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Патент USA US2056638

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Oct. 6, 1936,
H. WINOGRAD
RECTIFIER COOLING SYSTEM
Filed Dec. 17, .1932
/7
/6
2,056,638
Patented Oct. 6, 1936
2,056,638
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE "
_
2,056,638
‘ RECTIFIER COOLING SYSTEM
Harold Winograd, Milwaukee, Wis., assignor to
Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company, Mil
waukee,"Wis., a corporation of Delaware
Application December 17, 1932, Serial No. 647,745
5 Claims. (Cl. 250—27.5)
This invention relates to improvements in elec
do not cause the establishment of dangerous
tron discharge devices and more particularly to conditions within the ‘device. In addition, the
means for maintaining the interior of a device
maximum temperature of the coolest portion of
of the vapor type at the most favorable condi
the cooling surfaces may be regulated by ther
' tions. of pressure and temperature.
mostatically controlled means.
It is well known that, in an electron discharge
device in which current is conducted by an arc
in a vapor, the pressure of such vapor in the arc
path must be maintained within a de?nite range
10: to secure optimum operation of the device. If
the pressure in the arc path increases beyond
such range, the dielectric strength of the vapor
decreases to such an extent that the vapor may
break down between an idling and a working
-“ anode thereby causing the occurrence of a so
called back?re. If the vapor pressure is too low,
the voltage drop in the arc increases resulting
in a reduced ef?ciency of the device.
The are
also becomes unstable and permits the establish
20 ment of oscillations or surges in the circuits con
nected therewith. The vapor pressure in the arc
path is difficult to regulate as such pressure de
pends not only on the temperature of the coldest
portion of the device but also on the relative
25 temperatures of the different cooling surfaces
and on the amount of vapor evolved in the oath
ode in dependence on the load of the device.
The effect of such temperature distribution is
such that, even if portions of the cooling sur
30 faces are well cooled, the flow of large amounts
of vapor from the cathode to such portions and
through the arc path may occur under a rela
tively high dynamic head so that the pressure
of‘ the vapor in the vicinity of the cathode or in
35 the arc path may become excessive. Such con
dition is particularly di?icult to regulate in wa
ter-cooled devices for the largest outputs used
at the present time in which the amount of vapor
generated is so great that the proper pressure
40 within the device cannot obtain both at low loads
and at heavy overloads. In devicesknown here
tofore the cooling surfaces adjacent the arc path
were more intensely cooled than the remainder
of the container surfaces. The result of such
45 cooling was that, upon occurrence of heavy over
loads, large amounts of vapor rising from the
cathode rushed towards the wall portions adja
cent the'arc path whereon such vapor condensed,
thereby creating a more or less turbulent zone
of high pressure within the arc path resulting
in the occurrence of frequent back?res.
If the flow of cooling water is so directed as
to ?rst cool surfaces not adjacent to the arc
‘path, any rushes of vapor occurring upon over~
55 loads are diverted outside of the arc path and
OX
It is, therefore, among the objects of the pres
ent invention to provide an electron ‘discharge
device of the vapor type in which the pressure
within the arc path is maintained Within per
missible limits at all loads.
Another object of the present invention is to
provide an electron discharge device of the ‘vapor
type in which conditions conducive to back?ring
or other disturbances in the operation of the
device are avoided.
Another object of the present invention is to
provide an electron discharge device of the vapor
type in which the maximum temperature of the
coolest portion of the cooling surfaces is con
trolled by thermostatic means.
Another object of the present invention is to 20
provide an electron discharge device of the vapor
type in which the cooling surface portions ad
jacent the arc path are automatically main
tained at a temperature higher than the tem- '
perature of other portions of the cooling sur
face.
Another object of the present invention is to
provide an electron discharge device of the va
por type in which the several cooling members
or surface portions are connected in series to
form a single circuit for the flow of cooling
water.
Another object of the present invention is to
provide an electron discharge device of the va
por type in which the cooling surface portion ad
jacent the arc path is cooled by water previously
circulated through another cooling portion of the
device.
Objects and advantages other than those above
set forth will be apparent from the following
description when read in connection with the
25
30
35
40
accompanying drawing, which diagrammatically
illustrates a cross-section of ‘an electron dis
charge device of the vapor type in which the
cooling surface adjacent the arc path is cooled 45
by water previously circulated through an in
terior'member of the device.
Referring more particularly to the drawing by
characters of reference, the reference numeral l 50
designates the double walled bottom of the device
which bottom is substantially in the shape of a
frustrum of a hollow cone. The aperture through
the bottom I is closed by a double walled plate 2
insulated from the bottom as at 3. The plate 2
2,056,638
2
and the insulation 3 together form a well to re
tain a quantity of vaporizable material such as
mercury which forms the cathode 4 of the device.
