Sverdlovsk region)
Russia
Moulding grade
355932 RUR
Polyamide PA 610L
Anid Ltd
Yekaterinburg
(Sverdlovsk region)
Russia
Moulding grade
432203457627 RUR
Polyester mixed EDA-50
Kazan Synthetic
Rubber Plant JSC
Kazan (Republic of
Tatarstan)
Russia
Up to 100 kg / For noncrystallizable urethane
rubber and polyurethane
foam for bottom of shoes
78814 RUR
Polyester mixed PV
Kazan Synthetic
Rubber Plant JSC
Kazan (Republic of
Tatarstan)
Russia
Up to 100 kg / For
manufacturing inking
rollers, polyurethane
compositions
78814 RUR
Polyester P 9A
Kazan Synthetic
Rubber Plant JSC
Kazan (Republic of
Tatarstan)
Russia
Up to 100 kg / To obtain
optically sensitive
polymers as components
of adhesive compositions
78814 RUR
Polyester P-9-14
Kazan Synthetic
Rubber Plant JSC
Kazan (Republic of
Tatarstan)
Russia
Up to 100 kg /
manufacturing products
for special purposes
78814 RUR
Russia
Barrel 240 kg / For
production of thickwalled, large-sized and
complex-shaped goods /
For RTM-technologies
101900 RUR
Russia
Barrel 240 kg / Binding
agent for fibreglass
products / For use in
mechanised processes
101900 RUR
Polyester resin PN-1KT-A,
unsaturated, thixotropic,
pre-accelerated, 30-33%
styrene
Zhylevsky Plastics
Plant JSC
Sitne-Schelkanovo
(Moscow region)
Polyester resin PN-1KT-M,
unsaturated, thixotropic,
pre-accelerated, 30-33%
styrene
Zhylevsky Plastics
Plant JSC
Sitne-Schelkanovo
(Moscow region)
101695 RUR
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 11
Polymers
Prices
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Country
Notes
Price per
tonnes, ex. VAT
Sitne-Schelkanovo
(Moscow region)
Russia
Barrel 240 kg / For
production of thickwalled,large-sized and
complex-shaped goods
101900 RUR
Zhylevsky Plastics
Plant JSC
Sitne-Schelkanovo
(Moscow region)
Russia
Barrel 240 kg /For
fibreglass products and
RTM-technology
118500 RUR
Polyester resin PN-60921M, unsaturated
Granat Synthetic
Material Plant CJSC
St. Petersburg
Russia
Manufacturing fiberglass
products
186440 RUR
Polyester resin PN-82K,
unsaturated
Zhylevsky Plastics
Plant JSC
Sitne-Schelkanovo
(Moscow region)
Russia
Barrel 240 kg / For
polymer concrete and
artificial marble
109600 RUR
99000 RUR
Product
Company
City
Polyester resin PN-1KT-NR,
unsaturated, thixotropic,
pre-accelerated, 31-34%
styrene
Zhylevsky Plastics
Plant JSC
Polyester resin PN-54KTA,
unsaturated, thixotropic,
pre-accelerated, 36-42%
styrene
Polyester resin PN-85,
unsaturated
Polyester resin unsaturated
PN-1
Zhylevsky Plastics
Plant JSC
Sitne-Schelkanovo
(Moscow region)
Russia
Barrel 240 kg / For
water- and acid-resistant
polymer concrete and
sanitary ware products,
and artificial marble
Armoplast PJSC
Severodonetsk
(Luhansk region)
Ukraine
For production of glass
fiber, polymer concrete
and artificial marble
30000 UAH
55000 UAH
Polyester resin unsaturated
PN-15, chemically resistant
Armoplast PJSC
Severodonetsk
(Luhansk region)
Ukraine
For manufacturing of
chemically resistant
pipes, containers, boat
hulls, boats, yachts,
pressed materials,
varnishes, adhesives,
putties, coatings
Polyester resin unsaturated
PN-1РљРў
Zhylevsky Plastics
Plant JSC
Sitne-Schelkanovo
(Moscow region)
Russia
Barrel 240 kg
100750 RUR
Ukraine
Binder for fiberglass
and as impregnating
and casting resins
inautomotive, electrical
industry
55000 UAH
Russia
Up to 100 kg /
to manufacture
of polyurethane
compositions
78814 RUR
90000 RUR
Polyester resin unsaturated
PN-609-21Рњ
Armoplast PJSC
Severodonetsk
(Luhansk region)
Polyesters PEFD
Kazan Synthetic
Rubber Plant JSC
Kazan (Republic of
Tatarstan)
Polyether Laprol 373
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
Russia
EXW / Cisterns 31-36
tonnes, metal barrels
/ For producing rigid
polyurethane foams
Polyether Laprol 5003-2B10
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
Russia
For producing resilient
polyurethane foams
90000 RUR
Russia
EXW / Cisterns 31-36
tonnes, metal barrels
/ For producing rigid
polyurethane foams and
brake fluids
90000 RUR
Russia
EXW / Cisterns 31-36
tonnes, metal barrels
/ For producing rigid
polyurethane foams
90000 RUR
Polyether Laprol 502
Polyether Laprol 503B
Khimprom Ltd
Khimprom Ltd
12 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Kemerovo
Kemerovo
Polymers
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Product
Polyether Laprol 6003-DE
Prices
Company
City
Country
Notes
Price per
tonnes, ex. VAT
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
Russia
EXW / Cisterns 31-36
tonnes, metal barrels / For
producing oil demulsifiers
90000 RUR
90000 RUR
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
Russia
EXW / Cisterns 31-36
tonnes, metal barrels /
For producing filling, rigid
polyurethane foams
Polyethylene LDPE 153-01Рљ,
top grade
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Cable grade
58051 RUR
Polyethylene LDPE 153-10Рљ,
top grade
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Cable grade
57627 RUR
Polyethylene LDPE 15303003, top grade
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Film grade
56780 RUR
Polyethylene LDPE 15303003, top grade
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Moulding grade
55932 RUR
Polyethylene LDPE 15803020, top grade
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Film grade
53814 RUR
Polyethylene LDPE 15803020, top grade
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Moulding grade
52966 RUR
Polyethylene LDPE 15803020, 2 grade
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Moulding grade
45508 RUR
Polyethylene LDPE 17603006, 2 grade
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Film grade
46271 RUR
Polyethylene LDPE 17803015, 1 grade
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Moulding grade
46780 RUR
Polyethylene LDPE 18003030, top grade
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
47881 RUR
Polyethylene LDPE 18103035
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
47881 RUR
Polyethylene LDPE B-Y456
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Complex Unitary
Branch Establishment
Shurtan
(Qashqadaryo
province)
Uzbekistan
Blow-moulding grade
3696003 UZS
Polyethylene LDPE B-Y460
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Complex Unitary
Branch Establishment
Shurtan
(Qashqadaryo
province)
Uzbekistan
Blow-moulding grade
4776594 UZS
Polyethylene LDPE F-Y346
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Complex Unitary
Branch Establishment
Shurtan
(Qashqadaryo
province)
Uzbekistan
Film grade
4026118 UZS
Polyethylene LDPE I-0760
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Complex Unitary
Branch Establishment
Shurtan
(Qashqadaryo
province)
Uzbekistan
Moulding grade
3080195 UZS
Polyethylene LDPE I-1561
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Complex Unitary
Branch Establishment
Shurtan
(Qashqadaryo
province)
Uzbekistan
Moulding grade
1400 USD
Polyethylene LDPE P-Y342
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Complex Unitary
Branch Establishment
Shurtan
(Qashqadaryo
province)
Uzbekistan
Pipe grade
4629629 UZS
Polyethylene LDPE R-0448
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Complex Unitary
Branch Establishment
Shurtan
(Qashqadaryo
province)
Uzbekistan
Rotational grade
3186762 UZS
Polyether Laprol ES-564
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 13
Polymers
Prices
Product
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Company
City
Country
Notes
Price per
tonnes, ex. VAT
Polyethylene LDPE Рћ-Y750
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Shurtan (Qashqadaryo
Complex Unitary
province)
Branch Establishment
Uzbekistan
Film grade
3035072 UZS
Polyethylene LDPE Р -Y456
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Shurtan (Qashqadaryo
Complex Unitary
province)
Branch Establishment
Uzbekistan
Pipe grade
3902756 UZS
Polyethylene LDPE, grade A,
off grade
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
For manufacturing of
technical products,
packaging materials
48051 RUR
Polyethylene LDPE, grade B,
off grade
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
For manufacturing of
technical products,
packaging materials
48051 RUR
Polyethylene LLDPE F-0120
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Shurtan (Qashqadaryo
Complex Unitary
province)
Branch Establishment
Uzbekistan
Film grade
1500 USD
Polyethylene LLDPE F-0220 S
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Shurtan (Qashqadaryo
Complex Unitary
province)
Branch Establishment
Uzbekistan
Film grade
1450 USD
Polyethylene LLDPE F-0320
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Shurtan (Qashqadaryo
Complex Unitary
province)
Branch Establishment
Uzbekistan
Film grade
5174166 UZS
Polyethylene LLDPE F-Y 957
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Shurtan (Qashqadaryo
Complex Unitary
province)
Branch Establishment
Uzbekistan
Polyethylene LLDPE I-0525
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Shurtan (Qashqadaryo
Complex Unitary
province)
Branch Establishment
Uzbekistan
Moulding grade
1400 USD
Polyethylene LLDPE I-1625
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Shurtan (Qashqadaryo
Complex Unitary
province)
Branch Establishment
Uzbekistan
Moulding grade
3406728 UZS
Polyethylene MDPE R-0333
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Shurtan (Qashqadaryo
Complex Unitary
province)
Branch Establishment
Uzbekistan
Rotational grade
3589187 UZS
Polyethylene MDPE R-0338
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Shurtan (Qashqadaryo
Complex Unitary
province)
Branch Establishment
Uzbekistan
Rotational grade
3073018 UZS
Polyethylene MDPE WCY734
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Shurtan (Qashqadaryo
Complex Unitary
province)
Branch Establishment
Uzbekistan
Cable grade
3156433 UZS
3859671 UZS
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Used inrubber industry, in
construction, for greases
and mastics
26949 RUR
SIBUR-PETF JSC
Tver
Russia
Packaging for food
55085 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H031 BF /3
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H270 FF /3
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H450 GP/2
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
55085 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
R003 EX/1
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
66102 RUR
Polyethylene NMPE-2
Polyethylene terephthalate
TverPET, granulated
14 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
50847 RUR
Manufacture of
nonwovens
54237 RUR
Polymers
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Prices
Company
City
Country
Notes
Price per
tonnes, ex. VAT
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H007 EX/1
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Pipe grade
56356 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H022 CM /1
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Production of caps for
PET bottles
58051 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H030 GP
Poliom Ltd, Omsk
Polypropylene Plant
Company
Omsk
Russia
General purpose
53390 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H030 GP/1
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
General purpose
53390 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H030 GP/2
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
53390 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H030 GP/3
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
53390 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H031 BF /2
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
53390 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H031 BF /3
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
52542 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H032 TF/1
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Thermoforming
54237 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H032 TF/2
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Thermoforming
54237 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H033 FF /1
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H040 GP/1
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
General purpose
53390 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H060 GP/1
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
General purpose
53390 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H080 GP/1
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
General purpose
55932 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H080 GP/3
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
General purpose
55932 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H085 CF/1
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
57203 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H085 CF/2
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
55508 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H120 GP
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
General purpose
55932 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H120 GP/1
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
General purpose
55932 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H120 GP/3
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
55932 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H250 GP/2
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
56356 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H252 IM /2
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Moulding grade
57203 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H270 FF /1
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Manufacture of
nonwovens
57203 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H270 FF /3
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Manufacture of
nonwovens
56356 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H273 FF /1
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Manufacture of
nonwovens
58051 RUR
Product
53390 RUR
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 15
Polymers
Prices
Product
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
City
Country
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H352 IM/2
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
57203 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H450 GP/2
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
56356 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H451 IM/2
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
59746 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
H452 IM/1
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Polypropylene Tolen PP
R003 EX
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
66102 RUR
Polypropylene Tolen PP
R003 EX/1
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
59492 RUR
Polypropylene TPP D 30 S
Turkmenbashi
Complex of Oil
Refineries
Turkmenbashi
(Balkan province)
Turkmenistan
Extrusion grade
1350 USD
Polypropylene РўР Р F 79 FB
Turkmenbashi
Complex of Oil
Refineries
Turkmenbashi
(Balkan province)
Turkmenistan
For production
nonwovens for hygiene
and medical
spheres
3278 TMT
Polystyrene expandable EPS
ALPHAPOR 101
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
Russia
Manufacturing foam
plastic for noise and heat
insulation and drainage
board
61864 RUR
Polystyrene expandable EPS
ALPHAPOR 201
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
Perm
Russia
Manufacturing foam
plastic for noise and heat
insulation and drainage
board
70339 RUR
Polystyrene expandable EPS
ALPHAPOR 301
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
Perm
Russia
Manufacturing foam for
thermal insulation of
external walls
72034 RUR
Polystyrene expandable EPS
ALPHAPOR 401
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
Perm
Russia
Manufacturing foam for
thermal insulation of
external walls under
load
72034 RUR
Polystyrene expandable EPS
ALPHAPOR 501
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
Perm
Russia
For manufacturing of
blocks with waterproof
protective coating
70339 RUR
Polystyrene expandable EPS
ALPHAPOR 90
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
Perm
Russia
Polystyrene expandable
EPS-FР’-РќРњ 15, 20, 1 grade,
unsaturated
Polystyrene expandable
EPS-FР’-РќРњ-Р 0,2-1,25, 1
grade, saturated
Angarsk polymer
plant JSC
Angarsk polymer
plant JSC
16 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Perm
Angarsk (Irkutsk
region)
Angarsk (Irkutsk
region)
Notes
Price per
tonnes, ex. VAT
Company
Moulding grade
58051 RUR
38983 RUR
Russia
For manufacturing
insulating blocks,
packaging, disposable
tableware / 3, 5, 20
tonnes of containers,
covered rail-cars
56949 RUR
Russia
For manufacturing
insulating blocks,
packaging, disposable
tableware / 3, 5, 20
tonnes of containers,
covered rail-cars
61017 RUR
Polymers
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Product
Polystyrene expandable
EPS-FР’-РќРњ-Р 0,2-1,25, 2
grade
Polystyrene expandable
EPS-FР’-РќРњ-Р 0,4-0,3, 1
grade
Polystyrene expandable
EPS-FР’-РќРњ-Р 0,4-0,3, 2
grade
Polystyrene expandable
EPS-FР’-РќРњ-Р 0,6-0,8, 1
grade
Company
Angarsk polymer
plant JSC
Angarsk polymer
plant JSC
Angarsk polymer
plant JSC
Angarsk polymer
plant JSC
City
Angarsk (Irkutsk
region)
Angarsk (Irkutsk
region)
Angarsk (Irkutsk
region)
Angarsk (Irkutsk
region)
Prices
Country
Notes
Price per
tonnes, ex. VAT
Russia
For manufacturing
insulating blocks,
packaging, disposable
tableware / 3, 5, 20
tonnes of containers,
covered rail-cars
61017 RUR
Russia
For manufacturing
insulating blocks,
packaging, disposable
tableware / 3, 5, 20
tonnes of containers,
covered rail-cars
52542 RUR
Russia
For manufacturing
insulating blocks,
packaging, disposable
tableware / 3, 5, 20
tonnes of containers,
covered rail-cars
52542 RUR
Russia
For manufacturing
insulating blocks,
packaging, disposable
tableware / 3, 5, 20
tonnes of containers,
covered rail-cars
57627 RUR
57627 RUR
Polystyrene expandable
EPS-FР’-РќРњ-Р 0,6-0,8, 2
grade
Angarsk polymer
plant JSC
Angarsk (Irkutsk
region)
Russia
For manufacturing
insulating blocks,
packaging, disposable
tableware / 3, 5, 20
tonnes of containers,
covered rail-cars
Polystyrene expandable
EPS-РЎ, grade 1
Plastic JSC
Uzlovaya (Tula region)
Russia
Self-extinguishing
66949 RUR
Polystyrene expandable
EPS-РЎ, grade 2
Plastic JSC
Uzlovaya (Tula region)
Russia
Self-extinguishing
68644 RUR
Polystyrene expandable
EPS-РЎ, grade 3
Plastic JSC
Uzlovaya (Tula region)
Russia
Self-extinguishing
68644 RUR
Polystyrene expandable
EPS-РЎ, grade 4
Plastic JSC
Uzlovaya (Tula region)
Russia
Self-extinguishing
66949 RUR
Polystyrene expandable
EPS-РЎ, grade 5
Plastic JSC
Uzlovaya (Tula region)
Russia
Self-extinguishing
59322 RUR
Polystyrene expandable
EPS-РЎ, grade 5m
Plastic JSC
Uzlovaya (Tula region)
Russia
Self-extinguishing
56780 RUR
Polystyrene expandable
EPS-РЎ, grade 6
Plastic JSC
Uzlovaya (Tula region)
Russia
Self-extinguishing
31356 RUR
Polyvinyl alcohol, 10%
solution
Lakokraska JSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
Without cost of packaging
6820000 BYR
Polyvinylchloride PVC-C
5868PZh
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Film grade
40000 RUR
Polyvinylchloride PVC-C
6149U
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Cable, pipe grade /
Molding, extrusion
methods
40000 RUR
Polyvinylchloride PVC-C
6358Рњ
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
General purpose
40000 RUR
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 17
Polymers
Prices
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Company
City
Country
Notes
Price per
tonnes, ex. VAT
Polyvinylchloride PVC-C
6669ZhS
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Profile windows
40000 RUR
Polyvinylchloride PVC-C
6768Рњ
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Profile windows
40000 RUR
Polyvinylchloride PVC-C
7059Рњ
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Cable, pipe, film grade
50000 RUR
Polyvinylchloride PVC-C
8059U
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Extrusion, calendering and
moulding
50000-52000
RUR
UCC Shchekinoazot
Schekino (Tula region)
Russia
Urea-formaldehyde
concentrate UFC-85,
58% formaldehyde, 23%
carbamide
Metafrax JSC
Gubaha (Perm
territory)
Russia
Up to one cistern 65
tonnes / For plywood,
chipboard
15000 RUR
Urea-formaldehyde resin
KF-NU
Lakokraska JSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
Without cost of packaging
12458000
BYR
Urea-formaldehyde resin KFZh grade L,F,Рњ
Lakokraska JSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
With cost of packaging
14385000
BYR
Urea-formaldehyde resin KFZh, 67-69% dry residue
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
Urea-formaldehyde resin KFZh, 67% dry residue
Lakokraska JSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
Without cost of packaging 12458000 BYR
Urea-formaldehyde resin
KFBZh, 65–69% dry residue
Zhylevsky Plastics
Plant JSC
Sitne-Schelkanovo
(Moscow region)
Russia
EXW / Tank trucks, drums
/ For plywood
29330 RUR
Urea-formaldehyde resin
PРљРњ
Zhylevsky Plastics
Plant JSC
Sitne-Schelkanovo
(Moscow region)
Russia
EXW / Barrels / For making
paper- resin films
21500 RUR
Urea-formaldehyde resin РљFBРњ-РўРљ, 65% dry residue
Zhylevsky Plastics
Plant JSC
Sitne-Schelkanovo
(Moscow region)
Russia
EXW / Tank trucks, drums
/ For cladding furniture
made of chipboard
29330 RUR
Urea-formaldehyde resin
РљF-РњРў-15
Lesohimik JSC
Borisov (Minsk
region)
Belarus
4955000 BYR
Urea-formaldehyde resin
РљF-РњРў-15
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
550-600 USD
Urea-formaldehyde resin РљFРњРў-15, 64-68% dry residue
Zhylevsky Plastics
Plant JSC
Sitne-Schelkanovo
(Moscow region)
Russia
Barrels / For chipboard
26160 RUR
Urea-formaldehyde resin
РљF-РњРў-20PS
Zhylevsky Plastics
Plant JSC
Sitne-Schelkanovo
(Moscow region)
Russia
For production of heat and
sound insulating foam
26560 RUR
Urea-formaldehyde resin
РљFZh
Zhylevsky Plastics
Plant JSC
Sitne-Schelkanovo
(Moscow region)
Russia
EXW / Tankers, barrels
29330 RUR
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
Product
Urea-formaldehyde
concentrate UFC-85
Urea-formaldehyde resin РљS11, 60-64% dry residue
Vinyl ester resin RP-14S,
unsaturated, 38-45% styrene
Zhylevsky Plastics
Plant JSC
Sitne-Schelkanovo
(Moscow region)
Russia
15000-18000
RUR
980 USD
1000 USD
Barrel 240 kg / Binding
agent for water and
chemically resistant
polymer concrete and
fibreglass products, anticorrosion coatings
258700 RUR
1 EUR = 45,0559-49,5839 RUR
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of Russia during 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 3000,05-3053,73 UZS
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of the Republic of Uzbekistan during 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 3,8982-3,9159 РўРњРў
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of Turkmenistanduring 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 10,8496-13,6372 UAH
Official exchange rate, according to the National Bank of Ukraine during 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 12650-13400 BYR
Official exchange rate, according to the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus during 1Q 2014
18 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Rubbers and tyres
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Prices
Prices for some synthetic rubbers and latexes in Q1, 2014
Manufacturer
City
Country
Notes
Price per 1
tonne, ex.VAT
Butadiene rubber SKD-ND,
grade B
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
66949 RUR
Butadiene rubber SKD, grade B
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
69492 RUR
Butyl rubber BРљ-1675N
Togliattikauchuk Ltd
Togliatti (Samara
region)
Russia
EXW
101695 RUR
Butyl rubber BРљ-1675Рњ
Togliattikauchuk Ltd
Togliatti (Samara
region)
Russia
EXW
101695 RUR
Isoprene rubber SKI-3
Togliattikauchuk Ltd
Togliatti (Samara
region)
Russia
EXW
94915 RUR
Latex butadiene BSРњ-65,
grade B
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
96610 RUR
Latex butadiene SРљD-1S
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
101780 RUR
Latex styrene-butadiene
BS-50В Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
93559 RUR
Latex styrene-butadiene BS65, grade Рђ
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
96610 RUR
Latex styrene-butadiene
BS-85
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
100000 RUR
Latex styrene-butadiene
BSРљ-1В Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
110000 RUR
Latex styrene-butadiene
BSРљ-2
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
110000 RUR
Latex styrene-butadiene
BSРљ-70/2
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
104322 RUR
Latex styrene-butadiene
SKS-30UРљ
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
110000 RUR
Latex styrene-butadiene SKS50GPSВ Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
102542 RUR
Latex styrene-butadiene SKS50РљGP
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
110000 RUR
Latex styrene-butadiene
SKS-65GP
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
93559 RUR
Latex styrene-butadiene SKS65GP (B)
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
89068 RUR
Rubber fluorosiloxane SKTF
Kazan Synthetic Rubber
Plant JSC
Kazan
Russia
254237847458 RUR
Silicone rubber SРљРў
Kazan Synthetic Rubber
Plant JSC
Kazan
Russia
254237847458 RUR
Product
Silicone rubber SРљРўE
Kazan Synthetic Rubber
Plant JSC
Kazan
Russia
For manufacturing
mechanical rubber goods
preserving dielectric
properties and elastic at
temperatures ranging from
-70 to +200 C
Silicone rubber SРљРўN
Kazan Synthetic Rubber
Plant JSC
Kazan
Russia
For manufacture of
compounds, sealants
254237847458 RUR
Silicone rubber SРљРўNF
Kazan Synthetic Rubber
Plant JSC
Kazan
Russia
For the manufacture of
compounds, sealants
254237847458 RUR
254237847458 RUR
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 19
Rubbers and tyres
Prices
Product
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Manufacturer
City
Country
Notes
Price per 1
tonne, ex.VAT
254237847458 RUR
Silicone rubber SРљРўV
Kazan Synthetic Rubber
Plant JSC
Kazan
Russia
Intended for manufacture
of rubber goods,
preserving elastic and
dielectric properties in the
temperature range of from
-50 to +250 В°C
Sodium-butadiene rubber
BNKS-18AMN
Krasnoyarsk Synthetic
Rubber Plant JSC
Krasnoyarsk
Russia
EXW
83475 RUR
Sodium-butadiene rubber
BNKS-18РђN
Krasnoyarsk Synthetic
Rubber Plant JSC
Krasnoyarsk
Russia
EXW
83475 RUR
Sodium-butadiene rubber
BNKS-28AMN
Krasnoyarsk Synthetic
Rubber Plant JSC
Krasnoyarsk
Russia
EXW
83475 RUR
Sodium-butadiene rubber
BNKS-28AMNP
Krasnoyarsk Synthetic
Rubber Plant JSC
Krasnoyarsk
Russia
EXW
83475 RUR
Sodium-butadiene rubber
BNKS-28РђN
Krasnoyarsk Synthetic
Rubber Plant JSC
Krasnoyarsk
Russia
EXW
83475 RUR
Sodium-butadiene rubber
BNKS-33AMN
Krasnoyarsk Synthetic
Rubber Plant JSC
Krasnoyarsk
Russia
EXW
83475 RUR
Sodium-butadiene rubber
BNKS-40AMN
Krasnoyarsk Synthetic
Rubber Plant JSC
Krasnoyarsk
Russia
EXW
83475 RUR
Sodium-butadiene rubber
BNKS-40РђN
Krasnoyarsk Synthetic
Rubber Plant JSC
Krasnoyarsk
Russia
EXW
83475 RUR
Sodium-butadiene rubber
PBNK-33 (PVC)
Krasnoyarsk Synthetic
Rubber Plant JSC
Krasnoyarsk
Russia
EXW
110169 RUR
Sodium-butadiene rubber
SKN-26PVC-30
Krasnoyarsk Synthetic
Rubber Plant JSC
Krasnoyarsk
Russia
EXW
108475 RUR
Sodium-butadiene rubber
SРљN-18SNРў
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
83475 RUR
Sodium-butadiene rubber
SРљN-26SNРў
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
83475 RUR
Styrene-butadiene rubber
BSРљ-1502
Togliattikauchuk Ltd
Togliatti (Samara
region)
Russia
EXW
66949 RUR
Styrene-butadiene rubber
DSSРљ-2560-Рњ27, grade Рђ
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
80085 RUR
Styrene-butadiene rubber
SKS-30 ARKM-15, grade Р’,
SBR-1706 HI-AR
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
60169 RUR
Styrene-butadiene rubber
SKS-30 ARKM-27, grade A
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
67373 RUR
Styrene-butadiene rubber
SKS-30 ARKM-27, grade Р’
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
63983 RUR
Styrene-butadiene rubber
SKS-30 РђRРљ, grade Р’, РЎ
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
66949 RUR
Styrene-butadiene rubber
SKS-30 РђRРљРњ-15, grade Р’,
SBR-1706 TDAE
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
EXW
63983 RUR
Togliattikauchuk Ltd
Togliatti (Samara
region)
Russia
EXW
60169 RUR
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
Big bags
103390 RUR
Styrene-butadiene rubber
SРљРњS-30РђRРљРњ-15
Styrene-butadiene
thermoplastic elastomer DST30-01, group 1, granules
20 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Rubbers and tyres
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Price per 1
tonne, ex.VAT
Product
Manufacturer
City
Country
Styrene-butadiene
thermoplastic elastomer DST30-01, group 1, powder
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
Styrene-butadiene
thermoplastic elastomer DST30-01, group 2, granules
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
Big bags
103390 RUR
Styrene-butadiene
thermoplastic elastomer DST30R-01, group 1, granules
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
Big bags
103390 RUR
Styrene-butadiene
thermoplastic elastomer DST30R-01, group 3, granules
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
Big bags
103390 RUR
Styrene-butadiene
thermoplastic elastomer DST30R-01, group 3, powder
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
Styrene-butadiene
thermoplastic elastomer SBS
R30-00Рђ, granules
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
Big bags
103390 RUR
Styrene-butadiene
thermoplastic elastomer SBS
R30-00Рђ, powder
Voronezhsintezkauchuk JSC
Voronezh
Russia
Bags
107627 RUR
Thermoplastic dynamic
Kvartopren, grade Рђ (50,60,
70, 80,90), black
Kvart CJSC
Kazan
Russia
Moulding
98000 RUR
Thermoplastic dynamic
Kvartopren, grade Рђ (50,60,
70, 80,90), black
Kvart CJSC
Kazan
Russia
Extrusion
117000 RUR
Thermoplastic dynamic
Kvartopren, grade Рђ (90) E,
gray
Kvart CJSC
Kazan
Russia
Extrusion
117000 RUR
Thermoplastic dynamic
Kvartopren, grade Рђ (90), gray
Kvart CJSC
Kazan
Russia
Moulding
98000 RUR
Urethane rubber
(polyurethane elastomer)
SKU-8Рђ
Kazan Synthetic Rubber
Plant JSC
Kazan
Russia
For manufacturing shoes
169492296610 RUR
Urethane rubber
(polyurethane elastomer)
SKU-8Рњ
Kazan Synthetic Rubber
Plant JSC
Kazan
Russia
In the production of magnetic
lacquers
169492296610 RUR
Urethane rubber
(polyurethane elastomer)
SKU-8РўB
Kazan Synthetic Rubber
Plant JSC
Kazan
Russia
For manufacture of products
with improved resistance to
frost and to abrasion
169492296610 RUR
Urethane rubber
(polyurethane elastomer)
SKU-PEF-3Рђ
Kazan Synthetic Rubber
Plant JSC
Kazan
Russia
For preparation of casting and
impregnating compositions
as elastic epoxy resin
169492296610 RUR
Kazan
Russia
For manufacture of machinery
components working in the
range of from -60 to +120 C,
sheet-metal production, as
anti-corrosion coatings
169492296610 RUR
Kazan
Russia
Urethane rubber
(polyurethane elastomer)
SKU-PFL-100
Kazan Synthetic Rubber
Plant JSC
Urethane rubber
Kazan Synthetic Rubber
(polyurethane elastomer)
Plant JSC
SKU-PFL-74
1 EUR = 45.0559-49.5839 RUR
Notes
Prices
107627 RUR
107627 RUR
169492296610 RUR
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of Russia during 1Q 2014
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 21
Organics
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
CIS Market in Salicylic Acid
and its Derivatives
Salicylic acid belongs to aromatic hydroxy acids. Its anti-inflammatory properties, as a component of
the bark of the willow tree, have been known for more than 2,500 years. Currently, more than half of
the produced salicylic acid is used for pharmaceutical manufacture. For example, one of its derivatives is
acetylsalicylic acid or aspirin - one of the most important drug of the twentieth century.
Salicylic acid (C6H4 (OH) COOH, ortho-
glycoside salicin (from Latin salix - �wil-
Adolph Hermann Kolbe proposed a method
2-hydroxybenzoic
low’) from a willow bark extract. In 1838,
of synthesising salicylic acid from phenol in
acid, phenol acid) - white needle-shaped
Raffaele Piria, an Italian chemist, hydrolysed
1860, which has been used to the present day.
crystals with a bitterish taste, soluble in hot
salicin with further oxidation. This is how
Salicylic acid acts as an antiseptic. The acid
water, freely soluble in ethanol, diethyl ether
salicylic acid was obtained. It was found that
is used as a keratolytic agent when present in
and other polar organic solvents.
the acid had been previously obtained from
high concentrations,
substance when present in low concentrations.
hydroxybenzoic
acid,
and as a keratoplastic
Leaves and flowers of some plants are
flowers of meadowsweet, or Spiraea (spirea
natural sources of salicylic acid. It is known
ulmaria) by a German chemist Carl Löwig,
The keratolytic agent breaks down the
that ancient doctors used an infusion of the
who called it spiraea acid and later the sub-
outer layer of skin (keratin). A keratoplastic
willow bark as antipyretic and analgesic
stance became known as “salicylic acid”.
effect is when the drug does not generate a
medicines. In 1829, Henri Leroux, a French
The analysis showed that it was a derivative
quick destruction and sloughing, thereby
pharmacist, isolated physiologically active
of phenol. Subsequently, a German chemist
loosening keratin.
22 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
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Salicylic acid is used to treat various skin
An ester formed by acetic and salicylic
microorganisms. However, due to relatively
diseases, in particular, hyperkeratosis and
acids or acetylsalicylic acid was first synthe-
low efficiency, PAS finds application only in
excessive sweating. Taken orally, salicylic
sised by Charles Gerhardt, a French chemist,
case of intolerance to other anti-TB drugs or
acid may cause severe irritation of the mucous
in 1853. Soon, it became known as “aspirin”,
mycobacterial drug resistance. The drug has
membrane lining of the stomach. That is why
from the name of meadowsweet (spirea
a bacteriostatic action only against tubercle
a sodium salt of salicylic acid instead of the
ulmaria). This was the first synthetic drug in
bacillus. It is not an antifebrile medicine,
pure acid is often used. Salicylic acid is well
the history of medicine. In 1874, aspirin was
although it relates to derivatives of salicylic
absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract exert-
applied to treat acute articular rheumatism. In
acid.
ing antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflamma-
1899, aspirin was patented by Bayer and has
Some derivatives of para-aminosalicylic
tory actions. The drug is rapidly excreted
been produced on an industrial scale since
acid, for example, its phenyl ester or para-
from the body.
that time. For this reason, pharmaceutical
benzoylaminosalicylic acid, have the same
therapeutic activity as PAS proper.
Salicylic acid and salicylates are low-toxic
companies in most countries has no right to
and fairly well tolerated. Since salicylates
apply the trademark “aspirin” to their prod-
Calcium benzoyl-p-aminosalicylate gives
are used in large doses for rheumatism treat-
ucts and use basically the chemical name
significantly fewer side effects when taken
ment they can cause poisoning, which easily
“acetylsalicylic acid”. Bayer has been own-
orally than PAS, and is used instead of the
ceases as soon as one stops taking the drugs.
ing the exclusive right to the brand aspirin in
latter.
Until the 50s of the 20th century, salicylic
Russia since 1992. However, the term “aspi-
Methyl salicylate (salicylic acid methyl
acid was one of the most popular food pre-
rin” became a common word in the former
ester) is a colorless or yellowish liquid
servatives. It was used for preserving egg
Soviet Union.
with a strong, aromatic odour. It is slightly
melange, fish marinades, salted and pick-
John Vane was awarded the Nobel Prize
soluble in water, and is miscible with alco-
led cucumbers as well as olives and fruit.
for his discovery of how acetylsalicylic acid
hol and ester in any proportions. Its density
Salicylic acid is no longer used as a food
produces pain-relief and anti-inflammatory
is 1,176-1,184 g/cm3. Methyl salicylate is
preservative. Food applications of the acid
effects in 1982. He found out that aspirin
one of the well-known aromatic substances.
are banned in America, Europe and Russia.
blocked the synthesis of hormone-like sub-
It was first isolated as the main ingredient
However, salicylic acid with a concentration
stances - prostaglandins - which are intensely
of some natural essential oils (wintergreen
of up to 0.5% can be used for preserving cos-
formed by microbial intoxication causing an
and cherry birch oils). As the component
metic products. The acid with a concentration
inflammatory reaction. Besides antipyretic
of these oils, one began to widely use it in
of up to 10% is used for keratosis (dandruff)
and analgesic actions aspirin prevents the
medicine. Methyl salicylate is also an ingre-
treatment. The manufacture of azo dyes and
formation of blood clots and also has a vas-
dient of some ointments, balms and liniments
odoriferous compounds (salicylic acid esters)
orelaxant action. At the same time, it irritates
often used in combination with chloroform,
is one of its applications as well.
the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal
turpentine and fatty oils. Pharmaceuticals
tract, and its overdose can cause bleeding.
on the basis of methyl salicylate are meant
Salicylic acid is capable of forming derivatives in each functional group. The most
Sodium salicylate (sodium 2-hydroxyben-
only for external use as antiinflammatory and
important of them are methyl salicylate and
zoate) is a sodium salt of salicylic acid. It is a
analgesic agents to treat neuralgia, migraine
phenyl salicylate (esters of the carboxyl
white crystalline powder or small, odourless
and rheumatism.
group) and acetylsalicylic acid (esters of the
flakes with a sweet and salty taste. Sodium
Phenyl salicylate (salol) is a white, crys-
hydroxyl group). P-aminosalicylic acid and
salicylate is easily soluble in water (1:1) and
talline powder or small colourless crystals
salicylamide are ne more significant deriva-
alcohol (1:6). Sodium salicylate has analge-
with a faint odour. It is virtually insoluble in
tives of salicylic acid.
sic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects.
water but soluble in alcohol (1:10) and alka-
Acetylsalicylic acid (2-acetoxybenzoic
It is used in medicine as antirheumatic and
line solution, easily soluble in chloroform,
acid; aspirin) is one of the most widely used
antigout agents as well as for the treatment of
and extremely easily soluble in esters. Phenyl
drugs in the world. The pure substance is a
febrile diseases and migraine.
salicylate was first synthesised by Wilhelm
white crystalline powder, almost odourless.
Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS, 2-oxy-
Marceli Nencki in 1886. He aspired to find
The odour of acetic acid indicates that the
4-aminobenzoic acid) has been used to treat
a drug that preserving antiseptic properties
substance started to hydrolyse in the air.
tuberculosis (TB) in the form of sodium
of phenol would not cause irritation like sali-
Acetylsalicylic acid is sparingly soluble in
or calcium salts since the 40s of the 20th
cylic acid. For this purpose, he blocked the
water, soluble in ether and chloroform, and
century. PAS is an antagonist of p-amino
carboxyl group of salicylic acid and obtained
freely soluble in 96% ethanol.
benzoic acid needed for normal activity of
its ester with phenol.
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 23
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In some cases, salicylamide is better tolerated
than other salicylates rarely causing some
side effects.
Thiosalicylic acid is used as an anthelmintic agent. It possesses bactericidal and
fungicidal properties.
Figure 1. Preparation of salicylic acid
A lot of esters of salicylic acid are used
in perfumery as perfume compounds and
This principle of using substances with
conducted at underpressure with simultane-
fixing agents. Ethyl salicylate (salethyl)
an irritating action in the form of their esters
ous distilling disengaged methyl alcohol.
has the same though much weaker odour
became known as the “salol nencki princi-
The yield of benzyl salicylate is about 70%
as methyl salicylate. Isobutyl salicylate has
ple”. It was further used for synthesising a lot
of the theoretical one calculated in terms
floral fragrance reminding blooming clover.
of medicines.
methyl salicylate. Benzyl salicylate can be
Ethyl salicylate is produced by the method
Hydrolysing in the alkaline environment
also obtained through the interaction between
described for methyl salicylate being used
of the gastrointestinal tract, phenyl salicylate
salicylates and benzyl chloride under heating.
in perfumery as a substitution for the latter.
releases salicylic acid and phenol - denaturing
The reaction noticeably accelerates in the
Isopropyl and isoamyl esters of salicylic acid
protein molecules. Salol does not decompose
presence of small amount of diethylamine.
are liquids with the fragrance of orchids. A
in the acidic environment of the stomach and
The yield in this case is about 85% of the
technology for isopropyl ether production is
does not irritate gastric mucosa as well as
theoretically possible.
similar to that of methyl salicylate. Isoamyl
oral and esophageal mucosae.
Saligenin (salicyl alcohol) is another deriv-
salicylate is not found in natural essential
Phenol, which forms in the small bowel,
ative of salicylic acid to be mentioned here. It
oils. It is obtained by heating isoamyl alcohol
suppresses pathogenic intestinal microflora,
occurs in compound with glucose as glyco-
with salicylic acid in the presence of con-
and sodium salt of salicylic acid has anti-
side salicin in roots and bark of different spe-
centrated sulfuric acid. Allyl salicylate with
inflammatory and antipyretic actions. Partly
cies of willow and some other plants. For the
a specific fruity floral odour, phenylethyl
excreting from the body by the kidneys, both
first time it was synthesised exactly from this
salicylate with a rose fragrance transforming
compounds disinfect the urinary tract. Phenyl
glycoside. Saligenin is a solid substance, eas-
into a heliotropin odour and isobutyl salicy-
salicylate is far less active in comparison
ily soluble in alcohol, ester and in hot water.
late with a floral odour of blooming clover
with modern antimicrobials, but it is low
In case of cooling or evaporating, it occurs
are also applied.
toxic provoking no dysbacteriosis and other
precipitation of saligenin from the solution
complications. It is often used in outpatient
in the form of white leaves with pearly lus-
practice. Phenyl salicylate is often used for
ter. Saligenin has a pharmacological effect
coating tableted drug dosage forms, when
similar to that of salicylic acid. Although
Currently the Kolbe-Schmitt method is
it is necessary for them to pass through the
this medication apparently does not cause
used for salicylic acid synthesis (Figure 1).
stomach unchanged and to release the active
side effects attributable to salicylic acid, in
Sodium phenoxide is obtained via a reaction
pharmaceutical ingredient substances in the
medical practice, it is hardly used, partly due
between phenol and a solution of sodium
intestine.
to high cost, partly due to its significantly
hydroxide. Then sodium phenoxide is dried
weaker effect compared to salicylic acid.
and saturated with carbon dioxide under pres-
Benzyl salicylate (salicylic acid benzyl
Preparation
ester) is a liquid crystallising at 18 В°C. The
Salicylamide (salicylic acid amide, sala-
sure and heated up to 125 В°C. The resulted
boiling point of the liquid is 208В°C and den-
mide) is a medicine as well. The medical
substance is dissolved in water and the solu-
sity is 1,785-1,180 g/cm3. Salicylic acid ben-
application of salicylamide is the same as
tion is acidified, to form salicylic acid.
zyl ester is odorless and is used in perfumery
that of acetylsalicylic acid. It is mainly used
Salicylic acid is a feedstock for the pro-
as a preservative and a solvent of aromatic
as an analgesic and an antipyretic. Salamide
duction of sodium salicylate, acetylsalicylic
substances in perfume compositions.
is more stable compared to acetylsalicylic
acid, methyl salicylate and phenyl salicylate.
The technique of producing benzyl salicy-
acid. While acetylsalicylic acid is easily
Methyl salicylate, in its turn, is a raw material
late is based on the transesterification of
hydrolysed in the human body with releasing
for the synthesis of salicylamide. Moreover,
methyl ester of salicylic acid by benzyl alco-
salicylic acid, salicylamide hardly undergoes
methyl salicylate can be prepared from wastes
hol in the presence of sodium salt of salicylic
hydrolysis and is excreted from the body in
of acetylsalicylic acid manufacture. Thus,
acid methyl ester. The transesterification is
an unchangeable state in significant volumes.
there are strong interdependent relationships
24 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Organics
w w w. chem mar ket. info
between these chemical substances, and the
advantages of integrated manufacture of
salicylates at a single production complex are
quite obvious. This allows solving the problems of recycling and regeneration of several
waste products, in particular, mother liquors,
Figure 2. Sodium salicylate production process
which contain acetyloxide and acetic acid
as well as unreacted salicylic acid. Sodium
salicylate is prepared by a reaction between
equimolar amounts of purified salicylic acid
(by sublimation) and sodium bicarbonate in
Figure 3. Acetylsalicylic acid production process
ethanol (Figure 2).
Acetylsalicylic acid is manufactured by
acetylation of technical salicylic acid and
isopropyl alcohol with coal treatment. Coal
technique is characterised by by-products
acetyloxide in the presence of chlorobenzene
is filtered and disposed or incinerated. The
formation, a complex process of acetous
or chlorobenzene and acetic acid with utilis-
product is crystallised,
centrifuged and
mother liquor utilisation and high con-
ing recycled mother liquors; Figure 3).
washed off with cold water and IPA. The
sumption of acetic anhydride. However,
The process route starts with loading
flushing water is discharged, and the mother
the significant advantage of this method
chlorobenzene or recycled mother liquor,
liquor and flushing IPA are sent for aqueous
is the absence of problems related to the
salicylic acid or “distillation residues” from
IPA regeneration by distillation. The distil-
use of large amounts of an organic solvent
mother liquors taken from the manufacture
lation residue of the wet salicylic acid (after
- chlorobenzene.
of the pharmaceutical grade product. It is
isopropyl distillation) is dried down to a
Methyl salicylate (salicylic acid methyl
followed by mixing and heating up to 34-36
residual moisture content of max. 0.3% and
ester) is prepared by esterification of sali-
В°C. Then acetylating is carried out by adding
then returned for acetylation. The washed
cylic acid with methanol in the presence of
acetyl oxide at temperatures of up to 78-82
pharma grade product is dried. The yield of
concentrated sulphuric acid (a catalyst and
В°C during two hours. The obtained product
the product is 90% in terms of salicylic acid.
a “dehydrating” agent), i.e., virtually with
is crystallised by cooling down to 15-20 В°C
There is also a method of acetylation of wet
methyl sulphuric acid (Figure 4).
followed by centrifuging the crude prod-
“distillation residues” (containing 10-20%
According to the applied method, a
uct and washing off by cold water and by
water ) by existing technologies at 55-60 В°C
prepared reactor is loaded with methanol,
isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The mother liquor
in the presence of pyridine. The resulting
and sulphuric acid is gradually added at a
containing chlorobenzene, acetic acid, acetyl
active complex - acetic anhydride pyridin
maximum temperature of 30 В°C followed by
oxide, acetylsalicylic acid (up to 15-20%),
- accelerates the process of acetylation by
a hold up period of 30 minutes at 25-30 В°C
salicylic acid (up to 1% ), water (up to 1.5%)
four times. That is why the water present
(the temperature is maintained by cooling
and resins (up to 4-5%) is returned to the
in the substance has no time to hydrolyse
with water through the reactor jacket). The
acetylation stage (up to 10-15 times). After
acetic anhydride (the latter was an obstacle
resulting solution of methyl-sulphuric acid
that the mother liquor is removed from the
for using wet “distillation residues” due to
in methanol, is fed into an esterifier with
cycle and supplied to a wastes treatment unit
increased consumption of acetic anhydride).
loaded technical salicylic acid at an initial
or sent for regeneration. The flushing water
There is also an old method of prepara-
temperature of 70 В°C followed by heating up
is discharged into sewage facilities and the
tion of acetylsalicylic acid by acetylisation
to 70-74 В°C till salicylic acid is dissolved and
flushing isopropyl alcohol is sent for alcohol
of salicylic acid with acetic anhydride and
the substance is dilluted. After that the sub-
regeneration.
its compounds with acetic acid using recy-
stance is cooled down till its sedimentation
The product of pharmaceutical grade is
cled mother liquors at 65-70 В°C. The yield
and the lower layer of aqueous sulhuric acid
prepared by recrystallisation from 40-60%
of the product in this case is 80-82%. The
is separated.
