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Патент USA US2058242

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Oct. 20, 1936.
2,058,242
R. K. LEE
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
Original Fil'ed Feb.‘ 16, 1955'
s Sheets-Sheet 1‘
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INVENTOR‘
Foyer /f. Aee.
Oct.2(-),1>936‘.
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R_-K_ LEE
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v 2,058,242
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
_
Original Filed, Feb. 16, 1953
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INVENTORi
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ATTORNEYS.
Oct. 20, 1936.
R, K_ LEE
INTERNAL
COMBUSTION
'
ENGINE
Original Filed Feb. 16, 1953
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2,058,242
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2,058,242»,
Patented Oct. 20,1936
'ATENT OFFICE
mural) sr
2,058,242
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
Roger K. Lee, Highland Park, Mich., as‘signor to
’ Chrysler Corporation, Detroit, Mich., a. corpoé
ration of Delaware
_ Original application February 16, 1933, Serial
No. 657,146. Divided and this application June
30, 1934, Serial No. 733,199
26 Claims. (Cl. 123—90)
This invention relates to internal combustion
engines and refers more particularly to improve
ments in engine valve operating mechanisms. 7
This application is adivision of my co-pending
5
or disassembled with respect to the operating
cams; and to provide an improved valve operating
mechanism conveniently located for operation
application Serial No. 657,146, ?led, February
from the engine crankshaft but separated from
the crankcase to minimize oil travel from the
16, 1933.
valving mechanism to the engine cylinders.
_
'
It is an object of my invention to provide an im
proved valve operating mechanism which may be
V
_
Further objects and advantages of 'my inven
tion will be more apparent from'the' following
successfully operated at speeds materially higher
detailed description of one illustrative embodi
l O than the usual speeds of conventional engines,
used for driving motor vehicles, for example.
ment thereof, reference being had to the accom
While my improvements are not necessarily lim
ited in their application to such high speed en
gines or to engines for driving motor vehicles, they
Fig. 1 is a sectional elevational view longi
are particularly adapted to such applications.
panying drawings in which;
I
v,
tudinally through my engine, the section being
taken along the. line l-I of Fig.
I
Fig. 2 isa detail sectional View illustrating my i5
My invention is particularly related to internal
combustion engines of the type having their cyl
inders arranged radially about the crankshaft;
also to radial engines of the positive valve operat
tion being taken along the line 2-2 of Fig. 1. I
Fig. 3 is a further detail sectional View of the
ing type.
along the line 3-3 of Fig. 2.
'
Another object of my invention is to provide
improved valve operating means for radial en
gines wherein the timing of the valve operations
Will be maintained with improved precision, there
by resulting in greater engine e?iciency, smooth
er engine operation, and adaptability to relatively
high engine speeds.
A further object of my invention is to provide
an improved valve operating means especially
adapted for radial engines wherein a plurality of
valve operating shafts are cooperatively associ
ated with each other and simultaneously driven
in a novel manner from the engine.
An additional object of my invention resides
in the provision of improved means for drivlng
the valve shafts wherein the crankshaft drives the
valve shafts but the crankshaft and valve driv
lng mechanism are free to de?ect relatively to
each other. This feature of my invention provides
improvements especially in connection with en:
gines having cantilever crank pins, my invention
making it possible to utilize a crank pin of this
type to drive the valve operating mechanism with
out influence from crank pin deflections.
Still further objects of my invention are to pro
vide, especially in a radial engine, valve opera
tion mechanism having a relatively low frictional
resistance to operation; to provide a valving
mechanism wherein cooperating valve shafts drive
each valve in a positive manner and wherein the
valve shafts rotate in the same direction to
minimize discrepancies in the valve timing; to
provide an improved arrangement of cam driven
valve operating arms especially adapted for a
J‘ radial engine, the arms being readily assembled
connecting rod and crank pin assembly, the sec
assembly shown in Fig.2, the section being taken
.
_‘
Fig. 4 is a sectional elevational view take-n along
the line 4-4 of Fig._ 1 and illustrating the drive
from the crankshaft forv operating the. valve
shafts.
.
,
.