A double walled cylinder portion 6 extends up
wardly from the bottom portion I and the open
portions of the cooling surfaces and will rise from
cathode 4 in a substantially rectilinear flow which
takes such vapor outside of the arc path I5. The
temperature of the cooling water at the inlet of
upper end of the cylindrical portion is closed by
a double walled top plate ‘I having a cylindrical
upwardly extending portion 8 which is also dou
ble walled and forms a dome cooperating with
10 the chamber formed by the bottom I, side walls
6 and top plate ‘I, to condense the vapor rising
from cathode 4.
coil I4, being substantially that of the supply
mains, is not controlled but the amount of water
circulating through the system is regulated by
valve 23 so as to- maintain a substantially uni
'
A plurality of anodes I I are arranged to extend
into the chamber from the exterior thereof
15 through the top plate 1, the anodes being insu
lated from the top plate by insulating bushings
I2 also extending therethrough. Each of the an
odes II is partially enclosed by a housing or are
guide I3 extending from the insulator I2 to ad
A coil of tubing I4 is ar
20 jacent the bottom I.
ranged within the chamber, preferably within the
area enclosed by the anodes I I, and may extend
within the dome portion 8 as shown in the draw
ing. In a device constructed as above described,
25 the arc will substantially follow a path from anode
II through housing I3 along bottom I to cathode
4 as indicated at I5. It will be understood that
the several members of the device are assembled
and sealed in vacuum tight relation by the usual
30 well known means (not shown).
The cooling fluid used for controlling the tem
perature of the device, which is preferably fresh
water obtained from distribution mains (not
shown), is admitted through an inlet valve I6
35 which may be used for regulating the ?ow of
such water but will generally serve only to shut
off the ?ow of water to permit disconnection of
the device from the water supply mains. The
flow of water may ?rst be directed to the chamber
enclosed between the walls of cathode plate 2
through tubing H which is generally of insulat
ing material such as rubber hose. The water hav
ing circulated within plate 2 flows through an
other insulating tube section I8 and is then di
.45 rected through tubing I9 to cooling coil I4. Tub
ing 2| directs the water from coil I4 over a ther
mostatic element 22 and through a valve 23 con:
trolled by thermostat 22. Valve 23 is bypassed
by a manually adjustable valve 24 to permit ac
curate adjustment and control of the thermostat
22. The cooling water then ?ows between the
two walls of bottom I and of side walls 6, is con—
ducted through tubing 26 to plate 'I, flows between
the double walls of such plate and ‘of dome 8 and
is discharged through tubing 21 to a drain 28.
A gap is made between tubing 21 and drain 28
in preference to a section of insulating tubing
so as to permit visual observation of the ?ow of
water.
60
In the arrangement shown, the cooling water is
?rst directed to the cathode for the purpose of
preventing the portions of the cathode well and
the seals thereof from reaching excessive tem
peratures and for reducing the amount of vapor
generated at the cathode but the temperature
conditions of the device would not be affected
materially even if the cathode were cooled by
separate cooling means. The cooling water, at
substantially the temperature of the supply
mains, thus enters coil I4 which is thereby main
tained at a temperature lower than the tempera
ture of any of the other cooling surfaces in con
tact with the vapor. The vapor generated in the
cathode will, therefore, tend to condense on the
surface of cooling coil I4 rather than on the other
form temperature at thermostat 22. It will thus
appear that the temperature of the hottest point 10
of coil I4 will be maintained at a substantially
constant value by the action of thermostat 22 and
valve 23 irrespective of the amount of heat re
ceived by coil I4 by condensation of vapor and by
radiation from anodes I2, from the arc within the 15
device and from the spot formed by attachment
of the are on the cathode. Coil I4 will be main
tained at the suitable temperature for condensing
the vapor generated at cathode 4 irrespective or
the amount of such vapor evolved in response to 20
the load carried by the device. If the flow of wa
ter were controlled by valve 23 alone no water
would circulate through the cooling members
when the device has been put in operation and
has been allowed to reach substantially room 25
temperature.
The water in coil I4 would grad
ually reach higher temperatures without, however,
affecting thermostat 22 as such high temperature
water would remain within coil I4. To avoid such
failure of thermostat operation, bypass 24 permits 30
the flow of a small amount of water even when
valve 23 is closed so that the position of thermo
stat 22 is determined by the temperature of the
outlet of coil I4 even when valve 23 is closed.