Figure 4. Methyl salicylate production process
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 25
Organics
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Figure 5. Salicylamide production process
The resulted commercial methyl salicylate
is washed with hot water (70-80 В°C) till the
aqueous ammonia in a leakproof reactor
for 51.3% of thios amount or 48,700 tonnes
(Figure 5).
(Figure 6). The sector of skin care products
aqueous layer has a 2.5-3pH level. The sul-
The flow chart includes stages of crude
consumed 24,200 tonnes or 25.5% followed
phuric acid residue is neutralised by washing
salicylamide and pharmacopeia salicylamide
by shampoos and hair care products 14,300
with a 10% sodium carbonate solution at 40
production. At first, aqueous ammonia and
tonnes (15,1%).
В°C till 7-7.5pH followed by one more wash-
methyl salicylate are loaded into a prepared
Global output is expected to rise 6.4%
ing with hot water (70-80 В°C). As a result of
leak proof reactor, in which amidation occurs
on average between 2013 and 2019. North
the purification of the technical product by
at temperatures of 40-47 В°C during six hours.
America is the biggest consumer of sali-
high-vacuum fractional distillation, the yield
Then aqueous methanol with ammonia are
cylic acid having a 35% share globally.
amounts to 87% in terms of salicylic acid. In
distilled under vacuum. Distillation residues
Nevertheless, the Asia-Pacific region will
case of utilising recycled salicylic acid, the
of salicylamide ammonium salt are dissolved
soon display higher growth rates. Salicylic
yield is 86.5-86.8% of the theoretical one.
in water and clarified with a solution of
acid is more and more widely used in cos-
Salicylamide is prepared by a reaction of
sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4) at 60-65 В°C.
metics, in particular, hair care products. This
amidation of methyl salicylate with 22-25%
Later the product is acidified at 60-65 В°C
niche will be possibly the main growth driver
with a 10% sulfuric acid solution to 3-4pH.
of the entire salicylic acid market. Aspirin
The resulted salicylamide is crystallised at
demand will still go up exerting a paramount
15-20 В°C, centrifuged and washed off with
influence upon salicylic acid production.
cold water. The yield of the crude product is
Governmental health protection initiatives
87-92% in terms of methyl salicylate.
aimed at wider use of aspirin by elderly per-
Crude salicylamide is purified by its recrys-
sons to prevent cardiovascular deseases make
tallisation from distilled water with clarify-
a significant contribution to this process. On
ing by coal and sodium dithionite at pH=5
the other hand, growing consumer concerns
(salicylamide – an amphoteric compound;
over aspirin side affects will to some extent
at pH <3, salicylamide starts to melt partially
hinder the development of the salicylic acid
due to protonation of the amide group). After
market at the cost of aspirin.
sedimentation, the mother liquor is sucked
out with vacuum and the residue is filtered by
CIS market
centrifuging. The product is washed off with
Aspirin was first commercially produced by Bayer in 1899. Initially, it
was sold in a powdered form and in
tabbletts since 1904. Aspirin usage
in Russia dates back its history to
1901. The country’s own production
of this medicine began after WW1,
when German supplies halted. In
the former Soviet Union, commercial production of aspirin started at
powerful new plants during the first
five-year plans.
cold distilled water. The mother liquors and the
At present, salicylic acid is not synthesised
washing waters are used 3-4 times instead of
in the former Soviet states. This also pertains to
water for dissolving during the recrystallisa-
its most important derivative — acetylsalicylic
tion of the following batches, and then they are
acid — despite stable demand. At the same
removed from the cycle and discharged. The
time, numerous pharma companies in Russia,
yield of of the pharmaceutical grade product
Ukraine and Belarus use foreign acetylsalicylic
reaches 82-86% in terms of methyl salicylate.
acid for their own manufacturing of medicines
under various trade marks. The companies
Global market
that used to produce aspirin in large volumes
removed from operation their manufacturing
According
Market
facilities long time ago. In particular, aspirin
Research, the capacity of the global salicylic
production at Organica OJSC (Novokuznetsk,
acid market in 2012 totalled 95,000 tonnes
Kemerovo region) launched as far as 1971 is
with the pharmaceutical sector accounting
no longer operational. Earlier before, there
26 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
to
Transparency
Organics
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Figure 6. Breakdown of salicylic acid
applications worlwide in 2012
was large-scale acetylsalicylic acid production there. Among pharmaceutical enterprises,
only Irbit Pharmaceutical Chemistry produc-
Figure 8. Geographical breakdown of
Russian salicylic acid imports in 2012
Figure 7. Russian imports of
salicylates in 2010-12, tonnes
tion plant (Irbit, Sverdlovsk region) has at its
increase (Figure 7). Next year the import
disposal chemical synthesis of such pharma-
supplies virtually remained at the same level
ceutical active ingredients as salicylic and
equalling 191,8 tonnes (-0,36%). About 87%
acetylsalicylic acids. But the company is not
of this figure fell on salicylic acid proper.
synthesising the above-mentioned chemicals
The rest 13% were imported in the form of
currently processing (re-crystallising) techni-
sodium salicylate mainly used as a preserving
cal foreign salicylic acid into a purified active
antiseptic for shampoos and other cosmetics.
ingredient fit for pharmaceutical production at
Chinese suppliers dominated the Russian
its existing production facilities.
Usolye-Sibirskiy
market in salicylic acid and sodium salicy-
khimiko-farmatsevtich-
late with a 45% share in 2012 (Figure 8).
eskiy zavod (Usolye-Sibirskoye chemical
Among the producers from China, we can
and pharmaceutical plant; Usolye-Sibirskoye,
single out the following ones: Hebei Haihua
Irkutsk region) has developed its own methyl-
Energy Development Group (45.8 tonnes)
salicylate synthesis technology, but its produc-
and JQS (Huayin) Pharmaceutical (28
tion volumes are rather small and sporadic.
tonnes). Romania, namely, Romfarmachim
Thus, CIS countries meet their salicylates
(54 tonnes) is in second place. About 20%
demand via import deliveries. Besides, ace-
or 37.8 tonnes were delivered from France
tylsalicylic acid is imported both as an active
represented
ingredient for pharmaceutical production
Operations’s products.
predominantly
by
Rhodia
Figure 9. Basic Russian importers
of salycilic acid and its salts in 2012
Eurohim-1 CJSC (Moscow) occupied 15%
shares each in total Russian imports. Altair
(API) and as finished dosage forms. Our
In 2012, Kontur LLC located in St.
imported 29.3 tonnes of salicylic acid and
analysis of export-import operations will
Petersburg imported 54 tonnes of salicylic
sodium salicylate by Hebei Haihua Energy
cover only API forms.
acid becoming the biggest its Russian
Development Group Co. Ltd in 2012. All
importer with a 28% share (Figure 9). In
this volume was meant for paints and coat-
addition, this enterprise was the only one to
ings applications. Eurohim-1 purchased 28
Russia
buy salicylic acid made by Romfarmachim.
tonnes of salicylic acid from JQS (Huayin)
Russian imports of salicylates for 2011
The product was used for cosmetics manu-
Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. Uralchimplast JSC
amounted to 192,47 tonnes, a 28,5% YOY
facture. Altair LLC (St. Petersburg) and
(Nizhny Tagil) imported 21 tonnes for intra-
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 27
Organics
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
bouhgt 16 tonnes of technical salicylic acid
bought 40 tonnes each accounting for 3.4%
from Hebei Haihua Energy Development
each.
Group Co. Ltd (China) further used in aniline dyes manufacture. The rest acid was
Ukraine
basically imported for the needs of the cosmetics industry. For pharmaceutical pur-
Salicylic acid and its derivatives are exported
poses, salycilic acid was purchased from
to Ukraine in relatively low volumes. For
abroad by Russopharm LLC (10 tonnes)
example, their annual imports were no greater
and Khimiko-farmatsevticheskiy kombinat
than 26 tonnes for the 2009–12 period (Figure
Akrikhin JSC (Chemical and pharmaceuti-
11). Between January and July of the last year,
cal integrated works Akrikhin; 0.7 tonnes).
only 15.4 tonnes were delivered to the country
It is Rhodia that exports to Russia salycilic
from abroad. Of this amount, 60% (9.3 tonnes)
acid for pharmaceutical purposes.
of the Chinese products were purchased by
Salicylates were not supplied to Russia
Figure 10. Basic Russian importers of
acetylsalycilic acid in 2012
Figure 11. Ukrainian imports of
salicylic acid and its derivatives in
2009–13, tonnes
Macrochem PJSC.
in 2010–11. In 2012, 7.5 tonnes of them
Supplies of esters of salicylic acid to
were imported. The country’s imports of
Ukraine over the last three years were a little
acetylsalicylic acid in 2011 equalled 1,348.9
bit higher. In 2012, the imports of these prod-
tonnes, which is 5.7% higher than in 2010
ucts saw an impressive 87% YOY hike, to
(1,430.4 tonnes). A year later foreign deliv-
27,17 tonnes. From January to July of 2013,
eries continued declining totalling 1,175.6
Ukraine imported 18 tonnes of esters of saly-
tonnes (-12,8%). Chinese suppliers com-
cilic acid, and the share of methyl salicylate
pletely monopolised the Russian market
among them was 72% (13 tonnes). The main
in acetylsalicylic acid, namely, Shandong
buyer of methyl salicylate in Ukraine was
Xinhua Pharmaceutical (580,65 tonnes) and
also Macrochem, which imported 12 tonnes
Hebei Jingye Chemical Engineering (580
of the Chinese products.
tonnes) with a 49% combined market share.
Acetylsalicylic acid accounts for the
JQC (Huayin) Pharmaceuticals (15 tonnes;
lion’s share of total Ukrainian imports of all
1,3%) should also be mentioned. Among
derivatives of salicylic acid. For instance,
Russian importers, the leader was Moscow-
the country imported 468,76 tonnes of this
based Indukern-Rus LLC. The latter pur-
product in 2010, which is 10% more as com-
chased 540 tonnes of acetylsalicylic acid
pared to 2009 (426,43 tonnes). A year later, a
from Hebei Jingye Chemical Engineering
5% YOY reduction in supplies occurred, to
Co. Ltd. Indukern-Rus had a 46% share in
444,73 tonnes. The year 2012 was the only
total imports (Figure 10). Pharmstandard
one when imports fell below 400 tonnes over
LLC (Moscow) bought 368 tonnes (31%)
the past five years. To be precise, foreign sup-
of the products from Shandong Xinhua
plies showed a 18% YOY decline, to 360,89
Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, which also made
tonnes in 2012. However, the imports of
supplies to Protek-SVM LLC (Moscow;
salicylic acid rose to 422,8 tonnes for the
102,65 tonnes). In addition, Protek-SVM
first seven months of the past year. Like the
purchased 15 tonnes of the chemical from
Russian market, the Ukrainian one is domi-
JQC (Huayin) Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd. Irbit
nated by Chinese suppliers with a 90% share.
Pharmaceutical Chemistry production plant
The largest Ukrainian importer of acetyl-
(Irbit, Sverdlovsk region) imported 60 tonnes
salicylic acid accounting for 51% of overall
of acetylsalicylic acid by Shandong Xinhua
purchases from abroad is Farmatcevtichna
plant consumption, which makes up 11% of
Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., occupying a 5.1%
firma Darnitsa PJSC (Kyiv) – one of the
total imports. This company utilises saly-
share in total imports. Finally, Uralbiopharm
leaders of the Ukrainian pharmaceutical
cilic acid as a catalyst for furan resins syn-
JSC (Yekaterinburg) and Asfarma LLC
market. Darnitsa imported 216,55 tonnes
thesis. Moscow-based ChemPartners CJSC
(Anzhero-Sunzhensk,
of acetylsalicylic acid of Chinese origin for
28 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Kemerovo
region)
Organics
w w w. chem mar ket. info
the first seven months of 2013. Lubnyfarm
JSC (Lubny, Poltava region) with 15%
purchased 65 tonnes over the same period.
Stiroloptfarmtorg LLC established on the
basis of Kyiv’s representative office of
Stirolbiofarm (Horlivka, Donetsk region)
bought 49 tonnes (12%) of foreign acetylsalicylic acid followed by Kievmedpreparat JSC
(Kyiv) — 39 tonnes (9%).
Belarus
The only big producer of aspirin in
Belarus is Borisovskiy Zavod Medicinskikh
Preparatov OJSC (Borisov, Minsk region)
using imported salicylic acid for making its
for 96–98,5% of total Belarusian imports
Figure 12. Basic Ukrainian importers
of acetylsalicylic acid in 2013
of salicylic acid and its derivatives in 2009-
Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Kazakhstan and
2012. In 2010, the imports of this substance
other former Soviet states mainly purchase
enjoyed a staggering 70% YOY rise, to 345.3
prepackaged, finished pharma products pro-
tonnes. Further, supplies reduced to 250
duced from the acid.
own drugs. Acetylsalicylic acid accounted
tonnes (-27,6%) in 2011 and hit a bottom of
218,2 tonnes (-12,7%) in 2012. Salicylic acid
Figure 13. Belarusian imports of
salicylic acid and its derivatives in
2009–2012, tonnes
РЎonclusion
and other its derivatives are imported into
Belarus in small amounts. For instance, over-
In CIS countries, salicylic acid, aspirin and
all supplies of these products did not exceed
other related derivatives are not synthesised,
3,5 tonnes in 2012 (Figure 13).
while existing production plants are idled or
used for processing technical salicylic acid
Kazakhstan
and aspirin into the products fit for pharmaceutical production. The market in salicylic
Against the background of the above-men-
acid in the form of the substance for pharma-
tioned countries, Kazakhstan is distinguished
ceutical manufacture is virtually completely
with insignificant consumption volumes of
monopolised by suppliers from China. CIS
salicylic acid and its derivatives in primary
pharmaceutical companies are only engaged
forms. Most likely, this can be explained by
in processing the active substance of Chinese
predominant imports of prepackaged, fin-
origin into medicines under their own brands.
ished pharmaceutical products. The annual
Consumers from the former Soviet Union are
imports of salicylic acid and its salts during
unlikely to see in pharmacies aspirin made of
the 2011-2012 period did not exceed 4 tonnes
domestically-made salicylic acid. However,
(Figure 14). The situation with consumption
demand for both salicylic acid and aspirin
of salicylic acid derivatives in the form esters
will probably grow in accord with global
and their salts is similar. In 2010-2012, ace-
trends. This, in turn, will stimulate imports of
tylsalicylic acid supplies did not go beyond
salicylicand acetylsalicylic acids. As for ace-
9 tonnes.
tylsalicylic acid, there is an obvious increase
Thus, acetylsalicylic acid in the form of
in its imports as both a substance for phar-
a substance for pharmaceutical production
maceutical production and a finished pharma
is imported in large quantities only into
product.
Figure 14. Kazakh imports of salicylic
acid and its derivatives in 2009-2012,
tonnes
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 29
Organics
Prices
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Prices for some organic chemicals produced in Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Belarus in 1Q, 2014
Manufacturer
City
Country
Notes
Price per tonne,
ex. VAT
Acetic acid synthetic, 70%
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
In bulk
1100 USD
Acetic acid synthetic, 99.6%
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
In bulk
1100 USD
Acetic aldehyde, 0.788 g/cmВі
density
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
1300-1675 USD
Acetone technical, 99-99.75%
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
6486665 UZS
Acetylene, 98.8%
Chelyabtehgaz Ltd
Chelyabinsk
Russia
Acetylene, 99.1%
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
33 USD / gascylinder
Benzene petroleum purified,
99.8%
Uralorgsintez JSC
Chaykovsky (Perm
territory)
Russia
27966 RUR
Benzene petroleum purified,
99.8%
SIBUR-Kstovo Ltd
Kstovo (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
27966 RUR
Benzene petroleum refined,
99.8%
Mozyr Refinery JSC
Mozyr (Homiel
region)
Belarus
6677400 BYR
Benzene petroleum refined,
99.8%
Naftan JSC
Navopolatsk
(Vitsebsk region)
Belarus
SIBUR-Kstovo Ltd
Kstovo (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
Benzene petroleum, highest
purification, 99.9%
Mozyr Refinery JSC
Mozyr (Homiel
region)
Belarus
EXW
6677400 BYR
1-Bromonaphthalene, pure,
97%
Chemical line Ltd
St. Petersburg
Russia
Packing 1.5 kg
1864 RUR / kg
Butane or a mixture of
butane, 85% butane and 15%
butylene
Sterlitamak
Petrochemical Plant
JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
Cisterns / Automotive
fuel component
11600-11900 RUR
Butane technical, 60% of
butane and butylene
Mozyr Refinery JSC
Mozyr (Homiel
region)
Belarus
Butane, 85% butane, 15%
butylene
Sterlitamak
Petrochemical Plant
JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
Component of petrol
10800 RUR
Butylene-butadiene fraction
not hydrogenated, grade
A, 98% of C4 and 40% of
butadiene-1.3
SIBUR-Kstovo Ltd
Kstovo (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
Raw material for
rubber production
36017 RUR
Butylene-butadiene fraction,
not hydrogenated, grade
B, 98% of C4 and 30% of
butadiene-1.3
SIBUR-Kstovo Ltd
Kstovo (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
Raw material for
rubber production
30127 RUR
Cyclohexane technical, 99.899.9%
Shchekinoazot UCC
JSC
Schekino (Tula
region)
Russia
KuibyshevAzot OJSC
Togliatti (Samara
region)
Product
Benzene petroleum, for
synthesis, 99.7%
Cyclohexane technical, 99.9%
Ethylbenzene technical,
99.8%
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
30 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Perm
5 liter balloon, 1 kg
EXW
260 RUR / kg
6677400 BYR
33475 RUR
1868260 BYR
85000 RUR
Russia
EXW / Tank cars (50
tonnes), boiler trucks/
For chemical fibres
and solvent
75000 RUR
Russia
Raw material for
styrene, component
of motor fuels,
solvent
34746 RUR
Organics
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Prices
Manufacturer
City
Country
Notes
Price per tonne,
ex. VAT
Ethylbenzene technical,
99.8%
SIBUR-Kstovo Ltd
Kstovo (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
Raw for production of
styrene, a component
of motor fuel, solvent
34746 RUR
2-Ethylhexanoic acid,
synthetic oily C8
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
Perm
Russia
Product
76721 RUR
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
Perm
Russia
For synthesis
of plasticisers,
stabilisers, additives
for lubricating oils,
solvents
Ethylene oxide purified,
99.9%
SIBUR-Neftekhim JSC
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
For obtaining highpurity ethylene glycol
Formalin, 36.9-37.5%
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
2-Ethylhexanol technical,
99%
Hexamethylenetetramine
stabilized technical, 98% of
amines
Hexamethylenetetramine
technical, 98-99.5% of
amines
Metafrax JSC
Gubakha (Perm
territory)
54237 RUR
46610 RUR
315 USD
Russia
EXW / PP bags 25 kg,
rail-cars 50-60 tonnes
For production of
phenol-formaldehyde
resins
38500 RUR
EXW / PP bags 25 kg,
rail-cars 50-60 tonnes
For production of
phenol-formaldehyde
resins
38500-40500 RUR
Metafrax JSC
Gubakha (Perm
territory)
Russia
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
2400 USD
Isobutane fraction, 97%
Kinef Ltd
Kirishi (Leningrad
region)
Russia
16697-18054 RUR
Isobutane fraction, 98%
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
Perm
Russia
Isobutane fraction, 98%
Tobolsk-Neftekhim
Ltd
Tobolsk (Tyumen
Region)
Russia
17797 RUR
Isobutane fraction, 98%
Uralorgsintez JSC
Chaykovsky (Perm
territory)
Russia
17797 RUR
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
350 USD
Shchekinoazot UCC
JSC
Schekino (Tula
region)
Russia
19000-23000 RUR
Kaustic JSC
Volgograd
Russia
47000-70000 RUR
Methyl-tert-butyl ether, 98%
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
Perm
Russia
44068 RUR
Methyl-tert-butyl ether, 98%
Uralorgsintez JSC
Chaykovsky (Perm
territory)
Russia
44068 RUR
Methyl-tert-butyl ether, 98%
Tobolsk-Neftekhim
Ltd
Tobolsk (Tyumen
Region)
Russia
44068 RUR
Methyl-tert-butyl ether, 98%
Togliattikauchuk Ltd
Togliatti
Russia
44068 RUR
Naftan JSC
Navopolatsk
(Vitsebsk region)
Belarus
Hexamethylenetetramine
technical, tableted, 98-99.5%
of amines
Methanol technical, 99.95%
Methanol, 99.95%,
Methyl chloride technical,
90%
Methylacetylene-allene
fraction
In production of
rubber, polyethylenes,
polypropylenes,
polystyrenes
Welding gas
17797 RUR
900 EUR
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 31
Organics
Prices
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Manufacturer
City
Country
Notes
Price per tonne,
ex. VAT
Krauft Ltd
St Petersburg
Russia
Extractant, chemical
raw material
13559 RUR / kg
N, N-dimethyl-pphenylenediamine, analytical
grade, 1.09 g/cm3
Chemical line Ltd
St. Petersburg
Russia
13559 RUR / kg
Propane technical, max 75%
propane and propylene
Surgutneftegas JSC
Surgut (Khanty-Mansi
Autonomous District)
Russia
15340 RUR
Propane-butane mixture, max
60% of butane and butylene
Mozyr Refinery JSC
Mozyr (Homiel
region)
Belarus
1868260 BYR
Propane-butane mixture, max
60% of butane and butylene
Turkmenbashi
complex of refinery
Turkmenbashi (Balkan
province)
Turkmenistan
419 USD
Propane-butane mixture, max
60% of butane and butylene
Shurtan Gaz Chemical
Complex Unitary
Branch Establishment
Shurtan
(Qashqadaryo
province)
Uzbekistan
899093 UZS
Propane-butane, 20%
propane, 80% butane
Turkmenbashi
complex of refinery
Turkmenbashi (Balkan
province)
Turkmenistan
567-725 USD
Propane-butane, 60%
butanes and butylenes
Surgutneftegaz JSC
Surgut (Khanty-Mansi
Autonomous District)
Russia
12213-12390 RUR
Propylene fraction, 90-98.8%
SIBUR-Kstovo Ltd
Kstovo (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
32203 RUR
Propylene, 99.8%
SIBUR-Kstovo Ltd
Kstovo (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
34746 RUR
Styrene, grade SDEB, 99.8%
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
Perm
Russia
55932 RUR
Styrene, grade SDEB, 99.8%
Plastic JSC
Uzlovaya (Tula
region)
Russia
55932 RUR
Styrene, grade SDEB, for
processing, 99.8%
Plastic JSC
Uzlovaya (Tula
region)
Russia
44915 RUR
Styrene, grade SDEB, for
processing, 99.8%
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
Perm
Russia
44915 RUR
Toluene, 99.6-99.75%
Naftan JSC
Navopolatsk
(Vitsebsk region)
Belarus
5951100 BYR
Vinylidene chloride technical,
99.9%
Kaustic JSC
Volgograd
Russia
120000-130000
RUR
o-Xylene petroleum, 99.2%
Naftan JSC
Navopolatsk
(Vitsebsk region)
Belarus
6644200 BYR
Navopolatsk
(Vitsebsk region)
Belarus
432500 BYR
Product
N, N-dimethyl-pphenylenediamine, 98%
p-Xylene petroleum, highest
Naftan JSC
purification, 99.2%
1 EUR = 45,0559-49,5839 RUR
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of Russia during 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 3000,05-3053,73 UZS
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of the Republic of Uzbekistan during 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 3,8982-3,9159 РўРњРў
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of Turkmenistanduring 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 12650-13400 BYR
Official exchange rate, according to the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus during 1Q 2014
32 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Ingredients
Finished Formulation
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Technology
Packaging
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Russian, CIS
and CEE pharma
markets
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Since doing business in Russia is all about who
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16-17 April 2014 • Lenexpo Exhibition Complex
• St. Petersburg, Russia.
www.cphi.com/russia
Organised by:
Inorganics
Prices
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Prices of Russian, Belarusian, Uzbek and Turkmen chemical producers for inorganic materials
and industrial gases in 1Q, 2014
Product
Argon liquid, top grade,
99.993%
Manufacturer
City
Country
Evraz NTMK JSC
Nizhny Tagil
(Sverdlovsk region)
Russia
Notes
Price for 1
tonne, ex. VAT
16900 RUR
Timosha Ltd
Smolevichi (Minsk
region)
Belarus
For producing components
of microchips, high-power
transistors, absorbents,
heat-conducting pastes and
compounds
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
Russia
EXW
20000 RUR
Timosha Ltd
Smolevichi (Minsk
region)
Belarus
For producing heatconducting pastes and
compounds
10 USD
Ammonia liquid, 99.6%
Shchekinoazot UCC
JSC
Schyokino (Tula
region)
Russia
Ammonia liquid, 99.6%
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
Ammonium chloride, 99%
Argon gaseous, top grade,
99.993%
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Nizhny Tagil
(Sverdlovsk region)
Togliatti (Samara
region)
Uzbekistan
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
Russia
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
Khimprom Ltd
Navoiyazot JSC
Kemerovo
Navoiy
Russia
Uzbekistan
EXW
Chlorine liquid, 99.6%
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
РЎontainers 900-980 kg
Chlorine liquid, 99.6%
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Cylinders 55-60 kg
Chlorine liquid, 99.6%
Chlorine liquid, 99.6%
Kaustik JSC
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Volgograd
Russia
Russia
In bulk
Cisterns 50-55 tonnes
Chlorine liquid, 99.6%
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
Russia
EXW / In containers
Chlorine liquid, 99.6%-99.8%
Ferric trichloride, water
solution, 30%
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
In cisterns
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Evraz ZSMK JSC
Novokuznetsk
(Kemerovo region)
Russia
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
145 USD
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
6500-8500
RUR
Hydrochloric acid inhibited,
22-24%
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
Russia
Hydrochloric acid reactive
chemically pure, 35-38%
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Aluminum nitride hexagonal,
98.5%
Aluminum oxychloride, 1722% Al2O3
Aluminum oxynitride powder,
70% aluminum nitride, 30%
aluminum oxide
Argon liquid, 99.98%
Calcium chloride calcined
granulated, 90%
Calcium chloride granulated,
90-96.5%
Calcium chloride liquid, 32%
Calcium chloride liquid, 35%
Ferrum oxide (III) granulated,
95%
Hydrochloric acid inhibited,
20-23%
Hydrochloric acid inhibited,
21-23%
Evraz NTMK JSC
KuibyshevAzot JSC
34 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
25000-30000
RUR
More than 2 tonnes /
refrigerant (R717)
Mordant in dyeing / Bags
Russia
Russia
10 USD
270 USD
330 USD
95 RUR / m3
Tankers 2.5; 7.5 tonnes /
Railway tanks 36 tonnes
EXW / Containers, 500 kg big
bag, 25 kg bags, rail cars
16000 RUR
4500 RUR
845000 UZS
Catalyst in production of
ammonia, component of
ceramics, cements and
minerals paints
EXW / For treatment of oil
wells, etching iron, cleaning
of boilers
4500 RUR
300 USD
30000-34000В RUR
30000-40000
RUR
4500 RUR
10500 RUR
42500-70000
RUR
140 USD
16000-18000
RUR
2650 RUR
12000 RUR
8000 RUR
Inorganics
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Product
Price for 1
tonne, ex. VAT
Manufacturer
City
Country
Hydrochloric acid synthetic
technical, 31.5-36%
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
120 USD
Hydrochloric acid synthetic
technical, 31.5%
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
5500-7500
RUR
Hydrochloric acid synthetic
technical, 31.5%-38%
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
Russia
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Hydrochloric acid, reactive,
chemically pure, 35-38%
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
Russia
EXW / PE canisters 20,
30,50 l
23000 RUR
Hydrochloric acid, reactive,
pure, 35-38%
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
Russia
Cisterns 50 tonnes
20000 RUR
Iodine technical, 99%
Balkanabat Iodine
Plant
Balkanabat ( Balkan
Province)
Turkmenistan
Prepayment / EXW
36000 USD
Iodine technical, 99%
Bereket Iodine Plant
Bereket (Akhal
province)
Turkmenistan
Prepayment / EXW
36000 USD
Iodine technical, 99%
Khazar Chemical Plant
Khazar (Balkan
province)
Turkmenistan
Prepayment / EXW
36000 USD
Magnesium chloride (bishofit)
technical, grade B, solution
250-400 g/l
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
3000-4000
RUR
Magnesium chloride flake,
97%
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
9000-11000
RUR
Magnesium chloride
granulated, 97%
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
14000-16000
RUR
Nitric acid weak, 56-58%, in
terms of 100%
Mendeleyevskazot Ltd
Mendeleevsk
(Republic of Tatarstan)
Russia
Oleum improved, 24% SO3
PhosAgroCherepovets JSC
Cherepovets (Vologda
region)
Russia
2000 RUR
Oleum improved, 24% SO3
Balakovo Mineral
Fertilisers Ltd
Balakovo (Saratov
region)
Russia
2000 RUR
Oleum improved, 24% SO3
Shchekinoazot UCC
JSC
Schyokino (Tula
region)
Russia
Phosphoric acid extraction,
water solution, 40%
PhosAgroCherepovets JSC
Cherepovets (Vologda
region)
Russia
15500 RUR
Phosphoric acid extraction,
water solution, 40%
Balakovo Mineral
Fertilisers Ltd
Balakovo (Saratov
region)
Russia
15500 RUR
Khazar Chemical Plant
Khazar (Balkan
province)
Turkmenistan
60000 USD
Sodium bicarbonate, 99.5%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
In bulk / Bags / Big bags
11100 RUR
Sodium bicarbonate, 99%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
In bulk / Bags / Big bags
10870 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade A, 98.2%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
Big bags 800 kg
10472-10547
RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade A, 98.2%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
Bags 50 kg
10911-10986
RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade A, 98.2%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
In bulk
9592-9668
RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade B, 97.5%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
In bulk
9170 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade B, 97.5%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
Big bags 650 kg
10070 RUR
Hydrochloric acid waste,
27.5%
Potassium iodide, 99%
Notes
Prices
Cisterns 60-70 tonnes, PE
canisters 20, 30,50 l
16000-17000
RUR
4000-7500
RUR
In customer’s packaging
EXW
17808 RUR
3600-5500
RUR
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 35
Inorganics
Prices
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Product
Manufacturer
City
Country
Notes
Price for 1
tonne, ex. VAT
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade B, 97.5%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
Bags 40 kg
10470 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade B, 97.5%
Qo’ng’irot soda zavodi
unitary enterprise
Qo’ng’irot
(Karakalpakstan
province)
Uzbekistan
EXW / In bulk / PP bags
35 kg
280 USD
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade B, 98.2%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
Bags 40 kg
9270 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade B, 98.2%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
Big bags 650 kg
10170 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade B, 98.2%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
In bulk
10570 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade B, 98.2%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
Bags 50 kg
10564 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade B, 98.2%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
Big bags 500 kg
10124 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade B, 98.2%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
In bulk
9246 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade B, 98.9%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
In bulk
9370 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade B, 98.9%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
Big bags 650 kg
10270 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade B, 98.9%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
Bags 40 kg
10670 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade B, 98.9%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
Bags 50 kg
10621 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade B, 98.9%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
Big bags 500 kg
10183 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade B, 98.9%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
In bulk
9303 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade Рђ, 97.5%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
In bulk
9470 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade Рђ, 97.5%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
Big bags 1000 kg
10370 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade Рђ, 97.5%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
Bags 40 kg
10770 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade Рђ, 98.2%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
In bulk
9570 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade Рђ, 98.2%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
Big bags 1000 kg
10470 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade Рђ, 98.2%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
Bags 40 kg
10870 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade Рђ, 98.7%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
In bulk
10570 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade Рђ, 98.7%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
Bags 40 kg
9670 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade Рђ, 98.7%
Berezniki Soda Plant
JSC
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Russia
Big bags 1000 kg
10970 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade Рђ, 98.7%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
In bulk / For production
electron-tube glass
9668 RUR
Sodium carbonate (soda ash),
grade Рљ, 85%
KuibyshevAzot JSC
Togliatti (Samara
region)
Russia
In bulk / Big bags 800 kg
6500-7500
RUR
Sodium chloride, 97.5%
Guvlyduz Combine
Guvlymayak (Balkan
province)
Turkmenistan
Prepayment / For industrial
applications
40 USD
36 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Inorganics
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Product
Price for 1
tonne, ex. VAT
Manufacturer
City
Country
Sodium chloride, technical,
purified, 99.5%
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
Sodium cyanide, 20-30%
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
Sodium hydroxide reactive,
analytical grade, 98%
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Sodium hydroxide tablet, 98%
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
22000-30000
RUR
SIBUR-Neftekhim JSC
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
17797 RUR
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
13400-23000
RUR
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
Russia
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
10000-20000
RUR
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
190 USD
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
Russia
Sodium hydroxide technical
granulated, 99%
Sodium hydroxide, RD grade,
44%
Sodium hydroxide, RD grade,
46%
Sodium hydroxide, RD grade,
46%
Sodium hypochlorite, 10-20 g
/l NaOH
Sodium hypochlorite, 10-20
g/l NaOH
Sodium hypochlorite, 40 g/l
NaOH, 120 g/l Cl
Sulphur gaseous granulated,
99.98%
Sulphur gaseous lumps,
99.98%
Sulphur liquid, 99.2%
Sulphur liquid, 99.98%
Sulphur lump, 99.2%
Sulphur lump, 99.9%
Sulphuric acid accumulator,
92-94%
Sulphuric acid contact
improved, 92.5-94%
Sulphuric acid technical
contact, 92.5%
Sulphuric acid technical
contact, 92.5%
Sulphuric acid waste, 72%
Sulphuric acid, grade K, 9596.5%
Sulphuric acid, high purity,
93.5-95.6%
Kirishi (Leningrad
region)
Buxoro neftni qayata Qorovulbozor (Buxoro
ishlash zavodi
province)
Mozyr Oil Refinery JSC Mozyr (Homiel region)
Mozyr Oil Refinery JSC Mozyr (Homiel region)
Kremenchug (Poltava
Ukrtatnafta PJSC
region)
Turkmenbashi
Turkmenbashi (Balkan
Complex of Oil
province)
Refineries
Shchekinoazot UCC
Schyokino (Tula
JSC
region)
Shchekinoazot UCC
Schyokino (Tula
JSC
region)
PhosAgroCherepovets (Vologda
Cherepovets JSC
region)
Shchekinoazot UCC
Schyokino (Tula
JSC
region)
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
PhosAgroCherepovets (Vologda
Cherepovets JSC
region)
Kinef Ltd
Shchekinoazot UCC
JSC
Schyokino (Tula
region)
Notes
Prices
600 USD
Galvanising and gilding
metal products
2822350 UZS
30000 RUR
In production of vinyl
chloride as a neutralising
agent
EXW / Cisterns 55-60 tonnes
(in bulk), tanks 25-27 tonnes
EXW / Cisterns 60-70
tonnes; PE canisters
60000 RUR
26500 RUR
26500 RUR
Russia
649-826 RUR
Uzbekistan
55089 UZS
Belarus
Belarus
437200 BYR
437200 BYR
Ukraine
Rail, road transport
842-917 UAH
Turkmenistan
Prepayment / FCA / 50 kg
bags
57 USD
Russia
Russia
EXW
Russia
2000 RUR
Russia
EXW
Russia
EXW / Cisterns 50-60 tonnes
Russia
Russia
6000-13000
RUR
3500-6000
RUR
2900-5000
RUR
60 RUR
2000 RUR
For production of high-tech
products and analytical
materials
23000 RUR
1 EUR = 45.0559-49.5839 RUR
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of Russia during 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 3000.05-3053.73 UZS
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of the Republic of Uzbekistan during 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 3.8982-3.9159 РўРњРў
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of Turkmenistanduring 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 12650-13400 BYR
Official exchange rate, according to the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus during 1Q 2014
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 37
Agrochemistry
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Summing up Ukrainian Fertilisers
Production in 2013: No Light at
the End of the Tunnel
All in all last year proved extremely
unsuccessful for Ukrainian fertilisers
producers. The domestic output of
the following fertilisers displayed a
significant reduction in 2013 as compared to 2012:
ammonium nitrate – (–9.1%);
urea – (–24.8%), ammophos –
(–33.8%), NPK – (–47.7%), ammonium sulphate – (–49.5%). Only
CAS production rose 14% in 2013.
Below are given production results
in detail.
Ammonium nitrate
Table 1. Ammonium nitrate production in Ukraine in 2013, thousand tonnes
December
2013
December
2012
December
2013 to
December
2012, %
2013
2012
2013 to
2012, %
Cherkasy-based
Azot PJSC
80,0
43,1
185,6
953,7
789,3
120,8
Rivneazot JSC
43,2
50,5
85,5
530,7
500,7
106,0
Severodonetsk
Azot Association
PJSC
50,0
52,4
95,4
393,2
587
67,0
Concern Stirol
PJSC
0,0
63,8
-
374,2
599
62,5
173,2
209,8
82,6
2251,8
2476,0
90,9
Company
Total
Рўable 2. Carbamide production in Ukraine in 2013, thousand tonnes
In 2013, the Ukrainian enterprises turned
out 2,251,800 tonnes of ammonium nitrate
December
2013
December
2012
December
2013 to
December
2012 in %
2013
2012
2013 to
2012, %
DniproAzot
PJSC
69,2
65,1
106,3
699,5
684,1
102,3
Odessa Port
Plant JSC
49,2
81,8
60,1
635,0
930,1
68,3
Cherkasybased Azot
PJSC
0,0
72,1
-
548,6
776,5
70,7
Severodonetsk
Azot
Association
PJSC
0,0
38,4
-
314,0
404,7
77,6
Concern Stirol
PJSC
0,0
87,3
-
576,9
891,9
64,7
118,4
344,7
34,3
2774,0
3687,3
75,2
(see Table 1).
Company
In December 2012 total production of
NH4NO3 amounted to 173,200 tonnes (in
physical terms).
In December Cherkasy-based Azot PJSC
raised its ammonium nitrate output by
85.6%, to 80,000 tpy against December 2012.
Rivneazot decreased output of this product
by 14.5%, to 43,200 tonnes, and production at Severodonetsk Azot Association fell
4.6%, to 50,000 tonnes. Concern Stirol PJSC
(Horlivka, Donetsk region) was not engaged
in ammonium nitrate manufacture at all. In
November 2013 the country’s enterprises
produced 158,100 tonnes of ammonium
nitrate (in physical terms).
Carbamide
Total
In December 2013 chemical enterprises in
output by 6.3%, to 69,200 tonnes in December
the country cut CO(NH2)2 output (in physi-
2013 against December 2012, whereas the pro-
In 2013 Ukrainian companies reduced
cal terms) by 65.7% or 226,300 tonnes, to
duction of Odessa Port Plant JSC showed a 39.9%
carbamide production by 24.8% or 913,300
118,400 tonnes as compared to the same
YOY fall, to 49,200 tonnes.
tonnes, to 2,774,000 tonnes over 2012 (Table
period of 2012.
2).
In particular, DniproAzot PJSC increased urea
38 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Severodonetsk
Azot
Association,
Cherkasy-based Azot and Concern Stirol
Agrochemistry
w w w. chem mar ket. info
did not produce urea in December of the
Table 3. Ukrainian ammophos production in December, thousand tonnes
December
December December 2013 to
2013
2012
December
2012, %
past year. According to more precise
Company
data, Ukrainian CO(NH 2) 2 production in
2012 decreased 3.5% or 135,000 tonnes,
to 3,678,200 tonnes against 2011.
In
2013
2012
2013 to
2012, %
Dniprovsky mineral
fertilizers plant
PJSC
0,2
0,0
-
14,7
19,0
77,4
64.6% or 204,400 tonnes, to 111,900
Crimea Titan PJSC
0,0
1,6
-
25,4
52,4
48,5
tonnes in comparison with November
Sumykhimprom
PJSC
0,0
0,0
-
0,0
0,0
-
Total
0,2
1,6
12,5
40,1
71,4
56,2
November 2013 the enterprises reduced
urea production (in physical terms) by
2012.
Ammophos
Table 4. NPK production in Ukraine in 2013, thousand tonnes
In 2013, ammophos production in the
country plunged 43.8% or 31,300 tonnes, to
40,100 tonnes against 2012 (Table 3).
In
December
2013
the
output
to 0.2 tonnes over December 2012. In parDinprovskiy
mineral
December
2012
December
2013 to
December
2012, %
2013
2012
2013 to
2012, %
Sumykhimprom
PJSC
0,0
11,0
-
180,7
343,2
52,7
Dinprovskiy
mineral
fertilizers plant
PJSC
0,2
0,0
-
0,4
3,3
12,1
Total
0,2
11,0
1,8
181,1
346,5
52,3
of
ammophos dived 87.5% or 1,400 tonnes,
ticular,
Company
December
2013
fertilizers
plant PJSC (Dniprodzerzhinsk) produced a
total of 200 tonnes of ammophos, whereas
Sumykhimprom PJSC (Sumy) and Crimea
Titan PJSC did not manufacture this product
in December at all.
According to more precise data, Ukrainian
ammophos production in 2012 amounted to
Table 5. Ukrainian ammonium sulphate production in 2013, thousand tonnes
December
2013
December
2012
December
2013 to
2012, %
2013
2012
2013 to
2012, %
Cherkasy-based
Azot PJSC
0,0
0,0
-
32,0
63,8
50,2
NPK
Crimea Titan
PJSC
0,0
0,0
-
0,2
0,0
-
Ukrainian chemical companies reduced
NPK production by 47.7% or 165,400 tonnes,
Sumykhimprom
PJSC
0,0
0,0
-
0,0
0,0
-
to 181,100 tonnes in 2013 as compared to a
Total
0,0
0,0
-
32,2
63,8
50,5
71,400 tonnes. In November 2013 it slumped
Producers
97.6% or 8,000 tonnes, to 0.2 tonnes as compared to November 2012.
year earlier (see Table 4). In December 2013
NPK output plummeted 98.2% or 10,800
tonnes, to 200 tonnes against 2012.
Dnirpovskiy
mineral
fertilizers
plant
turned out 0.2 tonnes of the product in 2013,
while Sumykhimprom was not engaged in
NPK production at all. According to more
precise data, the Ukrainian production of
NPK in 2012 totalled 346,500 tonnes. In
November 2013, NPK output rose 26.3%
or 3,500 tonnes, to 16,800 tonnes against
November 2012.
Table 6. Production of aqueous solution of urea and ammonium nitrate in 2013,
thousand tonnes
December
2013
December
2012
December
2013 to
2012, %
2013
2012
2013 to
2012, %
Cherkasybased Azot
PJSC
0,0
12,7
-
204,6
190,4
107,5
Concern Stirol
PJSC
0,0
0,0
-
97,9
75,0
130,5
Total
0,0
12,7
-
302,5
265,4
114,0
Company
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 39
Agrochemistry
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Table 7. Ukrainian imports and exports in 2013, million dollars
Страна
Imports
December
Ammonium sulphate
Exports
2013
December
2013
Nitrogen fertilisers
In 2013 Ukraine’s output of ammonium
sulphate lunged 49.5% or 31,600 tonnes
to 32,200 tonnes in comparison with 2012
Russia
34,33
205,04
-
-
Other
0,78
3,45
33,12
627,75
Poland
0,13
1,83
-
-
Uzbekistan
0,43
1,49
-
-
of 2012. According to more accurate data
Turkey
-
-
20,87
295,41
(NH4)2SO4 output in 2012 equalled 63,800
Italy
-
-
1,61
103,33
Brazil
-
-
-
107,05
Total
35,68
211,82
55,60
1 133,53
Phosphorus fertilisers
(Table 5). Ukrainian enterprises did not
produce ammonium sulphate in November
and December 2013 and the same months
tonnes.
Water solution of urea
and ammonium nitrate
Russia
-
0,34
-
-
In 2013 UAN production in Ukraine (aque-
Total
-
0,34
-
-
ous solution of urea and ammonium nitrate)
increased 14% or 37,100 tonnes, to 302,500
Potassium fertilisers
tonnes as compared to 2012 (see Table 6).
Belarus
2,58
68,16
-
-
Russia
0,36
1,95
0,02
0,18
did not produce UAN. Over the same period
Other
0,01
1,23
-
0,02
of 2012 they manufactured 13,200 tonnes.
Belgium
0,02
1,11
-
-
Lithuania
-
-
0,02
0,59
Turkey
-
-
-
0,04
2,97
72,44
0,04
0,83
Total
Mixed type fertilisers (10 kg bags)
Russia
21,64
393,22
-
-
Belarus
3,71
80,30
-
-
In December 2013 Ukrainian companies
According to more accurate data, the
production of UAN 265,400 tonnes. In
November 2013 the companies did not produce UAN.
Ukrainian fertiliser exports
and imports in 2013
In 2013 Ukrainian exported fertilisers
worth USD 1.17bn, while the country’s
Other
1,99
48,28
0,38
10,96
Finland
0,30
9,48
-
-
Ivory Coast
-
-
-
9,54
fertilisers at the amount of USD 56m, and
Moldova
-
-
-
4,97
imports totalled USD 66.3m. Nitrogen
Benin
-
-
-
11,26
Total
27,65
531,28
0,38
36,72
Grand total
66,30
815,88
56,02
1 171,08
Superphosphate
imports amounted to USD 815.8m (Table
7). In December the country exported
fertilisers were in the highest demand in
December. Their exports amounted to
55.6m. In November Ukraine exports of
mineral fertilisers were worth USD 70.5m,
the imports – USD 38.5m.
and December 2013 and in December
2012. According to more precise data,
The article is based upon data provided by the
In 2013 Ukrainian enterprises produced
superphosphate production in the country
the Cherkasy State Scientific Research Institute
a total of 10,000 tonnes of superphosphate.
in 2012 amounted to 100 tonnes. The only
of Technical and Economic Information in the
At the same time, the companies did not
Ukrainian producer of superphosphates is
Chemical Industry and by information agency
manufacture superphosphate in November
Sumykhimprom PJSC.
Ukrainian News.
