Патент USA US2056638код для вставки
Oct. 6, 1936, H. WINOGRAD RECTIFIER COOLING SYSTEM Filed Dec. 17, .1932 /7 /6 2,056,638 Patented Oct. 6, 1936 2,056,638 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE " _ 2,056,638 ‘ RECTIFIER COOLING SYSTEM Harold Winograd, Milwaukee, Wis., assignor to Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company, Mil waukee,"Wis., a corporation of Delaware Application December 17, 1932, Serial No. 647,745 5 Claims. (Cl. 250—27.5) This invention relates to improvements in elec do not cause the establishment of dangerous tron discharge devices and more particularly to conditions within the ‘device. In addition, the means for maintaining the interior of a device maximum temperature of the coolest portion of of the vapor type at the most favorable condi the cooling surfaces may be regulated by ther ' tions. of pressure and temperature. mostatically controlled means. It is well known that, in an electron discharge device in which current is conducted by an arc in a vapor, the pressure of such vapor in the arc path must be maintained within a de?nite range 10: to secure optimum operation of the device. If the pressure in the arc path increases beyond such range, the dielectric strength of the vapor decreases to such an extent that the vapor may break down between an idling and a working -“ anode thereby causing the occurrence of a so called back?re. If the vapor pressure is too low, the voltage drop in the arc increases resulting in a reduced ef?ciency of the device. The are also becomes unstable and permits the establish 20 ment of oscillations or surges in the circuits con nected therewith. The vapor pressure in the arc path is difficult to regulate as such pressure de pends not only on the temperature of the coldest portion of the device but also on the relative 25 temperatures of the different cooling surfaces and on the amount of vapor evolved in the oath ode in dependence on the load of the device. The effect of such temperature distribution is such that, even if portions of the cooling sur 30 faces are well cooled, the flow of large amounts of vapor from the cathode to such portions and through the arc path may occur under a rela tively high dynamic head so that the pressure of‘ the vapor in the vicinity of the cathode or in 35 the arc path may become excessive. Such con dition is particularly di?icult to regulate in wa ter-cooled devices for the largest outputs used at the present time in which the amount of vapor generated is so great that the proper pressure 40 within the device cannot obtain both at low loads and at heavy overloads. In devicesknown here tofore the cooling surfaces adjacent the arc path were more intensely cooled than the remainder of the container surfaces. The result of such 45 cooling was that, upon occurrence of heavy over loads, large amounts of vapor rising from the cathode rushed towards the wall portions adja cent the'arc path whereon such vapor condensed, thereby creating a more or less turbulent zone of high pressure within the arc path resulting in the occurrence of frequent back?res. If the flow of cooling water is so directed as to ?rst cool surfaces not adjacent to the arc ‘path, any rushes of vapor occurring upon over~ 55 loads are diverted outside of the arc path and OX It is, therefore, among the objects of the pres ent invention to provide an electron ‘discharge device of the vapor type in which the pressure within the arc path is maintained Within per missible limits at all loads. Another object of the present invention is to provide an electron discharge device of the ‘vapor type in which conditions conducive to back?ring or other disturbances in the operation of the device are avoided. Another object of the present invention is to provide an electron discharge device of the vapor type in which the maximum temperature of the coolest portion of the cooling surfaces is con trolled by thermostatic means. Another object of the present invention is to 20 provide an electron discharge device of the vapor type in which the cooling surface portions ad jacent the arc path are automatically main tained at a temperature higher than the tem- ' perature of other portions of the cooling sur face. Another object of the present invention is to provide an electron discharge device of the va por type in which the several cooling members or surface portions are connected in series to form a single circuit for the flow of cooling water. Another object of the present invention is to provide an electron discharge device of the va por type in which the cooling surface portion ad jacent the arc path is cooled by water previously circulated through another cooling portion of the device. Objects and advantages other than those above set forth will be apparent from the following description when read in connection with the 25 30 35 40 accompanying drawing, which diagrammatically illustrates a cross-section of ‘an electron dis charge device of the vapor type in which the cooling surface adjacent the arc path is cooled 45 by water previously circulated through an in terior'member of the device. Referring more particularly to the drawing by characters of reference, the reference numeral l 50 designates the double walled bottom of the device which bottom is substantially in the shape of a frustrum of a hollow cone. The aperture through the bottom I is closed by a double walled plate 2 insulated from the bottom as at 3. The plate 2 2,056,638 2 and the insulation 3 together form a well to