Британские железные дороги вчера и сегоднякод для вставкиСкачать
Работа представляет собой небольшой экскурс в историю появления железных дорог в Британии, их развития и современного состояния.
ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБЩЕОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ НАЧАЛЬНОГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ ТУЛЬСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ЛИЦЕЙ № 31 БРИТАНСКИЕ ЖЕЛЕЗНЫЕ ДОРОГИ ВЧЕРА И СЕГОДНЯ BTITISH RAILWAYS THEN AND NOW Работу выполнил: КАЗАРИН НИКОЛАЙ СЕРГЕЕВИЧ, учащийся 2 курса, специальность: машинист локомотива Руководитель проекта: преподаватель английского языка КАШИРИНА ЕЛЕНА АЛЕКСЕЕВНА Узловая, 2014 Contents *From the history of British railways Slides 3-7 *BR in the first half of the 20thcentury Slides 8-11 *Modernization of railways Slides 12-14 *British railways nowadays Slides 15-22 *British railway museum Slide 23 The history of the British railways dates back to the 16th century. The first railways made of wood were built to serve coal mines in Newcastle. The first iron rails appeared in 1767. In 1801 the first railway company started work on a line between London and Portsmouth. Some years later a passenger service was organized. At that time, wagons were hauled by horses. * The first full scale working railway steam locomotive was built in the United Kingdom in 1804 by Richard Trevithick, an English engineer. By 1812, steam haulage was in regular service on the Middleton Railway, near Leeds. The British railway engineer George Stephenson built the first public railway line to use steam locomotives. Stephenson established his company as the builder of steam locomotives used on railways in the United Kingdom, United States and much of Europe. At the beginning of the 20th century the country was covered by a network of railways. Trains carried passengers and freights through the country and all over the world. The famous Orient-Express was very popular as a luxury travel train moving from London, Venice, Paris, and Istanbul. This is Broad Green station, opened in 1830, the oldest station in the world still in use as a passenger station. (The photo was made in 1962). The railways played a key role in the First and Second World Wars. They transported troops and munition, evacuated people from the dangerous areas. The Second World War took a great toll on the railways and on the national economy in general. After the war modernization of the British railways began. Steam was replaced by diesel and electric traction. The first diesel locomotives were low-powered machines but diesel and electric locomotives were cleaner, more efficient, and required less maintenance and less specialized skills in operation. Best Locomotive class of All Time. A new generation of high-speed trains was introduced starting in the 1970s. They ran with speeds of 125150 miles per hour. To haul passenger and freight trains today there are 3,500 diesel and over 300 electric locomotives. Nearly 900 million journeys a year are made on Britain's railways. Over 1,000 Inter-City trains run every weekday and connect 200 stations. The focal point of the British railway network is London with its 14 stations, serving the surrounding area. The British locomotive Class A4 – Mallard is the fastest one in the history of locomotive-building. Train travel in the UK is a pleasure, not a headache. Mainline trains in the UK usually offer two classes of service: First Class and Standard Class. One can find a range of services on board, from a buffet car and toilets to bicycle racks, at-seat power and wi-fi Internet. British Rail Principle Routes. Now track miles are equipped with colour-light signalling. Thousands of route miles are equipped with the automatic warning system of train control. Interior of a modern signalling control centre. Interior of a modern engine driver’s cabin A great number of freight trains carry intermodal containerised freight and coal, metals, oil, and construction materials. Continuous welded rail replaced the traditional short lengths on thousands of miles of main line. Pre-stressed concrete for higher speeds, replaced the old wooden sleepers. High-Speed Connection. Nowadays British railways are innovative facilities, an integral part of the country’s economy. To learn much more about British Railways visit British Railway Museum in London. It presents the world’s largest collection of train cars and locomotives. The museum includes hundreds of locomotives of every sort, spanning more than 300 years of railway history. Список использованных источников информации 1. http://www.sinfin.net/railways/railhist.html 2. http://www.infobritain.co.uk/History_Of_Railways_I n_Britain.htm 3. http://www.vaguelyinteresting.co.uk/?tag=historyof-british-railways 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rail_transport_in_Gre at_Britain 5. http://www.rail.co.uk/british-railwayhistory/british-railways/