40 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Agrochemistry
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Prices
Prices for mineral fertilisers of Russian, Uzbek, Turkmen, and Ukrainian manufacturers in 1Q, 2014
Product
Ammonia water, 20.5%
Ammonia water, 25% N
Ammonia water, 25% N
Ammonium nitrate with
magnesium additive, 37.4% N
Ammonium nitrate with sulphur
crystalline ammonium sulphate,
grade 6S, N-31%, S-6%
Ammonium nitrate with sulphur
with granulated ammonium
sulphate, grade 6S, N-31%,
S-6%
Manufacturer
City
Dneprovskyy Plant of
Chemical Fertilisers
PJSC
Dniprodzerzhynsk
(Dnipropetrovsk
region)
Togliatti (Samara
KuibyshevAzot OJSC
region)
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Mendeleyevsk
Mendeleyevskazot Ltd
(Republic of Tatarstan)
Country
Notes
Price per
tonne, ex. VAT
Ukraine
In bulk / EXW, Rail-car norms
1350 UAH
Russia
Uzbekistan
EXW
170 USD
Russia
In bulk
10299 RUR
KuibyshevAzot OJSC
Togliatti (Samara
region)
Russia
Big bags 950 kg
8228 RUR
KuibyshevAzot OJSC
Togliatti (Samara
region)
Russia
Big bags 950 kg
8394 RUR
Veliky Novgorod
(Novgorod region)
Berezniki (Perm
territory)
Togliatti (Samara
region)
Russia
Maryazot production
association
Mary
Turkmenistan
Ammonium nitrate, 34.4% N
Mineral fertilisers JSC
Rossosh (Voronezh
region)
Russia
Ammonium nitrate, 34.4% N
Minudobreniya JSC
Perm
Russia
Ammonium nitrate, 34.4% N
Acron JSC
Ammonium nitrate, 34.4% N
Azot Branch of
Uralchem JSC
Ammonium nitrate, 34.4% N
KuibyshevAzot OJSC
Ammonium nitrate, 34.4% N
Ammonium nitrate, 34.4% N
Ammonium nitrate, 34.4% N
Ammonium nitrate, 34.4% N
Ammonium nitrate, 34.4% N
Ammonium nitrate, 34.4% N
Ammonium nitrate, 34.4% N
Ammonium nitrate, 34.4%N
Ammonium sulphate, 21% N
Ammonium sulphate, 21% N
Ammonium sulphate, 21% N
Ammonium sulphate, 21% N
Calcium ammonium nitrate
(CAN), 27% N, 4% CaO
Calcium dihydrogen phosphate
monohydrate (monocalcium
phosphate), 16% РЎa, 22% P
4000 RUR
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Nevinnomysskiy Azot
Nevinnomyssk
JSC
(Stavropol territory)
Novomoskovskiy Azot Novomoskovsk (Tula
JSC
region)
PhosAgro-Cherepovets Cherepovets (Vologda
JSC
region)
Voskresensk Mineral Voskresensk (Moscow
Fertilisers JSC
region)
Verkhnedneprovsky
Dorogobuzh JSC
Settlement (Smolensk
region)
Mineral fertiliser Plant
Kirovo-Chepetsk
of Kirovo-Chepetsk
(Kirov region)
Chemical Works JSC
Togliatti (Samara
KuibyshevAzot OJSC
region)
Chirchiq (Toshkent
Maxam-chirchiq JSC
province)
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Shchekinoazot UCC
Schyokino (Tula
JSC
region)
Novomoskovskiy Azot Novomoskovsk (Tula
JSC
region)
Balakovo Mineral
Fertilisers Ltd
Balakovo (Saratov
region)
Russia
Russia
Uzbekistan
Russia
Russia
Russia
Russia
FCA / In bulk / For agricultural
producers
FCA / In bulk / For agricultural
producers
In bulk / For agricultural
producers
10050 RUR
Prepayment
360 TMT
10350 RUR
9800 RUR
FCA / In bulk / For agricultural
producers
FCA / In bulk / For agricultural
producers
In bulk
9700-10000
RUR
9700-10050
RUR
230 USD
10300-10600
In bulk / Bags
RUR
9900-10200
In bulk / Bags, big bags
RUR
FCA / In bulk / For agricultural 7095-9195
producers
RUR
FCA / In bulk / For agricultural
10050 RUR
producers
Russia
FCA / In bulk / For agricultural
producers
10350 RUR
Russia
FCA / In bulk / For agricultural
producers
9700 RUR
Russia
PP bags 50 kg / Big bags
800 kg
6300-6900
RUR
Uzbekistan
EXW
225430 UZS
Uzbekistan
Bags 50 kg
140 USD
Russia
8500 RUR
Russia
In bulk / Bags
8350-8650
RUR
Russia
Enables gain of live weight of
animals and birds by 5-12%
23282 RUR
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 41
Agrochemistry
Prices
Product
Complex liquid fertiliser slurry
NP 6-24
Complex liquid fertiliser slurry
NP(S) 8:22(10)
Complex liquid fertiliser,
sulphur-containing nutrient
solution, 7% N, 8% S, 30-40%
ammonium sulphate
Magnesium sulphate technical,
91.7%
Nitrogen-calcium-magnesium
fertiliser, grade B, 33% N, 4%
CaO
Nitrophosphate 22-28% N;
1-6% P
NP 10-46
NP 12-52
NP 12-52
NP 12-52
NP 12-52
NP 18-46
NP 18-47
NP(S) 17-17(40)
NP(S) 20-20 (8)
NPK 10-26-26
NPK 10-26-26
NPK 13-19-19
NPK 15-15-15
NPK 16-16-16
NPK 16-16-16
NPK 16-16-16
NPK 16-16-16
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Country
Notes
Price per
tonne, ex. VAT
Ukraine
In bulk / EXW, Railway norms
2667 UAH
Ukraine
In bulk / EXW, Railway norms
2667 UAH
Togliatti (Samara
region)
Russia
In bulk / Tank container 18-19
tonnes
1542 RUR
Maxam-chirchiq JSC
Chirchiq (Toshkent
province)
Uzbekistan
EXW
1090835 UZS
Azot JSC
Kemerovo
Russia
In bulk
9900 RUR
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
Ammofos-Maxam JSC
Olmaliq (Toshkent
province)
Uzbekistan
In bulk
774113 UZS
Belorechensk
(Krasnodar territory)
Russia
In bulk / Bags, big bags
15600-15900
RUR
Russia
FCA / Big bags 800 kg,
bags50 kg
15380 RUR
Russia
In bulk / Bags, big bags
15600-15900
RUR
Russia
FCA / In bulk / For agricultural
producers
14600 RUR
Manufacturer
City
Dneprovskyy Plant of
Chemical Fertilisers
PJSC
Dneprovskyy Plant of
Chemical Fertilisers
PJSC
Dniprodzerzhynsk
(Dnipropetrovsk
region)
Dniprodzerzhynsk
(Dnipropetrovsk
region)
KuibyshevAzot OJSC
EuroChem –
Belorechenskie
Minudobrenia JSC
PhosAgroCherepovets JSC
Phosphorit Industrial
Group Ltd
Voskresensk Mineral
Fertilisers JSC
PhosAgroCherepovets JSC
Phosphorit Industrial
Group Ltd
Dneprovskyy Plant of
Chemical Fertilisers
PJSC
EuroChem –
Belorechenskie
Minudobrenia JSC
PhosAgroCherepovets JSC
Voskresensk Mineral
Fertilisers JSC
PhosAgroCherepovets JSC
PhosAgroCherepovets JSC
Cherepovets (Vologda
region)
Kingisepp (Leningrad
region)
Voskresensk (Moscow
region)
Cherepovets (Vologda
region)
Kingisepp (Leningrad
region)
Dniprodzerzhynsk
(Dnipropetrovsk
region)
Belorechensk
(Krasnodar territory)
Cherepovets (Vologda
region)
Voskresensk (Moscow
region)
Cherepovets (Vologda
region)
Cherepovets (Vologda
region)
Veliky Novgorod
Acron JSC
(Novgorod region)
Rossosh (Voronezh
Mineral fertilisers JSC
region)
Nevinnomysskiy Azot
Nevinnomyssk
JSC
(Stavropol territory)
Verkhnedneprovsky
Dorogobuzh JSC
Settlement (Smolensk
region)
42 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
230 USD
Russia
15400 RUR
Russia
In bulk / Bags, big bags
15600-15900
RUR
Ukraine
Rail-car norms / EXW (Bags
50 kg or big bags)
3333-3417
UAH
Russia
In bulk / Bags, big bags
12000-12300
RUR
Russia
Russia
Russia
Russia
Russia
Russia
FCA / In bulk / For agricultural
producers
FCA / In bulk / For agricultural
producers
In bulk / Big bags 800 kg,
bags 50 kg
In bulk / Big bags 800 kg,
bags 50 kg
FCA / In bulk / For agricultural
producers
FCA / In bulk / For agricultural
producers
12414 RUR
14000 RUR
10650 RUR
10195 RUR
12180 RUR
11950 RUR
Russia
In bulk / Bags, big bags
11100-11400
RUR
Russia
FCA / In bulk / For agricultural
producers
12180 RUR
Agrochemistry
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Product
Manufacturer
City
Nevinnomysskiy Azot
Nevinnomyssk
JSC
(Stavropol territory)
Nevinnomysskiy Azot
Nevinnomyssk
NPK 21-0,1-21
JSC
(Stavropol territory)
Dneprovskyy Plant of
Dniprodzerzhynsk
NPKS 5-16-30-10
Chemical Fertilisers
(Dnipropetrovsk
PJSC
region)
Dneprovskyy Plant of
Dniprodzerzhynsk
(Dnipropetrovsk
NPKS 7-21-21-13
Chemical Fertilisers
PJSC
region)
Dneprovskyy Plant of
Dniprodzerzhynsk
Phosphogypsum, 90% CaSO4
Chemical Fertilisers
(Dnipropetrovsk
PJSC
region)
Potassium chloride powder, 95%
Uralkali Combined
Berezniki (Perm
KCL
Company
territory)
Dehkanabad Potash
Dehqonobod
Plant Unitary
Potassium chloride, 58-60% K2O
(Qashqadaryo region)
Enterprise
Potassium fertiliser iquid APP
PhosAgro-Cherepovets Cherepovets (Vologda
11-37, 11% N, 37% P
JSC
region)
Potassium nitrate, 34% P,
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
12.2% N
Chirchiq (Toshkent
Maxam-chirchiq JSC
Potassium sulphate, 48% K2O
province)
Turkmenabat Chemical
TГјrkmenabat (Lebap
Superphosphate ammoniated
Plant named after S.A.
province)
Niyazov
Superphosphate ammoniated
Qo’qon superfosfat
Qo’qon (Farg’ona
granulated, 13%
zavodi JSC
province)
Dneprovskyy Plant of
Dniprodzerzhynsk
Superphosphate double NP 10Chemical Fertilisers
(Dnipropetrovsk
32, (20) CaO-14%
PJSC
region)
Superphosphate granulated
Phosphorit Industrial Kingisepp (Leningrad
enriched N-P-Ca-S-Mg 6-26Group Ltd
region)
(12-17)-(8-10)-0.5
Suprefos-NS, NPCaS 12-24Olmaliq (Toshkent
Ammofos-Maxam JSC
14-25
province)
Togliatti (Samara
UAN-28, 28% N
KuibyshevAzot OJSC
region)
Chirchiq (Toshkent
UAN-32, 32% N
Maxam-chirchiq JSC
province)
Nevinnomysskiy Azot
Nevinnomyssk
UAN-32, 32% N
JSC
(Stavropol territory)
Novomoskovskiy Azot Novomoskovsk (Tula
UAN-32, 32% N
JSC
region)
Urea, 46.2% N
Farg’onaazot JSC
Farg’ona
Gazprom Neftekhim
Salavat (Republic of
Urea, 46.2% N
Salavat JSC
Bashkortostan)
Togliatti (Samara
Urea, 46.2% N
KuibyshevAzot OJSC
region)
PhosAgro-Cherepovets Cherepovets (Vologda
Urea, 46.2% N
JSC
region)
Urea, 46.2% N
Tejen Carbamide Plant Tejen (Ahal province)
NPK 17-0,1-28
Prices
In bulk / PP Bags, big bags
500 kg
In bulk / PP Bags, big bags
500 kg
Price per
tonne, ex. VAT
10000-10300
RUR
8800-9100
RUR
Ukraine
Rail-car norms / EXW (Bags
50 kg or big bags)
3583-3625
UAH
Ukraine
Rail-car norms / EXW (Bags
50 kg or big bags)
3583-3625
UAH
Country
Russia
Russia
Notes
Ukraine
45-58 UAH
Russia
In bulk / FCA / For agricultural
producers
5927 RUR
Uzbekistan
EXW
757308 UZS
Russia
FCA / For agricultural
producers
13013 RUR
Uzbekistan
975-1100 USD
Uzbekistan
Bags
4436540 UZS
Turkmenistan
Prepayment
500 TMT
Uzbekistan
272430 UZS
Ukraine
Rail-car norms / EXW (Bags
50 kg or big bags)
3583-3667
UAH
Russia
In bulk / Bags, big bags
11500-11800
RUR
Uzbekistan
Bags
443258 UZS
Russia
8729 RUR
Uzbekistan
In bulk
252500 UZS
Russia
In cisterns
8900 RUR
Russia
In cisterns
7900 RUR
Uzbekistan
In bulk
485807 UZS
Russia
FCA / In bulk
10576 RUR
FCA / In bulk / For agricultural
producers
FCA / In bulk / For agricultural
Russia
producers
Turkmenistan
Prepayment
Russia
11510 RUR
10955 RUR
400 TMT
1 EUR = 45,0559-49,5839 RUR
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of Russia during 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 3000,05-3053,73 UZS
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of the Republic of Uzbekistan during 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 3,8982-3,9159 РўРњРў
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of Turkmenistanduring 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 10,8496-13,6372 UAH
Official exchange rate, according to the National Bank of Ukraine during 1Q 2014
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 43
Specialty chemicals
Prices
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Prices for some specialty chemicals produced in Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Ukraine in 1Q, 2014
Product
Manufacturer
City
Country
Notes
Price per
tonne, ex. VAT
Acrylic emulsion,
polymerisation product of
methyl acrylate ester, 20%
solids
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
For leather finishing and
nonwovens
4800 USD
For production of butadiene nitrile rubber, synthetic fibers,
plastics, ABC, SAN - plastic,
acrylamide, methyl acrylate,
glutamic acid, as insecticide
2400-2600
USD
Acrylonitrile technical,
0,008-0,806 g/cm3 density
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
Additive high-octane motor
/ product of esterification
of olefins with methanol,
5% actual resin
Togliattikauchuk Ltd
Togliatti
Russia
Alcaline Adipate
Plastificator (AAP), 1830% sodium adipate
Shchekinoazot UCC
JSC
Schyokino (Tula
region)
Russia
Used for the production of
building materials, oil and gas
extraction (upstream processes)
4600-6900
RUR
Aluminum potassium
sulphate, pure for analysis
Promchimperm CJSC
Perm
Russia
Bag 50 kg / coagulant in pulp and
paper industry
26 RUR / kg
Ammonium alum alumina,
pure
Promchimperm CJSC
Perm
Russia
Bags 50 kg, big bags 700 kg /
Raw materials For production of
synthetic crystals (corundum)
20 RUR / kg
Ammonium nitrate, grade
A, 98%
KuibyshevAzot OJSC
Togliatti (Samara
region)
Russia
In bulk / PP bags 50 kg / Big
bags 800 kg / Components of
explosive
9530-9800
RUR
Benzene-toluene fraction
(bentol), 20-50% benzene,
50-80% toluene
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
Perm
Russia
Ovtane booster
27966 RUR
Benzene-toluene fraction
(bentol), 20-50% benzene,
50-80% toluene
Plastic JSC
Uzlovaya (Tula
region)
Russia
Ovtane booster
27966 RUR
Bischofite brine, GreenRide
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Calcium and magnesium
carbonate (dolomite
powder), 40% CaO, 22%
MgO
R&D enterprise
Kaltsyt Ltd
Donetsk
Ukraine
Calcium carbonate
dispersed technical MTD2, 98%
Volcheyarovsky
Quarry PJSC
Lisichansk (Luhansk
region)
Ukraine
Calcium carbonate milled
MM-3
Volcheyarovsky
Quarry PJSC
Lisichansk (Luhansk
region)
Ukraine
For building mixes
350 UAH
Calcium carbonate milled
separated MMS-2, 98%
Volcheyarovsky
Quarry PJSC
Lisichansk (Luhansk
region)
Ukraine
Used inpolymer, paint, rubber
and cable industry
525-558 UAH
Calcium carbonate milled
separated РњРњS-1, 98.2%
Volcheyarovsky
Quarry PJSC
Lisichansk (Luhansk
region)
Ukraine
Used in plastic, paint, rubber and
cable industry
550-583 UAH
Calcium carbonate MMK,
powder feed, 98%
Volcheyarovsky
Quarry PJSC
Lisichansk (Luhansk
region)
Ukraine
Calcium carbonate
MMZHP, powder
Volcheyarovsky
Quarry PJSC
Lisichansk (Luhansk
region)
Ukraine
44 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
29237 RUR
15000-17000
RUR
As flux, refractories, for
magnesium
792 UAH
458 UAH
350-425 UAH
For feeding animals and birds
392 UAH
Specialty chemicals
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Prices
Product
Manufacturer
City
Country
Notes
Price per
tonne, ex. VAT
Calcium chloride technical,
inhibited, 80%
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
Russia
EXW / Big bags 500 kg, bags 25
kg, rail-cars
21000 RUR
Khazar Chemical
Plant
Khazar (Balkan
province)
Turkmenistan
2350 USD
Cellikom JSC
Kazan (Republic of
Tatarstan)
Russia
29661-61017
RUR
Cellulose trinitrate /
Pyroxylin
Tambov Powder Plant
FSE
Kotovsk (Tambov
Region)
Russia
For obtaining smokeless powder,
dynamite, explosives / reusable
packaging 18-22kg
248500 RUR
Chladone R600a
(isobutane)
Promchimperm CJSC
Perm
Russia
Container 400 kg
200 RUR / kg
Colloxylin solution in
organic solvents / Mastic,
22%
Tambov Powder Plant
FSE
Kotovsk (Tambov
Region)
Russia
Formanufacture of binding
materials and artificial leather
82797 RUR
Copper oleate
Tambov Powder Plant
FSE
Kotovsk (Tambov
Region)
Russia
Antiwear additive for internal
combustion engine
327966 RUR
Dibutyl phthalate, density
1.045-1.049 g/cm3
Lakokraska JSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
Plasticiser
2377900025081000
BYR
Diethyleneglycol, 99.5%
SIBUR-Neftekhim
JSC
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
Plasticiser of film materials,
adhesives
40254 RUR
Scientific and
Industrial Association
Tehnolog JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
For rubber, dimethylformamide,
dimethylacetamide, in organic
synthesis / Barrel 216.5 l
40000 RUR
271186 RUR
Carbon black K-354
Carboxymethylcellulose,
50-60%
Dimethylamine, 40%
Dipentene (1-methyl-4-iso
propenyl cyclohexen-1),
0.8411 g/cm3 density
Delios Ltd
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
For obtaining alkyd resins,
terpene resins, carvone,
rubber chemicals, substitute of
chlorinated solvents inprinting
industry
Filler Carbosil, grade
KS-20, 20% carbon, 70%
silicon dioxide
Ecochemmach JSC
Buy (Kostroma
region)
Russia
For rubber, paint materials / Bags
20 kg
12797 RUR
3680 USD
Flocculant PAA-GS /
Polyacrylamide granulated
50-56%, sulphate
ammonia 34-40%, mixture
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
Flocculant for obtaining
explosives, gels for chemical
analysis, and in gold mining, coal
mining
Gum rosin, noncrystallisable, modified
Lesohimik JSC
Borisov (Minsk
region)
Belarus
For producing electrical
insulation / For cable
31020000
BYR
Gum rosin, pine, 6%
unsaponifiables
Lesohimik JSC
Borisov (Minsk
region)
Belarus
For rubber production / In bulk
28200000
BYR
Gum turpentine, 60% О±
and ОІ-pinenes
Lesohimik JSC
Borisov (Minsk
region)
Belarus
In bulk / Feedstock for organic
synthesis
23970000
BYR
Hexachloroparaxylene
Hepsol-HKP, 53-62% Cl
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Chemical company
Niton JSC
Yekaterinburg
(Sverdlovsk region)
Russia
Inhibitor of sediments
mineral salts IOMS-1
/ 25% sodium salts
aminomethylene
phosphonic acids of
nitrilotrimethylphosphonic
acid
58500-70000
RUR
For water treatment
50848 RUR
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 45
Inorganics
Prices
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Manufacturer
City
Country
Notes
Price per
tonne, ex. VAT
Inhibitor of sediments
mineral salts IOMS-1M,
25% Na3NTF
Chemical company
Niton JSC
Yekaterinburg
(Sverdlovsk region)
Russia
For water treatment
59322 RUR
Inhibitor of sediments
mineral salts ZnOEDFK / Oxyethylidene
diphosphonic acid zinc
complex, 20-25%
Chemical company
Niton JSC
Yekaterinburg
(Sverdlovsk region)
Russia
For water treatment
67797 RUR
Inhibitor of sediments
mineral salts, corrosion
and biofouling, grade KISK2, KISK-B / sodium salts of
organic phosphonic acid
water solution
Chemical company
Niton JSC
Yekaterinburg
(Sverdlovsk region)
Russia
For water treatment
118644 RUR
Inhibitor of sediments of
mineral salts IOMS-2, 25%
Na3NTF
Chemical company
Niton JSC
Yekaterinburg
(Sverdlovsk region)
Russia
For water treatment
67797 RUR
Inhibitor Zn-IOMS /
mixture of sodium salts
nitrilotrimethylphosphonic
methyliminobismethylphosphonic acids and
complexes of zinc, 25%
organophosphate
Chemical company
Niton JSC
Yekaterinburg
(Sverdlovsk region)
Russia
For water treatment
67797 RUR
Centers of technology
Lantan Ltd
Novosibirsk
Russia
For production of highoctane
gasoline and hydrogen batteries
of mobile phones
26 USD
Monoethyleneglycol,
99.5%
SIBUR-Neftekhim
JSC
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
44068 RUR
Monoethyleneglycol,
99.8%
SIBUR-Neftekhim
JSC
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
44068 RUR
Monoethyleneglycol,
99.8%
SIBUR-Neftekhim
JSC
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
27966 RUR
Neutral cake soda
calcinated
Shchekinoazot UCC
JSC
Schyokino (Tula
region)
Russia
Used for the production of
building materials, oil refining
(downstream processes)
9700 RUR
Nickel nitrate, 98%
Centers of technology
Lantan Ltd
Novosibirsk
Russia
For production of alkaline
batteries
230 RUR
/ kg
Binder inproduction of reinforced
plastics, protective coatings,
building materials, electrical
insulating compounds, lacquers,
enamels, adhesives
83333 UAH
Product
Lanthanum nitrate, pure,
98%
Oligoetheracrylates MGF-9
Armoplast PJSC
Sievierodonetsk
(Luhansk region)
Ukraine
Oligoetheracrylates MGF-9
CHIMEX Limited
CJSC
St. Petersburg
Russia
Oligoetheracrylates TGM-3
Armoplast PJSC
Sievierodonetsk
(Luhansk region)
Ukraine
Monomers for production of
resins
85000 UAH
Paraffin crude fraction II
Farg’ona Refinery
unitary subsidiary
Farg’ona
Uzbekistan
For production hard paraffin
600 USD
Paraffin in styrene
solution, density 0.9010.903 g/cubic meter
Zhylevsky Plastics
Plant OJSC
Sitne-Schelkanovo
(Moscow region)
Russia
Canister 5, 10 kg / Curing
accelerator
123100 RUR
46 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
381356 RUR
Inorganics
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Product
Price per
tonne, ex. VAT
Manufacturer
City
Country
Farg’ona Refinery
unitary subsidiary
Farg’ona
Uzbekistan
Paraffin СЃhlorinated, grade
CP-250, 24-29% Cl
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
For production of coatings,
component for processing leather
34900-43200
RUR
Paraffin СЃhlorinated, grade
CP-418, 40-43% Cl
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Plasticiser in polymer
compositions
34900-43200
RUR
Paraffin СЃhlorinated, grade
CP-470Рђ, 45-49% Cl
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Plasticiser in polymer
compositions
34900-43200
RUR
Paraffin СЃhlorinated, grade
CP-52, 50-54% Cl
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Plasticiser in polymer
compositions
34900-43200
RUR
Paraffin СЃhlorinated, grade
CP-66Рў, 53-54% Cl
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Flame retardant for paintwork
materials and plastics
50000-65000
RUR
Pentaerythritol technical
filtrate, 20% of sodium
formate
Metafrax JSC
Gubaha (Perm
territory)
Russia
EXW / Tank-cars 50-60 tonnes
2000 RUR
a-Pinene, 95%
Delios Ltd
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
For obtaining camphor, solvents
paints and varnishes, raw
material for pine oil, terpineol and
fragrances
135593 RUR
Pinene natural (of gum
turpentine), 90%
Delios Ltd
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
Used in cosmetics
118644 RUR
3400-3900
USD
Paraffin petroleum solid,
grade T1, T2, T3
Notes
Prices
1358333 UZS
Polyacrylamide-gel
ammoniacal, 6%
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
Flocculant for water purification
and preparation of mineral
fertilisers, for drilling and oil
production, sizing of fabric
Polyacrylamide-gel
ammoniacal, 6%
Zavod imeni
Sverdlova Federal
government
enterprise
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
Flocculant for natural and waste
water, to trap heavy metals and
toxic substances / Bag 45 kg
16949 RUR
Cellikom JSC
Kazan (Republic of
Tatarstan)
Russia
For petrochemical
industry,addition of detergents,
for sizing of warp yarns, thickener
inks
50848127118 RUR
Naftan JSC
Navopolatsk (Vitsebsk
region)
Belarus
Component of finishing agents
intextile industry and inleather
industry
49500 RUR
70000 RUR
Polyanionic cellulose,
50-60%
Polyethylene emulsion
Oxalen-30, 25% PE wax
Polyethylene wax nonoxidized, grade PV-200
Naftan JSC
Navopolatsk (Vitsebsk
region)
Belarus
Used in electronic equipment,
cables, paper isolation, polishes
and creams, household
chemicals, printing inks,
pigments, masterbatches
Polyethylene wax nonoxidized, grade PV-300
Naftan JSC
Navopolatsk (Vitsebsk
region)
Belarus
In modeling wax compositions
70000 RUR
Polyethylene wax oxidized,
grade PVO-30
Naftan JSC
Navopolatsk (Vitsebsk
region)
Belarus
For giving fabrics abrasion
resistance and in leather industry
130000 RUR
SIBUR-Neftekhim JSC
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
Additives to lubricants and cutting
fluids
63559 RUR
Lesohimik JSC
Borisov (Minsk
region)
Belarus
For obtaining adhesives,
hydrogels, paint formulations, as
conditioning additives for mineral
fertilisers
6900000 BYR
Polyglycols
Polymer VRP-3
(based onproduct of
alkaline hydrolysis of
polyacrylonitrile fibers,
neutralized by acetic acid),
grade B, 35-55% of dry
substance
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 47
Inorganics
Prices
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Manufacturer
City
Country
Notes
Price per
tonne, ex. VAT
Preparation K-4 (watersoluble polymer)
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
As glue in printing industry
400 USD
Propyleneglycol, 99%
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
Russia
EXW / PE canisters, barrels
90000 RUR
Salt OEDFK / 1
oxyethylidendiphosphone
acid trisodium salt, pure,
96%
Chemical company
Niton JSC
Yekaterinburg
(Sverdlovsk region)
Russia
Forperfume industry
211864 RUR
Silicon dioxide precipitated
/ silica filler Rosil-175,
grade A, 90%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
In bulk / Bags / Big bags
54900 RUR
Silicon dioxide precipitated
/ silica filler Rosil-175,
grade B, 90%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
In bulk / Bags / Big bags
54590 RUR
Silicon dioxide precipitated
/ silica white BS-100
compacted with calcium
chloride, 86%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
In bulk / Bags / Big bags
48410 RUR
Silicon dioxide precipitated
/ silica white BS-100
compacted, 86%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
In bulk / Bags / Big bags
48410 RUR
Silicon dioxide precipitated
/ silica white BS-120
compacted, 87%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
In bulk / Bags / Big bags
50610 RUR
Silicon dioxide precipitated
/ silica white BS-120
uncompacted, 87%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
In bulk / Bags / Big bags
52920 RUR
Silicon dioxide precipitated
/ silica white BS-50, 76%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
In bulk / Bags / Big bags
58140 RUR
Silicon dioxide precipitated
/ silica white U-333, 88%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
In bulk / Bags / Big bags
61990 RUR
Belarus
Binder and stabilizing component
of refractory linings in
metallurgical and engineering
industries, carrier for various
catalysts
437200 RUR
127119 RUR
Product
Silicon dioxide, 30%
solution
Naftan JSC
Navopolatsk
(Vitsebsk region)
Silicone fluid PMS-50,
PMS-100, PMS-200,
PMS-300, PMS-400 /
Polymethylsilicone fluid
(oil)
Penta-91 Ltd
Moscow
Russia
Plasticiser for elastomers
reagent treatment of fabrics
and leathers, to reduce
foaming, without prejudice to
the lubricating properties of
engine oil, in the production
of household chemicals and
cosmetics
Silicone fluid PMS-500
Polymethylsilicone fluid
(oil)
Penta-91 Ltd
Moscow
Russia
Heat transfer medium, hydraulic,
damping and coolant, dielectric
transitions in defoamers
135593 RUR
Sodium alkyl benzene
sulfonate Sulphonol, grade
bleached, 40-45% solution
Zavod imeni
Sverdlova Federal
government
enterprise
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
Surfactant inproduction of
detergents
93220 RUR
Sodium alkylbenzene
sulphonate (sulphonol), 25%
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
Surfactants in synthetic detergent
22740 RUR
48 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Inorganics
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Prices
Manufacturer
City
Country
Notes
Price per
tonne, ex. VAT
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
Reagent, antiglaze material
technical / Big bags
1318 RUR
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
Russia
For regeneration of ion exchange
resins at water treatment plants
3000 RUR
/ m3
Sodium formiate, 25%
solution
Scientific and
Industrial Association
Tehnolog JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
Antifreeze additive in concrete
6780 RUR
Sodium silicate, 19,228,8% silicon dioxide
Soda JSC
Sterlitamak (Republic
of Bashkortostan)
Russia
For silicate paints
11815 RUR
Sodium silicate, min 99%
of SiO2 + Na2O
Zaporozhye Factory
of Welding Fluxes and
Glass Products JSC
Zaporizhzhia
Ukraine
PP Big bags 1000 kg / rail-car,
tank-car, tank norms
2115 UAH
Substances textile
auxiliaries Sorbital S-20 /
Product of oxyethylation of
sorbitan S
Naftan JSC
Navopolatsk
(Vitsebsk region)
Belarus
Used for finishing fibers and
fabrics
110000 RUR
Substances textile
auxiliaries Sorbitan S /
Product of esterification of
sorbitol and stearic acid
Naftan JSC
Navopolatsk
(Vitsebsk region)
Belarus
Used for finishing fibers and
fabrics
130000 RUR
Russia
Drum 200 kg, 40 kg / Catalyst
inproduction of plasticisers,
paints, component in cable
industry
189 RUR / kg
3980 RUR
/ kg
Product
Sodium chloride, 96%
Sodium chloride, aqueous
solution (280 g/l), 50 g/l
sodium sulphate, 10 g/l
caustic soda
Tetrabutoxytitanium
technical
Promchimperm CJSC
Perm
Tetraethoxytitanium, pure
Promchimperm CJSC
Perm
Russia
For illumination optics, deposition
of thin films of titanium dioxide,
catalyst inproduction of
plasticisers, polymers
Thiourea (thiocarbamide),
95%
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
Floated reagent of metals, in
manufacture of mercantans, dyes
synthetic resins
9270345 UZS
Tin tetrachloride 5-water
(crystalline), pure
Promchimperm CJSC
Perm
Russia
Coating composition of glass /
Packaging 2 kg, 5 kg
750 RUR / kg
Triethanolamin titanat
technical
Promchimperm CJSC
Perm
Russia
Triethylaluminum
Tomskneftekhim Ltd
Tomsk
Russia
Used for the production
of polypropylene, linear
polyethylene and HDPE
361017 RUR
Belarus
Reductant type NOx for diesel
engines
4169954 BYR
Urea in demineralised
water, solution of high
Grodno Azot JSC
Grodno
purity AUS-32, 32%
249 RUR / kg
1 EUR = 45,0559-49,5839 RUR
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of Russia during 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 3000,05-3053,73 UZS
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of the Republic of Uzbekistan during 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 3,8982-3,9159 РўРњРў
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of Turkmenistan during 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 12650-13400 BYR
Official exchange rate, according to the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus during 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 10,8496-13,6372 UAH
Official exchange rate, according to the National Bank of Ukraine during 1Q 2014
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 49
Paints and coatings
Prices
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Prices for some feedstocks for paintwork production in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Uzbekistan as of 1Q, 2014
Product
City
Country
Acrylic acid, 99.5%
Acrylate JSC
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
68644 – 71186
RUR
Acrylic acid, 99%
Acrylate JSC
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
77119 RUR
Akrilan Ltd
Vladimir
Russia
Alcohol-ether concentrate, grade A
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
Perm
Russia
29661 RUR
Alcohol-ether concentrate, grade B
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
Perm
Russia
16525 RUR
Butylacrylate, 99.5%
Acrylate JSC
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
77119 RUR
Calcium phosphate lamellar
Kronakril Ltd
Yaroslavl
Russia
Anticorrosive pigment for
paints water
1500 USD
Cellulose dinitrate / Kolloksilin
lacquer, anhydrous, grade PSV
Tambov powder
factory
Kotovsk (Tambov
region)
Russia
For production of lacquers,
enamels, primers, mastics,
celluloid / corrugated boxes
12-18 kg
191000 RUR
Cellulose dinitrate / Kolloksilin
lacquer, dehydrated, grade VV,
VNV
Tambov powder
factory
Kotovsk (Tambov
region)
Russia
For production of lacquers,
enamels, primers, mastics,
celluloid / corrugated boxes
12-18 kg
187000 RUR
Russia
For the production of
lacquers, enamels, primers,
mastics, fillings, celluloid /
reusable packaging 18-22
kg
223203 RUR
150000 RUR
Acrylic dispersion Akrilan 121 /
Aqueous dispersion of a copolymer of esters of acrylic and
methacrylic acids, 50% solids
Notes
Price per tonne,
excluding VAT
Manufacturer
Without cost of packaging
67373 RUR
Cellulose dinitrate / Kolloksilin
lacquer, not anhydrous, grade NH
Tambov powder
factory
Kotovsk (Tambov
region)
Co-polymer of methacrylic acid
and butyl ester of methacrylic acid
BMK-5
Experimental Plant of
acrylic dispersion Ltd
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
Binder in solution with
fillers (chalk, cement), for
manufacture of lacquers,
enamels, adhesives
Dye cationic black Рћ
KrasS CJSC
Novocheboksarsk
(Chuvash Republic)
Russia
For coloring PAN-fiber
228814 RUR
Dye cationic blue Рћ
KrasS CJSC
Novocheboksarsk
(Chuvash Republic)
Russia
For coloring PAN-fiber
266949 RUR
Dye cationic bright green 4S
KrasS CJSC
Novocheboksarsk
(Chuvash Republic)
Russia
For coloring PAN-fiber
205932 RUR
Dye cationic bright green Zh
KrasS CJSC
Novocheboksarsk
(Chuvash Republic)
Russia
For coloring PAN-fiber
213559 RUR
Dye cationic brown 4Zh
KrasS CJSC
Novocheboksarsk
(Chuvash Republic)
Russia
For coloring PAN-fiber
125424 RUR
Dye cationic brown Zh
KrasS CJSC
Novocheboksarsk
(Chuvash Republic)
Russia
For coloring PAN-fiber
117797 RUR
Dye cationic cyan 2 В«3В»
KrasS CJSC
Novocheboksarsk
(Chuvash Republic)
Russia
For coloring PAN-fiber
221186 RUR
Dye cationic golden yellow 2K
200%
KrasS CJSC
Novocheboksarsk
(Chuvash Republic)
Russia
For coloring PAN-fiber
282203 RUR
Dye cationic red S
KrasS CJSC
Novocheboksarsk
(Chuvash Republic)
Russia
For coloring PAN-fiber
282203 RUR
Dye cationic violet 2K
KrasS CJSC
Novocheboksarsk
(Chuvash Republic)
Russia
For coloring PAN-fiber
198305 RUR
50 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Paints and coatings
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Prices
Manufacturer
City
Country
Notes
Price per tonne,
excluding VAT
Dye cationic violet 2S
KrasS CJSC
Novocheboksarsk
(Chuvash Republic)
Russia
For coloring PAN-fiber
198305 RUR
Dye cationic violet S
KrasS CJSC
Novocheboksarsk
(Chuvash Republic)
Russia
For coloring PAN-fiber
198305 RUR
Dye cationic violet SN
KrasS CJSC
Novocheboksarsk
(Chuvash Republic)
Russia
For coloring PAN-fiber
198305 RUR
Dye direct green
KrasS CJSC
Novocheboksarsk
(Chuvash Republic)
Russia
For coloring cotton and
viscose
228814 RUR
Dye direct yellow Рљ
KrasS CJSC
Novocheboksarsk
(Chuvash Republic)
Russia
For coloring cotton and
viscose
152542 RUR
Dye direct yellow Рљ 200%
KrasS CJSC
Novocheboksarsk
(Chuvash Republic)
Russia
For coloring cotton and
viscose
99153 RUR
Product
Ethylcellosolve technical, 99.5%
Khimprom Ltd
Kemerovo
Russia
EXW / Cistern 40-50 tonnes
70000 RUR
Glyptal resin in organic solvents
(Resin 188)
Tambov powder
factory
Kotovsk (Tambov
region)
Russia
In consumer’s packaging /
Barrels 50 l
41000-44703
RUR
Hardener E-45 / Polyamide resin
solution in xylene, 69-71% solids
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
With cost of packaging
35001000 BYR
Hardener в„– 1 /
Hexamethylenediamine, solution in
ethyl or isopropyl alcohol, 50%
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
2990300030931000 BYR
Hardener в„–2 / Polyamide resin
solution in a mixture of organic
solvents, 30% solids
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
1852800022963000 BYR
Hardener в„–3 / Polyamide resin
solution in a mixture of organic
solvents
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
2506600031061000 BYR
Hardener в„–4 / Polyamide resin
solution in a mixture of organic
solvents, 69-71% solids
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
1852800022963000 BYR
Hardener в„–5 / Polyamide resin
solution in a mixture of organic
solvents, 48-52% solids
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
2506600030767000 BYR
Isobutanol technical, 99.3%
Gazprom Neftekhim
Salavat JSC
Salavat (Republic of
Bashkortostan)
Russia
42686 RUR
Isobutanol technical, 99.3%
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
Perm
Russia
40254 RUR
Melamine-formaldehyde resin
K-421-02
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
3670700037379000 BYR
Navoiyazot JSC
Navoiy
Uzbekistan
3700 – 3710
USD
Acrylate JSC
Dzerzhinsk (Nizhny
Novgorod region)
Russia
76721 RUR
n-Butanol technical, 99.4%
SIBUR-Khimprom
CJSC
Perm
Russia
45339 RUR
n-Butanol technical, 99.4%
Gazprom Neftekhim
Salavat JSC
Salavat (Republic of
Bashkortostan)
Russia
42797 RUR
Pentaerythritol technical, 95%
Metafrax JSC
Gubaha (Perm
territory)
Russia
For the amount of up to 1
rail-car
58730 RUR
Pentaerythritol technical, 98%
Metafrax JSC
Gubaha (Perm
territory)
Russia
For the amount of up to 1
rail-car
60730 RUR
Pentaphthalic resin PF-053, 54%
nonvolatile substances
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
1554900020213000 BYR
Pentaphthalic resin PF-060, 5255% nonvolatile substances
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
1290000015245000 BYR
Methylacrylate, 98.5-99.3%
Methylacrylate, 99.7%
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 51
Paints and coatings
Prices
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Manufacturer
City
Country
Notes
Price per tonne,
excluding VAT
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
Without cost of packaging
11960000 BYR
Pigment on the basis of zinc
phosphate, subgrade AM, 3444% Zn, max 30% of calcium
phosphate
Kronakril Ltd
Yaroslavl
Russia
Up to 3 tonnes / Bags 40 kg
2000 USD
PVA dispersion , grade D 50N
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
Without cost of packaging
9347000 BYR
PVA dispersion , grade DF 16/5N
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
With cost of packaging
10857000 BYR
PVA dispersion , grade DF 47/50V
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
1129100012305000 BYR
PVA dispersion , grade DF 51/10SL
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
1210800013752000 BYR
PVA dispersion , grade DF 51/15VP
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
1236700014011000 BYR
PVA dispersion, grade D 50S
Plastpolymer JSC
St. Petersburg
Russia
With cost of packaging
(Barrels 50l)
38983 RUR
PVA dispersion, grade D 51S
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
With cost of packaging
12349000 BYR
PVA dispersion, grade D 51S
Plastpolymer JSC
St. Petersburg
Russia
With cost of packaging
(Barrels 50l)
38983 RUR
PVA dispersion, grade D 51V
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
With cost of packaging
13128000 BYR
PVA dispersion, grade D 51V
Plastpolymer JSC
St. Petersburg
Russia
With cost of packaging
(Barrels 50l)
39831 RUR
PVA dispersion, grade DD 50/10S
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
With cost of packaging
12843000 BYR
PVA dispersion, grade DD 50/10S
Plastpolymer JSC
St. Petersburg
Russia
With cost of packaging
(Barrels 50l)
38983 RUR
PVA dispersion, grade DD 51/15V
Plastpolymer JSC
St. Petersburg
Russia
With cost of packaging
(Barrels 50l)
38983 RUR
PVA dispersion, grade DF 51/10S
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
With cost of packaging
13752000 BYR
PVA dispersion, grade DF 51/10S
Plastpolymer JSC
St. Petersburg
Russia
With cost of packaging
(Barrels 50l)
38983 RUR
PVA dispersion, grade DF 51/15S
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
With cost of packaging
13442000 BYR
PVA dispersion, grade DF 51/15S
Plastpolymer JSC
St. Petersburg
Russia
With cost of packaging
(Barrels 50l)
38983 RUR
PVA dispersion, grade DF 51/15V
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
With cost of packaging
14011000 BYR
PVA dispersion, grade DF 51/15V
Plastpolymer JSC
St. Petersburg
Russia
With cost of packaging
(Barrels 50l)
38983 RUR
Solvent Nefras 130-210
Farg’ona oil refiney
Unitary subsidiary
enterprise
Farg’ona
Uzbekistan
1084583 UZS
Solvent Nefras 135-220
Buxoro neftni qayata
ishlash zavodi
Qorovulbozor
(Buxoro province)
Uzbekistan
2351758 UZS
Solvent Nefras S4-150/200 / light
kerosene condensate
Kaustik JSC
Volgograd
Russia
Substitute for white spirit
27000 – 29000
RUR
Solvent Nefras S4–150/200, light
kerosene condensate
Naftan OJSC
Navopolatsk
(Vitsebsk region)
Belarus
Substitute for white spirit
5451700 BYR
Solvent R-4 / 62% toluene, 26%
acetone, 12% butyl acetate
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
Without cost of packaging /
Barrels 180 kg
1232900014169000 BYR
Solvent R-4A / mixture of esters,
ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
Without cost of packaging /
Barrels 180 kg
1029800011972000 BYR
Solvent R-5 / 30% butyl acetate,
30% acetone, 40% xylene
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
Without cost of packaging /
Barrels 180 kg
1248300014323000 BYR
Product
Phthalic anhydride, 99.9%
52 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Paints and coatings
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Prices
Manufacturer
City
Country
Notes
Price per tonne,
excluding VAT
Solvent R-5A / 30% of butyl
acetate; acetone, toluene
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
Without cost of packaging /
Barrels 180 kg
1338500014883000 BYR
Solvent R-646, 50% toluene, 15%
ethanol, 10% butyl acetate, 10%
butanol, 8% ethylcellosolve, 7%
acetone
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
Without cost of packaging /
Barrels 180 kg
1975600022330000 BYR
Solvent RE-2V / mixture of esters,
ketones, alcohols and aromatic
hydrocarbons
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
Without cost of packaging
17988000 BYR
Solvent RE-4V mixture of esters,
ketones, alcohols and aromatic
hydrocarbons
Lakokraska OJSC
Lida (Grodno region)
Belarus
Without cost of packaging /
Barrels 180 kg
2071200022770000 BYR
Styrene-acrylic dispersion Akrilan
101 / Aqueous dispersion copolymer butylacrylate and styrene,
50% solids
Akrilan Ltd
Vladimir
Russia
Without cost of packaging
61441 RUR
Styrene-acrylic dispersion Akrilan
101Рњ / Aqueous dispersion copolymer butylacrylate and styrene,
50% solids
Akrilan Ltd
Vladimir
Russia
Iincreased mechanical
stability during freezing /
thawing
62288 RUR
Styrene-acrylic dispersion Akrilan
103 / Aqueous dispersion copolymer butylacrylate and styrene,
29-31% solids
Akrilan Ltd
Vladimir
Russia
Without cost of packaging
50424 RUR
Styrene-acrylic dispersion Akrilan
105 / Aqueous dispersion of
2-ethylhexylacrylate and styrene
co-polymer, 50% solids
Akrilan Ltd
Vladimir
Russia
Without cost of packaging
63983 RUR
Styrene-acrylic dispersion Akrilan
106 / Aqueous dispersion of copolymer butyl acrylate and styrene
Akrilan Ltd
Vladimir
Russia
Styrene-acrylic dispersion Akrilan
107 / Aqueous dispersion copolymer butylacrylate and styrene,
50% solids
Akrilan Ltd
Vladimir
Russia
For use in low filled systems
57203 RUR
Zhylevsky Plastics
Plant OJSC
Sitne-Schelkanovo
(Moscow region)
Russia
Barrel 240 kg / For furniture
106500 RUR
Pigment prevent smoking
while burning (added to
plastics, rubber, cable),
flame retardant
2300 USD
Product
Varnish semi-finished PE-246
/ solution of the unsaturated
polyester resin in styrene, butyl
acetate and acetone
Zinc borate, 37% ZnO, 47% B2O3
Zinc oxide, grade TD, 97-98%
Kronakril Ltd
Yaroslavl
Russia
GartMet-XXI Ltd
Zaporizhzhia
Ukraine
Olmaliq (Toshkent
province)
Uzbekistan
Olmaliq KonZinc powder, grade PTS6, СЃlass B
Metallurgiya
Kombinati JSC
62288 RUR
4000 UAH
For production of zinc oxide
and paints
1 EUR = 45,0559-49,5839 RUR
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of Russia during 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 3000,05-3053,73 UZS
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of the Republic of Uzbekistan during 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 3,8982-3,9159 РўРњРў
Official exchange rate, according to the Central Bank of Turkmenistanduring 1Q 2014
1 EUR = 10,8496-13,6372 UAH
Official exchange rate, according to the National Bank of Ukraine during 1Q 2014
4247790 UZS
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 53
Chemistry and economy
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
A Systemic Analysis of an
Economic Policy of Regulating
Hydrocarbons Flows Worldwide
under the Conditions of the
�Shale Gas Revolution’
U.S. financial system
as a determining factor
in shale gas exports
It is necessary to remind how the American
Text by: Zabolotskiy Sergey
(Phd in economics)
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian
Academy of Sciences
financial system is organised in order to
17 Lavrentyev Ave.,
understand the nature of global hydrocar-
Novosibirsk, Akademgorodok, 630090
bons flows. It should be mentioned that the
Tel:+7 (383) 330-10-59.
current monetary and financial system is
characterised by the domination of U.S. dollar functioning as the main global currency.