;
Fig. 5 is a detail sectional plan view taken along
the line 5-4 of Fig. 6.
'
i
25
Fig.. 6 is a side elevational view of the engine
illustrated in‘ Fig.1 but on a reduced scale, parts
of the cylinders and valve shaft receiving cham
ber being broken away to illustrate the valve oper-
‘
ating mechanisms respectively operatively asso-
0
ciated therewith.
.
r'
Fig. '7 is a sectionalplan view looking, down on
one of the engine cylinders with the cylinder head
cover removed, the section being taken along the '
line 1-1 ofFig. 6.
V
p
.
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary side elevational view
showinga modi?ed form of valve and operating
mechanism therefor.
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary sectional elevational
view of the parts illustrated in Fig. 8, the section
being taken along the line 9—-9 of Fig. 8.
i
Referring to the drawings, it will be noted that‘
I have illustrated my improvements in‘ an. in-’
ternal combustion engine of the three-cylinder 45
radial type, the engine including a ?xed crank
case I G and radially disposed cylinders l'l secured
in equiangular relation on said crankcase. The
cylinders ll may have any desired suitable con
struction, the novel cylinder structure illustrated
in the! drawings not forming a part of the‘ subject
matter claimed in this application.’
As illustrated ‘in the drawings, each of the cyl-'
inders ll may be formed of an inner sleeve I12
and an outer sleeve 53 maintained‘ in concentric 55
2
2,058,242
and spaced relation by a base member i4 and a
the forward face of the bearing 43 and by a nut
top member or cylinder head l5, these members
being suitably bonded to the sleeves. The base
members I4 may be provided with ?anges l6
shown in Figs. 5 and 6 by which the cylinders
45 secured to the rear end of the spindle.
The forwardly projecting end 4| of the spindle
ders in a transverse direction as indicated in
40 forms the engine crank pin on which is jour
naled the annular bearing member 28 connected
to the aforesaid connecting rod member 2?, and
also journals the annular bearing members 47
and 48 on the connecting rods of the remaining
cylinders. Referring also to Figs. 2 and 3, it will
be noted that the annular bearing member 41 is
offset rearwardly to a slight extent relative to its
connecting rod member and that the annular
bearing member 48 is offset forwardly to a slight
extent relative to the tubular member 21 of its
connecting rod. All of the bearing members 28, 15
41 and 48 are directly journaled on the crank
Fig. 6.
Each cylinder is provided with a cylinder head
pin M which, in turn, is rotatably journaled rela
tive to the crankshaft 34.
may be secured to the crank-case by means of
bolts I ‘l.
The spaced concentric sleeves l2 and
13 provide water-jacket spaces along the cylinder
walls, these jacket spaces communicating through
10 ports [9 with water-jacket spaces 20 provided in
the top members I5. In the present illustrated
embodiment of my invention, the upper surfaces
of the top members [5 are square relative to the
cylinder in a longitudinal direction as viewed in
15 Fig. 1 but slightly inclined relative to the cylin
cover 2| in which are formed Water-jacket spaces
20 22 communicating with the spaces 20 in the top
members l5. Referring also to Fig. '7, bolts 23
are provided for securing the cylinder head cové
ers 2i to the top members l5, a suitable gasket
24 being disposed between'each top member and
A spark plug 25
25 associated cylinder head cover.
seen in Fig. 7 is provided in each of the cylinder
heads 15.
Slidable within the inner sleeve 12 which con
stitutes the cylinder wall of each cylinder is a
piston 26 which may be of any suitable construc
tion and which does not in itself constitute a part
of my invention as claimed in this application.
The main portion of the connecting rod is indi
cated at 21 and may be tubular in form for light
35 ness in weight, an annular bearing member 28
being permanently secured to the tubular rod por
tion 21, the bearing member being adapted to
engage the crank pin of the engine.