re tain a quantity of vaporizable material such as mercury which forms the cathode 4 of the device. A double walled cylinder portion 6 extends up wardly from the bottom portion I and the open portions of the cooling surfaces and will rise from cathode 4 in a substantially rectilinear flow which takes such vapor outside of the arc path I5. The temperature of the cooling water at the inlet of upper end of the cylindrical portion is closed by a double walled top plate ‘I having a cylindrical upwardly extending portion 8 which is also dou ble walled and forms a dome cooperating with 10 the chamber formed by the bottom I, side walls 6 and top plate ‘I, to condense the vapor rising from cathode 4. coil I4, being substantially that of the supply mains, is not controlled but the amount of water circulating through the system is regulated by valve 23 so as to- maintain a substantially uni ' A plurality of anodes I I are arranged to extend into the chamber from the exterior thereof 15 through the top plate 1, the anodes being insu lated from the top plate by insulating bushings I2 also extending therethrough. Each of the an odes II is partially enclosed by a housing or are guide I3 extending from the insulator I2 to ad A coil of tubing I4 is ar 20 jacent the bottom I. ranged within the chamber, preferably within the area enclosed by the anodes I I, and may extend within the dome portion 8 as shown in the draw ing. In a device constructed as above described, 25 the arc will substantially follow a path from anode II through housing I3 along bottom I to cathode 4 as indicated at I5. It will be understood that the several members of the device are assembled and sealed in vacuum tight relation by the usual 30 well known means (not shown). The cooling fluid used for controlling the tem perature of the device, which is preferably fresh water obtained from distribution mains (not shown), is admitted through an inlet valve I6 35 which may be used for regulating the ?ow of such water but will generally serve only to shut off the ?ow of water to permit disconnection of the device from the water supply mains. The flow of water may ?rst be directed to the chamber enclosed between the walls of cathode plate 2 through tubing H which is generally of insulat ing material such as rubber hose. The water hav ing circulated within plate 2 flows through an other insulating tube section I8 and is then di .45 rected through tubing I9 to cooling coil I4. Tub ing 2| directs the water from coil I4 over a ther mostatic element 22 and through a valve 23 con: trolled by thermostat 22. Valve 23 is bypassed by a manually adjustable valve 24 to permit ac curate adjustment and control of the thermostat 22. The cooling water then ?ows between the two walls of bottom I and of side walls 6, is con— ducted through tubing 26 to plate 'I, flows between the double walls of such plate and ‘of dome 8 and is discharged through tubing 21 to a drain 28. A gap is made between tubing 21 and drain 28 in preference to a section of insulating tubing so as to permit visual observation of the ?ow of water. 60 In the arrangement shown, the cooling water is ?rst directed to the cathode for the purpose of preventing the portions of the cathode well and the seals thereof from reaching excessive tem peratures and for reducing the amount of vapor generated at the cathode but the temperature conditions of the device would not be affected materially even if the cathode were cooled by separate cooling means. The cooling water, at substantially the temperature of the supply mains, thus enters coil I4 which is thereby main tained at a temperature lower than the tempera ture of any of the other cooling surfaces in con tact with the vapor. The vapor generated in the cathode will, therefore, tend to condense on the surface of cooling coil I4 rather than on the other form temperature at thermostat 22. It will thus appear that the temperature of the hottest point 10 of coil I4 will be maintained at a substantially constant value by the action of thermostat 22 and valve 23 irrespective of the amount of heat re ceived by coil I4 by condensation of vapor and by radiation from anodes I2, from the arc within the 15 device and from the spot formed by attachment of the are on the cathode. Coil I4 will be main tained at the suitable temperature for condensing the vapor generated at cathode 4 irrespective or the amount of such vapor evolved in response to 20 the load carried by the device. If the flow of wa ter were controlled by valve 23 alone no water would circulate through the cooling members when the device has been put in operation and has been allowed to reach substantially room 25 temperature. The water in coil I4 would grad ually reach higher temperatures without, however, affecting thermostat 22 as such high temperature water would remain within coil I4. To avoid such failure of thermostat operation, bypass 24 permits 30 the flow of a small amount of water even when valve 23 is closed so that the position of thermo stat 22 is determined by the temperature of the outlet of coil I4 even when valve 23 is closed. It will be seen that bottom I, side wall 6, plate 35 ‘I and dome 3 of the device receive water which has been somewhat heated in coil I4 so that such portions of the device are maintained at a tem perature higher than the temperature of any por tion of coil I4. The vapor will, therefore, not tend 40 to condense on such portions which then serve only to dissipate heat radiated by the anodes, by the arc and by the cathode spot. The vapor gen erated at the cathode, in excess of the amount to be ionized in the arc path, therefore ?ows sub stantially entirely outside of the arc path and permits the ?ow of the arc in a region undis turbed by excessive pressures caused by the flow of such vapor. 