Fax:+7 (383) 330-25-80.
E-mail: monzul@yandex.ru
The crisis of the monetary system, which is
only worsening now, turn out a direct conse-
1) LNG is exported on a small scale. The
the petrochemical industry). Simply put, this
quence of the money issuing mechanism of
main advantage of this scenario will be
is the mentioned multiplicative effect. Owing
the USA. The Federal Reserve issues money,
achieved not only through a multiplicative
to it, America has dethroned China in terms
and the American government amasses more
effect, but also via creating an image of secur-
of investment attractiveness worldwide for
and more debts. The U.S. government takes
ing the American dollar and debt liabilities
the first time over more than ten years tak-
a decision on debt servicing and discharge
at the expense of a �cheap’ shale gas effect,
ing the first place. It is also curious how a
of liabilities. State expenditures in the USA
which may influence the entire economy. It
significant reduction in gas prices (due to
grow much faster than revenues, the budget
is important for meeting export liabilities and
the shale gas revolution) in the United States
has a chronicle deficit and the national debt
creating speculative demand (or on the con-
has led to a decrease in manufacturing costs
consequently increases. This process only
trary - panic) on the market.
in America. It came to the point that trans-
continues to accelerate and reminds an ava-
If the USA borrows to pay its debts and
national companies began to repatriate their
lanche. Countries less and less trust in the
create an image of solvent before creditor
capital from the traditional regions of com-
stability of the U.S. economy and dollar.
countries, why it cannot do the same with
modities production in the Southeast Asia
Now shale gas appears on the scene to come
LNG - let’s create an image of an exporter
back to the USA. Manufacturing output and
to the rescue.
sending two-three tankers to Europe, while
the whole economy have started to gradu-
using shale gas for our own needs as a source
ally rise. Today America can boast of the
of economic prosperity. One should also
lowest unemployment rate over the recent
understand that according to various expert
five years. The housing market is recover-
estimates, low-cost gas increases the market
ing. The machine-building sector has created
added value of U.S. economy by 2-6 times
additional jobs firstly since 1990. As this
via related consuming industries (especially
takes place, the country is developing its own
Two scenarios of LNG exports
from the USA
Today there are two scenarios of LNG
exports from the USA:
54 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
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Chemistry and economy
w w w. chem mar ket. info
low-cost power generation and petrochemi-
article. That is why the given article uses
commercial relations, economic and, conse-
cal industry.
conventional terms for world’s economic
quently, political interests. The vast major-
centres: the USA, the EU, Russia, etc.
ity of technological systems in the modern
2) Theoretically, we can assume that
America will export LNG on a large scale.
The U.S. shale gas (and oil) production
industry as well as energetics and transport
This contradicts sound economic logic but
has led to a number of consequences includ-
are based on using hydrocarbons. Amidst
still can take place in exceptional condi-
ing those at the global hydrocarbons market.
the absence of reliable and stable suppliers
tions, if, for instance, U.S. gas exports leads
Various studies forecasts that additional vol-
of raw materials, ways of their shipments to
to rapid depletion of shale gas resources
umes of gas produced from shale rock can
consumers, there may occur serious failures
followed by a regular military intervention
be exported from the USA approximately
in global financial and economic processes.
against a hydrocarbons producing country in
starting with 2016 competing with traditional
Until hydrocarbon resources and reserves
the Middle East or South America. This sce-
gas suppliers. This article shows why this
are not developed, their actual value increases
nario is advantageous in terms of promoting
scenario will be either scarcely probable
in a long-term prospect (due to awareness of
an image of prosperity of the U.S. economy,
or hardly influence the world’s economy if
limits of their us). But as soon as they have
which has entered global exchange in hydro-
realised.
been produced and sold, they turn into finan-
carbons. This may also support the American
We should adopt a systemic approach so as
cial flows. These are sources of new invest-
financial pyramid (Ponzi scheme) confirming
to fully explore the topic of the present arti-
ments in fixed assets and the opportunity to
the �reality’ of some part of the U.S. economy,
cle. It is to be also mentioned that no material
purchase the latest technologies for various
which is not based upon speculative opera-
in some or other way relating to conspiracy
tangible and intangible assets.
tions. In this case, one can expect that �tradi-
theories is used to prove basic principles of
In addition, they are a source of financial
tional’ suppliers of hydrocarbons, i.e. OPEC
the present article. All the materials used are
receipts or cheap money (in case of their
countries and other gas suppliers (Norway,
taken from official sources. One of theories
inefficient use). In order to get a clear idea
Algeria, Nigeria, Qatar, etc.) will mount stiff
that subsequently became a legislative act
of hydrocarbon flow, one should realise
resistance. Thus, the USA could certainly
envisaging temporary replacement of more
the commercial nature of money, regard-
raise up business rivals among the traditional
than 75% of oil imports from the Middle East
less of the currency of the country under
exporters. In other words, this scenario is not
by 2025 is assumed as a basis for the article .
consideration.
about profits from gas exports, which will be
It should be noted once again that the mod-
Under these conditions, the task of effi-
negligible owing to �eating away’ added value
ern world stands in desperate need of gas, oil,
cient development of one of the key sectors
during gas liquefaction, transportation and
and other hydrocarbon resources. That is why
of Russia’s economy - oil and gas sector – is
dilution but rather about creating a positive
we cannot imagine the existence of our civi-
not increasing exports of raw materials at
image. In doing so, America will inevitably
lization without ever growing consumption
any price but transforming money income
lose the main driver of its economy in years
of these raw materials. And when difficulties
into capital, i. e. self-expanding value, due to
to come, because �profitable’ gas reserves
with extraction of readily available hydro-
efficient investments in the development of
with low production costs are pretty small,
carbons appear, this affects the entire global
a raw material base and further processing
as official forecasts say. Preserving hydrocar-
economy. The most difficult challenges
hydrocarbons into semi-finished products,
bons reserves for future use, given that they
mankind faces now are introducing innova-
gradual creation of assets and products,
could be bought for uncovered dollars (debt
tive technology for developing problematic
for example, materials with relatively high
liabilities), explains why these scenarios are
and difficult reserves, striking a balance
added value.
mutually exclusive.
between hydrocarbons producing countries
It is to be stressed that money is the most
and consuming nations and optimizing gas
universal but not the best mechanism of
consumption.
exchange and one of the main instruments for
Introduction
Harry Oppenheimer* noted in his day:
influencing the world trade. In global condi-
Many global processes have to be
“People buy diamonds out of vanity. They
tions, money tends to �flow’ from one system
described in terms of hardly formalized and
buy gold because they are too stupid to think
to another. Money �inflate’ the economy and
tangible factors. Today, global economic
of any other monetary system which will
makes it grow. Levels and rates of economic
players are conventionally denoted as finan-
work”. The international system of hydro-
development depend on how money is used
cial and industrial groups that cannot always
carbons supply and maintaining a supply /
by recipients.
be related to borders of certain countries.
demand balance are the most effective busi-
In this regard, it is important to understand
However, this is a theme for a separate
ness direction based on technological and
that this is not a group of hydrocarbons
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 55
Chemistry and economy
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Figure 1. Financial flows from oil importing countries to the exporters in 2012,
USD billion dollars
of the above-mentioned region at the expense
of its own gas production. Gas is proposed to
be used as a substitute for oil products.
If we make a brief historical insight, we
can see that the United States faced the same
problems in 2013 as earlier before. The
country faced the same energy issues and the
difference was only in other fuel sources. At
one time, Americans used whale oil, but were
always looking for a cheaper fuel.
Coal became an alternative to whale oil
followed by crude oil, and eventually – shale
gas. In the mid-70s, more than 50% of oil
consumed by Americans at the domestic
market was imported from the Middle East.
But the United States were searching for
a cleaner and better fuel, which was to be
Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013
produced locally. First, they pursued a policy
exporters have got hooked on oil and gas
stop buying hydrocarbons, as exporters will
of cultivation of crops for biofuels in Latin
needle but a group of countries-importers.
still be able to sell hydrocarbons in the future.
America and built windmills and solar pan-
Such economic methods as an “infusion” of
At the same time, they could be bought for
els. In the end, they invented what they are
excessive amounts of hydrocarbons into the
�mottled slips of paper’ – dollars, euros, yens
having now. Americans constantly searched
market may not have a significant impact
or their electronic variant. The question is
through all possible sources of fuel, conduct-
on other players, as the exporters have been
not how much supplying countries will get
ing a systematic analysis of their effective-
long using a mechanism of tackling such
for their hydrocarbons, although it is impor-
ness at each time point and analysing their
situations.
tant, but how fast the economy of the sup-
performance indicators over time. So, it is
In other words, these are one-time transac-
plier and that of the consumer will grow and
not surprising that that country was the first
tions, which may be resisted by hydrocarbons
who will faster create more high-tech assets,
to produce shale gas.
supplying countries via reducing of excessive
which will utilise these hydrocarbons more
Going over to the crux of the matter, it
amounts of gas supplying to the market. In
effectively. These are questions of systemic
should be stressed that many American
case of a negative scenario, �releasing’ some
dynamics, in which the speed of technologi-
experts believe that low cost shale gas could
insignificant volumes of hydrocarbons are
cal development and a real (not hydrocarbon)
be a temporary substitute for oil products
used for domestic consumption, while gas
economy decisively influence the flow of
for motor, railway and sea transport, and
and oil are processed in the country-producer.
capital from one country to another. In par-
could be also used as a raw material for the
Thus, all fluctuations in hydrocarbons sup-
ticular, oil price is high enough for Russia,
petrochemical industry and as an instrument
plies can be easily regulated by the consum-
so it is not about meeting the basic demand
for reducing financial flows from the U.S. to
ing countries. The dependence of the sup-
of any economic system, but rather about
the Middle East. The USA transferred USD 1
plying countries on financial support is less
rationality of investments and controlling
trillion to the Middle East from 2001 to 2010
than that of the consuming countries upon
additional financial flows from creating high
and a total of as much as USD 7 trillion from
hydrocarbons. Continuous flows of hydrocar-
added value products.
1976 to 2010 provided that expenditures on
bons from the suppliers to the consumers will
guarantee that in future hydrocarbons will
�Shale gas revolution’
not be used only for domestic consumption in
military purposes in the region are also taken
account. This is the biggest re-distribution of
wealth from one group to another over the
the exporting countries but will still be sup-
Shale gas revolution is a way to hold finan-
whole history of mankind. Over the next 10
plied to the importers. Otherwise, the export-
cial flows to the Middle East and other oil and
years it was planned to transfer USD 2.2-2.6
ing countries can prepare for consuming the
gas producing regions of the world. Not long
trillion additionally if shale gas is excluded.
released volumes of hydrocarbons meant for
ago, America developed a theory of limiting
Figure 1 shows the main financial flows
export. In other words, it is not reasonable to
purchasing hydrocarbons (oil) from countries
between regions and countries*.
56 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Chemistry and economy
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Figure 2. U.S. natural gas production and consumption in 1970–2012
Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013.
The United States consumes about 11m
degree of certainty, we can assume that fears
Still, America is most likely to export LNG
barrels daily, which makes up 19.1% of
of increasing financial flows to Russia from
on a modest scale and not for long. But if
global consumption. In this connection, we
China and Europe, to the Middle East from
the United States decides to make this step
can emphasise that demand for hydrocarbons
the U.S., Europe and China turned out greater
(insignificant LNG exports for a short time),
will double only from 2020 to 2040. About
due to increased hydrocarbons exports from
the �traditional’ suppliers of hydrocarbons
70% is used for transport purposes.
the first ones. However, problematic geologi-
can agree on cutting production to maintain
their profits at an acceptable level.
Thus, America is implementing an eco-
cal conditions of occurrences of gas in the
nomic strategy of �spreading’ financial flows
main hydrocarbons consuming regions and
across the countries-exporters of hydrocar-
less extravagant ways of purchasing natural
bons so as not to strengthen some particular
gas from other countries testify to the fact
nation or economic centre / region. The recent
that there will be no breakthrough in shale
Shale gas is an important driver of the
cancellation of economic sanctions against
gas production in China and Europe in the
U.S. economy. Despite a global slowdown
Iran and its involving in global economic ties
nearest future. It is more reasonable for these
in growth of demand for pipeline and lique-
only proves this fact. Save for isolated cases
regions to acquire natural gas via pipelines
fied natural gas in recent years, that country
of transferring shale gas technologies to tra-
and in a liquefied form keeping shale gas
displayed an opposite trend in recent years.
ditional oil and gas producing regions, the
reserves for future use. The U.S. strategy
Figure 2 clearly shows convergence of sup-
said technologies have been transferred only
is obvious - making hydrocarbons cheaper
ply and demand curves.
to the consuming regions in order to weaken
worldwide. But this strategy cannot be real-
In 2009-2012 (post-crisis period), there
their dependence from the suppliers. In 2012-
ised in full since the countries-suppliers of
was a slowdown in growth rates of natural
2013, shale gas production technologies were
hydrocarbons could agree on a reduction in
gas consumption in all the regions of the
licensed and tested in China and European
production to support an acceptable level of
world except for the United States. Partly, it
countries, despite the fact that China became
profitability. As for the European region, it
could be related to increasing production of
a powerful economic center competing with
will consume natural gas from Russia as an
cheap shale gas, which pushed an increase
the United States and getting stronger and
alternative to LNG supplied from other coun-
in industrial production including in power
stronger year in year out. Thus, with a higher
tries including those from the Middle East.
generation.
An important economic driver
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 57
Chemistry and economy
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Table 1. Global exports / imports of methanol, thousand tonnes
Net imports
Japanese and other Asian products as well as
Net exports
by Middle Eastern countries.
2006
2015
Average
growth
rates, %
Total
12071
25532
–
Europe
4967
7983
5,4
–
–
–
North East
Asia
7104
17549
10,6
–
–
–
Region
2006
2015
Average
growth
rates, %
12071
25558
–
Russia
–
–
–
1567
5327
14,6
Middle
East
–
–
–
4 979
13465
11,7
Other
–
–
–
5525
6766
2,3
Source: CMAI
Prospects for optimising
a resource base for gas chemical
synthesis in Russia
The power intensity of the Russian
economy is twice as much as that of Japan
and leading Western European countries.
Simultaneously, Russia is lagging behind
the mentioned regions in terms of GDP per
capita. High electric intensity of the Russian
economy is associated with its structure. The
manufacturing industry prevails in terms
In 2012, the United States were the world
an obvious chance for Russia to occupy its
of power consumption - its share is 44,5%
leader in terms of absolute growth of gas
niche in the LNG market in the Asia-Pacific
(without power generation), and in recent
consumption. We can make a cautious con-
region.
years it has been growing. In other words, in
clusion: low prices for natural gas pushed
In addition, it is expected that total switch-
the USSR we used to sell products with high
the country’s economy and gas consumption
ing of boiler stations from coal to natural
added value, and low production costs were
proper. This is one of the oblique proofs
gas in China by 2018 and the accident at the
based on �cheap’ natural gas. So why should
that the USA will not probably export LPG
nuclear power plant in Japan (leader in terms
we go away from such an economy? It is far
from shale deposits. Certainly, there have
of LNG consumption) will make these coun-
more reasonable to develop it.
been sporadic cases of exporting small LPG
tries key drivers of natural gas consumption in
Supplying methanol, a basic semi-finished
volumes from one of the oldest plants of its
the nearest future. In these conditions, taking
product of gas chemical synthesis used for
kind Kenai LNG (Alaska) to Japan starting
into consideration opinions of experts that up
further conversion to a number of chemical
in 1969.
to 85% of Russian reserves of hydrocarbons
substances (including methanol-to-olefins
However, the capacity of the plant is only
are off-shore reserves, Russia will be able to
technology) is very promising in this regard.
1,4m tonnes, and it still remains operational
provide the importing countries with gas for
Supplies of �pseudo-gas’ in the form of nitro-
only in order to avoid staying idle and sav-
many years to come. It would be much more
gen fertilisers should be developed as well.
ing jobs. Certainly, America has invested a
reasonable for the USA to increase the con-
Methanol can be processed into dimethyl
lot of money in LNG terminals. Therefore
sumption of gas by resuming purchases from
ester and used in energetics. And it can
their lying idle may create another �rust belt’.
Qatar followed by growing production of
become a major factor in the development
But using these production facilities to cre-
high-tech products and an increase in exports
of the fuel market in the future (lower per-
ate a temporary glut of hydrocarbons at some
of value added products, while maintaining
meability coefficient and safety). In China,
world markets so as to reduce prices may
its reserves of shale gas for the future when
dimethyl ether is widely used as a fuel. In
have a short-term effect and, consequently,
other countries will run out of them. America
the future, we should expect that countries
will not succeed and be implemented in the
would rather concentrate on producing high-
with poor environment will start purchasing
maximum volume claimed.
tech products to “exchange” them for hydro-
cleaner fuels (such as dimethyl ether). But
carbons at international markets instead of
do not forget that production of cleaner fuels
buying them in debt.
is also harmful to the environment. So, it is
Hydrocarbons can be purchased via additional issuing of USD dollars, but using
domestic reserves of hydrocarbons produced
While China is developing fast, Americans
from hard-to-reach oil and gas formations for
should further exploit a niche for high-quality
economic expansion appears illogical. On
products. Heavy-duty cars and trucks, state-
Russia may take a larger share of metha-
the opposite, in the nearest future we should
of-the-art electronics, high-tech aircraft and
nol and fertilisers at the world market.
expect for the United States to start import-
spacecraft and weapons are those directions
This requires �cheap gas’. According to
ing LNG from Qatar and other countries, as
that can be developed without competing in
Russian experts, by 2015 in China a deficit
a result of consumption growth. This may be
low-range segments occupied by Chinese,
of methanol can reach 5.0-9.6m tonnes (14-
rational to move it to remote and sparsely
populated areas.
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58 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
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Chemistry and economy
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20 % of domestic demand). In the coming
Figure 3. A diagram of Russian gas consumption optimisation
years, China will commission several major
production units for methanol, which may
Non-
reduce the deficit. Its size will probably be
determined by a number of production factors, primarily, by feedstock provision of the
Chinese methanol sector.
As regards outlooks for methanol sales,
it is of interest to look at data on the global
methanol market presented by CMAI (Table
1).
Any process of re-industrialization and
increasing competitiveness of the national
economy can be achieved by using the
�Soviet model’, which was oriented towards
low-cost natural gas. Any production plant
based upon cheaper gas will get an advantage
at the international markets. In 2013 domestic
gas prices in Russia caught up with the U.S.
ones fixed at about USD 120 per 1,000 m3 ,
without taking into consideration seasonality
deep-hole drilling or developing off-shore
turbines replacement actively promoted by
and about a tenfold fluctuation in prices due
gas. In doing so, the most promising way of
�Greenpeace’ in 2006 should be paid scrupu-
to abnormally low temperatures during win-
improving efficiency of the Russian indus-
lous attention to. This idea is unfairly forgot-
ter. Today Russia still needs to find �cheap’
trial sector should be replacing obsolete gas
ten, though it is becoming of urgency under
natural gas to maintain the competitiveness
turbines with the new ones, i.e. enhancing the
the current conditions owing to the success
of its economy.
coefficient of efficiency of heat power plants
of the �Prirazlomnaya’, the �shale revolution’
. There is no way of refusing from the devel-
and the necessity to keep domestic gas pro-
opment of the Arctic shelf, since it is not clear
cess at an acceptable level. At the same time,
whether warming in the north is temporary or
an option of replacing gas turbines at heat
A source of cheap gas for Russia
Under the current conditions, these are
whether there will be climatic cooling again.
power plants to the detritment of investments
not the countries-exporters of hydrocar-
At the moment, climatic conditions are quite
that could be made in the Arctic shelf devel-
bons that �have oil / gas addiction’ but, on
favourable for developing the Arctic shelf.
opment should be entirely excluded. Gas
the contrary, - a group of the countries-
Therefore this period of climatic changes
consumption saving will exert a profound
importers. The exporters could use min-
should be used to the utmost to derive sub-
multiplicative effect upon the economy. The
eral resources for developing and keeping
stantial benefits from warming. In this regard,
main difficulty consists in simply making
economy afloat, but the importers have to
to enhance the efficiency of the economy at
private owners modernise heat and power
�squeeze’ the last drops of oil and gas out
the expense of saving additional volumes of
plants. This may be some legislative measure
of the earth, which still remain in shales
�cheap’ gas, technologically obsolete turbines
such as upgrading heat and power plants via
(save for such exotic hydrocarbons sources
at heat power plants should be replaced much
a partnership between state and private own-
as the Arctic shelf and hydrates). They
more intensively, because more than half of
ers by a certain term. However, one should
do it in order to maintain the competitive
gas is just burned in vain by reason of low
be completely aware of necessity to enforce
strength of their economies against the
technology. The proposed variant of replac-
modernization. According to the most con-
background of the fast-growing global eco-
ing the turbines, however, is not regarded
servative estimates, aggregate capacity of
nomic centres.
seriously due to the well-known incident at
heat and power stations can increase 1.5-1.7
Hydrocarbons are the second most impor-
the platform �Prirazlomnaya’ in 2013 (the
times at the very least at the cost of increas-
tant factor for any economy after human
Prirazlomnaya platform in the Arctic was
ing their degree of efficiency. Therefore,
capital assets. Today to maintain exports
the focus of a high profile Greenpeace pro-
additional volumes of natural gas could be
level, there are no options left except for
test in September). Nevertheless, the idea of
used for other purposes. A strong stimulus
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в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian
chemical market 59
ÜÜÜ°ˆVi�ˆ°Vœ“ÉÕ�œVŽ°…Ì“
Chemistry and economy
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Table 2. Advantages and disadvantages of replacement with gas
Advantage of replacement with gas
Disadvantage of replacement with gas
(complexity of replacement)
Internal combustion engines in passenger
cars, trucks, public motor transport and sea
transport
Bigger fuel tank capacity, longer mileage with
the same fuel consumption, high performance
engines, low operating costs, lower CO2
emissions
High permeability of natural gas, hazards
related to high pressure while storing
Out-of-date turbines at HPP
Saving gas (smaller consumption of gas in
current time – direct effect from gas sales by
large Russian companies) or releasing �cheap’
gas at the expense of high-tech turbines
Complexity of modernisation process – a large
number of HPP owners
for the development of the new economy in
significant fluctuations. In years to come,
task is to facilitate HPP modernisation at
Russia can be provided by optimizing gas
All in all, shale gas production is forecast to
the level of legislation to release �cheap’
consumption in accord with a diagram shown
decline, according to EIA .
gas for providing a new stimulus for the
Target area
in Figure 3.
Thirdly, the accident and subsequent
economy. It is necessary to upgrade heat
Simultaneously, it is of big interest to
failures at nuclear power stations in Japan,
and power stations in Russia at a growing
consider the key advantages and shortages of
which takes the lead in LPG consumption, as
rate using a mechanism of state and private
using natural gas a fuel (Table 2).
well as total switching of coal boiler rooms
partnership along with the development of
It is to be noted that Siberian scientists are
to natural gas in China by 2018 make the
industry on the basis of business clusters.
carrying out research into mechanisms and
mentioned countries the key drivers of global
There should be created an all-Russian
a system of optimizing investments in the
gas demand in the nearest future. Large-scale
information and analytical system on the
development of new gas fields and heat and
LPG exports from the USA should not be
basis of systemic-dynamic modelling so
power plant modernisation for from using
expected; on the contrary, that country may
as to optimise investments in the shelf and
saved gas.
be a potential destination for gas streams in
HPP modernisation.
Conclusions
the long-term prospect.
LNG exports from the USA will probably
Finally, to improve the efficiency of
be insignificant and short-term. The opposite,
the Russian economy, it is necessary to
hardly probable scenario, if the USA did take
Thus, comparatively recently, a theory
reduce its power intensity, thus releasing
a step in that direction (large LNG exports for
of restricting hydrocarbons purchases from
additional gas volumes (at the cost of mod-
a short period of time), means that the �tradi-
the Middle East at the expense of its own
ernisation and replacement of turbines) of
onal’ countries-exporters of hydrocarbons
production of gas and replacement of oil
heat and power stations for the sake of gas
could agree on reducing production with the
products with gas in sea, railway and motorР°
chemical synthesis and / or generation of
purpose of maintaining their profitability at
transport evolved in America. Secondly,
�cheap’ power. At the same time, to develop
a suitable level. This is not critical to Russia,
growth of shale gas production in that coun-
hard-to-get-to resources at the Arctic shelf
since the country will direct its hydrocarbon
try contributed to growth of gas consumption
is also a basis for Russia’s economic
flows to Asia, of which European countries are
and to increased efficiency of the economy.
advancement. The Arctic shelf accounts
well aware. Europeans need Russia in order to
In 2012, gas production growth rates in the
for nearly 80% of hydrocarbons reserves
put pressure on Qatar and the other countries-
USA noticeably reduced. In 2013, monthly
in the country. Therefore, developing them
suppliers. Pipeline supply is the stability, which
production of shale hydrocarbons underwent
is an inevitable process. Also, the main
Europeans have no intention to lose.
* Average oil price is taken for calculation. Aggregated calculation is made on the basis of prices for the following brands of oil : Urals, REBCO, ESPO,
Siberian Light, Brent, Dubai Crude, Light Sweet, WTI.
1 Subsidizing Oil Shale: Tracing Federal Support for Oil Shale Development in the United States, Taxpayers for Common Sense, November 29, 2012, link:
http://www.taxpayer.net/images/uploads/downloads/OilShale-v7.pdf
2 Henderson D., Рњ. Belova M., LNG: Made in USA. Skolkovo energetic centre. hyperlink: http://energy.skolkovo.ru/upload/medialibrary/07c/SEneC_LNG_
Made_in_USA.pdf
4 Russian gas export price in 2013 averaged USD 380 /1,000 m3. U.S. price – USD 132 /1,000 m3. Company news http://neftegaz.ru/news/view/118120
5 Wearing of equipment – a systemic problem of the entire power industry // Power market. – 2011. – № 3(39) May–June 2011. hyperlink:http://market.elec.
ru/nomer/36/iznos-oborudovaniya-sistemnaya-problema-vsej-elekt/
7 Zabolotsky S.A. Outlooks for development of LNG supplies: changes in the global markets // Neftegaz.ru. – 2013. – № 10. – p. 21–26 (http://lib.ieie.nsc.ru/
docs/NeftegazRU_2013_10.pdf)
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Michitaka Sawada, President
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ate
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Chemistry and business
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
EuroChem Reports IFRS Financial
Information for 2013
EuroChem Antwerpen’s premises
EuroChem
Mineral
and
Chemical
by 8% to 10.6m metric tons (MMT) as com-
is well positioned to drive and support robust
Company (“EuroChem”) announced consoli-
pared to 2012 sales volumes (or up less than 1%
cash flow generation across the business
dated full year 2013 revenues according to
on a like-for-like basis, excluding EuroChem
cycle. The ensuing value creation is set to be
IFRS of RUR 176.9bn (USD 5.6bn), which
Antwerpen and EuroChem Agro). Mining raw
boosted by our targeted strategic initiatives,
represented a 6% increase on revenues of
material sales volumes, which include iron ore
such as in potash, nitrogen and phosphates,
RUR 166.5bn (USD5.4bn) in 2012. Earnings
and baddeleyite, added over half am tonnes and
which will serve to further entrench our
before interest, taxes, depreciation, and
grew to 5.9 MMT, which represented an 11%
resilience.”
amortisation (EBITDA) amounted to RUR
increase on the previous year.
43.0bn (USD 1.3bn), as compared to RUR
49.2bn (USD 1.6bn) in the previous year.
CEO
Dmitry
Strezhnev
commented:
2013 Market Conditions
“Despite the growth in fertiliser demand
Full year fertiliser sales volumes for the
falling short of market expectations, we
The fertiliser markets had a rather tumultu-
company’s nitrogen and phosphate seg-
continued to challenge ourselves to increase
ous year. While the year started off slowly on
ments, excluding sales of mining co-products,
volumes and gain market share. As high-
account of adverse weather in some key mar-
increased 788 thousand metric tons (KMT) or
lighted by our results, our unique asset base
kets, conditions had materially improved by
62 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Chemistry and business
w w w. chem mar ket. info
late spring. Farmers quickly made up for the
lost time as favourable soft commodity prices
provided the incentive to increase yield and
expand acreage. Despite the return of healthy
demand levels for all three nutrients, the
first quarter’s inventory build-up limited any
significant pricing appreciation. Urea prices
proved the most vulnerable on account of
record urea exports from China where ample
coal supply and lower prices boosted the
global competitiveness of local producers.
On the demand side, India’s currency devaluation coupled with what has been described
as an archaic subsidy system left one of the
View of Severneft-Urengoy
world’s largest fertiliser importers incapacision projects were reassessed in the wake of
for urea and AN trading, the breadth and
In a positive for both producers and cus-
this market reshuffling, EuroChem reiterated
flexibility of the company’s production and
tomers, raw material price dynamics mirrored
its commitment to the “third nutrient” with
distribution assets alleviated some of the
the softer market conditions. Over the course
work continuing at both its greenfield potash
pressure. The consolidation of EuroChem
of the year, gradually weakening ammonia,
projects in Russia. At an average of USD
Antwerpen and EuroChem Agro yielded
sulphur and phosphate rock prices helped
352/tonne in 2013 MOP (FOB Baltic Sea)
significant gains for the company’s more
alleviate some of the margin pressure on the
contract prices fell 17% YOY as compared
advanced crop nutrition products. Sales in
producer side. Prilled urea (FOB Yuzhny)
to an average of USD 424/tonne in 2012.
NPK, UAN, and granulated AN increased a
averaged USD 341/tonne in 2013, down 16%
The spot price premium to contract prices
combined 978 KMT over the previous year,
from its 2012 average of USD 408/tonne.
tightened as buyers held out given the mar-
more than compensating the slightly lower
Ammonium nitrate (AN) (FOB Black Sea)
ket uncertainty. MOP (FOB Baltic Sea) spot
urea and AN sales volumes, which slipped
performed slightly better and finished 2013
prices ended 2013 with an average USD 379/
7% and 11% YOY respectively. CAN sales
with an average of USD 288, 5% below its
tonne, 19% behind their 2012 average of
volumes were also strong, increasing 24% to
average for the previous year.
USD 467/tonne. Spot prices for MOP on the
943 KMT as compared to 759 KMT in 2012.
tated for the better part of the year.
While phosphate prices received some
Baltics finished the year at around USD 290/
The company’s nitrogen revenues for the
support from the growth in planted acre-
tonne, or ca. 40% below their late December
12 months ended 31 December 2013 climbed
age in Latin America, the market remained
2012 levels.
to a record high of RUR 100.1bn, which rep-
otherwise fragile given the limited buying
Buoyed by stronger-than-expected demand
resented an 8% increase on what was a strong
activity from India. Average MAP and DAP
from China, iron ore (63.5%Fe, China CFR)
2012 performance. Average prices for nitro-
(FOB Baltic Sea) prices for 2013 were USD
averaged USD 136/tonne for the year, a 3%
gen products nevertheless reflected the chal-
454 and USD 457USD/tonne respectively,
increase versus its 2012 average.
lenging market backdrop and pulled nitrogen
trailing their 2012 average prices by 18% and
17% respectively.
Midway through the year, unexpected
strategic repositioning by Uralkali wreaked
segment EBITDA down 14% to RUR 26.2bn
BUSINESS SEGMENTS
as compared to RUR 30.6bn in 2012.
Sales to Europe, which represented 26%
Nitrogen segment
of total nitrogen sales in 2012, increased
29% and accounted for 31% of the Group’s
chaos over the potash landscape. Citing lost
market share and declining sales volumes, the
The company’s 2013 nitrogen segment
nitrogen sales in 2013. The increase in sales
Russian potash producer’s abrupt exit from
sales volumes continued to benefit from the
to Europe was primarily brought on by the
the BPC marketing vehicle, which it formed
added depth to its fertiliser production chain.
expansion of the company’s distribution net-
with neighbour Belaruskali, brought the mar-
Full year volumes increased 11% and rose
work and asset base in Western Europe cou-
ket to a standstill. Potash prices reacted in a
to 8,217 KMT, which corresponded to an
pled with challenging conditions on the other
knee-jerk fashion and went on to shed over
additional 838 KMT of product as compared
side of the Atlantic. The company’s sales to
25% by year end. While many potash expan-
to 2012. While the year proved challenging
Russia increased 14% and accounted for 23%
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 63
Chemistry and business
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
The company’s mining operations mitigated the weakness in phosphate-based fertilisers as healthy demand from China carried
average iron ore prices 3% higher YOY.
Iron ore and baddeleyite, which are the coproducts of apatite mining operations at the
company’s Kovdorskiy GOK mine, together
generated 38% and 74% of phosphate segment revenues and EBITDA, respectively, as
compared to 31% and 51% in 2012.
The sales geography of the company’s
phosphate segment reflected the contribution of mining co-products to the segment’s
performance. The share of revenue from Asia
increased three percentage points as comGeneral view of Fosforit (Kingisepp, Leningrad region), a member
of Eurochem chemical company
pared to 2012 and accounted for 30% of total
segment sales. Higher feed phosphate sales
drove gains in Europe. As in 2012, it was the
of segment sales (2012: 22%).Urea’s relative
by a 2-3% raise from October 1st. No price
company’s second largest phosphate market
weakness versus other nitrogen products was
increases have been announced for 2014.
and represented 29% of 2013 sales, a three
especially felt in the Americas. Sales to Latin
America and North America decreased 31%
Phosphate segment
and 18% respectively. Together these two
regions accounted for 23% of sales in 2013
(2012: 32%).
percentage point increase on last year. Sales
to Russia declined six percentage points on
lower MAP/DAP prices and accounted for
Total sales volumes for the phosphate seg-
18% of sales in 2013.
ment, excluding raw material mining opera-
In late October 2013 the companyan-
At the company’s upstream nitrogen
tions, slipped 2% or 50 KMT to 2,405 KMT
nounced the launch of drilling and blasting
operations, its Severneft-Urengoy (SNU)
in 2013, as compared to last year. MAP/DAP
operations at the company’s phosphate rock
natural gas subsidiary provided RUR 5.1bn
sales remained practically flat with a mod-
mining project in Kazakhstan. Most of the
and RUR 1.5bn to the Group’s revenues and
est 13 KMT YOY increase while NP sales
major equipment items required to build the
EBITDA, respectively. Natural gas sales
finished the year 53 KMT below their 2012
initial phase have been purchased, includ-
volumes increased 27% YOY to reach 830m
levels. Iron ore demand remained resilient
ing but not limited to excavators, dozers,
m3 while gas condensate sales volumes
throughout the year. Sales of the company’s
haul trucks, crushers, as well as screening,
expanded 26% to 141 KMT as compared to
apatite-mining co-product finished the year
conveying and loading facilities. First pro-
2012. The natural gas volumes were sold to
up 11% to 5,858 KMT as compared to 2012.
duction is expected to come on stream in the
Novomoskovskiy Azot at regulated prices
The strong iron ore backdrop lent support
fourth quarter of 2014. With its targeted ini-
to the company’s phosphate segment revenues
tial production capacity of around 640 KMT
company’s
for the January to December 2013 period and
of phosphate ore per year, the company’s
Novomoskovskiy Azot and Nevinnomysskiy
limited the effects of the year’s lacklustre MAP/
Kazakh mining project has been an important
Azot ammonia facilities paid average natural
DAP showing. Full year revenues for the com-
part of the company’s upstream raw material
gas prices of RUR 3,966 and RUR 4,120 per
pany’s phosphate segment amounted to RUR
strategy.
1,000m3 respectively (c. USD 3.87 and USD
58.3bn, representing a 4% decline on 2012
4.03/mmBtu), as compared to average prices
segment revenues of RUR 60.8bn. Phosphate
of RUR 3,432 and RUR 3,594 per 1,000m3
segment EBITDA had a more pronounced
respectively (c. USD 3.43 and 3.60/mmBtu)
decline, pulled down by the lower average
for the 12 months ended 31 December
realised prices for phosphate fertiliser products,
2012. Two natural gas price increases were
particularly MAP/DAP, and finished the year
implemented in 2013 in Russia. An increase
at RUR 13.9bn, 15% below the RUR 16.2bn
of 15% took effect from July 1st followed
recorded a year earlier.
less a 5% discount.
For
the
year,
the
64 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Potash segment
Eurochem VolgaKaliy (Gremyachinskoe
deposit, Volgograd region)
With the cage shaft bottom cleared of
water and debris, the companyresumed sink-
Chemistry and business
w w w. chem mar ket. info
ing in the fourth quarter and had progressed
As of 31 January, underground operations
and Q3 2012, respectively, the company’s
to a depth of -148 meters as of 31 January.
at the Usolskiy skip shaft were down to 509
revenues and EBITDA for 2013 amounted to
As previously announced, the restart of sink-
meters with only 37 meters left to sink before
RUR 135.0bn and RUR 39.2bn respectively.
ing was delayed by several months. Once
the shaft’s planned depth. The companyalso
For the twelve months ended December
the shaft was cleared, detailed surveying
made progress on other excavations in this
2013, the company’s total cost of sales dis-
revealed that corrections to the shaft liner
shaft such as openings for the loading bins
played a 15% increase over the previous year
were required. These issues were inherited
and pockets.
and amounted to RUR 112.8bn. The increase
from the company’s initial contractor for the
Above ground, the company’s teams were
in costs outpaced the 6% revenue growth as
project and included the need to remove and
engaged in the construction of the tailings
average costs and tariffs for key raw mate-
replace eleven tubing rings and the concrete
pond and railroads. The landscape of the site
rials such as natural gas, phosphate rock,
backing.
further evolved with the erecting of the foun-
ammonia, and energy moved slightly higher
Work also continued on schedule at the
dations for various buildings including the
than in the previous year. In line with the
skip shaft #1 where the freeze wall was
administration building, mine rescue build-
growth in production volumes, group costs
completed in December. Sinking operations
ing and permanent canteen.
for materials and components used or resold
resumed after extensive testing of the water
For the January to December 2013 period,
increased from RUR 64.6bn in 2012 to RUR
and pressure below the bottom concrete plug.
total capital expenditure at both VolgaKaliy
70.1 bn in 2013. However, their share within
The plug was then removed and sinking
and Usolskiy amounted to RUR 12.4bn,
the Group’s costs of sales structure decreased
operations resumed from -572 meters. As of
bringing the aggregate total to RUR 57bn
four percentage points to 62%.
31 January, the skip shaft #1 had reached a
since the start of the company’s greenfield
depth of -601 meters out of its planned -1,147
potash developments.
meters.
The freeze wall for the skip shaft #2 was
Within cost of sales, labour costs, which
include social fund contributions, increased
11% in 2013 and amounted to RUR 10.9bn.
Distribution segment
Most of the uptick in labour costs was driven
further developed and had achieved its des-
by a salary indexation in January 2013 com-
ignated thickness at the time of this release.
The company’s distribution segment com-
bined with an increase in personnel brought
Sinking efforts on the company’s phase 2
prises the sale of fertilisers and services via
on by the integration of assets acquired in
skip shaft are currently scheduled to start
a number of retailers located within the CIS,
the previous year. As in 2012, labour costs
later this month.
specifically in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.
comprised 10% of the Group’s total costs of
sales in 2013.
On the surface, the companysaw good
The strategy to provide its clients with
progress on the construction of the main
“yields, not just fertilisers” is there to support
Despite the considerable increase in pro-
process beneficiation building, warehous-
its customers improve yields through better
duction volumes, the share of energy costs
ing facilities, and loading and shipping
crop nutrient balance. In 2013, the com-
within the company’s cost structure remained
facilities. The main electrical substation
pany’s distribution segment realised sales of
flat at 7%. Although the companyregistered a
is essentially complete and undergoing
RUR 17.0bn and generated EBITDA of RUR
14% YOY increase in energy costs following
rigorous commissioning checks prior to
683m.
the upward revision to tariffs in the Russian
energising.]
power generation, the company’s efficiency
FINANCIAL
upgrade program yielded substantial savings.
Particularly, in addition to increasing internal
EuroChem Usolskiy Potash (Verkhne-
Income statement
kamskoe deposit, Perm region)
power generation capacity at Phosphorit,
the replacement of obsolete catalysts at
completed
Consolidated revenues for the twelve
cage shaft sinking operations in October
months ended 31 December 2013 grew 6%
2013 and expect to wrap up skip shaft
to RUR 176.9bn (USD 5.6bn). The additional
Total distribution costs ticked up 8% to
sinking efforts within the next quarter. The
838 KMT in nitrogen sales volumes coupled
RUR 25.3bn as compared to RUR 23.3bn for
abandonment of the site’s two freeze walls,
with an 11% increase in iron ore sales vol-
the same period in 2012. Within S&D costs,
which were designed, installed, and oper-
umes helped alleviate the pricing erosion
transportation expenses registered a slight
ated by Thyssen Schachtbau is underway,
in phosphates and drive the YOY revenue
3% growth to RUR 18.6bn (2012: RUR
a program also contracted with the German
expansion. Excluding EuroChem Antwerpen
18.1bn). Despite increasing YOY, transporta-
mining specialists.
and EuroChem Agro, consolidated from Q2
tion costs comprised 74% of total distribution
The
companysuccessfully
Novomoskovskiy Azot provided RUR 45m
in energy savings in 2013.
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 65
Chemistry and business
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
a club facility for an amount of USD1.3bn.
Structured as a 5-year unsecured finance
facility and priced at LIBOR 3M + 1.8%, the
facility includes a 2-year grace period. The proceeds were immediately used to pay down the
outstanding amount under EuroChem’s 2011
USD1.3 billion pre-export facility.
While the company’s debt ratio remained
well below bank covenant levels and at all
times within the company’s targeted acrossthe-cycle range, the volatility in the fertiliser
Eurochem-Belorechensk Mineral Ferulisers plant produces DAP
and sulphoammophos
markets prompted the Group’s shareholders
to proceed with a pre-emptive USD 300m
capital injection in the fourth quarter of 2013
expenses in 2013, down from 78% a year
Lifosa’s 50th anniversary, and the upgrade
through the acquisition of 2.36% of share
earlier. While lower maritime freight rates
of social infrastructure and public utilities
capital of the Group’s holding company.
provided a 14% reduction in transportation
in Novomoskovsk, site of the company’s
Consequently, the companyclosed 2013 with
costs, the savings were offset by an increase
Novomoskovskiy Azot nitrogen facility.
a net debt to 12-month rolling EBITDA ratio
in rail shipments of iron ore concentrate to
Zabaikalsk (Chinese border).
General
and
administrative
Below the operating profit line, the companyrecognised unrealised financial foreign
of 2.07x as compared to 2.27x in Q3 2013
(2012: 1.53x).
(G&A)
exchange losses of RUR 5.9bn, compared
Highlighting EuroChem’s strong product
expenses for the Group increased 20% from
to an unrealised gain of RUR 4.3bn in 2012.
and geographic diversification, its partial
RUR 5.6bn in 2012 to RUR 6.7bn in 2013.
Changes in these noncash items reflect the
vertical integration and its advantageous
Accounting for 47% of G&A expenses,
impact of the weaker Russian rouble on the
position on the industry cost-curve as its core
labour costs increased 16% over the same
company’s primarily US dollar-denominated
strengths underpinning its cash flow gen-
period. Total staff costs, including social
debt which matches the company’s mainly
eration, Fitch Ratings and Standard & Poor’s
expenses, grew to RUR 16.6bn, up15%
USD-denominated revenues.
both affirmed EuroChem at BB / stable out-
from RUR 14.4bn a year ago. As highlighted
Interest expenses for 2013 increased in line
earlier, the growth in staff expenses was
with the Company’s higher debt level and
primarily linked to recent acquisitions and
amounted to RUR 5.2bn (2012: RUR 4.3bn).
organic growth initiatives. Some of the key
For 2013 the companyrecognised other finan-
ongoing projects of 2013 were the develop-
cial losses of RUR 945m on changes in the fair
At RUR 36.2bn, operating cash flow for
ment of phosphate rock mining operations
value of USD/RUR non-deliverable forward
the twelve months ended 31 December 2013
in Kazakhstan, the launch of the company’s
contracts and changes in the fair value of cross
remained within 7% of the previous year’s
railcar depot to service the Group’s 6,500+
currency interest rate swaps in amounts of RUR
level.
rolling stock, and its ambitious VolgaKaliy
535m and RUR 165m, respectively.
and Usolskiy potash projects in Russia.
For the full year 2013 the companyrecog-
Balance sheet
nised other operating expenses of RUR 425m
look in 2013.
Cash flow
The company’s total capex spending
for the January to December 2013 period
amounted to RUR 32.6bn (USD 1.0bn),
comprised of investments of RUR 12.4bn
versus other operating income of RUR 371m
Working capital needs decreased slightly
in potash, RUR 10.4bn in nitrogen and RUR
in 2012. The main items behind other operat-
as lower prices for finished goods slightly
8.6bn in phosphates. The remainder was allo-
ing expenses for the period were sponsorship
balanced higher prices for certain raw mate-
cated to its distribution network and logistics
expenses of RUR 839m (2012: RUR 516m)
rials. The Company’s net working capital
infrastructure.
and foreign exchange gains of RUR 393m
decreased 3% from RUR 23.9bn in 2012 to
(2012: losses of RUR 263m). The main
RUR 23.1bn as at 31 December, 2013
2013 corporate developments
sponsorship expenses included a new sports
EuroChem’s portfolio of borrowings from
facility in Kedainiai, Lithuania, constructed
banks remained fairly unchanged until late
In 2013 the Group finalised the acquisi-
as part of celebrations commemorating
August when the companysuccessfully closed
tion of 54,613 ordinary shares of OJSC
66 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Chemistry and business
w w w. chem mar ket. info
“Murmansk Commercial Seaport” for a total
consideration of RUR 3.15bn. These ordinary
shares represent 48.26% of the total number
of the ordinary shares and 36.20% of the total
issued share capital of the Company. As at 31
December 2013, the Group held 36.20% of
the OJSC “Murmansk Commercial Seaport”
voting rights.