It will be seen that bottom I, side wall 6, plate 35
‘I and dome 3 of the device receive water which
has been somewhat heated in coil I4 so that such
portions of the device are maintained at a tem
perature higher than the temperature of any por
tion of coil I4. The vapor will, therefore, not tend 40
to condense on such portions which then serve
only to dissipate heat radiated by the anodes, by
the arc and by the cathode spot. The vapor gen
erated at the cathode, in excess of the amount to
be ionized in the arc path, therefore ?ows sub
stantially entirely outside of the arc path and
permits the ?ow of the arc in a region undis
turbed by excessive pressures caused by the flow
of such vapor.
45
Although but one embodiment of the present
invention has been illustrated and described, it
will be apparent to those skilled in the art that
various changes and modi?cations may be made
therein without departing from the spirit of the
invention or from “the scope of the appended 55
claims.
It is claimed and desired to secure by Letters
Patent:
1. In combination with an electron discharge
device of the arcing type comprising a casing hav 60
ing an aperture therein and being provided with
double walled portions forming a passage for the
flow of cooling medium therethrough, a receptacle
containing a quantity of vaporizable cathode ma
terial closing said aperture and having a double 65
walled portion forming a passage for the flow of
cooling medium therethrough, a plurality of
anodes depending into said casing, and an ele
ment supported‘ within said casing within the
area de?ned by said anodes having a passage 70
therethrough for the flow of cooling medium, of
means interconnecting said passages in such man
ner as to form a continuous path for the flow of a
cooling medium supplied thereto successively
through the second, third and ?rst said passages 75
2,056,638
whereby the coolest surfaces for condensation of
vaporized portions of said cathode material are
disposed outside the path of arcs between the
said‘ anodes and cathode, and means operable
responsive to and in dependence upon the tem
perature of said medium flowing from the third
said passage into the ?rst said passage for regu
lating the rate of ?ow thereof therethrough.
2. In combination with an electron discharge
10 device of the arcing type comprising a casing hav
ing an aperture therein and being provided with
double walled portions forming a passage for flow
of cooling medium therethrough, a receptacle con
taining a quantity of vaporizable cathode mate
rial
closing said aperture and having a double
15
walled portion forming a passage for flow of cool
ing medium therethrough, a plurality of anodes
depending into said casing, and means compris
ing a coil of tubing supported within said casing
20 within the area de?ned by said anodes constitut
ing a passage for ?ow of cooling medium there
through, of means interconnecting said passages
in such manner as to form therewith a continuous
path for the flow of cooling medium supplied
25 thereto successively through the second‘, third and
?rst said passages whereby vapor created from
said cathode material is drawn away from the
paths of arcs between said anodes and cathode,
a valve included in the connections of said medium
30 with said passages for regulating the rate of flow
thereof, and means operable responsive to and in
dependence upon the temperature of said medium
?owing from the third said passage into the ?rst
said passage for variably operating said valve.
3. In combination with an electron discharge
CO 01
device of the arcing type comprising a casing
having an aperture therein and being provided
with double walled portions forming a passage
for the flow of cooling medium therethrough, a
receptacle containing a quantity of vaporizable
40
cathode material closing said aperture and hav
ing a double walled.‘ portion forming a passage for
flow of cooling medium therethrough, a plurality
3
of anodes depending into said casing, and means
comprising a coil of tubing supported within said
casing within the area de?ned by said anodes con
stituting a passage for the ?ow of cooling medium
therethrough, of means interconnecting said pas
sages in such manner as to form a continuous path
for ?ow of a cooling medium supplied thereto
successively through the second, third and’ ?rst
said passages whereby vapor created from said
cathode material is drawn away from and con 10
densed outside of the paths of arcs between said
anodes and cathode, a valve included in the con
nections of said medium with said passages for
regulating the rate of flow thereof, thermostatic
means operable responsive to and in dependence 15
upon the temperature of said medium ?owing
through said passages for variably operating said
valve, and a by-pass about said valve forming a
path for ?ow of said medium through said pas
sages during periods of closure of said valve.
ll. In combination with an electric current recti
?er having a closed casing and containing vapor
izecl electrode material, of means forming a path
for the ?ow therethrough of a cooling medium
continuously supplied thereto and arranged in
such position within said casing as to a?ect the
direction of ?ow of said vaporized material, and
means operable responsive to and in dependence
upon the temperature of said medium ?owing
from the ?rst said means for regulating the rate 3O
of ?ow of said medium therethrough.
5. In combination with an electric current recti
?er having a closed casing and containing vapor
ized' electrode material, of means comprising a
coil forming a path for the ?ow therethrough
of a cooling medium continuously supplied there
to and arranged in such position within said cas
ing as to affect the direction of flow of said vapor
ized material, and means operable responsive to
and in dependence upon the temperature of said 40
medium ?owing from said coil for regulating the
rate of flow of said medium therethrough.
HAROLD WINOGRAD.
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