45 Although but one embodiment of the present invention has been illustrated and described, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes and modi?cations may be made therein without departing from the spirit of the invention or from “the scope of the appended 55 claims. It is claimed and desired to secure by Letters Patent: 1. In combination with an electron discharge device of the arcing type comprising a casing hav 60 ing an aperture therein and being provided with double walled portions forming a passage for the flow of cooling medium therethrough, a receptacle containing a quantity of vaporizable cathode ma terial closing said aperture and having a double 65 walled portion forming a passage for the flow of cooling medium therethrough, a plurality of anodes depending into said casing, and an ele ment supported‘ within said casing within the area de?ned by said anodes having a passage 70 therethrough for the flow of cooling medium, of means interconnecting said passages in such man ner as to form a continuous path for the flow of a cooling medium supplied thereto successively through the second, third and ?rst said passages 75 2,056,638 whereby the coolest surfaces for condensation of vaporized portions of said cathode material are disposed outside the path of arcs between the said‘ anodes and cathode, and means operable responsive to and in dependence upon the tem perature of said medium flowing from the third said passage into the ?rst said passage for regu lating the rate of ?ow thereof therethrough. 2. In combination with an electron discharge 10 device of the arcing type comprising a casing hav ing an aperture therein and being provided with double walled portions forming a passage for flow of cooling medium therethrough, a receptacle con taining a quantity of vaporizable cathode mate rial closing said aperture and having a double 15 walled portion forming a passage for flow of cool ing medium therethrough, a plurality of anodes depending into said casing, and means compris ing a coil of tubing supported within said casing 20 within the area de?ned by said anodes constitut ing a passage for ?ow of cooling medium there through, of means interconnecting said passages in such manner as to form therewith a continuous path for the flow of cooling medium supplied 25 thereto successively through the second‘, third and ?rst said passages whereby vapor created from said cathode material is drawn away from the paths of arcs between said anodes and cathode, a valve included in the connections of said medium 30 with said passages for regulating the rate of flow thereof, and means operable responsive to and in dependence upon the temperature of said medium ?owing from the third said passage into the ?rst said passage for variably operating said valve. 3. In combination with an electron discharge CO 01 device of the arcing type comprising a casing having an aperture therein and being provided with double walled portions forming a passage for the flow of cooling medium therethrough, a receptacle containing a quantity of vaporizable 40 cathode material closing said aperture and hav ing a double walled.‘ portion forming a passage for flow of cooling medium therethrough, a plurality 3 of anodes depending into said casing, and means comprising a coil of tubing supported within said casing within the area de?ned by said anodes con stituting a passage for the ?ow of cooling medium therethrough, of means interconnecting said pas sages in such manner as to form a continuous path for ?ow of a cooling medium supplied thereto successively through the second, third and’ ?rst said passages whereby vapor created from said cathode material is drawn away from and con 10 densed outside of the paths of arcs between said anodes and cathode, a valve included in the con nections of said medium with said passages for regulating the rate of flow thereof, thermostatic means operable responsive to and in dependence 15 upon the temperature of said medium ?owing through said passages for variably operating said valve, and a by-pass about said valve forming a path for ?ow of said medium through said pas sages during periods of closure of said valve. ll. In combination with an electric current recti ?er having a closed casing and containing vapor izecl electrode material, of means forming a path for the ?ow therethrough of a cooling medium continuously supplied thereto and arranged in such position within said casing as to a?ect the direction of ?ow of said vaporized material, and means operable responsive to and in dependence upon the temperature of said medium ?owing from the ?rst said means for regulating the rate 3O of ?ow of said medium therethrough. 5. In combination with an electric current recti ?er having a closed casing and containing vapor ized' electrode material, of means comprising a coil forming a path for the ?ow therethrough of a cooling medium continuously supplied there to and arranged in such position within said cas ing as to affect the direction of flow of said vapor ized material, and means operable responsive to and in dependence upon the temperature of said 40 medium ?owing from said coil for regulating the rate of flow of said medium therethrough. HAROLD WINOGRAD.