On 10 July 2013, EuroChem announced
its intention to consider building an ammonia
and urea production plant in Louisiana. A
final decision on the parameters and location
of the facility should be taken later in 2014.
On 29 July 2013, the companyannounced
its plans to create a joint venture (JV) with
the Migao Corporation, a specialty potash
fertiliser producer based in the southern
Nevinnomysskiy Azot is the largest producer of nitrogen fertilisers in Russia
Chinese province of Yunnan. The JV is
expected to bring up to 60,000 tonnes per
for which the leave is granted, including
out until March. While Chinese urea export
year of potassium nitrate (NK) and 200,000
interest and cost at EUR 886m. The court
parameters have been relaxed for 2014,
tonnes per year of chloride-free NPK capac-
held an in-depth hearing on 21 January 2014
EuroChem expects yearly export volumes
ity online by the end of 2014.
where it considered the arguments and wit-
from China to remain in line with 2012-2013
nesses of both sides, following which, the
levels. In Europe, annual benefit payments to
court notified that a final judgment is to be
the agricultural sector have been distributed
rendered on 16 April 2014.
and should provide a positive impact on ferti-
Legal proceedings
In October 2012 the group filed a claim
against Shaft Sinkers (pty) ltd and Rossal
liser purchasing activity.
Outlook
Re-emerging demand in phosphates has
126 (pty) limited (formerly known as Shaft
tightened supply and provided a boost to
Sinkers (pty) ltd.), (“Shaft Sinkers”), the
Despite the lingering presence of global
prices. While lower ammonia prices may
contractor involved in the construction of the
imbalances and market volatility, the growth
help margins at producer levels, the com-
mining shafts at the Gremyachinskoe potash
of the fertiliser industry remains solidly
panywould expect to see any significant
deposit, seeking compensation for the direct
underpinned by global food demand. Growing
upward movement in DAP/MAP prices to be
costs and substantial lost profits arising from
yield gaps in certain regions coupled with the
matched by a ramp-up in capacity utilisation.
the delay in commencing potash produc-
increasing pressure on the global food system
Prices are expected to gradually come down
tion, due to the inability of that construction
from emerging economies and dietary shifts
as seasonal demand diminished. India’s mar-
company to fulfil its contractual obligations.
will continue to support and further drive the
ket presence is likely to remain limited until
Further details of the proceedings are avail-
use of fertilisers.
after the May elections.
able in note 34 of the Group’s 2013 IFRS
accounts.
Following their significant rally, nitro-
In potash, contract prices have established
gen prices have reached more comfortable
a floor price for the upcoming months. Potash
In March 2013 the Group filed a claim
levels which could be sustained heading
producers have been applying upward pres-
against International Mineral Resources B.V.
into the second quarter on account of plant
sure on spot prices with product in Latin
(“IMR”) which, the Group believes, held a
turnarounds in the Middle East and limited
America and Southeast Asia trading at
controlling interest in Shaft Sinkers, claim-
export flows from China to North America
around USD 350 CFR.While the changes
ing IMR is responsible for its subsidiary’s
as compared to last year. At the same time,
in the ownership of Uralkali should eventu-
actions. In July 2013, a Dutch Court granted
weather related delays to spring planting
ally restore joint marketing of product with
EuroChem definitive leave for levying the
in the US could erode some of the price
Belaruskali, this does not appear to be immi-
requested prejudgment attachments against
gains. Nevertheless most producers are in a
nent in the near term and presents a challenge
IMR’s Dutch assets, while fixing the amount
comfortable spot with many reportedly sold
to significant price appreciation.
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 67
Chemical equipment
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Certificates for Industrial
Equipment and Installations
Needed to Access Market
of Customs Union
By Yvonne Oppermann, TГњV Hessen and Yury Kulikou, TГњV SГњD Industrie Service
Manufacturers of industrial equipment wishing to sell their products in the Customs Union (CU) need to
obtain special national certifications – such as the new Technical Regulation on pressure equipment that
came into effect on February 1, 2014. Working with their affiliate TГњV SГњD RUS, TГњV Hessen and TГњV SГњD
support and assist manufacturers throughout the entire process.
Equipment for the oil and gas industry,
have now been established. There are several
tions by experts. In addition, the applica-
such as pumps and production systems, is in
certification bodies, testing laboratories and
tion for certification can only be filed by a
particular demand by the chemical industry
intermediaries for the new TR certificates of
legal entity located in Russia, such as the
in the Russian Federation and the Customs
the Customs Union (of Russia, Belarus and
manufacturer’s subsidiary, a retailer or the
Union. The reason is that to date there have
Kazakhstan). However, even in existing sup-
customer. Certification can refer to either a
not been enough small- and medium-sized
plier relationships it is important to have a
batch of goods or series production. In the
enterprises in these sectors to ensure com-
partner that offers command of the language,
latter case, certificate validity ranges from
petitive production also at international level.
familiarity with the market and long-standing
one to five years. In this context manufactur-
This makes the market highly interesting for
local experience.
ers must observe the transition from GOST R
European manufacturers and their suppliers.
However, market access involves challenges
and TR to TR CU certificates. All certificates
Differing safety and quality requirements
that must not be underestimated and a host
that are still based on the old standards will
continue to apply up to 15 March 2015. This
of regulatory aspects, some of them deviat-
The Customs Union created a significant
time is considered a transition period during
ing significantly from European regulations.
economic area that has established its own
which manufacturers can apply for TR CU
Matters are rendered even more difficult by
standards to monitor and ensure that products
certificates.
the fact that extended customs formalities or
satisfy minimum safety and quality require-
special local infrastructure features make the
ments. For this purpose, the CU’s own set of
import of products for some sectors of indus-
technical regulations (TR) came into effect in
try even more complicated. Other examples
February 2013 and now comprises over 20
Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises
include more restrictive import regula-
different safety and quality standards, includ-
should expect costs in the four-digit range
tions and somewhat extensive certification
ing the CU’s Technical Regulation “On the
and allow adequate time for the new certifi-
requirements.
safety of equipment working under excessive
cation process. Manufacturers that frequently
pressure.”
deliver components or systems require cer-
Imported industrial equipment is subjected
What costs and efforts must be expected?
to in-depth testing in test organisations.
Products imported anywhere in the CU
tificates on series production that are valid for
While in the past the certification procedure
need a CU TR certificate. Only mandatory
one, three or five years. These certificates are
has been prone to misuse in individual cases,
certificates and mandatory declarations meet
slightly more costly. Manufacturers that need
with certificates in Moscow sometimes avail-
this requirement. As an important rule, many
certificates for many different equipment
able within hours after money changing
certificates require manufacturers to submit
or components may have to expect costs
hands, a separate authority and clear rules
product samples or involve factory inspec-
in the five-digit range. Some installations
68 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Chemical equipment
w w w. chem mar ket. info
TГњV Hessen and TГњV SГњD provide
comprehensive consulting services
on GOST and the new TR CU certificates issued. Experts with longstanding experience determine the
certificates that German manufacturers must submit to export their products and place them into service, and
the criteria their products must meet
to obtain these certificates. For certification, products have to undergo
desktop/document review plus “conventional” conformity assessment.
The documentation is in Russian. A
further advantage for German exporters is the direct contact to Russian authorities they can establish
via the affiliate TГњV SГњD RUS.
30 to 40 person-days of work, not includ-
checked the documentation for conformity
ing translation into Russian. Comprehensive
with the Russian codes and standards, the
support by a qualified partner can help to
service provider will coordinate the certifi-
speed up the process. As the Customs Union
cate with the client. Clients should normally
increasingly orients itself to European stand-
receive an acceptance report by email, with
ards, processes are expected to become less
the original certificates and certified copies
time-intensive in the future.
following by post; they can then be presented
to import and customs controls. Once all
documents are complete, processing of the
What documents are required?
applications takes an average of three weeks.
In addition to the application form, customs
code (HS code) and product name in English
TГњV Hessen
or Russian (series number, model etc),
Yvonne Oppermann
manufacturers must supply technical docu-
RГјdesheimer Str. 119
mentation (in Russian, German or English)
64285 Darmstadt
as well as product design drawings, material
Germany
specifications and assembly instructions. Test
Tel.: +49 6151 600-373
records and an ISO 9001 certificate, where
yvonne.oppermann@tuevhessen.de
and equipment may fall under the scope of
available, are also considered important
www.tuev-hessen.de
multiple technical regulations, consequently
documents. The product description should
requiring several certificates. In case of a
cover all components included in the scope
TГњV SГњD Industrie Service
one-off export or exports at irregular longer
of delivery. Service providers commissioned
Yury Kulikou
time intervals, a single certification which
to carry out certification can prepare their
Gottlieb-Daimler-StraГџe 7
is available at relatively low costs may be
quotations on the basis of these documents.
70794 Filderstadt
sufficient.
Where appropriate, a checklist that specifies
Germany
the other documents to be submitted can be
Tel.: +49 711 7005-248
enclosed with the quotation.
yury.kulikou@tuev-sued.de
Companies preparing for certification in
accordance with the new standards often
invest
After the Russian regulatory bodies have
www.tuev-sued.de/is
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 69
Countries and regions
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Review of the Chemical Industry
of Uzbekistan: A Strong Focus
on Modernisation
Almost eight years have passed since
successfully till nowadays. This model is
carbon dioxide - (+4.8%); technical salt – by
the first issues of our magazine containing
the most effective for the development of
2.4 times; polyethylene film – by 5 times.
articles reviewing the chemical industry of
natural resources - oil, gas, etc.
different countries were published includ-
As for factories of the manufacturing
ing an article covering the then state of the
industry, which were built before the collapse
Uzbek chemical sector. The country is the
of the USSR, production output at most of
Uzbekistan has a strong mineral raw mate-
56th largest in the world by area and the 42nd
them stabilised and gradually ramped up.
rial base, which is one of the major sources of
by population. Among the CIS countries,
Through some uncompetitive workshops and
income for the country’s economy. Today this
Uzbekistan is the 5th largest by area and the
sometimes even entire manufacturing plans
base consists of more than 1,800 of mineral
3rd by population after Russia and Ukraine.
I. Raw material recourses
were closed down. Now, after raising invest-
deposits, about 1000 of mineral occurrences
In fact, the chemical industry of Uzbekistan
ment resources and improving the legislative
and 118 types of minerals, of which 65 are
has a long history of development. The first
framework, the government has prepared the
mined. Mineral resources of Uzbekistan are
chemical plants were launched in the early
chemical industry for radical changes, which
estimated at about USD 3.5 trillion.
30s of the 20th century. A number of large
are taking place today.
Geological reserves of natural gas in
agrochemical factories were constructed in
In recent years, the chemical industry of
Uzbekistan are over 5 trillion cubic metres.
the country because of the demand of the
Uzbekistan produces more than 1m tonnes
Proven reserves of natural gas - 3.4 trillion
agricultural sector for mineral fertilisers and
of mineral fertilisers, more than 120,000
cubic metres (including the following depos-
pesticides. As a result, it became a strong
tonnes of chemical crop protection products,
its: Sho’rtan - 0.5 trillion cubic metres and
foundation for the creation of one of the most
1.35 million tonnes of sulphuric acid, 50,000
Alania - 0.2 trillion cubic metres and Urga
vigorous industry sectors in Central Asia.
tonnes of chemical fibres, more than 90,000
with reserves of 1.5 trillion cubic metres).
Major economic changes took place thanks
tonnes of coatings, over 120,000 tonnes of
The Gazly deposit is located 100 km to the
to the privatisation of the chemical industry
plastics and synthetic resins. A consider-
north- west of Buxoro and has been devel-
over the first 15 years of the independence
able part of these products are successfully
oped for several decades. Reservoir rock is
of the country. Several new chemical plants
exported.
sandstones. Gas contains 96-97% of meth-
together with mining and processing com-
Uzbek chemical output showed a 5.3%
ane. Sulphur-free gas accounts for the main
plexes supplying feedstocks to the first ones
YOY rise due to stable development of the
share of total production, but more and more
were constructed.
chemical industry. Total production of the
low sulphurous gas and sour gas are pro-
Our journal has dedicated a great deal
industry amounted to UZS 1,554 bn. In H1,
duced. The Shakhpakhty and Kuanish gas
of information to difficulties connected
2013 the production of the following chemi-
deposits are located in the Ustyurt district.
with the transition from the planned Soviet
cal products increased: phosphate fertiliser –
In 2010, new natural gas fields were found
economy to up-to-date market models.
(+5.1%); complex compound fertiliser – by 3
in Uzbekistan near the Kosbulak downfold
The planned economy inherited from
times; sulphuric acid – (+6.2%); wet-process
and North Ustyurt region (Western Aral), as
the Soviet Union and closer government
phosphoric acid – (+10.5%); ammonium sul-
well as at the prospective area of Ernaz in the
control over privatisation processes with
phate - (+18.2 %); strong nitric acid – by 1.8
Buxoro-Xiva oil and gas region. Uzbekistan
keeping the controlling stake in the hands
times; suprephos - (+3.2%); soda ash - (+26.3
occupies the 14th place in the world in terms
of state companies are the main vectors of
%); hydrochloric acid - (+9.7 %); acetic acid
of natural gas reserves and the 11th in terms
the economic development in Uzbekistan.
– by 9.1 times; acetaldehyde – by 1.7 times;
of gas production. Natural gas production
This model has been operating relatively
chemical crop protection agents - (+12.4 %);
in Uzbekistan in 2012 totalled 62.9bn cubic
70 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Countries and regions
w w w. chem mar ket. info
metres. Production of liquefied gases for the
value of coal is 22,000 kcal/kg. The Boysun
Dalnee and Sary-Chequ as well as a number
same period amounted to 273.600 tonnes.
deposit has two coal-bearing strata of up to
of smaller ones (Balykty, Karabulak and
2.5m.
others). Olmaliq KMK (Olmaliq Mining-
O’zbekneftegaz produces 70bn cubic
metres of gas and 8m tonnes of liquid hydrocarbons per year.
CNPC
(China
Probable
reserves
of
oil
shales
in
Uzbekistan are about 47bn tonnes. The yield
National
Metallurgical Complex) operates on the basis
of porphyry copper deposits.
Petroleum
of diesel fraction from combustible shale of
Lead and zinc deposits are mainly located
Corporation), KNOR (Korea), Gazprom
the Sangruntau deposit (C1 + C2 = 357m
in the Middle Tien Shan, in the Chatkal-
and Lukoil (Russia) hold strong positions
tonnes) reaches about 30%. This yield is the
Kuraminsky mountains and, in particular,
in the Uzbek energy industry. Oil geological
highest among the major deposits of this type
at the Kurgashinkansky mine (the Olmalig
reserves in the country are estimated at 5m
in the country. The country takes the 7th place
province) and a number of smaller manifes-
tonnes and proven reserves – 530 m tonnes.
in terms of uranium reserves accounting for
tations (Koshmansay, Miskan). The main ore
Hydrocarbons fields of the Fargona Basin
4% of global reserves) and the 5th – in terms
minerals are galenite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite
- North So’x, South Alamyshik, Polvontosh,
of uranium production. Currently, about 40
and pyrite. Magnetite and hematite also occur
Galcha-Changara and smaller Chimyon,
deposits are explored, and the largest one is
there. Trace elements are indium, silver, bis-
ShoК»rsuv and others mostly contain oil. Oil is
Uchkuduk. Such deposits as Kendyktube,
muth and gold. Rare-metal mineralisation,
mainly light, sweet, paraffin, with a high con-
Ljavljakan,
North
including scheelite and molybdenite, are
tent of light distillates. Ozokerite (earth wax)
Kanimekh, Alenda, Mejlisaj are operating as
essentially developed at the Koshmansay
is a by-product of refining the oil from these
well. The estimated reserves of uranium are
deposit. The Kurgashinkan deposit is cur-
deposits. The oil fields Xaudag, Uchkyzyl,
185,800 tonnes (138,800 tonnes - arenated
rently operational. Namely owing to the
Kokayty, Kashgar and Amudaryo are discov-
deposits of uranium, 47,000 tonnes - black
development of this deposit the country is
ered in the Surxondaryo Province. The oil and
shale deposits).
on the third place in the world in terms of
Sugraly,
Tohumbet,
gas deposit Lalmikar is almost completely
Uzbekistan is ranked fourth in the world
cadmium production. Ores are processed at
depleted. Oils in the region are heavy and sul-
for gold reserves, and ninth in terms of
the Olmaliq KMK. Sulphide-polymetallic
phur. Gas condensate (Adamtash, Gumbulak,
gold production. According to the State
deposits of lead and zinc are located in the
Pachka-mar, Kyzylbayrak and Amanat) and
Geological Committee of Uzbekistan, 41
southwest Hissar (Handiz). The main ore
oil fields are located in the South-West Hisor.
gold deposits are discovered in the coun-
minerals are pyrites, sphalerite, galenite and
North Muborak and Akdzhar are oil-bearing
try, and nine of them are being developed.
chalcopyrite, but there are also gold and sil-
deposits – in the Buxoro-Xiva province.
Explored and proven gold reserves in
ver minerals.
In 2012, oil and gas condensate production
Uzbekistan are estimated at about 2,100
Carbonate-polymetallic lead-zinc depos-
in Uzbekistan amounted to 3,16m tonnes: oil
tonnes. Total reserves reach approximately
its (Uchquloch, Sarykan, Kandzhaylau and
production - 1,56m tonnes and gas conden-
3,350 tonnes. Gold is mined in the basin of
Kulchulak) are typical for the Middle Tien
sate – 1,6m tonnes.
the River Zarafshon and in the Kyzyl Kum.
Shan. The Uchquloch deposit, which is
There are three major coal deposits in
The Muruntau, a unique gold deposit, is con-
located in the foothills of the Nurota North
Uzbekistan: Angren (Toshkent province),
sidered to be the largest one in Eurasia and
Range, the Hanbandytau Range, is the most
ShargК»un and Boysun (Surxondaryo prov-
has been developed since 1967. Its ores are
promising field. The main ore minerals are
ince) as well as several smaller ones. All
of the gold-quartz type. In 2012, 90 tonnes of
galenite, pyrite; secondary - chalcopyrite,
these deposits consist of alternating layers
gold were produced at this deposit and nearby
marcasite, covellite, bornite-chalcocite.
of sand and clay rocks, with subordinate coal
ones (Kokpatas, Marjonbuloq, Guzhumsay,
Lode lead-zinc deposits are common in
beds formed in the wetland conditions of riv-
Promezhutochnoe, Charmitan, Kara-Kutan
the Middle Tien Shan Mountains, especially
ers’ valleys and deltas.
and others – 12 in general).
in the Kurama mountaines. The ores of these
The Angren deposit is located in the val-
About 900 ore occurrences and depos-
deposits contain high amounts of bismuth
ley of the River Angren, and is known for
its of copper are known in Uzbekistan, but
and silver (especially the Lashkerek deposit).
heavy beds of lignite with a total amount of
only three deposits are operated. Uzbekistan
Tungsten deposits are concentrated mainly
1.9bn tonnes. The deposit is developed by an
holds the 10th place in the world in terms
in the Southern Tien Shan. They are pre-
open-pit method. The Angren heat and power
of proven copper reserves. Copper deposits
sented by a group of postmagmatic contact
station operates on its basis. The ShargК»un
and ore occurrences are common for the
skarn scheelite formations, which occur
deposit is located in a mountainous area (alti-
Middle Tien Shan and especially the Qurama
in the Nurota, Zirabulak, Karatyubin and
tude 600-800 metres). Coal seams average
Ridge. The main deposits are concentrated in
Chakylkalyan mountains. The Ingichka and
4.5m and may even reach 12m; the heating
the Olmaliq province. These are Kalmakyr,
QoК»ytosh deposits are operated on their
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 71
Countries and regions
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
basis. The most interesting deposits are
third place among the world leaders in terms
Boysuntov Mountains and the Kandadzhuaz
Langar, QoК»ytosh, Ingichka, Kara Tube and
of silver reserves. Uzbekistan also has man-
in the Mechetly Mountains may be commer-
Yahton; less promising for industrial devel-
ganese deposits in the Zarafshon, Zirabulak,
cial deposits. In general, there are prospects
opment – Chash-Tepe, Kamangaran, Djam,
Karatyube and Lolabulak mountains -
of developing commercial bauxite deposits in
Sarykul and Sazagan. Such tungsten deposits
Ziyovuddin, Dautash, Kyzyl Bayrak, Tahta
the country.
like Sargardon and a group of deposits and
Karachinsk, Tersaksay and Chapanatin. The
This also applies to other two feedstocks
ore occurences of Maydontol - Oygaing dis-
content of manganese is 8-28%. Reserves of
for aluminum production - alunite and kaolin.
trict (Anaulgan-Karakyz, Oygaing) are the
some deposits are small but promising and in
There are alunite ore occurrences and depos-
most important in the Middle Tien Shan and
the total amount is about 8 million tonnes.
its in the Kurama, Chatkal and Hissar moun-
the Chatkal-Kurama mountains.
Sedimentary manganese deposits and
tains. The largest one is the Gushsay deposit
Uzbekistan has a number of molyb-
occurrences are found in the northern and
in the Kurama Ridge. Pilot testing showed
denum ore occurrences of hydrothermal
northeastern parts of the country (Azatbash,
a high degree of extraction of alumina. We
type: Obizarang in the west of the Hissar
Mazarskos, Morguzar and Karaalminsk
should also mention the Angren kaolinic coal
Ridge, Oygaing in Chatkal, quartz-sericite-
occurrences).
deposit – a quite large one. A ceramic factory
scheelite-molybdenite (Chavata, Unkurtash
Magmatic deposits of chromium of Kyzyl
is built on the base of this deposit. So, kaolin
in Chatkal, Shaugaz in the Kurama Ridge),
Kum-Fatgona belt in the Tamdytau and
is currently used as a raw material for refrac-
skarn-molybdenite (Chimgon in Chatkal),
Sultan Uwais are of particular interest.
tories. Primary kaolin seams are within the
skarn-scheelite with molybdenite, quartz-
More than a hundred of tin ore occurrences
sericite-molybdenite-chalcopyrite (Olmaliq
and several small deposits are known, but
Uzbekistan has large reserves of dolomite.
district). However, molybdenum is recovered
only the Karnab deposit operated in the 50s
The Farkhad rock deposit provides dolo-
as a by-product of copper porphyry ore min-
of the 20th century.
mites, which are used as refractory materials.
ing, which is the 8th deposit in terms of Mo
reserves.
Bismuth deposits are discovered in the
range of 2-46m.
Mercury and antimony are not mined in
Bentonite clays are mainly located in the
Uzbekistan because of the lack of identified
Ustyurt in the South Aral, Sultan Uwais, the
cost-effective commercial deposits. A large
central part of the Kyzyl Kum desert and the
main
number of ore occurrences that can become
Zirabulak-Ziadin mountains. A total of 40
formation is arsenic-bismuth (Urtasaray,
operating mines have been discovered. The
deposits have been discovered.
Burchmullo)
The
most promising one is located in the South
Commercial talc can be found only in
Ustasaray is the only operating deposit.
Fargona belt, where more than a hundred
the Sultan Uwais. The major deposits are
There are also copper-bismuth deposits,
of mercury and more than ten of antimony
Zinelbulak, Kazgantau and Kyzylsay.
such as Kyzylgut in the Kurama Mountains,
occurrences have been discovered. The
Natural sulphur occurs in the Farg’ona
Tashkesken in the Chatkal Ridge and
most significant occurrences are located
district: Kyzyl-Archinsk, Andijan, Kurshab
Uzumlek in the Maygashkan. There are sev-
near Kokpatas in the Navoiy province. The
and Amu Darya district with sulphur-bearing
eral hundred of iron deposits and occurrences
Myksk, Shutsk and Karasu deposits can also
deposits in the Ustyurt. The Tyubegatan
of different genetic types and formations in
be developed.
deposit is considered to be the most promis-
Chatkal-Kurama
Mountains.
and
The
copper-bismuth.
Uzbekistan, as well as a number of magnetic
A lot of bauxite (a raw material for alu-
ing one. However, in Uzbekistan big volumes
anomalies, which are possible indicators of
minum production) occurrences are found
of sulphur are produced not at natural depos-
iron ore. The Tebinbulak titanium-magnetite
in Uzbekistan, but there are no deposits.
its but by removing sulphur from natural
deposit (Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikasi) is the
Bauxites occur in the Kyzyl Kum, Nurota,
gas at the Muborak gas processing plant in
most significant. The Kazgantau deposit,
and South Fargona regions. The most signifi-
Qashqadaryo province.
which is located in the Hissar belt, presum-
cant ore occurrence is Aktau in the Tomditov
ably refers to this type. Skarn-magnetite
Mountains. Karst occurrences are found
deposits mainly occur in the Middle and
in the Nurota district (Mirishkor, Kyzyl
Uzbekistan is rich in sodium chloride and
South-Western Tien Shan in the Chatkal-
Bulak) and coastal bauxite occurrences are
potash salts and has lower reserves of magne-
Kurama mountains.
More than 30 ore occurrences and deposits
of graphite are known in the country.
located there as well (Qoytosh, Narvan,
sium and sodium sulphates. The most signifi-
Sedimentary iron ore occur in the Aral sea
and Karatau). Bauxites are also available in
cant deposits are Tubegatan, Baybichekan,
region, the Kyzyl Kum desert and the Sultan
the Hissar and Kyzyl Kum districts. More
Akbash,
Uwais. There are ore objects containing
than 70 ore occurrences are available in the
Gaurdak-Kugitang.
silver in Uzbekistan. The country takes the
Hissar district. The Kayrak occurrence in the
72 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Lyalimkan,
Hodzhaikan
and
Salt-bearing layers in all the mentioned
Countries and regions
w w w. chem mar ket. info
above deposits occur at substantial depths
A total of 17 deposits of limestone
in the Suren Atinsk Ridge. A high content
and can be mined by in situ leaching methods.
and chalk have been explored, and five
of potassium oxide and the ability to yield
Since 2010, Dehkonobod Potash Fertiliser
of them are operating (Sherobod, Jizzax,
to weathering makes glauconite a useful
Plant has been operating on the basis of the
Qorovulbozor, Quvasoy and Dzhamansaysk).
fertiliser. It is also used as a raw material for
Tyubetagan deposit.
They are located throughout the country. The
manufacturing green paints. There are also
Salt formations (lacustrine and saline)
Dzhamansaysk limestone deposit, which is
reserves of corundum in the country (the
occur on the plains, in the erosion and
mined 250km from the production site of
Sharaksay deposit in the Malguzar mountains
intermountain areas. The largest deposits
Qo’ngirot Soda Zavodi, is characterised by
and the Aktash deposit in the Karzhantau
of this type are Kushkanataus, Karaumbet,
proven reserves of about 70m tonnes.
mountains).
Kumysbulak and Tumryuk.
It should be especially noted, that there are
Mirabilite deposits with reserves of
The Barsa-Kelmes deposit of sodium
large reserves of such cement raw materials
sodium sulphate, which exceed 1.5 b tonnes,
chloride, which is located close to the former
as limestone, chalk, marlstone, clays and clay
are discovered in the western deepwater area
island of the almost dryed Aral Sea, is the
loam in Uzbekistan.
of the Aral Sea, in the Gulf Tuschibas, and
main source of raw materials for Qo’ngirot
The deposits of fluorspar, which is used
in the western part of the “Small Aral” under
Soda Zavodi (Qo’ngirot soda plant). Its
as a source of fluorine, are located in the
a 0.5 - 1.5m layer of silt on the total area of
proven reserves - 131 m tonnes of salt with a
Chatkal-Kurama Mountains, with occur-
about 2000 km2.
NaCl content of more than 97%.
rences in the southwestern Hissar, and a few
Uzbekistan takes the 5th position in the
of them can be found in the boundary belts of
world in terms of cotton production and the
the Southern Tien Shan.
second position for of cotton exports.
Since 1997, the Navoiy kon-metallurgiya
kombinati (Navoi Mining and Metallurgical
Plant) has been developing the DzheroySardara phosphorite deposit. This deposit
Commercial deposits of fluorite are oper-
In order to develop the mining industry, the
government offers more than 500 industrial
ated in the country.
is located in the Central Kyzyl Kum. The
In Uzbekistan, magmatic deposits of feld-
facilities to potential investors including 4
reserves of the deposit are estimated at 300m
spar are found (Langar, Lolabulak, Karichsay
deposits of metallic ores, 26 deposits of vari-
tonnes of ore and 58m tonnes of phospho-
in the Southern Tien Shan). Sedimentary
ous ores and 10 deposits of minerals intended
rus pentoxide. The reserves will cover the
deposits - quartz-feldspar sands - are dis-
for chemical production. All in all 38 mineral
demand of the country’s agricultural sec-
covered in the Zirabulak-Ziadin Mountains
fields are proposed to be invested in. A total
tor for phosphorus fertilisers for more than
(Kermininsk, Karzhantau). Uzbekistan is
of 159 large deposit occurrences are proposed
100 years. Total reserves of phosphorite of
one of the 15 largest countries in the world in
for geological survey.
the Kyzyl Kum region exceed 1bn tonnes.
terms of mining feldspar. Feldspars are used
However, the deposit has low-grade ores,
in the ceramic industry as a flux; in the glass
which are characterised by a high content
industry -as fillers and light abrasives (e.g., in
of carbonate minerals and chlorides. That
the manufacture of toothpaste).
II. Subsidiaries of JSC O’zkimyosanoat
All industrial enterprises in Uzbekistan,
is why phosphates here require preliminary
Uzbekistan has about 50 occurrences
which are engaged in chemical production,
beneficiation. In addition, there have been
and deposits of wollastonite. Most wollas-
can be divided into two groups - the part of the
carried out preliminary exploration of the
tonite deposits are located in the Southern
state joint-stock company O’zkimyosanoat
Karakatinsk deposit and evaluation of the
and Middle Tien Shan (QoК»ytosh, Langar,
(Uzhimprom), which was founded in 2001,
South Dzhetym Tau deposit. Both deposits
Karatube,
Ingichka,
and independent companies. Most chemical
are also located in the Central Kyzyl Kum.,
Chimgan,
Kumyshkan,
Barkrak).
plants in the country belong to the first group.
It is possible to start the beneficiation of
Wollastonite is used as an additive filler in
The Uzbek chemical industry is mainly based
phosphorites (there are significant reserves
plastics, non-ferrous metallurgy, in the tyre,
on agrochemical production. On one hand, it
of phosphorites in the country) on the basis
asbestos and coating industries, and in the
is determined by the need to intensify the use
of the Karakatinsk and South Dzhetym Tau
production of ceramics. Wollastonite is also
of farmlands along river valleys, while most
phosphorite deposits with the help of foreign
used in the car industry, as a part of a filler
of the country is covered with deserts and
investors in order to increase production and
for a number of important automotive com-
mountain ranges, which are not arable. On
exports of phosphate fertilisers.
ponents: brake pads, plain bearings etc. It is
the other hand, Uzbekistan has rich deposits
used in anti-corrosion coatings as well.
of phosphoric and potash ores, and natural
There are eight explored deposits of
gypsum in Uzbekistan (the largest one is
Tubegatan).
Yakhton, Akbulak,
and
Only one glauconite sandstones deposit
has been discovered in Uzbekistan - Changi
gas - basic raw materials for the production
of mineral fertilisers.
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 73
Countries and regions
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O’zkimyosanoat implements production,
O’zkimyosanoat produced goods worth
acetaldehyde and ammonium sulphate were
innovation, marketing programmes aimed
UZS 270.6bn (about EUR 89m), or 107.6%
launched. In 1971 a new production line for
at developing chemical enterprises, creating
of the planned figure. Within the framework
ammonia, weak nitric acid and ammonium
conditions and prerequisites for sustainable
of investment projects included in the com-
nitrate was put into operation. In 1973 the
development of the chemical industry. An
pany’s investment programme, the plants
first batch of acrylonitrile was produced, and
important aim of the company is privatisa-
of O’zkimyosanoat spent USD 136.66m
commercial production of �Nitron’ synthetic
tion of chemical companies with attracting
of investments on various purposes. Now
fibres was set up. In 1975, the company
foreign and domestic investors.
it is time to tell about the subsidiaries of
became a production association, and the
O’zkimyosanoat in details.
following year production at the complex
O’zkimyosanoat includes 14 manufacturing plants turning out more than 170
�Catalyst’ started up. In 1982-1983, the plant
Navoiyazot JSC
chemical products. 13 regional distribution
continued capacity expansion and widening
organisations marketing fertilisers across
a range of �Nitron’ synthetic fibres Nitron.
Founded
JSC
In 1988, a thiourea and hydrochloric acid
ture of O’zkimyosanoat. Scientific research
(Navoiy) is the largest chemical enterprise in
plant came on stream. In 1990-1991, produc-
and design institutes, haulage companies
Uzbekistan. Today the plant employs more
tion of consumer goods started up. In the fol-
Kimyotrans and Kimyotrans-logistik engaged
than 11,000 people. It accounts for over
lowing two years the company proceeded to
in foreign economic activities, as well as bro-
30% of chemical production manufactured
manufacturing epoxy resins, polyelectrolytes
kerage company Hamqor-kimyoservis, are
in Uzbekistan. Its product range includes
and synthetic fabrics; polyacrylamide glue,
members of O’zkimyosanoat JSC.
products of several segments of the chemical
salt, sodium tripolyphosphate and colloidal
industry.
sulphur.
the country are also involved in the struc-
As for the company’s production results
in
1961,
Navoiyazot
of the first nine months of 2013, we should
Initially, Navoiy Chemical Plant (this was
In 1996-1999, lithium carbonate, ammo-
mention the following: the subsidiaries of
the name of the company till 1975) manu-
nium thiocyanate, methanol, acetone, argon
O’zkimyosanoat produced goods at current
factured weak nitric acid and ammonium
went into production. In 2001, a workshop
prices for UZS 1.25bn (about EUR 414m);
nitrate, which went into production at the end
for caustic soda and liquid chlorine was
consumer goods were manufactured for UZS
of 1964.
put into operation. The workshop was built
90.2bn (about EUR 30m); 846,430 tonnes of
Launching a unit for filling cylinders with
in cooperation with Germany-based Lurgi.
fertilisers were turned out including nitrogen
technical oxygen in November 1965 was a
After that production of formalin, hydrochlo-
fertilisers – 648,570 tonnes, phosphorus-
significant event for the company. In 1965-
ric acid, sodium hypochlorite and ammonium
containing fertilisers – 122,000 tonnes and
1967 the plant started production of ammonia
chloride was mastered.
KCl fertilisers – 75,860 tonnes.
and ammonia water. In 1968-1970, work-
In 2002 the company was transformed into
import-substituting
shops for carbon dioxide, sodium cyanide,
a joint-stock company. The authorised capital
programme, in January-September 2013
hydrocyanic and acetic acids, acetylene,
of the company as of July 2009, when the
According
to
an
company’s assets were revaluated, exceeded
UZS 42bn (about EUR 139m). Total number
of shares was 753,696 shares. Nominal value
per share was UZS 55,918.
In accordance with the order of the State
Property Committee, the shareholding structure of Navoiyazot is as follows: the state’s
share is 51% (384,385 shares), the share
for sale to foreign investors - 49% (369,311
shares).
Today the company manufactures more
than 60 kinds of products. The main ones
are liquid ammonia, ammonia water, caustic
soda, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen-phosphate
fertiliser (mixture of melt NH4NO3 and
Outdoor production unit at Navoiyazot
74 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
phosphorite meal), ammonium sulphate,
Countries and regions
w w w. chem mar ket. info
t Production structure of Navoiyazot
liquid chlorine, hydrochloric acid of various
Production workshops
grades, ammonium chloride, sodium chlo-
Start-up
Capacity, thousand tonnes / year
ride, sodium chloride of pharmacopeia grade,
�Ammonia-I,II’
1964
370
sodium hypochlorite, sodium cyanide, nitric
�Ammonia-III’
1971
180
acid, carbon dioxide, argon gas, oxygen gas,
Production of nitric acid – second (II)
stage
1965
351
Production of nitric acid – second (III)
stage
1971
400
Production of ammonium nitrate –first
and second (I-II) stages
1964
350
Production of ammonium nitrate –
third (III) stage
1971
600
Production of N-P fertiliser
2010
180
1976
Including: 1) NaOH, chlorine, 26,000
tpy chlorine-based production; 2)
NH4Cl; 3) �Unifloc’ preparation; 4)
polyacrylamide; 5) hydrochloric acid;
6) methanol; 7) pentaerythritol; 8)
formalin; 9) urea-formaldehyde resin;
10) water-soluble polymers; 11) NaCl;
12) flammable liquid storage facility
Organic chemicals
1969
Including: 1) acetylene; 2) hydrocyanic
acid and sodium cyanide; 3) acetic
acid; 4) acrylic acid nitrile; 5) ammonia
liquefying workshop
Production �Nitron’ fibres
1983
In addition to fibre, K-9 preparation
Production of technical thiourea
1987
1,4
pyrolysis acetylene, acrylonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetic acid of different concentrations,
methanol of various grades, polyacrylamide
gel, formalin, thiourea, methyl acrylate and
acetone.
Polyacrylic fibre and yarn made under the
trade name Nitron is one of the major products of the company, which is used in the production of women’s and children’s hygiene
products by a joint Uzbek-Chinese company
Navoiy Hunan Pulp LLC. The company is
located in the free industrial economic zone
Production of �caustic soda and lowtonnage chemical products’
Navoi. A carpet weaving company Horazm
Gilamlari JSC (Xorazm) and Ozoda Ozod
Joint Venture (Buxoro) are the largest consumers of fibres from Navoiy.
Thiourea
solutions
manufactured
in
Navoiy are used to dissolve gold from refractory ores and concentrates, while a cyanide
process does not yield good results (thiourea
dissolves gold in acidic solutions in the pres-
tions.
ence of an oxidant with forming a cation type
mixture of polyacrylamide with ammo-
complex. Water-soluble polymeric agent
nium sulphate), manufactured under the
Uniflok (hydrolysed polyacrylonitrile) pro-
trade name Flocculant PAA-GS, is used
duced by the company is used for strength-
in the form of diluted aqueous solution
Today Navoiyazot JSC is dozens of work-
ening wellbore walls, reducing fluid losses
for suspension flocculation in the mining,
shops, which make up a single industrial
while drilling and stabilising drilling muds,
chemical, pulp and paper and by-product
mechanism for accomplishment of produc-
enhancing oil & gas reservoir performance,
coking industries as well as domestic and
tion tasks (Table 1).
for sedimenting suspended particles in sedi-
industrial water supply. Acrylic emulsion
The main raw materials purchased by the
mentation tanks and water tanks, filtering and
also produced by the company is used for
company are: natural gas, soda ash, indus-
precipitating different pulps in domestic and
manufacturing water-based paints, in the
trial salt, ferrous sulphate, sulphur, catalysts,
industrial water supply.
leather, textile and furniture industries and
monoethanolamine, isopropanol, cationic
for producing adhesives.
dyes, hydroquinone, diisopropyl ether, ita-
Another water-soluble polymer - agent
Granulated
polyacrylamide
(a
which is applied for production of mineralcotton materials as a binder.
There are production facilities for pentaerythritol and zinc nitrate as well.
K-4 - is used to reduce fluid loss and stabi-
Urea-formaldehyde resin of KFZH grade
lise drilling muds. It also finds application in
is widely used for manufacturing plywood,
Domestic raw materials account for a
agriculture as a gelling agent; for sediment-
gluing furniture parts; building products and
substantial part of the company’s feedstock
ing suspended particles in sedimentation
joinery; for production of moulding cores
consumption. The major local suppliers of
tanks and water tanks; as an adhesive in the
and casting moulds; soil stabilisation; as well
raw materials are Navoiy Kon-Metallurgiya
printing industry; for dust control in the met-
as for manufacture of moulding materials,
Kombinati
allurgical industry; as a flocculant for fighting
laminated and foam materials, adhesives,
Metallurgical
sand movement.
conic acid and sorbital.
JSC
(Navoiy
Plant),
Mining
and
Samarqandkimyo
coatings, paper and fabrics manufacture; for
JSC, Olmalik Kon-Metallurgiya Kombinati
Another water-soluble polymer agent
gluing abrasive grains onto abrasive paper.
JSC (Olmaliq Mining and Metallurgical
K-9 is intended for well drilling opera-
KS-11 is another urea-formaldehyde resin,
Combine), Muborak Gazni Qayta Д°shlash
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 75
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Table 2. Projects of Navoiyazot
Project
The plant is due on stream in 2016.
Start-up
Capacity
Construction of an ammonia and
carbamide complex
2014
660,000 tpy of ammonia, 1,000,000 tpy
of carbamide
other investment projects aimed at develop-
Expansion of thiourea production
2014
Capacity expansion up 3,000 tpy
Construction of potassium nitrate
production
equipment in order to achieve sustainable
2015
3,000 tpy
Construction of unit for bleaching
agents for textile manufacture
2015
10,000 tpy
Construction of monochloroacetic
acid production
2015
5,000 tpy
Navoiyazot
JSC
actively
implements
ing innovative technologies and upgrading
competitiveness of products at the domestic
and foreign markets by improving products
quality and reducing their production costs
(Table 2).
Zavodi JSC (Muborak Gas Processing Plant)
and Ammofos Maxam JSC.
Farg’onaazot JSC
According to the feasibility study, the cost of
the project totals USD 501.1m and its estimated
Farg’onaazot JSC (Farg’ona) is one of
Navoiyazot sells its products both on
capacity for suspension PVC – 100,000 tpy,
the leading manufacturers of ammonia,
the domestic and foreign markets. Positive
caustic soda – 71,800 tpy, methanol – 295,400
ammonium
dynamics of export supplies plays an impor-
tpy. The payback period including the invest-
nitrate and urea in the country. It was com-
tant role in ensuring the financial stability of
ment period - 9.2 years. The implementation
missioned in 1956. The company’s produc-
the company. One of the main income items
of the project will provide the needs of the
tion facilities have been repeatedly upgraded
of the company is nitrogen fertilisers sup-
construction, electrical, medical, petrochemical
and increased over the last ten years. Now it
plied to local agricultural producers. Other
and chemical industries of the country for the
can turn out up to 400,000 tonnes of ammo-
major consumers include O’zkimyosanoat
mentioned products. Moreover, it is planned
nia, 360,000 tonnes of weak nitric acid,
SJC, Navoiy Kon-Metallurgiya Kombinati
to export 50,000 tonnes of PVC and 22,500
425,000 tonnes of ammonium nitrate and
JSC, Olmalik Kon-Metallurgiya Kombinati
tonnes of caustic soda annually.
270,000 tonnes of urea per year.
Moreover,
Farg’onaazot
manufacture
JSC, Navoiy TES JSC (Navoi TPP), Chkalov
Creating PVC production will enable the
Nomli Toshkent Aviasiya Д°shlash Chiqarish
company to utilise chlorine obtained in the
sodium chlorate intended for production of
Birlashmasi (Toshkent Aviation ON by
course of caustic soda manufacture. It has
defoliants and chlorine dioxide for bleach-
Chkalov) and Toshkent Traktor Zavodi.
already been noted that the country has suf-
ing pulp and fabrics, water disinfection, and
The main export markets of the company
ficient reserves of technical sodium chloride
weed killing (herbicide). Another important
are Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan,
for producing caustic soda and chlorine. PVC
product of the company is liquid defoliant
Turkmenistan, China, Iran, Pakistan, Turkey,
production will utilise acetylene (via chloride
- 36% aqueous solution of magnesium chlo-
Ukraine, Russia and United Arab Emirates.
monomer), and acetylene will be obtained
rate. It is used in agriculture for preharvesting
from natural gas.
elimination of leaves and for drying plants
So, we know what the company produces
today, but what Navoiy chemists will manufacture in the coming years?
Currently O’zkimyosanoat is considering the project “Construction of a plant for
The feasibility study also envisages the
(cotton plants, soybeans, sunflowers and
construction of an oxygen and argon gas
potatoes). Universal complex action defoli-
workshop to cover the growing needs of
ants “UzDef” and “PoliDef” complete the
Uzbek companies for technical gases.
range of agrochemicals.
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), caustic soda and
It is planned to use methanol as a petrol
In 2010 Farg’onaazot put into operation
methanol on the basis of Navoiyazot”. The
additive. Wastes of methanol production
a baking soda production line designed to
development of a preliminary feasibility
(distillates) will be used as an additive to
manufacture 1,000 tonnes of NaHCO3 per
study was completed in August 2012 fol-
natural gas during transportation through
year. The equipment utilised for production
lowed by its agreeing with an authorized
trunk pipelines to fight gas blocks. In the
of sodium bicarbonate was made by local
expert group. The latter gave its positive
future, the bulk of methanol will be directed
manufacturers, and only local raw materials
verdict after giving recommendations and
to a methanol-to-olefins complex planned to
are used.
eliminating deficiencies. In May 2013 a
be built in years to come.
A few years ago, with the assistance of
tender for turnkey construction of the plant
After putting the integrated plant into
Chinese company Greencool Engineering,
was announced. The winner - China National
operation, about 900 new jobs will be cre-
a cellulose diacetate unit was revamped.
Chemical Engineering Group Corporation
ated. Products worth USD 234.5mn will be
Cellulose diacetate is used for manufac-
(CNCEC) was announced on 28 August,
manufactured annually, including exports -
turing acetate filament and acetate silk
2013.
more than USD 68.5m.
as well as cigarette filters. The former
76 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Countries and regions
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Farg’ona chemical fibre plant, a subsidiary
Natural gas consumption per one tonne of
of Farg’onaazot became a production site
ammonia will be reduced by 20.3 Nm , the
for cellulose acetate fibre manufacture. The
total consumption of gas - by 81.2m Nm3 per
plant, which can also produce tyre cords
year. Project execution will reduce electric
ammophos
and nylon-6, was put into operation in
energy consumption for production of one
phosphate NH4H2PO4 with an admixture
1998. The main raw material for tyre cords
tonne of ammonia by 72 kWh and total power
of diammonium phosphate (NH4)2HPO4),
and nylon-6 was caprolactam. Polyamide-6
consumption will be cut by 28.4m kWh per
ammonium-phosphate-sulfate
capacity totalled 7,000 tonnes per year. But
year. These factors will allow the company to
monoammonium phosphate (NH4H2PO4) and
polyamide-6 capacity is currently idling
reduce costs of ammonia by 12.6% in 2015,
ammonium sulphate (NH4)SO4, NP 15:23),
due to lack of floating capital and sales
thereby increasing competitiveness of the
suprephos -NS (a mixture of CaHPO4,
markets, but is in good condition and ready
product.
(NH4)2SO4, NN4N2RO4, (NH4)2N2RO4 and
3
(100% P2O5 per year) and for sulphuric acid
(monohydrate) – 500,000 tonnes.
The main products of the company are:
containing
monoammonium
containing
In January 2014, Farg’onaazot repeatedly
from 0.5-2% of Mg salts of four grades
Besides the company can turn out
announced a tender for equipment procure-
with a total content of active substances of
sodium nitrate and carbamide-ammonia
ment for USD 15.5mn. The tender was
80-90%), monoammonium phosphate (NP
mixtures. The major importers of its prod-
announced within the frames of a project
12:52), ammonium sulphate (granulated, for
ucts are Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan,
for reconstructing the urea and ammonia
alkaline soils), sulphuric acid (improved; first
Kyrgyzstan, China, Iran and Afghanistan.
workshops. First, the USD 18.8m tender
and second grades), sulphuric electrolyte for
for operation.
The main raw materials consumed by
was planned to be held in June 2013 and the
batteries (32-35% H2SO4), orthophosphoric
the company are natural gas, sulfuric acid,
results were to be announced in the Q3 of
acid (four grades - from 18% to 31% P2O5),
hydrochloric acid, industrial salt, magnesium
2013. However, it was not held due to lack of
phosphogypsum for soil improvement (three
chloride, caustic soda, monoethanolamine
competitive bids.
grades a with CaSO4 • 2H2O content of from
and cotton cellulose. Currently, it employs
about 7,000 people.
The project involves spending USD 16.3m
80% to 90%, and hygroscopic moisture
of the company’s own funds in the coming
15-25%), feed ammonium phosphates of A
The Farg’ona plant follows the course
years. In addition, it will be financed at the
and B grades (monoammonium NN4N2RO4
for upgrading chemical production taken by
cost of the Fund for Reconstruction and
with low and controlled content of As, Pb
O’zkimyosanoat SJC. In 2014-2015, it is
Development of Uzbekistan for USD 24m
and F), ground sulphur (for agricultural use),
planned to conduct large-scale modernisa-
and cost of Uzbek banks for USD 22m.
sodium biphosphate (NaH2PO4 with moisture
tion of ammonia synthesis unit AM-76 and
urea production. One of the key results of the
content of 20.5%, application areas - refining
Ammofos-Maxam JSC
of metals, water treatment, an auxiliary agent
in the dyeing of textiles, a buffer in solutions
modernisation at Farg’onaazot JSC will be a
reduction in ammonia production costs. The
Ammofos-Maxam JSC (Olmaliq, Toshkent
expediency of the reconstruction is deter-
province) is one of the largest companies in
phate, a mixture of NaH2PO4 and Na2HPO4
mined by three factors: ammonia is a basic
Uzbekistan. It was launched in 1969. Today
with a moisture content up to 23%), disodium
component of many mineral fertilisers; the
the plant manufactures complex N-P fertilis-
phosphate (Na2HPO4 with a moisture content
volume and cost of the product determine the
ers on the basis of phosphorite of the Kyzyl
of up to 25%; application fields - boiler water
amount of fertiliser produced and their cost;
Kum deposit. The company is a member of
treatment, production of glazes for pottery
the construction of the new units require
O’zkimyosanoat SJC. In 2009, 49% of the
and porcelain, enamel manufacture, tin plat-
large capital expenditures.
company’s shares were sold to a foreign
ing, tanning, a reagent for electroforming
investor – a Spanish corporation Maxam.
(galvanoplastic processes, production of
The main aim of the new investment
for electroplating); mono disodium phos-
project is to improve the reliability and per-
The production site of Ammofos-Maxam
pigments in the textile industry); trisodium
formance of equipment at AM-76 unit and
is located at the foot of the Kurama Range,
phosphate (Na3PO4, there are two grades -
its operational safety, reduce energy con-
60 km from Toshkent and 7 km from Olmaliq
with a moisture content of 15% and 45%, it
sumption and, as was previously mentioned,
occupying 194.5 hectares.
is used for water treatment and softening, and
ammonia manufacturing costs.
The
plant
has
two
workshops
for
as cleaning and degreasing agents).
The project envisages increasing ammonia
ammophos, two phosphoric acid workshops,
In addition, the Olmaliq company pro-
capacity by 50,000 tpy; urea production - by
sulphuric acid production, production of con-
duces fiberboards from cotton stalks and
30,000 tpy, to 300,000 tonnes; ammonium
sumer goods and a number of auxiliary facili-
plant fibres. Its products are in great demand
nitrate capacity - by 62,000 tpy and nitric
ties. Installed capacity of Ammofos-Maxam
both in the domestic and foreign markets.
acid manufacture – by 50,000 tpy.
for phosphate fertilisers is 217,500 tonnes
The fertilisers are used in different climatic
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 77
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w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
the accumulation of sugars in root vegetables
and fruit. UAN is a new type of nitrogen
fertilisers produced by the company containing carbamide (30%) and ammonium nitrate
(40%).
All-in-one nutrient solutions based on
ammonium nitrate solution - is a liquid complex fertiliser prepared by mixing ammonium
nitrate, monoammonium phosphate and
potassium chloride.
All-in-one nutrient solution is a liquid
compound fertiliser obtained by mixing
carbamide-ammonia
mixture,
ammophos
and potassium chloride. The fertiliser mixture manufactured by Maxam-Chirchiq is
used for pre-sowing application, pre-sowing
seed treatment and foliar feeding of plants
by spraying them in greenhouses and on the
Panorama of Maxam-Chirchiq
open ground.
zones and for various soil types for all kinds
Using natural gas doubled the output and
Technical magnesium sulphate improves
of crops, thanks to the balanced composition
significantly reduced products costs. In 1975
crop yields due to the formation of car-
of nutrients. The company is certified under
the company was renamed Elektrokhimprom
bohydrates and promotes fruit formation.
ISO 9001 QMS standards. It cooperates with
Production Association. In 2002, in accord-
Phosphourea is a mixed fertiliser produced
the research and development institutes of
ance with a state programme for denation-
by mechanical mixing of urea and
Uzbekistan and the Russian Federation.
alisation and privatisation Elektrokhimprom
ammophos. It is particularly useful for neu-
was transformed into Elektrkimyosanoat
tral and acidic soils. Another type of ferti-
JSC.
liser, urea sulphate, is derived by mixing urea
The main raw material is burnt phosphorus concentrate, which is supplied by the
Kyzyl Kum phosphorite complex. Muborak
In 2007, Spanish company Maxam pur-
and ammonium sulphate. Potassium sulphate
Gazni Qayta Д°shlash Zavodi (Muborak,
chased 49% of the company’s stock of shares.
produced in Chirchiq is a highly concentrated
Qashqadaryo province) supplies sulphur and
In this regard, the company was renamed
potassium fertiliser with a minimum 48%
Maxam-Chirchiq JSC (Chirchiq, Toshkent
Maxam-Chirchiq JSC. O’zkimyosanoat SJC
potassium content.
province) – ammonia.
has 51% of the shares.
Maxam-Chirchiq
Sodium nitrate is a nitrogen fertiliser con-
The products of the company can be
taining 16% of nitrogen. It is meant for soils
divided into 4 groups: mineral fertilisers,
of all types potatoes, beet-root, other vari-
chemicals, resins and catalysts.
ous vegetables, fruit and decorative plants.
This company was the first one in Central
The range of fertilisers, produced in
Lime-sulphur spray is a product designed for
Asia to produce nitrogen fertilisers. In 1932
Chirchiq is the widest in Uzbekistan. This
crops affected by powdery mildew, red spi-
it was decided to build Chirchiq nitrogen fer-
group
ammonium
der, anthracnose and other fungal diseases.
tiliser plant in the Toshkent province. Since
nitrate, ammonium sulphate and 9 other
Lime-sulphur spray can also be used for other
its commissioning in 1940, the company bore
types of fertilisers and one pesticide. A
industrial purposes. It is produced from tech-
the name Chirchiq electrochemical plant.
mixed highly concentrated granular nitrogen-
nical sulphur, limestone and water.
includes
carbamide,
In the beginning it was specialised in
phosphorus fertiliser (NPF) is obtained by
The product line of fertilisers is extremely
production of nitrogen fertilisers by the
mechanical mixing ammonium nitrate with
diverse both in terms of chemical composition
fixation of nitrogen via electrical arc. Due
ammophos in the ratio 9:1.
and application areas. So, in addition to ammo-
to the development of deposits of natural
High phosphorus content helps to increase
nium nitrate of agricultural application three
gas in the Buxoro province, the company
plant resistance to unfavorable environmen-
varieties of NH4NO3 are produced in Chirchiq.
began to use natural gas supplied by pipe-
tal factors (drought and frost), and increases
Ammonium nitrate of low density is used
lines to Chirchiq.
the resistance of plants to diseases, promotes
for commercial purposes; ammonium nitrate
78 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Countries and regions
w w w. chem mar ket. info
without conditioners for technical applica-
Gaseous oxygen is used for welding
sumption for hydrogenation of sulphur com-
tion is produced exclusively for the needs of
non-ferrous metals, light-weight alloys and
pounds from hydrocarbons in production of
foreign customers. And ammonium nitrate
intensifying metallurgical processes. Liquid
ammonia.
solution is purchased by companies manu-
oxygen is a by-product of manufacturing
Sulphur absorbent NPV-03 is manufac-
facturing industrial explosives.
liquid nitrogen from atmospheric air by low-
tured at the existing equipment for produc-
The company produces 4 types of HNO3:
temperature rectification. It is applied after
tion of catalyst GIAP-8 from zinc oxide,
nitric acid (56%) of reactive grade (used in
gasification for flame treatment of metals and
which is derived from spent catalysts (zinc
the electronics and medicine industries),
other industrial purposes.
sinks) GIAP-10.
nitric acid for special purposes (designed for
Gaseous nitrogen is intended to create an
The main raw materials consumed by
the electronic and metallurgical industries),
inert atmosphere during production of easily
Maxam-Chirchiq are: natural gas, caustic
weak nitric acid (for production of ammo-
oxidizable products, high-temperature pro-
soda, sulphur, hydrochloric acid, formaline,
nium nitrate, complex fertilisers and metal
cessing of metals, which do not interact with
methanol and monoethanol amine.
etching), and concentrated nitric acid of A
nitrogen, for preserving closed metal vessels
The main consumers of the local plant are
and B grades.
and pipelines. Liquid nitrogen is derived
agro-industrial companies and farms, chemi-
Grade A is used in the electronic and radio
from atmospheric air by deep cooling and it
cal and other industries. Major importers are
electronic industries, for nitration of organic
is used by agricultural companies as a refrig-
Russia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan,
compounds in manufacture of explosives,
erant. Chemists in Chirchiq produce two
Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, China, Iran and
chemical treatment of metals, in the medical
types of urea-formaldehyde resins (COP -11
Turkey.
industry and plastics manufacture. Grade B
and KFZH), similar to those by Navoiyazot
is applied for galvanic processes, in produc-
JSC (see above).
Qo’qon superfosfat zavodi
tion of chemical reagents, for dissolving
The plant produces a number of important
chemicals impurities, in processes of nitra-
industrial catalysts. Thus, for ammonia syn-
Qo’qon superfosfat zavodi JSC (Qo’qon
tion of organic compounds in manufacture of
thesis catalysts CA-C (oxidized) and CA-CB
Superphosphate Plant, Qo’qon, Farg’ona
explosives.
(reduced) are designed to operate at tempera-
province) is one of the oldest companies in
Technical aqueous ammonia of reactive
tures from 400 В°C to 600 В°C at pressure from
the country for production of phosphate ferti-
grade as well as liquid ammonia of three
15 MPa to 55 MPa. Nickel catalyst GIAP-8
lisers. It employs 500 workers.
grades (A, B, and Ak) is produced on the basis
is designed for steam, air and vapour carbon-
The plant was built on the basis of a
of NH3 synthesised in Chirchiq. Ammonium
dioxide conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons
bulk blending plant, which was part of
carbonate (Ak grade) is a mixture of ammo-
to produce commercial hydrogen and various
People’s Commissariat of Heavy Industry
nium carbonate and bicarbonate intended for
industrial gases.
of the USSR GlavAzot, and it was put into
synthesis of ammonium sulphate.
Chrome-alumina catalyst GIAP-14 is meant
operation in 1935. The initial product range
Industrial gases occupy an important place
for loading in the upper zone of second stage
included organo-mineral fertiliser mixtures.
in the product range of Maxam-Chirchiq.
shaft reactors for air-steam conversion of natu-
In wartime, the factory manufactured defense
Technical hydrogen is used in the electronics,
ral gas under pressure of 4 MPa. Methanation
products. In 1942-1945 the plant produced
chemical, pharmaceutical industries, in fer-
catalyst TS-2 is designed to purify a mixture
explosive “Dinamon Zh”.
rous metallurgy and in the communications
of nitric oxides from carbon oxide. Catalysts
In 1941, construction of a superphos-
and energy industries.
UCC-02, UCC-02E are applied for the process
phate plant started using the equipment
Solid carbon dioxide is used for cooling in
of conversion of carbon oxide with steam under
delivered from Nevsky (St. Petersburg) and
refrigeration equipment, processing, storage,
pressure of 5 MPa and at temperatures from
Voskresensky (Moscow region) chemical
transportation and sale of frozen and chilled
320 В°C to 350 В°C.
fertiliser plants. The first stage of the plant
foods by direct or indirect contact with them.
Low temperature methanation catalyst for
started up in 1946. Apatite and imported
Gaseous and liquefied carbon dioxide is used
carbon oxide conversion NTK-4U is used for
sulphuric acid were raw materials for super-
to create protective environment for welding
catalytic processes in carbon oxide conver-
phosphate production. At the same time the
of metals; for food processing in manufac-
sion with water vapour in ammonia produc-
construction of a sulphuric acid plant started
ture of carbonated drinks, dry ice, for cool-
tion. It contains primarily metal oxides and
and it was completed in 1947.
ing, freezing and storing food in direct and
produced in the form of cylindrical pellets.
After discovering the Karatau phospho-
indirect contact with them; for drying casting
Aluminium nickel molybdenum catalyst
rite basin, the plant mastered a technology
moulds; for fire extinguishing.
CGI-09 is manufactured for intraplant con-
for production of superphosphate from the
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 79
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deposit. In 1949, designing and constructing
be implemented within 5 years. The volume
1,000 tonnes, and magnesium compounds
a new superphosphate plant with a design
of investments accounted for about USD 3m
with an annual capacity of 1,000 tonnes.
capacity of 42 tonnes per year (in terms of
before the cancellation of the contract.
Samarqandkimyo
100% P2O5) started, and in 1958 the plant
As for the structure of the share capital of
was put into operation. In 1956, the sulphuric
the company, 85.2% of the shares have been
acid plant was reconstructed and its capacity
returned to the SPF, 10% are the share of the
The plant was founded in 1949. In 1950,
was increased due to the growing output of
labour collective and the rest 4.8% belong to
according to a project of the USSR Giprokhim
superphosphate.
other minority shareholders (companies and
the construction of sulphate, superphosphate,
natural people).
oxygen and mechanical repair and engineering
In 1953, a pilot plant was installed and
production of ammoniated superphosphate
In 2010, as a result of series of imple-
workshops was started. A network of access
started up. At the same time construction of
mented innovative technical solutions,
roads, which included two railway stations
an ammoniated superphosphate plant with a
the capacity of the plant for ammoniated
and two auxiliary stations (Superfosfatnaya
designed capacity of 45,500 tonnes per year
superphosphate reached 230,000 tonnes.
and Zavodskaya) was built. The main focus
(in terms of 100% of P2O5), began. In 1962,
Ammoniated superphosphate is the main
of the plant was phosphorus-containing min-
the plant was put into operation.
product. The nutrient content of the fer-
eral fertilisers of superphosphate type for
In 1964 a technology for producing
tiliser is: P2O5 - 13 В± 1%, nitrogen in
the needs of the cotton-growing republics
ammoniated superphosphate by a new flow
ammonium form - 1,5 В± 0,5%. It is used
of Central Asia. The phosphorite deposit in
sheet was introduced – �ammonation - dry-
in agriculture for growing different crops
Karatau (Dzhambul region, Kazakhstan) was
ing - sieving – crushing’. In 1967, two more
- vegetables, fruit and both technical and
the raw material base.
drum ammonation units were installed. In
decorative plants. Ammoniated super-
A workshop for production of sulphuric
1971, the reconstruction of the drying plant
phosphate is recommended for using in
acid by contact process with the main appara-
was made. Battery cyclones were replaced
conjunction with potassium fertilisers. It
tus located out of specialised industrial prem-
with cyclones with a self-cleaning device.
is sold to consumers at USD 90 per tonne
ises was built in the USSR at the Samarqand
In 1973, two additional screens GIL-52 were
(bulk) by railway or in consumer’s bags
superphosphate factory. The experience
integrated into the process flow sheet.
(50 kg bags) by the buyer FCA (railway
of the Samarqand plant showed that under
station Qo’qon -1).
conditions of careful development of manu-
Since 1998 with the commissioning the
Kyzyl Kum phosphorite plant, Qo’qon
The main consumers of ammoniated
facturing processes and maintenance, equip-
superfosfat zavodi started processing local
superphosphate are agricultural companies,
ment of sulphuric acid plants can be used in
raw materials - raw phosphorites from the
which are mainly located in the Farg’ona,
the open area, which significantly reduces
Tashkura deposit. In 1999, Chirchiq leading
Andijon and Namangan provinces. The fer-
the capital cost of construction of workshops
research
O’zkimyosanoatLoyiha
tiliser is in demand in the neighboring coun-
and equipment installation; makes it easier to
(Uzbek chemical industrial projects) estab-
tries, particularly in Tajikistan, Kazakhstan
install ventilation, remove harmful gases and
lished ammoniated superphosphate capacity
and Kyrgyzstan; it is also shipped to Iran and
excessive heat.
at 178,000 tonnes per year in physical terms
Afghanistan from time to time.
institute
during the transition to phosphate raw material from the central Kyzyl Kum.
The export potential of producers of
ammoniated superphosphate is increasing
Planned output of sulphuric acid, which is
needed to produce mineral fertilisers, started
in 1954.
In 2004, the first stage of reconstruction
from year to year. If the volume of exports in
In 1955, a superphosphate workshop began
including drying, grading and packaging of
2005 amounted to 900 tonnes, in 2009 it was
operating. However, the fertiliser produced
fertilisers was completed at Qo’qon superfos-
19,300 tonnes, and during the last years it has
from phosphate of the Karatau deposit had
fat zavodi JSC.
been at the level of 30,000-32,000 tonnes.
poor physical properties, which made their
In 2008, Russian company Monolith LLC
The main types of process feedstock come
soil application difficult. In order to improve
(Moscow) became the owner of 85.2% of the
from the local market. This is phosphorite
the properties of simple superphosphate,
company’s shares, paying for them approxi-
meal, sulphuric acid and ammonia.
construction of a granulation workshop was
started, and it was completed in 1960.
mately USD 3.6m to State Property Fund
The company produces building gypsum
of Uzbekistan (SPF). In 2011, this deal was
and mineral fertilisers in small packaging for
A little earlier, a unit for production of bat-
cancelled by mutual consent. Investment
the domestic consumer market. The future
tery acid and selenite sludge was installed. In
commitments of the Russian company at
plans of the company are: launching of pig-
1962 the plant started production of ammoni-
closing the deal were USD 5m, which had to
ment production with an annual capacity of
ated superphosphate. The output of concen-
80 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Countries and regions
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trated and complex fertilisers was growing
quickly. The most important type of fertiliser
was ammophos, and its production started in
1976. In 1978, ammophos was awarded the
State Quality Mark.
In 1984, a plant for extraction phosphoric
acid of the third stage was put into operation. The capacity of the plant was 136,400
tonnes per year. In 1994, due to cessation of
deliveries of phosphate raw materials from
Kazakhstan, the second stage of the plant was
switched to production of granulated ammonium sulphate.
Since 1994, a new technology for production of fertilisers based on the processing of
local raw materials was developed on the
Production facilities at Samarqandkimyo plant
basis of the second of the plant.
In 2004, specialists of the company and
Design
Institute
O’zkimyosanoatLoyiha
developed a new kind of fertiliser - NPF
(nitrogen-phosphorus fertiliser).
activates enzymes and strengthens the cell
Potassium is one of the most important
nutrients for plants. It keeps and retains water
walls.
The efficiency of this complex fertiliser has
in stems and leaves, enhances the formation
In 2005, by order of the State Property
been proven at several Uzbek farms. Studies
of sugars; it increases the resistance of plants
Committee of Uzbekistan, the company
have shown that it has a positive effect on
to disease, drought and frost.
became
company
plant growth and development, thereby
N-P-K (nitrophoska) is produced by mix-
and was renamed Samarqandkimyo JSC.
increasing the crop yield by 17-20% on aver-
ing nitrophosphate pulp and crystalline
Currently the company employs over 800
age. It is recommended for cereals crops,
KCl. The technology for producing N-P-K
people. Unfortunately, in recent years
cucurbits crops, cotton and forage crops,
fertilisers has been developed by specialists
Samarqandkimyo has been unprofitable. In
fruit and berry crops, vegetables as well as
of Samarqandkimyo JSC. Complex mineral
this regard, in January 2014, the Cabinet
houseplants. N-P-Ca should be used as a base
fertiliser ZHSFS (suspended liquid phospho-
of Ministers, the Ministry of Economy, the
fertiliser before sowing and as a plant food
rus-containing nitrate) contains nitrogen (7%
Ministry of Finance with the involvement
throughout the growing season.
N), phosphorus (7% P2O5) and water-soluble
an
open
joint-stock
of stakeholders had to develop and adopt a
All its components are well absorbed by
calcium (7% CaO). It is manufactured by
programme for tackling financial crisis and
plants in neutral carbonate-containing soils,
mixing calcium nitrate-phosphate pulp with
actual bankruptcy of some industrial compa-
even highly saline soils of the Central Asian
ammonium nitrate solution.
nies in a three-month period.
region, and in all other types including black
Now the product range of the plant includes
N-P-Ca (nitrofos), N-P-K (nitrophoska) and
suspended
liquid
phosphorus-containing
nitre.
The solution is used in agriculture to feed
all kinds of crops throughout the period of
soil.
N-P-K (nitrophoska) is a highly effective
their vegetation. According to test results
mineral fertiliser, which contains the basic
of the Uzbek Research Institute of Cotton
nutrients needed for plant growth - nitro-
in conjunction with the Institute of General
Complex fertiliser N-P-Ca (nitrofos) con-
gen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium
and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy
tains 6% of nitrogen, 16% of phosphorus
(N - 5%, P2O5 - 14%, K2O - 14% and CaO
of Sciences of Uzbekistan recommenda-
and 11% of calcium. Nitrogen regulates the
- 12%) – in the available form. The tech-
tions for its use in agriculture have been
growth of vegetative mass and determines
nology of production of this fertiliser was
developed.
the level of productivity. Phosphorus acti-
mastered at the plant not that long ago - after
ZHSFS is used for foliar application
vates root growth, accelerates the develop-
the company Dehqonobod Kaliyli O’g’itlar
by spraying the suspension solution onto
ment of all processes and increases winter
Zavodi (Dehqonobod Potash Fertiliser Plant)
leaves, and for root nutrition during the
hardiness. Calcium stimulates plant growth
started manufacture of crystalline potassium
formation of leaves, during budding and
and root development, increases metabolism,
chloride.
blooming periods. These methods of appli-
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 81
Countries and regions
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JV Elektrokimyozavod
JV Elektrokimyozavod CJSC (Navoiy)
electrochemical plant was founded in 1971
for production of chemical crop protection
products:
insectoacaricides,
herbi-
cides and fungicides for Central Asia and
other former Soviet republics. The second
birth of the company was the creation
of the Uzbek-Panamanian joint venture,
Elektrokimyozavod JSC, in 1994.
After the plant became a joint-stock company, it took a course on production of chemical crop protection agents from imported
active ingredients and components from
local raw materials. Economic expediency of
Dehqonobod potash fertiliser plant
the plant, which would allow the country to
save up to one third of the currency for pur-
cation stimulate growth and development
operation. In 2010, the company produced
chasing finished crop protection agents, was
of crops, and also serve as means of protec-
55,000 tonnes of potassium chloride; in 2011
taken into consideration. To expand the range
tion from diseases.
– 180,000 tonnes, and in 2012 reached its
of products and to improve their quality, a
Beside the main products – fertilisers - the
design capacity. Construction of the second
reconstruction of basic workshops was car-
plant manufactures battery sulphuric acid.
stage of the plant at the cost of USD 254.5m
ried out, modern technology and packaging
The main importers of plant products are:
provides an increase of the capacity of the
equipment was purchased, as well as modern
Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan and Iran.
plant by three times - up to 600,000 tonnes of
analytical equipment.
The basic raw materials required for produc-
potash fertilisers per year, and about 350,000
tion are phosphorite meal and nitric acid.
tonnes will be exported.
Dehqonobod Kaliyli O’g’itlar
Zavodi Unitary Enterprise
The company used to produce only four
kinds of products but today the range of
In 2011, ZUMK signed a contract with
products includes more than 60 articles.
O’zkimyosanoat to expand capacity of the
Some are manufactured under licenses of the
production complex worth USD 128m, and
following companies: Dalston Associated
with CITIC Ltd - to expand capacity of the pro-
(Panama), Syngenta (Switzerland), BASF
The construction of Dehqonobod potash
cessing complex at the cost of USD 110m. The
(Germany), FMC (USA), Keminova Agro
fertiliser plant on the basis of the Tubegatan
construction started in late 2011 and in the mid-
(Denmark),
sylvite deposit in the Qashqadaryo province
2014 production should be put into operation.
August JSC (Russia), Schyolkovo Agrochim
United
Phosphorus
(India)
started in 2007. In 2008, O’zkimyosanoat
USD 110.5m from Export and Import Bank
SJC concluded contracts with ZUMK (ZAO
of China, O’zkimyosanoat’s own finances
Products quality fully meets the require-
UK Western-Ural Machine Building Concern
and credits of the Fund for Reconstruction
ments of the licensors. For using at house-
CJSC Management Company; Perm) and
and Development of Uzbekistan in the
hold plots, fertilisers are available in small
CITIC Pacific Ltd. (China) for building on a
amount USD 128.1m were allocated for the
packaging. Production of veterinary drugs for
turnkey basis; with the Russian company - to
project. The payback period from the begin-
controlling parasites for animals and poultry,
build a mining complex; with the Chinese -
ning of construction is 7.5 years. The number
as well as drugs for use as disinfectants,
for the construction of a processing complex.
of created jobs is 944. Potassium chloride
disinsectants and exterminating substances
The first tonne of sylvite mined by
according to State Standard GOST 4568-95
was launched.
Tubegatan potash mine group (TPMG) was
produced by the plant is shipped to local
However, today the company’s economy is
processed at the plant in December 2009.
farmers, factories producing complex min-
based on production from local raw materi-
And in mid-2010 the plant at the cost of USD
eral fertilisers, as well as abroad - Sri Lanka,
als. Manufacture of some products such as
123.7m and with capacity of 200,000 tonnes
UAE, Iran, Kazakhstan, Georgia, Vietnam,
chemical crop protection agents and simple
of potash per year was put into commercial
Malaysia and China.
superphosphate is included in the Republican
82 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
JSC (Russia) using brands of the companies.
Countries and regions
w w w. chem mar ket. info
programme of localisation of finished prod-
chloride-3-pyridyl)-methyl]-imideazolidine-
the only defoliant for cotton, which is manu-
ucts, components and materials on the basis
2-ilene-amine; it is intended for cotton and
factured by the company and applied before
of local raw materials. In the new economic
wheat against sucking insects).
harvesting.
environment, the company confidently took
The group of protectants includes Tebu
In 2003, after development work, the
a leading position in production of chemi-
(microemulsion containing 60 g/l of tebucon-
construction of simple superphosphate pro-
cal plant protection products not only in
azole - (RS)-1СЂ-chlorophenyl-4,4-dimethyl-
duction was started, and in 2004 the first
Uzbekistan, but in all Central Asia.
3-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-il-methyl)pental-3-il;
processing line was launched. Since 2007,
Let’s review the company products in detail.
it is used for pre-sowing treatment of grain),
simple superphosphate is also available in
The herbicidal group includes Estamp (emul-
Daltebu (water soluble suspension, contain-
granular form.
sion concentrate containing 330 g/l of active
ing 6% of tebuconazole; it is applied for
Experience has shown that using poor
substance pendimethalin пендиметалина -
pre-sowing treatment of grain); Dalucho
phosphate of the Tashkura deposit and sul-
2,6-Dinitro-N-(1-ethylpropyl) -3,4-xylidine;
(wettable powder, containing 70% of imida-
phuric acid of the Uchkuduk deposit as raw
pre-emergence herbicide of a broad-spectrum
cloprid; it is applied against insects that feed
materials allows manufacturing mineral fer-
designed for combating annual cereal and
on moisture of plants and infect seed stocks)
tilisers of high quality. That is why Navoiy
dicotyledonous weeds at arable farmlands).
and Dalbron (an active ingredient - Bronopol,
superphosphate is in high demand not only
or
among local farmers, but it is also exported
Dalstar (dry flowable suspension, con-
2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol;
it
taining 750 g/kg of the active ingredient
enhances the ability of seeds for germination.
tribenuron methyl – (methyl-2-[4-methoxy-
Its application increases cotton crop by 5-6
6-methyl-1,3,5.triazin-2-yl(methyl)
centners per hectare.
carbo-
abroad.
An important step towards improving the
economic performance of the company was
moylsulfomoyl] benzoate); it is used in small
The company produces two veterinary
re-starting previously mothballed capac-
doses as a highly effective postemergence
drugs - Cypermethrin (25% emulsion con-
ity. Production of sodium sulphide ethyl
herbicide for fighting broadleaf weeds in
centrate of pyrethroid cypermethrin; it is
acetate and sodium chloride was launched at
winter and spring grain crops) and Dalzlak
used to combat leaf-eating insects) and
idled capacity. A subsidiary company Eltuz
Extra (emulsion concentrate, containing
Tsiperfos (emulsion concentrate containing
was established specially for production of
104 g/l of active substance haloxyfop-(P-
two active substances - 5% of cypermethrin
sodium chloride. It should be mentioned that
methyl - methyl (R)-2-{4-[3-chloride-5-(tri
and 50% of chlorpyrifos - 0.0 - diethyl- 0 -(
iodised salt of the highest quality, produced
fluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]phenoxy}propi-
3,5,6 - trichloro -2- pyridyl) phosphothioate;
under the brand name JP, is known through-
onate; the postemergence systemic herbicide
it is used for combating leaf-eating insects
out the country. Each month, 500 tonnes of
designed to control annual and perennial
and psyllas, suppresses and prevents from
edible salt are shipped to consumers. Quality
gramineous weeds in cotton sowing).
ticks).
management system of the company was cer-
The group of insectoacaricides includes
Rodenticides are presented by Zookumarin
Esfen Alpha (emulsion concentrate containing
(sodium salt compound of technical warfarin,
5% and 20% esfenvalerate - A, О±-fenvalerate-
4- hydroxy -3 -(3 - oxo -1- phenylbutyl) cou-
(S)-3-methyl-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-butyric
marin; it is used for deratisation).
tified in 2007 according to the international
standard ISO 9001:2000.
Maxam-Uzbekistan JV
acid (S)-О±-cyano -3-phenoxybenzyl ester; it
Growth-regulating chemicals, which are
has contact and enteral damage effects on
manufactured in Navoiy, include Uzrep
Uzbek-Spanish company, which employs
insects and worms), Tsiraks (25% emulsion
and Dalrost (aqueous solution containing
more than 40 people, is located in Olmaliq
concentrate cypermethrin - (R, S)-a-cyano-
720 g/l of ethephon - 2-chloroethylphos-
(Toshkent province) and produces industrial
3-phenoxybenzyl (1RS)-cis-trance-3-(2,2-di
phonic acid; it accelerates plant growth
explosives “Manfo-8, 7.” It is a mixture of
vinyl chloride)-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropane
and ripening of cotton) and Dalpiksi (5%
ammonium nitrate, diesel fuel, fuel oil and
carboxylate, which has contact and enteral
aqueous solution of mepiquat chloride - N,
aluminum powder. Its main customers are
damage effects),
N-dimethylpiperidinium), which accelerates
domestic mining companies.
Karbofos (emulsion concentrate, contain-
ripening cotton bolls).
Qo’ngirot Soda Zavodi
Unitary Enterprise
ing 50% of malathion - organophosphorus
Extra Avguron (a suspension concentrate
compound, which has contact partly fumi-
containing two active components - 360
gant effects on insects and ticks) and Dalprid
g/l of tidiazuron - 3 - (1,2,3-Tiadiazolin-
(water soluble concentrate containing 200 g/l
5)-1-phenyl-urea and 180 g/l of diuron - 3
Unitary Enterprise Qo’ngirot Soda Zavodi
of imidacloprid - 4,5-dihydro-N-nitro-1-[(6-
- (3,4-dichlorophenyl) -1,1-dimethylurea) -
(Qo’ngirot Soda Plant, located in the vil-
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 83
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Commissioning the plant allowed to refuse
from imports of soda ash from Russia and
Ukraine.
The plant’s products are demanded by the
light industry, production of detergents, glass,
paper and cellulose, the non-ferrous industry
and other sectors of the Uzbek economy,
which consume about 80% of soda ash.
Quvasoy glass factory is the main customers. Furthermore, sodium carbonate is
exported to foreign consumers, mainly to
Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkey. Over the
last three years, the sales of the company’s
products abroad rose fivefold. By the results
of 2013, 22,000 tonnes of soda ash were
shipped to foreign customers.
Qo’ngirot Soda Plant
Due to increasing demand for soda ash in
lage Elobod in the north of the country, in
installation of process equipment of the plant
domestic and foreign markets, it was ruled
Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikasi’ is the only
at the cost of USD 32.3m. The technological
to increase soda ash production of Qo’ngirot
company producing soda ash on the territory
part of the project was funded on account of
Soda Zavodi by more 100,000 tonnes by
of Central Asia.
a loan from the Industrial and Commercial
the presidential decree “On the priorities of
The plant was founded in 1995. However,
Bank of China under insurance cover of
industrial development of Uzbekistan for
it was a difficult task to build a modern
China Corporation of export-credit insurance
2011-2015” dated 15 December, 2010. In
chemical company in the desert. It was nec-
(90% of the contract value) and on account
April 2013, O’zkimyosanoat started con-
essary to build a 40 km road to the deposit
of a loan from Uzpromstroybank (10% of
structing the II stage of the plant. Increasing
of sodium chloride; to provide electric power
the contract value) under the guarantee of the
capacity of the plant up to 200,000 tonnes
supply, natural gas and water; to create
government.
per year is one of the priorities of industrial
normal conditions for personnel. Later, the
General construction works were car-
main production units of the plant were built
ried out by local construction companies at
The start up of a production line for hyper
– workshops of sodium bicarbonate, calcina-
expenses of O’zkimyosanoat. Its designed
pressed bricks is scheduled for the second
tion, lime burning and slaking, purification of
capacity is 100 tonnes of soda ash per year.
half of 2014. Manufacture of new products
salt solutions, technical and aqueous support,
The main raw materials for soda ash produc-
from limestone should start in the mid-year,
as well as a boiler station.
tion are sodium chloride and calcium carbon-
which will employ 65 people. By the end
development of Uzbekistan until 2015.
Some ancillary facilities were built: a
ate (limestone). All major raw materials are
of 2015 it is planned to commission a glass
motor pool, a testing area for reinforce con-
mined in Uzbekistan and they have been
containers unit.
crete products, mechanical repair shops, a
described above.
Jizzax plastmassa
compressor station, an administrative and
According to a conclusion of geologists,
amenity building and a fire station. Most of
the rational use of underground resources
the installed equipment was manufactured
of the Ustyurt plateau can ensure the needs
Jizzax plastmassa JSC (Jizzax) is the largest
in China, and some was delivered from the
of the plant for over the next 100 years.
producer of films, pipes and consumer goods
United States, Italy and Germany. The plant,
O’zkimyosanoat,
and
from high and low pressure polyethylene in
which currently employs 1,360 people, was
Navoiyazot supply ammonia – another raw
Central Asia. The plant was commissioned in
commissioned in 2006 by a Chinese com-
material.
1972. Its capacity is about 60% of total capac-
pany CITIC Pacific Ltd and O’zkimyosanoat
SJC.
Maxam-Chirchiq
In 2006, the factory produced 12,810
ity of polymer producers in Uzbekistan. Jizzax
tonnes of soda ash, and in 2011 this figure
plastmassa manufactured 18,200 tonnes of PE
Total project cost was USD 100m. The
increased sevenfold. In 2012 more than
film per year, 10,800 tonnes of polyethylene
company CITIC Pacific Ltd, according to the
92,000 tonnes of soda ash were produced,
pipes 315-630 mm in diameter, and 1,370
contract, carried out the turnkey design and
and in 2013 - about 102,000 tonnes.
tonnes of consumer goods (fittings).
84 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
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Pipes produced in Jizzax are used for utilities, installation of hot and cold water supply
networks and gasification, and that is why
these products are practically not affected by
seasonal decline in consumption.
The company has a modern unit for PE
films and pipes, injection moulding equipment, and equipment for packaging manufacture, as well as several crushing machines,
which are used for recycling plastic waste.
Number of workers employed at the plant
- 439.
Shortan Gas Chemical Complex, which
was put into operation in 2001 and produces
125,000 tonnes of polyethylene per year, supplies raw materials to Jizzax.
The main local consumers are: the agristruction companies. The main importers of
Jizzax plastmassa is equipped mainly with Chinese is mainly equipped
with Chinese machinery
products are Kazakhstan and Tajikistan.
cultural sector, farms, private firms and con-
stable gas condensate, commercial liquid
gas were processed. Production of liquefied
Unfortunately, over the years, the company
and lump sulphur, commercial granulated
gas (propane-butane) reached 15,000 tonnes
has been in a financial crisis. In this regard,
sulphur, granulated polyethylene of vari-
instead of the planned 8,500 tonnes.
the President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov
ous grades, polyethylene pipes and fittings,
The plant produced 298,400 tonnes of
in January 2014 instructed the government to
polyethylene film, parts for drip irrigation
stable gas condensate and 347,800 tonnes
develop and adopt a “roadmap”, which would
systems. Below we will describe only two
of elemental sulphur, which was certified
allow the company to avoid bankruptcy (by
companies that use chemical technology
in 2007 according to the international qual-
the way, most of the shares of Jizzax plast-
processes.
ity management system. For six months of
massa still belong to the state).
III. Other chemical companies
Petrochemical companies
2013 the volume of liquefied gas production
Muborak Gazni Qayta
Д°shlash Zavodi USE
increased by almost 6.4 times, and gas condensate – by almost 4.4 times, compared to
the same period last year.
Muborak Gazni Qayta Д°shlash Zavodi
We mentioned the course for modernisa-
(“Muborak Gas Processing Plant”, Muborak,
tion of chemical production conducted by
O’zneftgazqazibchiqarish (Uzneftegazdo-
Qashqadaryo region) is a pioneer in the field
the national government. According to the
bycha) includes the largest companies of
of processing of natural gas on the territory
course, a special programme for technical
Uzbekistan for oil production, natural gas and
of Uzbekistan. Here, natural gas is converted
re-equipment at the plant was developed.
condensate recovery and natural gas process-
into liquefied gas, gas condensate and other
In particular, in July 2013, three production
ing: Muborakneftgaz USE, Sho’rtanneftgaz
hydrocarbons. The company is one of the
lines of propane -butane mixture were put
USE, Andijonneft JSC, Jarqo’rg’onneft JSC,
largest gas processing plants in the world.
into operation. Construction of this large
Usturtgaz USE, Gazlineftgazqazibchiqarish
The plant was commissioned in 1971 and it
industrial facility is the result of the imple-
USE, Sho’rtan Gaz Kimyo Majmuasi USE
is designed for annual processing 30bn m3 of
mentation of an important investment project
and Muborak Gazni Qayta Д°shlash Zavodi
gas.
“Construction of a propane-butane mixture
USE.
The main processes of Muborak plant
processing unit to increase production of liq-
Companies of O’zneftgazqazibchiqarish
are absorption purification of natural gas,
uefied gas at Muborak Gazni Qayta Д°shlash
produce commercial oil, natural gas (sup-
followed by low-temperature drying, com-
Zavodi USE” worth USD 244m.
plied via trunk pipelines), liquefied hydrocar-
mercial sulphur gas production by the Claus
Funding for the project was provided
bon gas for municipal consumption, liquefied
method and condensate stabilisation to obtain
by O’zbekneftgaz proper, a loan of Fund
hydrocarbon gas for automobile transport,
liquefied gas. In 2012, 27,65bn m3 of natural
for Reconstruction and Development of
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 85
Countries and regions
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enable Muborak Gazni Qayta Д°shlash Zavodi
to increase operating rate, and employ 186
people.
In addition, by 2015 O’zbekneftgaz is
planning to proceed to construction of a gas
chemical complex on the basis of Muborak
Gazni Qayta Д°shlash Zavodi. The project will
be implemented by a 50:50 joint venture with
Indorama Group (Singapore). It envisages
production of 492,000 tonnes of polyethylene, 66,000 tonnes of gas condensate and
53,000 tonnes of pyrolysis petrol per year.
The construction period of the complex is
three years.
The project initially estimated at USD 2.5bn,
will be financed by funds raised by Indorama,
a loan of the Fund for Reconstruction and
Uzbekistan, as well as loans of the National
O’zLITIneftgaz, construction and instal-
Development of Uzbekistan and equity funds
Bank for Foreign Economic Activities and
lation works were carried out by local
of O’zbekneftgaz.
the China Development Bank. Construction
contractors,
of a new complex is also a result of coopera-
equipment is produced in workshops of
tion of the leading companies from Russia,
O’zbekkimyomash Zavodi. The advan-
Ukraine, France, the USA, Poland and China.
tage of the new equipment is the ability
Foreign manufacturers installed unique
most
of
manufacturing
to process not 250,000 m but 300,000 m
3
3
Sho’rtan Gaz Kimyo Majmuasi
Sho’rtan Gaz Kimyo Majmuasi Unitary
Daughter Enterprise (Shortan Gas Chemical
high-tech equipment. At the same time,
of natural gas per hour. USD 171.8m has
Complex;
most of it is made in Uzbekistan by special-
been invested in this project. At the next
Qashqadaryo province) is a perfect example
ists of O’zbekkimyomash Zavodi JSC and
step of modernisation of the plant, which
of the “new way” of the economic devel-
Namanganmash JSC. The new unit, which
will be implemented by the end of 2015,
opment of Uzbekistan. Being a part of the
is designed to strengthen the exports poten-
O’zbekneftgaz will gradually build the
USSR, Uzbekistan was mainly regarded as
tial of the industry, can process 12bn m of
eighth stage of gas desulphurisation. USD
a source of cheap gas and cotton, but after
natural gas and produce up to 258,000 tonnes
220m will be allocated from the funds of
declaration of independence, the country’s
of liquefied gas and 125,000 tonnes of gas
O’zbekneftgaz. The implementation of the
industrial production has been reoriented suf-
condensate per year.
project will ensure reliable operation of the
ficiently to deep processing of raw materials
3
Sho’rtan,
Guzor
district
of
In addition, taking into account decom-
system for purification of natural gas from
close to their location. This is undoubtedly
missioning of outdated installations, the
hydrogen sulphide and acid gas in the long-
one of the most successful projects of the
construction of the seventh stage of des-
term prospect.
National Holding Company O’zbekneftgaz,
ulfurisation consisting of three universal
Blocks of the new stages also allow solv-
which was carried out during the years of
units with a total capacity of 6bn m of gas
ing the problem of processing hydrocarbon
per year was completed. All the three units
raw materials supplied from the gas-bearing
There was a need for construction of
were put into operation in the period from
area Khausak -Shady in the Buxoro province,
such a complex. Ten years ago, the country
August 2012 to March 2013. The absorp-
which is being developed by the Russian
experienced a serious shortage of poly-
tion system of the new units is equipped
company Lukoil within the frames of a joint
ethylene, and consumers were completely
with modern contacting tip �Peton’ that
venture with Uzbekistan. In October 2013,
dependent on imports from Russia, China
gives the opportunity to save electricity,
the company Lukoil Uzbekistan started
and South Korea, and that required sig-
heat and absorbents, and to increase output
producing and transporting gas to Muborak
nificant investments and increased plastic
of high-quality products by 20%.
Gazni Qayta Д°shlash Zavodi. It is planned to
goods production costs.
3
independence.
Construction documents of the new
process and transport 2.2 bn m3 of gas per
However, a feedstock for manufacture of
units were prepared by the institute
year. The implementation of the project will
polyethylene - natural gas with a high con-
86 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
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Panorama of Shortan Gas Chemical Complex
tent of light hydrocarbons (ethane, propane,
consisting of globally renowned companies
and ethylene refrigerant systems and a unit
butane and a relatively small amount of sul-
(ABB Lummus Global, Shell, Nissho Iwai,
for ethylene production.
phur) –was found in the Sho’rtan gas deposit
Mitsui, Toyo Engineering, Nova Chemicals).
Amine treatment is used for purification
(30% of all Uzbek gas) and in the South
The project was financed by export-import
from acid components, and separated sour
Tandyrcha, Adamtash and Gumbulak depos-
banks of the USA and Japan, Germany-
gas goes to a unit for sulphur production.
its. In addition, the local gas condensate
based Credit Agency Hermes, by the banks
Sulphur granulated and packed in bags of 25
contains a significant content of aromatics
Chase Manhattan (USA) and Commerzbank
kg is shipped to a warehouse for subsequent
- a valuable raw material for petrochemical
(Germany).
sale to consumers. Purified gas is supplied
synthesis.
The cost of the engineering aspect of the
to a gas separation unit, from which pure
After conducting necessary geological
design was USD 656.6m. Besides foreign
methane, as a marketable gas, is sent to a gas
survey in November 1997, it was decided to
loans, an amount equivalent to USD 328m
transmission system. The main component,
build Sho’rtan Gaz Kimyo Majmuasi. The
in the national currency of Uzbekistan was
ethane, is converted at a cracker, where ethyl-
aim was to build a powerful plant for pro-
invested in the construction of the plant. The
ene is derived used in the further production
cessing of 3.5bn m of gas per year by etha-
total investment exceeded USD 1bn.
of polyethylene.
3
nolamine method for production of 125,000
In 2001, the construction was mostly
It should be noted that liquefied natural gas
tonnes of polyethylene UzClear in granules,
completed, the plant was commissioned and
produced at the company is extremely pure,
100,000 tonnes of liquefied gas, 100,000
the company started to approach the design
since in the course of the manufacturing pro-
tonnes of gas condensate and 1,500 tonnes of
capacity. In 2005, Sho’rtan Gaz Kimyo
cess each fraction (propane, butane) is sepa-
sulphur.
Majmuasi was successfully certified under
rated to 99.99% purity and a part of propane
ISO 9001:2000 QMS requirements.
is used as a refrigerant. Then these two com-
В®
Sho’rtan complex became an example
of
successful
international
cooperation,
We will briefly describe the production
ponents are mixed in the required proportions
as companies from the USA, Japan, Italy,
technology. Natural gas from the Sho’rtan
according to the existing standards. Propane-
Germany, Canada, France, South Korea and
field is fed to a separation unit after amine
butane fraction, just like liquefied gas, is sold
Russia participated in its financing, design,
treatment and its deep processing with frac-
to consumers in tanks. Heavier fractions C5
construction, training of staff, in addition to
tionation starts. ABB Lummus is a licensor of
+, which are derived while converting natural
O’zbekneftgaz.
the gas separation technology and production
gas, are sent to refineries for further process-
In 1998, O’zbekneftgaz signed a turnkey
of ethylene. Ethylene production consists of
ing as gas condensates.
contract for design, equipment supply, con-
amine treatment plants, a gas separation plant
The main volume of ethylene is applied
struction, and commissioning on the basis of
with a chilling system, a block of pyrolysis
for production of polymers and the rest
fixed price with an international consortium
gas preparation, pyrolysis furnaces, propane
is converted at a dimerization unit into
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 87
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Table 3. Polyethylene grades by Sho’rtan Gaz Kimyo Majmuasi
Grade and type of PE
Density, g/cm3
РџРўР , g/10 min
Value
Processing
type
Recommended applications
Injection moulding grades
I-0754
Injection moulding
HDPE
0,952 – 0,956
5,0 – 8,0
Household goods
I-0760
HDPE
0,958 – 0,962
5,5 – 8,5
General purpose
I-1561
HDPE
0,958 – 0,962
13,0 – 18,0
For producing receptacles,
containers, boxes
I-2560
HDPE
0,958 – 0,962
20,0 – 30,0
General purpose, receptacles,
containers
I-1625
LLDPE
0,922 – 0.928
12,0 – 20,0
Garbage containers
I-0525
LLDPE
0,923 – 0.927
4,0 – 6,0
For low-capacity articles (caps,
artificial flowers)
Film grades
F-Y720
LLDPE
0,918 – 0,922
0,60 – 0,90
Extrusion
Industrial packaging (thick film)
F-0120
LLDPE
0,918 – 0,922
0,80 – 1,50
General purpose film
F-0220
LLDPE
0,918 – 0,922
1,5 – 2,5
Ultrathin film (for mulching)
F-0320
LLDPE
0,918 – 0,922
2,5 – 3,5
Thin film (basic layer of stretch film)
F-Y336
MDPE
0,934 – 0,938
0,24 – 0,30
For films and bags
F-Y240
HDPE
0,936 – 0,942
0,19 – 0,31
For films and bags
F-Y346
HDPE
0,942 – 0,948
0,19 – 0,31
Rustling film and bags
Cable grades
WC-Y434
MDPE
0,932 – 0,936
0,30 – 0,46
Extrusion
For cable and wire insulation
WC-Y734
MDPE
0,932 – 0,936
0,60 – 0,85
P-Y337
MDPE
0,936 – 0,940
0,21 – 0,33
P-Y342
HDPE
0,940 – 0,944
0,24 – 0,36
Piping, basic grade for high-pressure
pipelines
Р -Y456
HDPE
0,952 – 0,958
0,31 – 0,51
Large diameter pipes (drainage)
For insulation of cables and rigid
hoses
Pipe grades
Extrusion
Basic grade for gas pipes
Blow moulding grades
B-Y250
HDPE
0,948 – 0,952
0,19 – 0,30
Blow moulding
Cans
B-Y456
HDPE
0,954 – 0,958
0,33 – 0,43
Blow moulding goods for general
purposes
B-Y460
HDPE
0,958 – 0,962
0,33 – 0,43
Bottles for packaging and storing
liquids
Rotational grades
R-0333
MDPE
0,931 – 0,935
2,5 – 3,3
R-0338
MDPE
0,935 – 0,940
2,0 – 3,0
R-0448
HDPE
0,946 – 0,950
3,1 – 4,1
Rotational
moulding
For large-size articles (tanks,
containers for agrochemicals, fuel)
Extrusion
For tapes, monofilament for
industrial bags, oriented films
Oriented grades
Рћ-Y446
HDPE
88 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
0,944 – 0,948
0,33 – 0,43
Countries and regions
w w w. chem mar ket. info
butene-1 – co-monomer for subsequent co-
2009, a production line for component parts
The development plan includes raising the
polymerisation for production of polyethyl-
of drip irrigation system was commissioned
amount and type of natural gas processing,
ene of medium and low density. Using the co-
there. Since 2010, an extrusion line for pro-
use of methane, which is produced and sold
monomer allows one to change polyethylene
duction of polyethylene pipes in diameter
today as a marketable gas and a feedstock for
density from 0.918 g/cm3 to 0.962 g/cm3.
from 315 mm to 630 mm has been operated.
production of pure synthetic fuels (99.99%).
The production process of the main prod-
Over the past years, the plant produced more
In September 2013, in Toshkent, there was
uct, polyethylene, takes place in a solution by
than 10,000 tonnes of finished products per
held a conference of the main creditors of the
liquid-phase technology Sclairtech (it ena-
year.
project �Production of synthetic liquid fuels
bles the company to quickly adjust the engi-
Today Sho’rtan Gaz Kimyo Majmuasi
based on purified methane at Sho’rtan Gaz
neering process to manufacturing any of 148
produces the lion share of the product range
Kimyo Majmuasi’, also known as Oltin Yol
varieties of polyethylene) under the license
planned by the project: polyethylene (more
GTL. It is expected that the first synthetic
of Canadian company Nova Chemicals. The
than 70 % is exported to the EU, as well as
premium fuel will be produced in Uzbekistan
main advantage of this technology is the pos-
to Turkey, China, Israel, Pakistan, Russia,
in 2017. This will allow Uzbekistan to pro-
sibility of varying the physical and chemical
Kazakhstan and Ukraine), liquefied gas (sup-
vide fuel for its growing economy and simul-
and rheological parameters of polyethylene
plied to Iran and Afghanistan), sulphur and
taneously reduce energy carriers imports.
using a serial mode of tubular and autoclave
gas condensate. Sho’rtan polyethylene has
type reactors.
shown itself to good advantage in extrusion
Farg’ona neftni qayta
ishlash zavodi
Thus, the company could produce linear
processes and blow and rotational molding
polyethylene of various kinds at a single
and injection molding machinery (see Table
process line. The resulting polymer is com-
3). All kinds of polyethylene produced by the
pletely separated from the solvent, residual
plant have environmental and hygiene certifi-
neftni
catalysts, purified from harmful substances
cates guaranteeing the safety of their use.
refinery), subsidiary of O’zneftmahsulot
Unitary Daughter Company Farg’ona
qayta
ishlash
zavodi
(Farg’ona
and in the molten state, with the least con-
At the domestic market, the products of
(�Uznefteproduct’), includes 35 process
tent of volatile compounds, is sent into the
the Sho’rtan company are marketed through
units for production of almost all range of oil
main extruder. All the necessary additives are
the Republican Commodity Exchange, which
products. The plant is one of the leading com-
added to the liquid or molten form, which
weekly trades in liquefied gas and polyethyl-
panies manufacturing fuels and lubricants in
ensures good mixing and complete homog-
ene in required amounts. It is to be stressed
Central Asia with a feed capacity 5.5m tonnes
enization. Polyethylene produced by this
that the share of products sold at the domestic
of oil and gas condensate.
technology can be used to manufacture any
market increases from year to year. Initially,
The development of the oil industry in the
products, which contact with food and the
annual state order for cotton mulching film
region dates back to 1868, when Russian
human body without any harm.
accounted for basic sales of polyethylene
industrialists made the first attempts to pro-
After packing, polyethylene is sent to
at the domestic market, whereas today this
duce oil in the Farg’ona Valley, but it was
warehouses for storage and subsequent ship-
amount is less than one fifth of the total con-
stopped for various reasons.
ment to consumers by rail or road. Some part
sumption of polyethylene at the internal mar-
Oil wells with a flow rate sufficient for
of polyethylene is used for production of
ket. Pipe, blown, cable, rotational and film
launching commercial oil refining were dis-
plastic bags and pallets, which enables the
polyethylene grades are in demand among
covered only in 1904. The former Vannovskiy
company to package polyethylene on pallets
consumers.
oil refinery (presently the Alty-Aryk refin-
in one tonne in 25 kg bags and to further store
and ship it by any type of transport.
About 50% of polyethylene is exported
ery – a subsidiary of Farg’ona neftni qayta
to the EU countries (Italy, the Netherlands,
Unitary Daughter Enterprise) was put into
In 2006, Sho’rtan Gaz Kimyo Majmuasi
Poland, Hungary, Lithuania and Latvia),
operation in 1906. Presently, the Alty-Aryk
took ownership under Qarshitermoplast
Asia (Iran, Turkey, Pakistan and China), the
refinery with a 3.2m tpy feed capacity spe-
(Uzbekistan, Qarshi), where, after installa-
CIS countries (Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan,
cialises in engine oil production.
tion of extrusion equipment manufactured by
Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan).
The necessity to set up local oil processing
Ermafa (Germany), gas - and water pipes and
Today, several directions of develop-
and develop industry and transport in Central
fittings with diameters from 25 mm to 250
ing the complex are considered. These are:
Asia on the whole forced the construction
mm for agriculture and municipal complexes
increasing polyethylene production and
of a refinery in Farg’ona. The refinery also
were produced. Pipe grades of high density
synthesis of natural gas for manufacturing
allowed for solving a task of bringing indus-
polyethylene are used as raw materials. In
environmentally compatible synthetic fuels.
try nearer to the sources of raw materials
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 89
Countries and regions
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
an issue of a harmful emissions reduction
— an elemental sulphur plant was built.
Simultaneously, the refinery began producing high quality diesel fuel (max. 0.5% of
sulphur).
Starting with 2003, the country has been
importing oil from the Kumkol deposit in
southern Kazakhstan for processing at the
Farg’ona refinery at the amount of 0.5m
tonnes per year. Uzbekistan is forecast to
raise oil imports mostly from Turkmenistan
and Russia due to reducing production at its
own oil fields and switching oil supplies of
the Kumkol deposit to the Pavlodar Refinery
in Kazakhstan.
Today, the Farg’ona refinery offers more
than 60 types of oil products and consumer
goods to its clients. Oil solvent �Nefras’,
technical and illuminating kerosene, AI-80,
AI-91, B-92 petrols and extraction state-run
Production facilities of Farg’ona refinery
petrol belong to a group of light oil products
and to consuming regions. Its trouble-free
1964; 11) A bitumen production plant — in
line includes black oil, diesel fuel, boiler oil,
operations satisfied demand of Central Asia
1960; 12) Delayed coking units — from 1964
furnace oil and jet fuel. Apart from these, the
including Kazakhstan for oil products previ-
to 1975; 13) A petroleum coke calcination
company manufactures four kinds of univer-
ously delivered from faraway regions and
plant — in 1987; 14) An ethane unit — in
sal oils, two kinds of engine oils for car and
excluded long-distant haulage and related
1968; 15) A high quality nitrogen production
tractor diesels, three kinds of other engine
excessive operating and capital expenditures.
unit — in 1999.
oils, two kinds of turbine oils, six kinds of
produced at the refinery. Its fuels product
The date 27 January, 1959, when an atmos-
Due to switching to a local feedstock with
industrial oils �Ferganol’; hydraulic, trans-
pheric vacuum distillation plant AVT-1 – the
a high sulphur compound content in 1995,
mission, compressor and spindle oils; trans-
first processing unit of the refinery – became
Farg’ona faced a problem of maintaining its
former oil of selective purification; two kinds
operational, is regarded as a birthday of the
product range and quality as well as master-
of lubricating oils from sulphur petroleum
Farg’ona refinery. Later, to increase oil con-
ing up-to-date technologies in order to manu-
for rolling mills. It should be also mentioned
version ratio, the following processing units
facture globally competitive commodities.
three kinds of bitumens (construction, road
were put into operation: 1) Primary oil and
In this regard, the Cabinet of Ministers of
and impregnating), two kinds of sulphur
gas condensate processing plants of ELOU-
Uzbekistan within the frames of an invest-
cokes for delayed coking, grease lubricant
AVT type (desalting and atmosphric vacuum
ment programme together with European
�Fersol’, wax candles and technical sulphur.
distillation) – from 1959 to 1994; 2) Petrol
Bank for Reconstruction and Development
catalytic reforming units – from 1965 to
and Export-Import Bank of Japan gave its
1978; 3) An extraction azeotropic distillation
approval for reconstructing the refinery with
unit – in 1964; 4) Plants for debituminisation
the purpose of providing quality of light oil
of petroleum tar by propane – from 1960 to
products in accord with global standards
The first stage of Unitary Daughter
1969; 5) Selective oil treatment plants – from
and improving environmental state. The
Enterprise Buxoro neftni qayta ishlash
1960 to 1966; 6) Oil dewaxing plants – from
reconstruction project worth USD 200m
zavodi (Buxoro refinery), a subsidiary of
1961 to 1969; 7) A contact final oil treatment
was implemented by Japan-based Mitsui and
O’zneftmahsulot JSC, was commissioned
plant — in 1961; 8) An oil hydrofining plant
Toyo Engineering.
in August 1997. The refinery built under a
Buxoro neftni qayta
ishlash Zavodi
— in 1966; 9) A vacuum distillation plant
With the launch of a diesel fuel hydrodes-
turnkey project by a consortium consisting
— in 1961; 10) A wax production unit — in
ulphurisation unit in 1999, there was solved
of Technip (France) and Marubeni—JGC
90 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Countries and regions
w w w. chem mar ket. info
(Japan) was partially financed by the government of Uzbekistan (USD 100m) and export
credit agencies of France, the USA and
Japan (USD 300m in total). It is equipped
with machinery from UK-based Glitch (UK)
and Thomasen (the Netherlands). In 2009,
the refinery was upgraded and proceeded to
manufacturing jet-propulsion fuel (180,000
tpy capacity).
The Buxoro refinery with a 2.5m tpy feed
capacity is focused on processing gas condensate and producing high quality petrol,
diesel fuel, aircraft kerosene and black oil
conforming to international standards. It is
capable of producing 660,000 tpy of petrol
(РђI-80, РђI-91 and РђI-95), 1,030,000 tpy
of diesel fuel (two grades) and 300,000 tpy
of jet fuel (two grades as well). Apart from
these, the enterprise turns out liquefied
Outdoor installations at Buxoro refinery
hydrocarbon gas, black oil, illuminating
kerosene, hydrocarbon solvent РЎ4-13 5/220
refinery for processing “heavy oil” in
cost of USD 39m as well as solve an issue of
and technical sulphur.
Jarqo’rg’on (Surkhandaryo province) in
financing the project. This project worth USD
2005.
42.3m envisages doubling production of petrol,
The development programme of the country’s oil & gas industry envisages the con-
The 55:45 joint venture is owned by
struction of the second stage of the Buxoro
Petromaruz
LLC
(St.
Petersburg)
and
refinery up to 2016 inclusive. The cost of
Jarqo’rg’on neft JSC. The refinery has capacity
the project, which is to turn out 960,000 of
to process 130,000 tpy of heavy crude oil, of
petrol, 706,000 tpy of diesel fuel and 250,000
which 60,000 tpy of bitumen and 50,000 tpy of
tpy of Euro-3 aviation kerosene, totals USD
diesel fuel and related products are produced.
475m.
diesel and furnace oil and oil bitumen by 2016
at the cost of increasing a raw materials base
and expanding refining capacity.
JV Igilik-gaz
In Q1, 2014 the Russian joint proprietor is
Uzbek-Russian joint venture Igilik-gaz
Within its frames, a 300,000 tpy isomerisa-
planning to start up a project for heavy crude
LLC was founded by Farg’ona neftni qayta
tion unit for the first stage of the refinery is
refining expansion. Till the end of the year, the
ishlash zavodi Unitary Daughter Enterprise
planned for construction. The project serves
JV will carry out a tender for procuring equip-
with a 49% share and by Oil & gas company
to optimise and modernise existing capacity
ment for processing heavy crude at a license
StroyTransgaz-oil Progress owning 51%. The
with the use of technologies for increasing
production site of the joint venture at a starting
authorised capital of the JV is USD 547,000.
light oil products yield up to 95%. US-based
UOP and Honeywell Basic were awarded a
contract on carrying out an audit, to be followed by doing a preliminary feasibility
study. O’zneftgaz will make its own investment in the project and also attract foreign
credits.
JV Jarqo’rg’on neftni
qayta ishlash
Russian-Uzbek joint venture Jarqo’rg’on
neftni qayta ishlash set up a USD 7m new
Production facilities of Igilik-gaz
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 91
Countries and regions
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A mini-plant for processing gas conden-
categories including trademark certificates,
Russian products on price. However, the
sate and hydrocarbons raw stock of Igilik-
patents of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the
financial state of the company employing 50
gaz located in
Russian Federation on different manufactur-
steadily worsened. Finally, a court decision
ing processes and product designs.
was made to launch bankruptcy proceedings
Qo’ng’irot (Republic of
Qoraqalpoq’iston) employs 72 people. The
mini-plant for gas condensate processing
Its net earnings, and net income have
266Рђ-PU utilising straight-run fractions
reduced significantly over recent years
produces petrol, kerosene, diesel fuel, sol-
although assets have increased in value (in
vent �Nefras’. The first stage of the mini-
particular, they amounted to UZS 14.85bn
plant with a daily feed capacity of 120-150
(EUR 5m) in 2011).
tonnes came on stream in 2004. In 2005, feed
capacity was increased up to 500 tonnes of
Uz-Koram Ko
became operational.
Uz-Koram Ko LLC was founded by Koram
Plastics Co., Ltd (South Korea) and two Uzbek
companies — O’zavtosanoat JSC and Sabr Ko
Plastics processing
Sovplastital
Andijon Polietileni and
Andijon Polipropileni JV
Located in Andijon, Uzbek-American
Andijon Polietileni JV turns out PE film
for cotton cultivation. PE bags by Andijon
gas condensate. Later, a similar 300 tonnes /
day mini-plant for gas condensate processing
against the JV in July, 2013.
in 1995. Authorised capital is USD 5m. In 1997,
Polietileni are in high demand both in the
local and foreign markets.
JV Retal Pet
the company started producing large-sized
plastic goods (automotive bumpers and tool-
Uzbek-Russian joint venture Retal Pet was
bars for cars produced at GM-Uzbekistan JSC).
created by NB-Retal CJSC. The latter is one
Soviet-Italian joint venture Sovplastital
Six injection moulding machines by Japan and
of the leaders in producing press moulds for
JSC was established on the basis of Scientific
Korea are installed in the company’s work-
PET processing in the CIS and Russia being
and Production Enterprise Uzbytplastik and
shops capable of producing 270,000 automo-
a subsidiary of international company Retal
Italy-based Alma Rosa in 1987. In 2007 the
tive items. Uz-Koram operates a paint spraying
Industries – one of top-three European pro-
enterprise was transformed into an open joint
line by Yaskawa Motoman for coating bumpers
ducers of press moulds. Retal Pet began its
stock company with an authorised capital of
in colours matching with those of car bodies.
own production of press moulds in Toshkent
UZS 683.2m (EUR 227).
It should be mentioned that Uz-Koram Ko is
in 2006. Since late 2007, it has been the big-
The company is focused on producing
the only company in Uzbekistan engaged in hot
gest player on the Uzbek market in press
plastic goods for both consumer and indus-
shaping of polypropylene (the correspondent
mould for PET processing.
trial purposes including decorative elements
workshop was commissioned in 2009).
of interior and furniture: artificial flowers,
plastic furniture, accessories for bathrooms
Other enterprises of the sector
Uzbarrelproduction
Among domestic enterprises – plastic pro-
and toilets and toys. Sovplastital incorporates
several daughter companies, among which
Toshkent-based Uzbarrelproduction LLC
cessors – we should also single out Nukus
we should mention only plastic processors: 1)
registered as an Uzbek-English joint venture
Polipropilen LLC (Nukus) producing PE
Uzbek-Italian JV Sovplastital & Tabor spe-
manufactured the first products in May 2005.
bags (including inflatable bags), PP packages
cialising in manufacturing artificial spruces,
The main activity of the company is pro-
and bags and Uzbek-Turkish joint venture
various souvenirs and New Year’s decora-
duction of 10, 20, 30, 60, 155 and 220 litre
Nur-Plastik LLC (Andijon) manufacturing
tions; 2) Uzbek-Italian JV Sovplastital & Fiori
polyethylene drums for food and industrial
PE films of different kinds and for various
(artificial flowers, trees and flower arrange-
products. Manufacturing capacity amounts to
purposes (sleeved films, greenhouse films,
ments); 3) Almeko LLC (plastic goods and
400-430 drums per day (90 tonnes monthly).
co-extrusion three- and five-layer films).
sheets from polystyrene, ABC-plastic, acryl
These receptacles intended for storing and
polymers as well as various co-polymers and
transporting liquid and loose materials con-
vacuum moulding goods); 4) Tashinvestplast
form with European production and trans-
LLC (large-sized rotational moulding goods
portation standards having high safety factor
including those for industrial purposes). The
and low weight. At first, these drums, which
product range of Sovplastital has more than
have no analogues in Central Asia, were in
8,000 items. The company possesses more
great demand in Azerbajan, Kazakhstan,
The construction of Navoiy kon-met-
than 800 protection documents of various
Kyrgyzstan and even competed with similar
allurgiya kombinati (Navoiy Mining and
92 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Production of inorganic chemicals
Navoiy kon-metallurgiya
kombinati
Countries and regions
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Metallurgical Combine, NMMC) started in
the late 50s of the past century. This diversified enterprise manufactures various industrial products. The facilities of NMMC are
located in most part of flatlands of Uzbekistan
in the interfluves of the Rivers Amu Darya
and Syr Darya (Kyzyl Kum desert) in the
cities of Navoiy, Zarafshon, Uchkuduk,
Zafarabad, Krasnogorsk and Hurabad. It
employs more than 67,000 people. Key gold
and uranium deposits are concentrated in
the Central Kyzyl Kum district. Having an
extremely broad product range, the company
gives priority to mining gold and uranium.
All activities of the enterprise as a mining and
metallurgical company with a full cycle of
production from exploration, ore mining and
processing up to producing gold (999,9) and
diuranium pentoxide-uranium trioxide are
based upon these valuable minerals. NMMC
accounts for 80% of total gold output in the
country and is the sole operator in Uzbekistan
Mining facilities of Navoiy Mining and Metallurgical Combine
engaged in the mining and export-oriented
Sugraly and Tokhumbet uranium deposits
ores of the Uchkuduk deposit was tested. In
manufacture of uranium in the form of a
by underground leaching have started.
1963, the Severnoye mining administration
ready-to-use product – diuranium pentoxide-
Recently, the Severny Kanimekh, Alendy
adopted the underground leaching technol-
uranium trioxide.
and
become
ogy. The Hydrometallurgical plant (GMZ-1)
The foundation of its raw materials source
operational. Presently, six uranium mines
came on stream in 1964 to start commercial
is twenty deposits and ten promising fields
utilising in-situ leaching are operating, and
production of diuranium pentoxide-uranium
of uranium. The uranium industry is rapidly
another nine uranium deposits are being
trioxide. In 1966, pilot workshop #1 began
developing owing to rising production at the
developed. Uranium-containing ore pro-
developing a manufacturing process for
operating enterprises and putting into opera-
duced at the mines undergoes final process-
extracting gold from the Muruntau deposit
tion new manufacturing facilities.
ing at GMZ-1 (Hydrometallurgical plant),
followed by the start-up of open-pit mining
after which it is marketed as a finished
at the said deposit in 1967. The construction
by underground leaching over the past
product
of GMZ-2 began the same year. The year
fifteen years. This technology has enabled
trioxide).
NMMC has been mining all its uranium
Meylisay
deposits
(diuranium
have
pentoxide-uranium
1969 was marked by developing the Yuzhny
the company to radically change and sig-
Apart from the above-mentioned, NMMC
Bukinay uranium deposit, which gave its first
nificantly increase its raw materials base
mines phosphate rock, produces sulphuric
commercial batch of uranium ore three years
via economically viable mining operations
acid and gold and silver articles. In addition,
later.
at arenated-type deposits with low-grade
the company has mastered manufacture of
uranium ores in the Kyzyl Kum region. To
liquid glass, explosives, PVC and PE pipes.
Also, in 1969, GMZ-1 switched to producing finished products in the form of
raise uranium production became expedi-
And now we will make a retrospective jour-
ent due to high prices in the global market.
ney into the history of the enterprise. Navoiy
while GMZ-2 made its first gold ingot.
Since achieving independence, techni-
mining and metallurgical combine dates
In 1971, Mining administration #5 was
cal upgrading of the uranium enterprises
back its history to 1 September 1958, when
established (Leninabad mining and chemi-
have begun and two underground leaching
the gold ore deposit Muruntau was brought
cal combine). A year later the Yuzhnoye
mines have been built and commissioned
into operation. In 1962, pilot workshop #1
mining administration started pilot produc-
at the Kendyktube and Lyavlyakan depos-
was launched by the company, at which a
tion of uranium by underground leaching,
its. Moreover, pilot development of the
technology for extracting uranium from the
while GMZ-2 mastered the manufacture of
diuranium
pentoxide-uranium
trioxide,
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 93
Countries and regions
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
affined silver. The second stage of GMZ-2
where
went into service in 1973 and the third
started up. By the end of 2001, the calcined
one – in 1975. The first batch of uranium
phosphorite concentrate unit operated at its
from the Beshkak deposit was mined in
full capacity of 430,000 tonnes per year.
phosphorus
fertiliser
production
put into operation a unit for separating phosphorite ore from chlorine.
In 2008, after upgrading, GMZ-2 reached
its designed feed capacity of 32m tpy of gold-
1978. The advancement of the under-
In 2002, the Central mining administration
containing ores. Since its start-up, GMZ-2
ground leaching technologies in the 80s
launched an emulsion explosives plant. The
had processed 700m tonnes of gold-contain-
predetermined the construction of H2SO4
main ingredient of explosives is pelletised
ing ores by that time. In 2008, the Severnoye
manufacture as part of NMMC. A sulphuric
ammonium nitrate produced by Navoiyazot
mining administration introduced a technol-
acid plant in Uchkuduk entered into service
JSC. The proximity of a reliable supplier
ogy for bacterial leaching BIOРҐВ® as well.
in 1985. The plant reached its nameplate
guarantees virtually unrestricted shipments
In 2009, the company proceeded to the
capacity (450,000 tpy) within only three
of raw materials. Thus, the country no
development of the Maylisay deposit of rare
months. Along with increasing industrial
longer imports expensive foreign explosives.
earth metals.
demand for sulphuric acid, the company
Blasting operations at affiliates of NMMC
built the second stage of the Uchkuduk
have entirely switched to up-to-date innova-
plant with a capacity of 210,000 tpy in
tive technologies, whereas dangerous, not
Besides these, NMMC built a pilot ore-
January 1989. However, when political
efficient labour has been eliminated and the
picking complex for beneficiating gold-con-
and economic reforms in the post-Soviet
efficiency of ore mining operations has sig-
taining ore with a 1.2m tpy feed capacity over
states began, the second stage was closed
nificantly improved. With growing output of
the period passed since the country gained
down. In 1986, a technology for extracting
packaged emulsion explosives (nobelit and
independence.
associated rhenium was developed at the
nobelan), the enterprise provides with explo-
At present structural divisions of NMMC
enterprise and ammonium perrhenate pro-
sives not only its subsidiaries but also leading
that are engaged in chemical production
duction became operational. In 1995 there
companies engaged in blasting operations
are as follows: 1) Mining administration
were brought into service the first stage of
across the whole country. Today, 80-85% of
“GMZ-1” - manufacture of diuranium
GMZ-3 and a gold heap leaching complex
raw materials used by the emulsion explo-
pentoxide-uranium trioxide, rhenium and
(presently CGHL of the Central mining
sives plant are of local origin, which saves
gold (Navoiy); 2) Central mining administra-
administration). In 1996, mining opera-
the country about USD 8-10m yearly.
tion (Zarafshon): hydrometallurgical plant
A high angle conveyor became operational
at the Muruntau mine.
tions began at the block Tashkura of the
In 2003, Mining administration #5 com-
#2 (GMZ-2) for processing gold-containing
Dzheroy-Sardaryo phosphorites field, and
menced the development of the Tokhumbet
ores; a mine and a workshop for heap leach-
the Yuzhnoye mining administration con-
deposit. In 2005, workshop #1 started work-
ing of gold ores; the Kyzyl Kum phosphorite
structed and launched a PVC pipe plant.
ing at adopting a technology for biological
complex; the packaged emulsion explosives
In 1997, a uranium mine using under-
leaching of ores from the Kockpatas and
plant; 3) Severnoye mining administra-
ground leaching was put into operation at the
Daugyztau deposits. In 2005, the Severnoye
tion (Uchkuduk): a uranium underground
Kendyk-Tube deposit, and GMZ-1 mastered
mining administration began to construct a
leaching mine; gold-containing ores mines;
commercial production of liquid glass.
complex for biological leaching of gold on
hydrometallurgical plant #3 (GMZ-3); a
In 1998, the Kyzyl Kum phosphorite
the basis GMZ-3, and Uzbek-Russian joint
sulphuric acid plant; 4) the Yuzhnoye mining
complex utilising newest technologies devel-
venture for processing anthropogenic wastes
administration (Nurobod): hydrometallurgi-
oped by NMMC together with specialised
of mining and metallurgical production was
cal plant #4 (GMZ-4); underground gold ores
organisations from Russia and Uzbekistan
set up. To further facilitate the commercial
leaching mines; gold ores mines; a PVC and
was brought into service. To be precise, the
development of the Dzheroy-Sardaryo phos-
PE pipes plant; 5) Mining administration #5
first stage of the complex with a capacity
phorites field, improve quality and phos-
(Zafarabad): uranium underground leaching
300,000 tpy of ground phosphate rock came
phorite products output, in 2006, there was
mines.
on stream. The Yuzhnoye mining administra-
introduced an integrated engineering process
Modernisation and capacity expansion of
tion started up a polyethylene pipe workshop
for beneficiating phosphorite ores. The inte-
chemical production are key areas of concern
in 2000.
grated manufacturing process allows for
for the company over many years. The year
In addition to raw ground phosphate rock,
producing 400,000 tonnes of washed and cal-
2014 will not be an exception. In the short
the Kyzyl Kum phosphorite complex began
cined phosphorite concentrate and 200,000
run, NMMC will commence construction of
manufacturing calcined phosphorite concen-
tonnes of the washed and dried concentrate.
a new sulphuric acid unit. Initially, the com-
trate supplying it to Samarqand and Olmaliq,
In 2007, the Kyzyl phosphorite complex
94 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
pany planned to begin it in 2012, but the pro-
Countries and regions
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Products of Uzbek integrated works of refractory and heat-resistant metals
ject was declared economically inadvisable
50-year experience of producing tungsten
the workshop began manufacturing molyb-
at that moment and postponed. The project
and molybdenum products. The integrated
denum rods of MC grade, of which one was
preliminary estimated at USD 125m envis-
works with a closed process cycle consists
able to produce wires with increased recrys-
ages the building of the 500,000 tpy sulphuric
of hydrometallurgical, powder, wire, and
tallisation temperatures.
acid unit, which will satisfy increasing needs
rolling and melting units. The availability of
In 1963, the company was the first in the
of uranium production due to commissioning
its own resources of W- and Mo-containing
former Soviet Union to set up pilot produc-
new mines and expansion of a raw materials
raw materials in Uzbekistan (Koytash and
tion of single crystals from molybdenum and
base. Construction period will last two years.
Ingichkin mines) together with the rapid, pro-
tungsten and products thereof including bars,
Navoiy kon-metallurgiya Kombinati will
gressive advance of the chemical sector and
wires, flat-rolled products and strips. At dif-
provide its own finance for the project.
fuel and energy complex and the develop-
ferent times, the company started producing
new kinds of products.
In addition, NMMC is planning to raise
ment of Elektrkimyosanoat JSC in Chirchiq
output of quality phosphorite raw materials up
producing high purity hydrogen, nitric acid
to 716,000 tpy. Within the frames of another
and ammonia water required for W and Mo
investment project entitled �Expansion of
manufacturing
current phosphorites beneficiation produc-
localization of production of these metals in
tion’ on the basis of the operating Kyzyl Kum
the said region. According to a project made
phosphorite complex, there was signed a
by the Federal State Research and Design
EUR 19,96m contract on basic and detailed
Institute of Rare Metal Industry (�Giredmet’;
in 1968 – single crystals with preset crys-
engineering, equipment, material and spare
Moscow), the integrated works was designed
tallographic orientation of OChM – OM
part procurement, installation supervision
as an enterprise with a continuous process,
grade (Гё10-20mm) as well as wire for com-
and start-up activities between Navoiy kon-
up-to-date equipment and large production
ponents of vacuum-tube devices and wire
metallurgiya Kombinati and Germany-based
capacity.
with increased recrystallisation temperature
processes
predetermined
In particular, in 1965, manufacture of Mo
ingots of MchVP grade began;
in 1966 – wire made of Mo ingots of
MchVP grade;
in 1967 – wire made of alloy of BP-273VP
grade;
Engineering Dobersek GmbH in 2012.
The integrated works traces its history
The USD 59.9m project will be backed by
to 1956, when the first molybdenum bar
in 1969 – bars from yttrium tungsten of
NMMC’s own funds (USD 24,92m) and a
was obtained laying the foundation of the
SVI-1 grade, Mo single crystals with preset
USD 35m credit of the State-Commercial
company’s development. In 1957, there was
crystallographic orientation of OChV – PD
National of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
approved a planned task for design and con-
grade and bars thereof.
O’zbekiston Respublikasi qattiq
qotishmalar va o’tga chidamli
metallar kombinati
O’zbekiston Respublikasi qattiq qotish-
from Mo single crystals;
struction of a wire workshop and a unit for
In 1967, a tungsten anhydride unit came
rolling products for vacuum tube production.
on stream because of rising production of
In spring 1958, the company started manu-
tungsten wire. The integrated works utilised
facturing new types of products necessary
tungsten raw materials from third-party sup-
for the metalworking and mining industries
pliers for six years after its launch and Mo
– hard-alloy components.
feedstocks from outside producers - over
malar va o’tga chidamli metallar Kombinati
In 1962, workshop #1 mastered produc-
seven years. In April 1962, hydrometallurgi-
JSC (Uzbek integrated works of refractory
tion of Mo square bars for further processing.
cal workshop #4 went into service. This ena-
and heat-resistant metals; Chirchiq, Toshkent
They were used for turning out round bars
bled the company to largely satisfy demand
province) is a diversified company having
and flat-rolled products. Starting with 1965
of its metallurgical workshops for raw mate-
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 95
Countries and regions
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
rials. The workshop used a classic technol-
sten solutions from molybdenum, silicium,
oping the country’s tungsten deposits with a
ogy of autoclave and soda decomposition of
fluoride, arsenic and permanent sedimenta-
total tungsten concentrate output of 2,700 tpy
artificial scheelites at the beginning of the
tion of artificial scheelite.
for the 2007-2013 period with the purpose
process and acid decomposition of artificial
A technology for ammonium paramolyb-
of increasing the capacity utilisation of the
scheelites up to wolframic acid followed by
date was improved as well. In 1978, a melt-
integrated works. However, the programme
re-washing the said acid by ammonia water
ing and rolling workshop cane on stream.
has not been launched yet for a number of
and evaporating paratungstate. Subsequent
That large and complex production facility
financial and technical reasons. Now raw
introduction of a continuous process of
for refractory metal goods had no analogue
materials for manufacturing Mo-containing
artificial scheelite decomposition and wash-
in the former Soviet Union. Flat-rolled prod-
products are supplied from Olmaliq min-
ing of wolframic acid in column equipment
ucts and round bars from refractory metals
ing and metallurgical combine (Olmaliq,
significantly enhanced the production capac-
were turned out there. Production processes
Toshkent province), while a tungsten feed-
ity of the workshop and simplified work of
were carried out both in vacuum and inert
stock is delivered from Russia on the basis of
maintenance personnel. Unlike acid treat-
gas media with the use of complex equipment
tolling agreements. Currently, the operating
ment with the help of hydrochloric acid used
and process control systems.
rate of the company average 20%. Moreover,
at similar plants at that time, the integrated
By mid 80s, the integrated works mastered
there is a distinct tendency towards a further
works adopted a technology for processing
production of 117 products supplied to more
decline. For instance, the Uzbek production
artificial scheelites by nitric acid decomposi-
than 5,000 consumers including foreign ones.
of metallic tungsten showed a 25% YOY
tion. In the course of the nitric acid method
By mid 90s, the company could turn out 130
reduction, to 98 tonnes in 2013. The output
of Mo concentrates processing, molybdenum
kinds of marketable products for industrial
of metallic molybdenum at the integrated
and accompanying rhenium entirely go into
purposes and more than 45 kinds of con-
works fell 6.5%, to 490 tonnes. The decline
solution. The company introduced a sorp-
sumer goods.
can be related to shrinking global demand for
tion technology for extracting molybdenum
In 1994, production of lamps utilising
these products. All the company’s production
and rhenium from solutions, which had been
imported components was set up at the
facilities are located at two sites. The first site
a difficult task due to their complex salt
enterprise. Loss of economic ties with the
is a stage of obtaining metallic molybdenum
composition.
former Soviet Republics oriented towards the
and metallic tungsten and their processing
into rolled stock, wire and hard alloys.
As a result, the company had the possibil-
defense industry, special metallurgy, radio
ity to use equipment and pipelines made of
electronics and illuminating engineering
The second manufacturing site is a hydro-
acid-resistant stainless steel, improve equip-
was a shattering blow to the company and
metallurgical stage combining workshops
ment reliability and process wastewaters
resulted in initiating a bankruptcy procedure.
#4, #5 and #6 for converting concentrates
into sodium nitrate. The latter was both used
From 1996 to 2003, the company remained
into intermediate products – ammonium
for intraplant consumption and commercial
in the red due to a shortage of its own float-
molybdate, ammonium perrhenate, tungsten
sales. The company together with scientists
ing assets, which did not allow the integrated
trioxide, ammonium paratungstate, etc.
synthesised a sorbent for sorption of tungsten
works to complete installation of imported
The integrated works has a full process
from concentrated solutions, developed a
equipment for producing molybdenum rolled
cycle from processing concentrate up to
technology for its extraction and tested sorp-
stock (a rolling mill and a cutting machine).
manufacturing of commercial products from
tion processes at a pilot plant. In 1976, there
At the same time, the capacity of a tungsten
tungsten and molybdenum, hard alloys and
was put into operation an industrial-scale unit
wire drag line brought on stream in December
tools thereof as well as incandescent lamps
for sorption extraction of tungsten, which
1998 already exceeded demand for this prod-
for general purposes.
replaced four basic process steps – sources
uct in the global market.
Mo production includes the following
of harmful emissions. The introduction of
Today, re-starting spare capacity, attracting
stages: 1) hydrometallurgical processing of
the sorption technology enabled the inte-
investments in projects for reconstructing the
molybdenum concentrates, industrial prod-
grated works not only to improve production
beneficiation plants and maintaining unique
ucts and Mo-containing wastes by nitric acid
efficiency but also to cut primary and aux-
tungsten and molybdenum manufacture is
decomposition with producing ammonium
iliary raw materials consumption as well as
of urgency proceeding from rising global
molybdate; 2) production of metallic powders
to reduce manufacturing costs and manual
demand for tungsten and molybdenum prod-
and Mo workpiece blanks by powder metal-
labour. In the early 70s, the company devel-
ucts for steelmaking.
lurgy via reduction of molybdenum trioxide
oped and introduced automatic production
In early 2006, the Government of
in the hydrogen environment (ammonium
processes for continuous purification of tung-
Uzbekistan approved a programme for devel-
molybdate serves as a feedstock for MoO3);
96 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Countries and regions
w w w. chem mar ket. info
3) manufacture of molybdenum rolled products and alloys with obtaining Mo rods and
wire with a diameter of from 0.03mm to
20mm by treating Mo rods via thermoplastic
deformation in the hydrogen environment at
forging and drawing equipment; 4) melting
and rolling production of vacuum-melted
ingots and small and large-size, flat-rolled
products from molybdenum; 5) production of
hydrogen and oxygen in electrolytic baths via
electrolytic decomposition under pressure for
production workshops; 6) manufacture of
general-purpose lamps with the use of tungsten, molybdenum wire and component parts.
Tungsten manufacture includes the following stages: 1) hydrometallurgical processing
of tungsten concentrates and tungstencontaining wastes with producing tungsten
anhydride (up to 3,900 tonnes / year); 2)
production of metallic powders and compact
tungsten workpiece blanks via powder metallurgy (1750 tonnes/year), where tungsten
anhydride serves as a feedstock; 3) produc-
A copper-smelting furnace at Olmalik Mining and Metallurgical Combine
tion of hard alloys (1000 tonnes / year); 4)
production of tungsten wire (1,75m metres /
alloy ingots, Y-W rods, powdered tungsten
was renamed Olmalik Kon-Metallurgiya
year), tungsten rolled products (228 tonnes /
carbide and aluminium sulphate for water
Kombinati in 1967. This name corresponded
year) with tungsten rods as a feedstock.
treatment (coagulant).
with both the profile and the geographical
The enterprise has a full process cycle
for hard alloys and compounds obtained via
preparation of tungsten carbide and titanium
location of the enterprise, which was justly
Olmalik Kon-Metallurgiya
Kombinati
called a flagship of the ferrous metallurgy
of the republic by that time. In 1997, Pb-Zn
mining activities stopped and the combine
carbide followed by mixing with cobalt.
Hard-alloy compounds after high-temper-
Olmalik Kon-Metallurgiya Kombinati JSC
switched over to processing Cu-Mo ores
ature pressing and agglomerating convert
(OKK, Olmalik Mining and Metallurgical
mined at a quarry put into operation at the
into hard alloys of two groups WC-Co and
Combine, Toshkent province) engaged in
Sary-Chequ deposit in 1974.
WC-TiC –Co possessing high hardness,
mining and processing ores of noble and
But the core of copper production was
strength and wear resistance. Hard alloys of
nonferrous metals is an industrial complex
the Qalmaqyr deposit. A copper beneficia-
various types are used for fabricating lathe
consisting of three open pit mines, four
tion plant and a copper smelting works were
and woodworking tools and milling as well
underground gold mines, five ore dressing
established on its basis. In 1959, an act of
as drawing and mining equipment. Besides
plants, two metallurgical works, sulphuric
acceptance of the first stage of the Qalmaqyr
these, non-standard high-wear details for
acid units, an explosives plant and a lime-
deposit was signed. At present, two Cu-Mo
machinery and mechanisms are made of hard
stone plant.
ore mines are merged into a single company
alloys from various grades.
The governmental decision to construct a
— the Qalmaqyr Mining Administration.
The product range of the company
lead-zinc mine Altyn-Topkan became fun-
The copper beneficiation plant is the larg-
includes molybdenum and tungsten powders,
damental for the Olmalik mining and metal-
est one of its kind in Uzbekistan producing
rods, bars, Mo strips, wire, bars from molyb-
lurgical combine and the date of signing that
Cu and Mo concentrates, of which noble and
denum single crystals, Ti-W and Ti-Ta-W
document became a birthday of the OKK. The
precious metals are recovered including gold,
compounds, Ti-W and Ti-Ta-W compounds,
first products rolled off its production lines in
silver, rhenium and cadmium in addition to
ferromolybdenum and ferrotungsten, W-Cu
1954. Altyn-Topkan lead and zinc combine
ferrous metals.
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 97
Countries and regions
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Table 4. Properties of copper sulphate produced by Olmalik Kon-Metallurgiya
Kombinati JSC
Brand
A
Grade
% of total
РЎuSO4
output
РЎuSO4x
5H2O, %
Cu, %
Fe, %
H2SO4,
%
Insoluble
residue,
%
Top grade
40,60 %
99,50
25,32
0,017
0,025
0,03
1
48,20 %
98,76
25,14
0,017
0,025
0,032
1
11,20 %
97,50
24,83
0,020
0,025
0,033
B
for making mineral fertilisers. Companies
from Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan
are also among the consumers of the combine.
Copper, fine gold and silver occupy a
significant share in sales. Like other manufacturing enterprises of the country, Olmalik
Kon-Metallurgiya Kombinati has developed
and is currently successfully implementing
The first stage of copper beneficiation
in one the largest of its kind worldwide.
a programme for technical and technologi-
plant came on stream and the first batch of
Limestone for production processes are sup-
cal modernisation. Till the end of 2015, it
Cu concentrate was manufactured in 1961,
plied from the Saukbulak lime deposit.
is planned to upgrade the zinc plant, build
which is celebrated as its birthday.
The combine’s raw materials base is nota-
a sulphuric acid workshop and install a new
As a basic feedstock, the company utilises
ble not only for mineral reserves but also for
furnace at the copper smelter, set up produc-
reserves of a group of Cu-Mo, Pb-Zn and
some other useful resources including mine
tion of portland and white cements in the
Au-Ag ore deposits located in the Toshkent,
dumps, mill tailings, and metallurgical pro-
Jizzax province and reconstruct grinding and
Jizzax and Namangan provinces.
duction wastes. Raw material reserves accu-
fine grinding units at the copper beneficiation
The deposits of the district are notable for
mulated at these man-made objects amount to
plant.
high complexity. Currently, a list of minerals
millions of tonnes and can serve an additional
includes 179 different names, of which 60
source for manufacturing various metals and
belong to ore minerals. All the deposits are
other products.
Angren Kaolin LLC
characterised by interbedded layers of molyb-
More than 30m cubic metres of rock mass
Uzbekistan is extremely rich in primary
denite, pyrrhotine, pyrite, bornite, sphalerite,
are yearly processed at the combine, and
and secondary kaolinitic clays. Proven
chalcopyrite, galenite and hematite. These in
twelve various chemical are extracted.
reserves of kaolin are located at the Angren
fact contain noble metals as well as rare and
trace elements.
The company produces refined copper (in
deposit (Toshkent province) — the largest
cathodes of min. 50 kg; Cu — min. 99,99%,
complex deposit of brown coal, fire clay
The porphyry copper and gold- and
1000x1100С…(10-15) mm), metallic cadmium
and kaolin in Uzbekistan. The reserves of
molybdenum-containing deposits Qalmaqyr
of КD-0 grade (Cd — min. 99,974%, ingots
secondary, raw kaolin at the Angren deposit
and Sary-Chequ supply raw materials to a
— 380х190х22 mm, weight — about 10 kg),
total 382.4m tonnes. Primary and secondary
copper division of the copper beneficiation
powdered technical selenium of SРў-1 grade
kaolinitic clays are used as a feedstock for
plant (CBP) for further processing. The ores
(Se — min. 99,3%, Fe — min. 0,005%, Cu
cement and ceramic goods production. In
from Sary-Chequ are beneficiated at the ben-
— min. 0,005%), technical tellurium of T-1
1998, Germany-based PAB Bautzen put into
eficiation plant CBP-2 and the concentrates
(Te — min. 99,66%) and T-2 (Te — min.
operation a 200,000 tpy kaolin beneficiation
are processed at the copper smelting plant.
99,34%) grades as well as copper sulphate
plant on the basis of the deposit. The project
To provide the zinc plant with a feedstock,
(see Table 4), ammonium perrhenate of РђР -1
was financed by a DM 57m loan of Berliner
the combine process zinc concentrates into
(Re — min. 69,23%) and АР-2 (Re — min.
Bank under the guarantee of the Uzbek gov-
metallic zinc and cadmium, refined lead and
69,245%) grades.
ernment and refinanced by the National bank
sulphuric acid on the basis of tolling agree-
A technology for metallic zinc production
for foreign economic activity of the republic
ments. The Qauldy mine, the Angren mining
encompasses stages of concentrate roasting,
of Uzbekistan. The loan was to be repaid
administration, the Chadaq mining admin-
ore leaching, and electrolysis. The produc-
within 9.5 years including 2 years of a credit
istration, and the Angren and the Chadaq
tion capacity of the combine enables it to
grace period at a 6.8% annual interest rate.
gold recovery factories belong to the gold
manufacture 125,000 tonnes of zinc per year
An Uzbek-German JV �Kaolin’ (Angren,
extraction division of the combine, and their
(Zn — min. 99,988%) in 25kg ingot bars.
Toshkent province) took full ownership of
products are supplied to the copper smelter
All these products are sold in the domestic
the plant. The co-founders of the JV were
for processing.
market via the Uzbek Commodity Exchange.
company KulKoni (51%) and Ugol JSC
Zinc is exported to Iran, Russia and Ukraine.
(49%) (now - O’zbekko’mir).
Copper reserves of the Qalmaqyr deposit
amount to 20m tonnes. This fact allows
Up to 80% of sulphuric acid produced
In autumn of 1999, KulKoni transferred
including the raw materials base of the
by Olmalik Kon-Metallurgiya Kombinati is
its proprietary rights to PAB Bautzen. The
Olmalik mining and metallurgical combine
shipped to subsidiaries of O’zkimyosanoat
plant was not capable of entering target sales
98 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Countries and regions
w w w. chem mar ket. info
markets in Europe. The JV only made annual
Qo’ngirot natriy sulfat has bright devel-
supplies of 10-12,000 tonnes to the countries
opment prospects due to availability of
of Central Asia and the Middle East.
plentiful natural resources for producing
Today, about 400 various paints and coat-
Paints and coatings
In March 2007, the Economic court of
this chemical product. To realise the pro-
ings are manufactured in Uzbekistan. The
the Toshkent province declared �Kaolin’ a
ject, the above-indicated reserves of mira-
capacity of the domestic paintwork materials
bankrupt. At the moment of bankruptcy, the
bilite in the north of the country will be
market in physical terms is 230,000 tonnes.
share of PAB Bautzen in the JV made up 44%
utilised. The launch of the plant will make
This market is notable for a distinguished
and that of O’zbekko’mir JSC — 56%. The
a valuable contribution towards developing
upward trend, with yearly growth rates of
enterprise went into receivership. The deci-
detergents and glass manufacture as well
approximately 9%.
sion of the court was made because the JV
as to the textile, leather, metallurgical and
had not performed its liabilities for repaying
pulp industries.
foreign loans attracted under the governmental guarantee.
engaged in this business. However, they can-
Bo’ston Talk
not meet domestic demand, import deliveries
In spring 2009 the government of the country put up for sales 184 bankrupt companies
In Uzbekistan, several large enterprises
with a total capacity of 120,000 tpy are
accounting for 50-52% of market volume.
Bo’ston Talk LLC specialises in ver-
Despite low production volumes, small com-
Angren Kaolin
miculite ores mining and processing at the
panies manufacture nearly 20% of total out-
LLC was established at the production site
Tebinbulak deposit (Qarao’zak district of
put. They are basically focused on enamels
of the joint stock company currently owned
Qoraqalpog�iston republic), where an ore
and semi-finished varnishes for external and
by the National bank for foreign economic
mining and processing industrial complex
internal applications.
activity of the republic of Uzbekistan (basic
was built. With an annual capacity of 8,000
Basic trends in the market are fast-growing
creditor of the JV). By mid 2009 the com-
tonnes, it is capable of producing vermiculite
manufacture of water dispersion coatings and
pany restored manufacturing facilities and
concentrate. Total reserves of the Tebinbulak
oil paints with low concentrations of organic
resumed production of the deficit feedstock.
deposit are estimated at 1,33m tonnes. Owing
solvents along with a decrease in a share of
including the JV Kaolin.
Currently, Angren Kaolin LLC produces
to its valuable sound- and heat-insulation
oil paints with high concentrations of organic
high quality raw materials for the pulp
properties and impressive lightness, vermicu-
solvents. Water dispersion paints, primers
and paper, sanitary engineering, delftware
lite is useful over a wide range of applica-
and enamels are most popular among con-
and porcelain production and the ceramic
tions in a number of manufacturing indus-
sumers. These paintwork materials are used
industry.
tries, the construction sector and agriculture.
by more than 90% of repair and construction
Application fields of vermiculite materials in
companies.
Qo’ngirot natriy sulfat
chemical technology and equipment is quite
The paints and coatings market in
broad. In particular, vermiculite-containing
Uzbekistan features stiff competition and
Qo’ngirot natriy sulfat Unitary Enterprise
granulated materials are used on a large scale
rivalry between home and foreign suppli-
is the youngest chemical enterprise in the
in cleaning and drying of gases and organic
ers. Most imported coatings belong to the
country set up in November 2013, when there
liquids, chemical purification and industrial
luxury segment. Key exporters of paints
began production of high quality export-
wastewater treatment and separation of
and coatings to the country are Russia,
oriented sodium sulphate and top grade
required components including oil products.
Germany, Belarus, Finland, Korea and
iodised table salt in Qo�ng�irot district of the
Researches and pilot production confirm the
Lithuania.
Qoraqalpog’iston Republic.
possibility of their use for purifying indus-
The government of the country makes
The company is expected to manufacture
trial wastewaters from copper, nickel and
every effort to protect the domestic producer.
148 tonnes of sodium sulphate and 148 tonnes
cobalt cations. The main consumers of prod-
In 2011, it imposed a special tax on imports
of iodised salt daily already in the near-
ucts from exfoliated vermiculite are thermal
of some types of paintwork materials. In par-
est future. In Uzbekistan, domestic sodium
power stations, glass and cement works,
ticular, foreign paints and varnishes on the
sulphate demand amounts to 50,000 tpy. At
agriculture, paints and coatings manufacture
basis of synthetic polymers, modified natural
present, the chemical product is exported at
and the construction sector. Bo’ston Talk
polymers, acrylic and vinyl polymers as well
USD 500 per tonne on average. Production
exports its produce as well. For instance, it
as oil paints and varnishes are taxed at USD
costs of a tonne of Uzbek sodium sulphate
has already shipped 82 tonnes of vermiculite
0.5 per kg.
equal UZS 250-300,000, which is one fifth of
to its clients in Ukraine, Poland, Russia and
those of the foreign analogues.
Afghanistan.
Due to expansion of the Uzbek market over the past years, this industry is
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 99
Countries and regions
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
(1964) and a 2,000 tpy workshop for iron
oxide pigments (1968).
A big reconstruction of the plant occurred
in 1984, when a chemical water treatment
unit was put into operation. In 2003, a unit
for lithographic tin plate for labeled cans.
Today, the company has at its disposal five
basic units: a unit for varnishes based on
condensation resins, a metal packaging
workshop, a consumer goods workshop,
an enamels and primers unit and a yellow
iron oxide pigment and zinc white workshop. The enterprise with a total area of
20.1 hectares and a 56% built environment
degree is capable of producing 20,000 tpy
of paints and coatings.
Its product range includes roof paint, road
enamel, enamel PF-118 KhS (cold drying),
matt enamel PF-117, enamel PF-133 (different colours), PF-266, PF-115, PF-191, waterbased paints VD-РђРљ-112, VD-РђРљ-116,
VD-АК-229, textured paint �Khoper’, varnishes PF-283 and BT-51, primers AK-011,
GF-0164 and GF-0163, red and yellow iron
oxide pigments,
Central office of Lok Kolor Sintez
regarded as investment-attractive. Foreign
JV Toshkent lok bo’yok zavodi
majors wish to set up their own production
PVA adhesive, solvent
RS-2, drying oil �Oksol’. All these products
are highly demanded on the internal market,
all the more, their quality has significantly
facilities in the republic. Demand for coat-
JV Toshkent lok bo’yok zavodi JSC
ings has been lately displaying a stable,
(Toshkent paints and coatings plant) is the
The company has plans to produce electric
upward trend not only in construction but
biggest manufacturer of paintwork materials
insulation, furniture and floor varnishes, auto-
also in furniture production and mechani-
in Central Asia.
motive enamels and mastics for underbody.
cal engineering. At the same time, paints
The decision to build this plant was taken
and coatings consumption in Uzbekistan
in 1945. The construction of the first facilities
barely reaches 5 kg per capita.
began in 1946, and the first products — 318
The consumption of paintwork materials
rises steadily in recent years as well. Experts
tonnes of oil paints - rolled off its lines in
1947.
improved.
JV Lok Kolor Sintez
Established in 1996, Uzbek-Dutch JV Lok
Kolor Sintez is focused on producing paints
note that due to a significant income gap,
In 1950, the company put into operation
and coatings for mechanical engineering,
which will remain in the country for pretty
a 10,000 tpy workshop for varnishes on the
transport, construction and repair works as
a long time, the price structure of a range of
basis of condensate resins in 1953, followed
well as for producing auxiliary materials. The
coatings should be differentiated. The fact
by a 10,000 tpy enamels and oil paints work-
capacity of the joint venture totals 6,000 tpy
that the majority of consumers express no
shop in 1953. Later there were reconstructed
of alkyde resin (semi-finished varnish) and
preferences to domestic or foreign coatings
as well as newly built and commissioned a
20,000 tpy of paints, decorative and protec-
together with increased activity of Western
10,000 tpy workshop for zinc white paints
tion coatings with maximum resistance to
producers should stimulate Uzbek manufac-
(in 1962), a 5,000 tpy workshop for grinding
atmospheric conditions for mechanical engi-
turers to take all measures aimed at main-
natural pigments, a 2,000 tpy silicate paints
neering, construction, aircraft and military
taining and developing domestic coatings
unit (1964), a 10,000 tpy unit for enamels on
industries, railway transport as well as for
production.
condensation resins and water-based paints
households.
100 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Countries and regions
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Import-substituting products with no ana-
The company was founded in 1995, when
phate specially designed for application of
logues in Uzbekistan account for more than
an agreement was signed on establishing a
microcrystalline coatings. XW-954 Remover
60% of overall coatings output. The company’s
joint venture between Korea-based DongJu
is a mix of organic solvents, thickeners, and
specialists carry out researches into new paints
Industrial Co. Ltd and O’zavtosanoat with the
leavening agents meant for removing old
and coatings and develop available technolo-
purpose of constructing a plant in Andijon.
paint and varnish coatings including those on
gies. At present, the company has more than
As far as 1997, the new plant started pilot
the basis of epoxy and polyurethane primers
25 unique, proprietary developments. These
production of automotive coatings, with first
and enamels from industrial equipment and
enable Lok Kolor Sintez to enter the interna-
batches of the products being shipped to
aircrafts.
tional market. In 2000 enamel Alur passed suc-
Uz-Daewoo Auto CJSC in 1998.
JV Link Paints Trading
cessful tests of Marubeni Corporation and was
The year 1999 was marked by the com-
recommended for painting railway passenger
mencement of manufacturing construction
cars. The State Standard of Russia issued a
and industrial coatings supplied to clients in
Uzbek-Russian JV Link Paints Trading
conformance certificate for serial production of
the Russian Federation and in Kyrgyzstan.
(Toshkent) turns out paintwork materials
primer and enamel Alur and a metal primer. The
The exports of these products to Afghanistan
offering a range of products for wholesale
primer and enamel Alur also passed accelerated
began in 2004. In 2004-06, the company was
and retail clients – both decorative and spe-
climatic tests at the Scientific and Production
certified under ISO 9001:2000, ISO 9001:2000,
cial protective coatings. Product quality is
Association “Paint Coating” (NPO LKP;
OHSAS 18001:1999, and ISO 14001:2004.
tested by a certified laboratory fitted out with
modern equipment and located at its produc-
Moscow) under moderate and cold conditions.
Today, Uz Dongju Paint Company is the
Lok Kolor Sintez has developed and put
only supplier of coatings to GM-Uzbekistan,
into production flame resistant compound
a manufacturer of passenger cars UzDaewoo
Deflam tested at a laboratory of the Fire
and Chevrolet. Among the permanent cus-
Safety Head Administration of the Ministry
tomers of Uz Dongju Paint Company are
of Internal Affairs of Uzbekistan. In 2003,
two manufacturers of tractors - Toshkent
the company turned out biocide (antisep-
Traktor Zavodi CJSC and Uzbek-American
engaged in the production and marketing of
tic) paints and enamels Biocavat tested
JV O’zkeysTraktor, SamAuto (Samarkand
more than 40 product names of high quality
by the R & D Institute for Epidemiology,
Automobile Factory; Samarqand), Uz-Koram
coatings intended for individual customers
Microbiology and Infection Deceases and
LLC, a producer of large-sized auto parts,
and large enterprises. The company’s product
later recommended by the Ministry of Public
and JV Uz Saemyung.
range includes facade and interior water-
tion site.
East-Kolor
Toshkent-based
East-Kolor
LLC
is
Health for using in crowded areas. In 2004,
Uz Dongju Paint Company also produces
based paints, enamels, primers, liquid glass,
it began manufacturing cost-effective mass
PVC-based sealants for abrasion-resistance
colour paste, PVA adhesives, decorative and
consumption matt paint Tejam, impregnation
and anticorrosion protection of car bodies
textured plaster �Khoper’, acrylic plasters for
Peneton, primer Biogrunt as components of a
and underbodies, polyester putties, enamels
various applications, polyethylene bucket
product line for facade finish, acrylic paints
on the basis of polyester melamine, alkyde
containers, 100 l polyethylene drums and
featuring resistance to water and chemicals
melamine, water-soluble alkyde and acrylic
screw caps. The enterprise has at its disposal
of Akrilux series. A year later, Lok Kolor
copolymer
var-
a manufacturing line for semi-finished var-
Sintez proceeded to manufacturing colour
nishes, alkyde, acrylic melamine and acrylic
nish and drying oil as well as a polyethylene
translucent varnishes at imported equipment.
urethane resins; primers based on alkyde
receptacles unit. East-Kolor continuously
In 2009, alkyde enamel of diverse colours
melamine, chlorinated polyolefin, epoxy and
raises its production output and has already
for various application fields (analogue of
acrylic resins.
established business links with a number of
PF-115) and polyacrylic gloss paint Sharq
went into mass production.
JV Uz Dongju Paint Company
resins;
polyester-based
Acrylic copolymer resin road paint РђРў-540
domestic big producers of feedstocks for
U is intended for painting bitumene, concrete,
coatings manufacture including JV Toshkent
bitumene-concrete road surfaces, etc.
lok bo’yok zavodi JSC, Farg’ona neftni qayta
Alkali cleaner Chemkleen #49 is used for
ishlash zavodi and Maxam-Chirchiq JSC.
cleaning by spraying and preparing metallic
Among other companies, Uzbek-Korean
JV Uz Dongju Paint Company should be
surfaces for a uniform and deep phosphate
Alcohol industry companies
coating.
singled out. It produces a wide spectrum of
Phosphate material Chemfos-168 is a
Ethanol is quite demanded product in the
automotive coatings for UZDaewoo cars.
compound containing zinc, iron and phos-
domestic market and its output rises all the
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 101
Countries and regions
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
time. Local alcohol manufacturers are merged
Darmon JSC — a pharmaceutical supplier.
a complex for rectified food grade alcohol
into the state company O’zspirtsanoat.
Till 2016, the company is expected to boost
sourcing wheat grain of local origin. Today
Uzbekistan increased production of crude
ethanol production. The holding company
the company turns out food ethanol of
ethyl alcohol by 10.7%, to 6,038m decalitres
has already announced a tender for equip-
�Extra’, �Highest purity’ and �Lux’ grades.
as compared to 2011. In Q3-Q4 of 2013, food
ment procurement.
Its capacity for ethyl alcohol (food grade)
grade alcohol production in the country went
up 7.7%, to 4,76m decalitres against the same
is 821,400 decalitres a year and that for
Qo’qonspirt
rectified ethyl alcohol (technical grade)
period of 2012.
— 170,000 decalitres. Food ethanol manuEstablished
Andijon biokimyo zavodi
under
the
name
Novokokandskiy khimzavod (Novoqo’qon
facture was certified for ISO 9001:2000
Quality Management Standards.
Chemical Plant) in Qo’qon (Farg’ona pov-
Biokimyo continuously works on quality
Andijon biokimyo zavodi JSC (Andijon
ince) in 1983, Qo’qonspirt initially produced
improvement. In particular, under a recom-
biochemical plant) was founded in 1953
sulphuric acid and ammophos. In 1989, ferti-
mendation of the company’s engineers, an
for producing technical ethanol on the basis
liser manufacture closed down on account of
additional column for final purification was
of cottonseed hulls. When supplies of this
environmental problems, and the enterprise
installed at a brew-purification department,
feedstock were stopped in 1991, the plant
retrofitted its equipment in order to produce
which allows for significant enhancement
switched to production of food grade alcohol
ethyl alcohol from local wheat grain. The
of organoleptic and physical and chemi-
from cereal grains (mainly from wheat grain)
capacity of the first stage amounted to 1.6m
cal properties of the end product. There
in accord with a project of the R & D institute
decalitres of C2H5OH annually. The second
were also carried out serious work aimed
Sibgipprobiosintez (Krasnoyarsk, Russia).
0.8m decalitres stage came on stream in 2000.
at introducing new, more efficient enzyme
The manufacture of food grade ethyl alcohol
Currently, utilisation rate exceeds 95%. Most
preparations and a new race of distillers
was launched at the then only production line
equipment is made in Russia and relatively
yeasts. The key consumers of food grade
with a capacity of 857,000 decalitres per year
modern. The company changed its form of
alcohol are liquor and winemaking plants of
in 1999. The second line of the same capacity
ownership and was renamed Qo’qonspirt
O’zvinosanoat. Besides these, food alcohol
was built in 1999 but put into operation only
JSC in 1999. The share of the state in the
is used in medicine and food processing.
in 2001. The production facility was equipped
company is 51%, foreign investors own 47%
Technical grade alcohol finds application
with EUR 2.82m state-of-the-art equipment
and labour collective — 2%. The authorised
in the cable industry, perfumery, scientific
in 2012 and started producing 30,000 litres
capital of the company is more than UZS
and production laboratories, the chemical
of high quality food grade alcohol per day.
10bn (about USD 33m). Its product range
and other industries. The state has 51% in
In 2013 the similar second line worth EUR
includes food grade alcohol of the following
Biokimyo, employee stock is 9% and the
2.7m became operational. Both lines operate
grades: �Extra’, �Highest purity’ and �Lux’
rest 40% is put up for sale.
at full capacity turning out 60,000 litres of
marketed mostly within the borders of the
ethanol daily.
country (circa 80%). The rest is exported to
The main product is rectified food grade
alcohol of �Extra’, �Highest purity’ and �Lux’
grades complying with the State Standard
the countries of Central Asia.
Biokimyo
The consumers of the end produce are
manufacturers
The construction of a 300,000 decalitres per year food ethyl alcohol plant in
GOST 5962-67.
liquor
Bektemir-spirt eksperimental
zavodi JSC
-
subsidiaries
of
The former YangiyoК»l biochemical plant
Toshkent started owing to a decision of
and now Biokimyo JSC started its activities
the Cabinet of Ministers of Uzbekistan
in 1957, when a hydrolysis alcohol plant
in 2006. A year later rectified food grade
Apart from alcohol workshops, the com-
with a designed capacity of 170,000 decali-
alcohol production from grain was com-
pany operates a 4,380 tonnes/year carbon
tres of technical alcohol was put into oper-
missioned. The plant is capable of turning
dioxide unit, a medicines unit producing
ation. The main feedstock was plant-based
out 915,000 decalitres of alcohol per year.
5% tincture of iodine – 1.5 tonnes/year, 1%
raw materials — sawdust and rice hulls. At
The main type of produce is food grade
alcoholic solution of brilliant green1% - 0.8
present, technical alcohol is obtained by re-
alcohol of �Extra’ and �Highest purity’
tonnes/year and 70% rubbing alcohol
O’zvinosanoat.
-
distillation of ether-aldehyde fraction — a
grades. Equipment and tanks used in pro-
21 tonnes/year. The consumers of these
by-product of grain-based ethanol manu-
duction processes are made in Russia. The
medicines are daughter companies of Dori-
facture. In 1996, there was commissioned
shareholding of the state amounts to 51%.
102 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Countries and regions
w w w. chem mar ket. info
Producers of surfactants and household
chemicals
Foreign-owned Enterirse
�My lovely Asia’
The niche area of foreign-owned enterprise
�My lovely Asia Со.’ founded in Toshkent
in 2008 is household chemicals including
shampoos, soap, gels for dish washing, liquid
detergents, washing powders, cleaning agents
as well as PVA adhesive. All in all the company produces 1000 various products under
the trade names Arakc, Arta, Negina, Padide,
Mashhad stably demanded in the domestic
market. Its customers are more than 100 different organisations across the country.
Agro Bio Kimyo
Agro Bio Kimyo LLC (Toshkent) is a
subsidiary of state-owned O’zfarmsanoat
and the only domestic maker of new generation disinfectants: ABK-Extra, РђBKKhloraktiv, Extra-Dez, antiseptin, means
for cold chemical sterilisation DS-1 as
well as skin antiseptics Antiseptin-OP.
All its products are made on the basis of
the most up-to-date and highly efficient
environmentally
friendly
disinfectants
by Akzo Nobel, Lonza, BASF including
coconut benzine dimethylammonium chloride, chlorinated izocyanurate, N,N-Bis(3-aminopropyl)dodecylamine,
glutaric
aldehyde, polyvinyl pyrrolidone iodine.
ABK-Extra — a professional disinfecting
and washing agent for surfaces in various
premises and sanitary equipment possess-
Manufacturing facilities and ready-to-use products of �My lovely Asia’
ing antiviral (including HIV and hepatitis
colour with a characteristic odour of methyl
gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
viruses), antibacterial and fungicide prop-
alcohol. It possesses antimicrobial activ-
(including
erties. Disinfectant ABK-Khloraktiv in the
ity (including tuberculosis mycobacteria),
viruses (hepatitis, HIV, poliomyelitis) and
form of solutions made from tablets and
viruses, fungi and designed for treatment
fungi. It has washing and deodorising prop-
pellets is meant for disinfecting surfaces in
of small, hard-to-reach surfaces in various
erties. Antimicrobial agent DS-1 is a trans-
various premises, furniture, sanitary equip-
premises, pieces of furniture, devices and
parent liquid of from colourless to light
ment, clothing, dishware, toys, patient care
medical equipment. Disinfectant Extra-dez
yellow colours with a weak specific odour
items, products for medical purposes and
is a transparent liquid of from colourless to
possessing antibacterial action (including
cleaning utensils. Antiseptin is a ready-
light yellow colours with a weak specific
that against tuberculosis mycobacteria,
to-use transparent chemical of a light blue
odour having antimicrobial activity against
germs of especially dangerous infections —
tuberculosis
mycobacteria),
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 103
Countries and regions
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
smallpox, cholera, legionellosis), viruses
Currently, the firm is the only in
(including viruses of parenteral hepatitides
Uzbekistan to make chemical products
Before 1992 basic consumers (nearly
and HIV), fungi and mold with sporocidal,
for fire extinguishing — foaming agents
90%) were enterprises of the USSR. Today
washing and deodorising properties. It is
produced depending upon application and
about 60% of the products are aimed at the
meant for disinfecting surfaces in various
storage conditions under the brands Sitora,
domestic market and approximately 40% are
premises, furniture, sanitary equipment,
Sitora-1, TFM-50. These are biodegradable,
exported to the CIS states.
surgery and dental appliances, surfaces
hydrocarbonic, fluorosynthetic, cold resistant
In 1994 the enterprise was transformed into
of various devices and apparatuses, cloth-
foaming agents for general and special pur-
O’zbekkimyomash zavodi JSC, and became
ing, dishware (including laboratory one,
poses intended for extinguishing class A and
an affiliate of National Holding Company
dishwashing products, patient care items,
B fires which generate low-, medium- and
O’zbekneftgaz in 1999.
cleaning utensils, medical wastes as well
high-expansion foams. As a foaming agent
O’zbekkimyomash is a leading producer
as mold. Preparation Tozaden has a wide
for concrete production (cellular concrete)
of pressure vessels and equipment for chemi-
spectrum of antimicrobial action possess-
and foam concrete blocks, the company
cal, oil processing, gas processing and other
ing antiseptic, disinfectant, antifungal and
proposes STAR+ - an aqueous solution of
branches of industry. It has a staff of 470
antiprotozoal actions. It is meant for dis-
anionic surfactants with stabilising additives.
engineers and 1080 employees of key and
infecting hands and antiseptical treatment
Foaming agent STAR+ is used in a technol-
auxiliary facilities. The production area of
of mucous membranes. Skin antiseptic
ogy for manufacturing foam concrete with
O’zbekkimyomash zavodi amounts to 19.3
Antiseptin-OP is a transparent light green
the use of excessive pressure both without
hectares consisting of a pressure vessel
liquid
action
preliminary production of foam (turbulent
workshop, a compressors and pumps work-
possessing
having
antimicrobial
antimicrobial
activity
chemical equipment and turbo compressors.
against
way – by mixing) and with preliminary foam
shop, a forgery unit, a mould workshop, and
gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
generation (foam generators). Having up-
a consumer goods workshop. The company
(including against tuberculosis mycobacte-
to-date processing equipment, the company
is the only producer of oil & gas equipment
ria), parenteral hepatites, viruses of paren-
develops and produces washing powders,
in Uzbekistan providing its machinery to
teral hepatites and HIV, fungi, candidiasis
technical detergents, dishwashing detergents,
the largest companies in the country includ-
germs and dermatomycosis. Preparations
products for skin defatting and treatment.
ing Sho’rtanneftgaz, Muborak Gazni Qayta
ABK-Insecticide and Tsimavet are trans-
At present, the company’s specialists are
parent light yellow or colourless liquids
working on developing surfactants that can
Chirchiq
containing cypermethrin and malathion as
be used as floatation reagents and wetting
kombinati JSC and Navoiy kon-metallurgiya
active substances. They are distinguished
agents in various industries as well as liquid
kombinati.
with sharp insecticide action against cock-
coolants for metal processing and produc-
supplied its produce on orders of foreign
roaches, flies, fleas, bed bugs, mosquitoes
ing concrete and foam concrete products for
companies:
and their larvae as well as ticks.
treatment of mould surfaces.
(USA), Metal Technology (Israel), Krebs-
Private Enterpise Ablaqulov Y.N.
Private
Enterprise
Y.N.
founded
in
Д°shlash Zavodi, Navoiyazot JSC, MaxamJV,
Olmalik
kon-metallurgiya
O’zbekkimyomash
ABB-Lummus
has
Global
also
InСЃ
Speichim (France), Achema JSC (Lithuania),
Khimprom (Volgograd, Russia), Severstal
Chemical machine building
(Russia), etc.
O’zbekkimyomash zavodi
The company specialises in designing,
Chirchiq (Toshkent province) in 1998, con-
producing and servicing diverse equipment
was
including that for the oil and gas industry,
ucts for improving fire fighting efficiency.
formed under the name of Uzbekkhimash
processing blocks, heat exchangers, col-
Over the past time, the company has devel-
in1941 on the basis of evacuated Sumy
umn equipment, evaporating apparatuses,
oped on its own together with specialists of
machine building plant. The plant laid the
pressure vessels, complete process units,
Fire and technical laboratory of the Head
foundation of developing chemical engineer-
separation equipment, filters, air coolers,
Administration of Fire Safety of Uzbekistan
ing in Uzbekistan. Initially, it manufactured
centrifuging machines and pumps includ-
process regulations, formulations and techni-
military goods but as far as 1942 began turn-
ing turbine compressors and equipment for
cal conditions of manufacturing products for
ing out civil produce. After the WW2, the
environmental protection. The used materials
industrial enterprises from different indus-
plant became one of the leading enterprises
are alloy and carbonic steels and alloys, steel
tries including products for ensuring fire
of chemical machine building of the former
castings, grey cast iron and alloyed cast iron
safety.
Soviet Union. The main type of produce is
and titanium alloys.
centrate its activities on manufacturing prod-
O’zbekkimyomash
104 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
zavodi
JSC
Countries and regions
w w w. chem mar ket. info
R & D base
Institute of general
and inorganic chemistry
of Academy of Science
of Uzbekistan
There have been developed bases of cre-
of various natural and technical dispersions
ating efficient mineral and organomineral
have been obtained on the basis of local raw
fertilisers, defoliants and stimulators.
materials and industrial wastes; 10) an original
The distinctive feature of the researches con-
technology for producing superphosphate from
ducted is their link with problems and require-
highly carbonaceous Kyzylkum phospho-
ments of the Uzbek economy. We should note
rites; 11) new kinds of complex phosphorus-,
the following developments of the institute: 1) a
calcium-, nitrogen- and sulphur-containing
The Institute of general and inorganic
technology for producing optimum thinners for
fertilisers; 12) �Khosil’ type stimulators for
chemistry of Academy of Science of
high melt oils and oil products; new base oils
plant growth have been obtained; 13) physical
Uzbekistan
and additives for sealing greases; 2) a technol-
and chemical and technological foundations
was established in Toshkent in 1933. The
ogy for manufacturing solvents from gas con-
of synthesis of a number of new defoliants
main sphere of activities is �Development
densate used for paints and coatings as well as a
have been developed; 14) low toxicСЃ, highly
of scientific and practical bases of com-
solvent for extracting plant oils and press cakes;
efficient defoliants “Sikhat” and “Mezon” and
plex processing of mineral raw materials in
3) energy-saving technologies for producing
universal defoliants “Nazhot”, “Sardor” and
Uzbekistan’. The laboratories of the institute
innovative, efficient water-based and weakly-
“SuperKhMD-Zh” have been developed; 15)
carry out fundamental and applied researches
soluble surfactants, emulsifiers, cold bitumen
the institute has developed a highly efficient
into defining interrelations between compo-
emulsions, high viscosity bitumens, emulsion
technology for producing a nitrogen-calcium-
sition, and properties of new compounds.
lubricants and adhesives from local feedstocks
phosphate fertiliser from phosphorites of the
Scientific researches are targeted at develop-
and industrial wastes; 4) efficient ways of mix-
Central Kyzylkum.
ing efficient technologies for deep processing
ing high viscosity oils as well as technologies
Science intensive technologies devel-
of oils from new deposits of Uzbekistan,
for producing and applying multipurpose cata-
oped by the institute are widely used by
sustainable use of by-products of oil extrac-
lysts on the basis of nickel and molybdenum
Samarqandkimyo JSC, Farg’onaazot JSC,
tion, creating technologies for recycling
compounds for manufacturing motor fuels,
JV Elektrokimyozavod CJSC and Buxoro
metallurgical wastes and solving urgent
lubricants and solvents directly from oil , its
neftni qayta ishlash Zavodi Unitary Daughter
import-substitution problems of ferrous and
residues and by-products; 5) scientific bases
Enterprise.
non-ferrous metallurgy as well as producing
of processing polymetallic raw materials and
This institute has considerable experience
innovative reagents and fire-resistant materi-
wastes of metallurgical production; the institute
of successful scientific collaboration with R
als. One of the priority scientific directions of
has defined ways of obtaining iron sulphate
& D centres in Germany, France, Italy, the
the institute is to develop bases of synthesis
from metal-containing wastes, chrome oxide
UK, the USA, the Russian Federation, Japan,
and technologies for obtaining mineral and
pigment
Korea and other countries.
organomineral fertilisers, promising defoli-
aluminium sulphate - on the basis of wastes
ants accelerating reapening of agricultural
of chemical etching of aluminium wastes;
plants, efficient polyfunctional stimulators
6) technologies for extracting iodine from
for growth of cotton and cereals.
associated petroleum and geothermal waters
from chrome-containing solutions;
Future production plants and those under
construction
Usturt Gaz Kimyo Majmuasi
in Qaraqalpaqstan
The institute has obtained results of a fun-
with the assistance of sorption and desorption
damental character, which allowed it to cre-
methods; obtaining pure crystalline iodine and
ate a new subdivision of science — adsorp-
potassium iodide from iodine paste as well as
tion-energetic stoichiometry. Researches into
iodizing edible salt; 7) technologies for produc-
scientific foundation of controlling properties
tion of cement and exfoliated vermiculate for
O’zbekneftgaz and a Korean consortium con-
of disperse systems, obtaining materials with
manufacturing heat insulation materials as well
sisting of Kogas, Lotte Daesan Petrochemical
tailor-made properties, regulating colloid-
as enriching talc-magnesite ore for manufactur-
Corporation, LG International Corporation, SK
chemical processes, directed synthesis of
ing magnesite concentrate used for obtaining
Gas and STX Energy founded a joint venture
polyelectrolytes and surfactants, flocculants
high flame-resistant materials, talc concentrate
Uz-Kor Gas Chemical on the basis of match-
and sorbents enable the R & D establish-
for producing ceramic, rubber, abrasive and
ing contribution for implementing a project for
ment to establish regularities of interrela-
cable products; 8) organo-clay and carbon-clay
construction of a gas chemical synthesis com-
tions between colloid-chemical properties of
sorbents have been obtained; 9) a number of
plex (Usturt Gaz Kimyo Majmuasi; Usturt).
disperse systems with their compositions and
surfactants and polyelectrolytes for use as sta-
The raw materials base of the project
structure.
bilisers, flocculants adsorbents and plasticisers
are gas and gas condensate deposits Surgil,
In 2008,
National holding company
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 105
Countries and regions
w w w. chemm a r ke t . in fo
Vostochniy Berdakh-Uchsay and Severniy
Bedrakh. Surgil – the largest of these deposits with reserves estimated at 120bn cubic
A plant for processing
combustible shales in Navoiy
province
metres of gas – was discovered in 2009 and is
pleting the construction of the main building,
warehouses, a feedstock reception area, laying external and internal power supply lines,
a sewage system, and water supply, foreign
currently being developed by O’zbekneftgaz.
O’zbekneftgaz National holding Company
The USD 4.1bn project will be financed by
has intentions to start constructing a plant
O’zbekneftgaz’s own financial resources at
for processing combustible shales from the
the amount of USD 200m and a 300m loan of
Sangruntau deposit in the Navoiy province in
the Fund of reconstruction and development
H2, 2014.
specialists proceeded to installation of up-todate equipment.
Future tyre and conveyor
belt production in Angren
of Uzbekistan in addition to credits of foreign
At the end of 2013, there was issued a ten-
financial institutions. The new enterprise will
der for a licensor of a shales processing tech-
Tyres are not produced in Uzbekistan
employ 1,000 people.
nology. Its results will be known in February-
and exclusively imported from Russia and
O’zbekneftgaz is currently developing the
March and the construction of the plant may
China. That is why, O’zkimyosanoat issued
Surgil deposit on its own in order to provide
begin by summer of 2014. In the first half
an international tender for constructing a
Usturt Gaz Kimyo Majmuasi with 3bn m3
of the current year, a feasibility study of the
turnkey tyre and conveyor belt plant in the
of natural gas per year by the moment of its
project should be prepared and negotiations
special industrial zone �Angren’ on the basis
launch. Another 1.5bn cubic metres will be
on its financing be completed.
of liquidated Rezinotexnika JSC. The plant
supplied from the other above-mentioned
At the first stage (2014-15), it is planned
will be capable of turning out 100,000 run-
deposits of the Usturt region. The complex
to launch a unit for processing 2m tonnes
ning metres of conveyor belts, 200,000 tyres
in Usturt, the construction of which started
of shales per year. Later (2015-2018) unit
for agricultural machinery and 3m tonnes of
in 2012, will annually process 4.5bn m3
is planned to process 8m tones of shale ores
car tyres. The preliminary cost of the project
of natural gas and turn out 4bn m of com-
yearly and turn out 1m tpy of oil products.
is USD 230m and construction period is 3-4
3
mercial gas, 400,000 tonnes of polyethylene
The preliminary project of the con-
years. The project will be financed through
of various density, 100,000 tpy of polypro-
struction of the shale processing plant
credits of the Export-Import Bank of China
pylene and 100,000 tpy of pyrolysis petrol.
was
Institute
(USD 190m), O’zkimyosanoat’s financial
The complex is due on stream in late 2016.
Atomenergopeoject
Unitary
assets and raised funds.
Samsung Engineering, GS Engineering and
Enterprise (St. Petersburg) in 2012. The
In 2011 РіРѕРґСѓ Chinese CITIC Ltd signed
Construction Рё Hyundai Engineering are
project envisages building of eight solid
a contract with O’zkimyosanoat on turnkey
general contractors of the project. American
heat carrier units (UРўРў-3000) with a feed
basic and detailed engineering and equip-
company KBR will provide technologies and
capacity of 1m tpy of shales. The USD 600m
ment procurement for building the plant.
engineering and construction services to JV
project will be backed by O’zbekneftgaz’s
Within the frames of the project, the parties
Uz-Kor Gas Chemical, which will build a
own financial resources a loan of the Fund
are going to create a JV, in which CITIC will
polyethylene unit in Usturt. The latter will
of reconstruction and development of
establish a consortium with a tyre producer.
be the first HDPE unit on the basis of KBR’s
Uzbekistan and foreign credits.
Apart from O’zkimyosanoat, Uzbekistan
license utilising its own SCOREв„ў process.
Within the frames of the project, the American
company will also undertake engineering and
made
by
Russia-based
federal
JV Uz-Shindong Silicon
in Angren
design of a furnace for polyethylene produc-
will be represented by O’zbekneftgaz
and O’zavtosanoat JSC. In 2012, Linlong
Rubber Co (China) and O’zkimyosanoat
signed a memorandum of collaboration
tion and provide equipment and construction
Uzbek-Korean joint venture Uz-Shindong
envisaging the participation of the Chinese
services. The HDPE unit will manufacture
Silicon is building a 5,000 tpy silicon plant in
company in the creation of the JV for the
the following grades of the polymer: 1) injec-
the special industrial zone �Angren’ (Angren,
plant’s construction.
tion moulding grades; 2) film grades; 3) pipe
Toshkent province). The project estimated at
grades; 4) cross-linked pipe grades; 5) yarn and
USD 8.67m is implemented via direct invest-
monothread; 6) blow moulding grades. The PP
ments of the co-founders of the JV – the State
plant will turn out homopolymers, random pol-
geological and mineral resources committee
ymers and impact-resistant copolymer. Europe,
of Uzbekistan and Korea-based Shindong
Eastern and South-Eastern Asia are expected to
Enercom Inc. The general contractor is
O’zneftmahsulot JSC are going to launch
be the main sales markets.
O’zneftgaz qurulishinvest JSC. After com-
43,000 tpy production of base oils from
106 Eurasian chemical market в„– 1(85) February 2013
Production of base oils
from wastes in Angren
Bulgaria-based
Prista
Oil
and
Countries and regions
w w w. chem mar ket. info
wastes on the basis of hydrofining in the city
At the same time, new plants and workshops
manufactured in the country; 2) income tax,
of Angren as well. The USD 15m project will
coming on stream across the virtually entire
single tax (for entities using a simplified
be realised on the production site of liquidated
territory of the country allow Uzbekistan not
taxation system) on products manufactured
Rezinotexnika JSC and financed through
only to make up for these losses but also to
under import-substitution projects; 3) tax
direct investments of Prista Oil at the amount
support the steady advancement of the chem-
on basic production assets employed for
of USD 7.65m and O’zneftmahsulot’s own
ical industry. There is also a serious problem
producing import-substituting products.
funds (USD 7.35m) .
that cannot be solved even by successful man-
An attentive reader has probably noted that
The project is included in a list of invest-
agement decisions relating to the geographi-
unlike some former Soviet states, authori-
ment projects for expansion of production
cal location of Uzbekistan. Both the country
ties of Uzbekistan retain efficient control
volumes of competitive products on the
proper and all its neighbors has no access to
under the chemical sector, and not merely
basis of operating plants approved by Islam
global sea trade and, therefore, to the cheap-
administrative but also financial one.
Karimov - President of Uzbekistan.
est cargo delivery – by sea transport. Due to
Most chemical enterprises are under the
It is planned to use a considerable share of
insatiable needs of agriculture, river naviga-
auspices of state-owned O’zkimyosanoat,
produced base oils as a key feedstock for JV
tion is also unavailable de facto. As a result,
and manufacturing plants that are not its
Uz-Prista Oil specialising in synthetic and
most finished goods shipments and feedstock
affiliates but possess chemical workshops
mineral oils production in Uzbekistan. In
supply chains are based on railway trans-
are managed by relevant state-owned stock
late 2011, Prista Oil acquired 50.1% in JV
port. Whereas a rail network in the country
companies. Namely, central management
Uz-Texaco from Texaco Overseas Holdings
has substantially improved for the years of
companies adopt development strategies of
Inc (USA). The JV was subsequently
independence and a number of its sections
their daughter companies including issues
renamed Uz-Prista Oil. The Uzbek founder
have been electrified, it is obvious that Uzbek
of privatisation and financing technical
of the joint venture is O’zneftmahsulot JSC
chemical producers cannot increase railway
upgrade projects. They also take decisions
(49.9%).
tonnage capacity and improve infrastruc-
on building new large chemical works,
ture facilities in the neighboring countries.
which, as it is often the rule, is implemented
Relatively cheap fertilisers of the domestic
in close collaboration with foreign compa-
producers are consumed within the limits of
nies. The latter may be either general con-
VI. Problems and prospects of Uzbek
chemical industry
Uzbekistan and border areas of the neigh-
tractors (subcontractors) or investors. At
For almost 23 years of independence, the
bors, i.e. transportation costs account for an
the same time, tactical issues are decided
chemical industry of Uzbekistan has under-
insignificant share in price structure. On the
by the management of the daughter com-
gone quite dramatic changes and the process
contrary, outlooks for mid-range chemicals
panies on their own. It can be seen from
of transformation is still going on. Though
sales are not so bright due to long-distance
the said above that enterprises with 100%
a basic orientation towards meeting diverse
haulage, e.g. to Russia or to China via transit
foreign capital are rather exceptions from
needs of the agricultural sector is still prevail-
states. In this regard, the current policy of the
the rule than the rule itself. In case that a
ing, hydrocarbons processing with producing
government aimed at developing the internal
foreign partner becomes a shareholder,
various polymers is becoming priority for
market in chemical products and encourag-
the state all the same holds the controlling
the country’s government. However, the
ing import-substitution seems to be quite
stake. Despite the fact that investing in the
modernisation and upgrade of the chemical
reasonable. Programmes for localisation of
Uzbek economy is rather difficult occupa-
industry, as is often the case, take place with
manufacturing finished goods, spare parts
tion because of a complex and contradic-
considerable losses. For instance, produc-
and materials on the basis of industrial co-
tory system of regulating foreign economic
tion shutdown has occurred and processing
operation adopted and promptly corrected in
activities, the inconvertible currency, obli-
equipment has been dismantled either com-
case of urgency by the Cabinet of Ministers
gations to fulfill a number of plan figures
pletely or partially at Uzbekrezinotexnika,
every three years serve the crucial factor in
traced through monthly statistical report-
Angren chemical and metallurgical plant
this policy. The enterprises included in these
ing, obligations to sell many types of prod-
and Farg’ona furane compounds plant. The
programmes are exempted from: 1) cus-
ucts only via a state commodity exchange,
management and personnel of the companies
toms duties (except for customs formalities
etc., Uzbek chemical companies and their
notable for low capacity utilisation such as
charges) on imported processing equipment
foreign partners in most cases look for-
Samarqandkimyo JSC, Jizzax plastmassa
and spare parts as well as on components
ward with optimism. Uzbekistan pursues a
JSC, Olmalik Kon-Metallurg iya Kombinati
utilised in engineering processes for mak-
course of modernisation and is unlikely to
JSC are faced with rather serious difficulties.
ing import-substituting products and not
turn off this way.
в„– 1(85) February 2013 Eurasian chemical market 107
New Polymers: Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
World Market for Phthalic Anhydride
Production and Market of Hydrochloric Acid in Former USSR
Russian Market for Substituted Silanes
Market for White Spirit in FSU
These prices are valid starting from 04.04.2013
* Number of editions
www.chemmarket.info
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