The crankcase I0 comprises a substantially
40 cylindrical body member 29 and end members 30
and BI. The parts of the crankcase are prefer
ably aluminum or similar light weight metal or
alloy castings and the body member 29 is cored
as indicated at 32 for the reception of the cylin
4.5 der sleeve l2 and as indicated at 33 in Figs. 5
and 6 for the accommodation of the pairs of cam
actuated valve operating arms which will be pres
ently described in detail. The end member 30
of the crankcase is substantially bell-shaped and
50 centrally apertured at the smaller end thereof
for the reception of a crankshaft 34. This crank
shaft is journaled in ball and race types of bear
ings 35 and 35 mounted in the crankcase and
arranged adjacent the ends of the crankshaft,
55 the bearing 35 being arranged in an enlargement
31 adjacent the central aperture at the rear end
of crankcase member 30 and the bearing 36, of
considerably larger diameter than bearing 35, be
ing mounted in inturned flanges 38 at the rear
margin of the body member 29 of the crankcase.
The forward portion of the crankshaft 34 is
provided with an enlargement 39 in which is
journaled, eccentrically with respect to the axis
of the crankshaft, a spindle 40 which projects
65 forwardly beyond the end of the crankshaft to
provide a crank pin 4|.
The spindle 40 is journaled adjacent its for
ward end by a roller bearing 42 arranged at the
forward end of the enlarged portion 39 and a ball
70 and race type bearing 43 journaled in the rear
end of spindle 40 at the rearwardly disposed end
of the enlargement 39 of the crankshaft. The
spindle 40 is maintained in position within the
75 bearings 42 and 43 by a shoulder 44 which abuts
The bearing members 47 and 48, together with
a forwardly offset portion of the bearing member 20
28, are disposed in side-by-side relation on the
crank pin 4 i , while the rear edge of bearing mem
ber 41 abuts a shoulder 49 on the spindle 40 and
the rearwardly offset portion of the bearing mem
ber 28 abuts another shoulder-portion 50 at its 25
rear edge. The spindle 40 is centrally cored as
indicated at 5! and the forward margin is inter
nally threaded as indicated at 52.
A plug 53 or
driving pin for the valve operating mechanism is
received within the threaded portion 52 and abuts
the forward margin of the bearing member 28
to maintain the bearing members 28, 41 and 48
in assembled relation. The bearing member 28
is slotted as indicated at’ 54 and 55 in Fig. 2 par
tially about its periphery so that any two adja
cent connecting rods of the group of three will
not come into contact even when the connecting
rods are at the minimum relative angle. It is
apparent that in the present embodiment of my
invention all of the connecting rods bear directly 40
on the engine crank pin and all are of the same
length so as to insure uniform compression ratio
of all of the cylinders of the engine. The struc
tural details of the connecting rods do not form
a part of this invention and they may be of any 45
appropriate type or construction.
During operation of the engine at high speed,
the bearing members 28, 47 and 48 of the crank
pin 4| and spindle 40 will exert relatively great
centrifugal forces on the spindle bearings 42 and 50
43, it being apparent that the bearing 42 must
carry the major portion of this load. In order
to distribute this load more uniformly between
the bearings 42 and 43 and to generally counter
balance the moving parts of the engine, I have
provided a novel distribution of counterweights
fully disclosed in my aforesaid co-pending ap
plication. I have herein illustrated a portion of
such counterweighting, a counterweight being
illustrated in the form of the eccentric mass 56 60
integral with the enlarged portion 39 and dis—
posed diametrically opposite the bearing 42. In
asmuch as my novel system of counterbalancing
is not in itself a part of this invention claimed
in this application, the details of the counter 65
weighting system will not be further illustrated
or described in this application.
My valve operating mechanism which, together
with the parts associated therewith constitutes
the subject-matter of this application, is capa
ble of improved operation at relatively high en
gine speeds approximating 5,000 to 10,000 R. P.
M., although I do not limit my invention in this
respect. Referring particularly to Figs. 1 and 4
to '7 inclusive. the construction and arrangement
3,
2,058,242
of the engine valves and operating means there
for will now be described.
» ‘
~
»
The body portion 29 of the crankcase I6 is pro
vided with a transversely disposed supporting
partition 51 in which a hollow stub shaft'58 is
supported in alignment with the axis of the
crankshaft 34. The partition 5'! divides the
crankcase body 29 into the crankcase properin
termediate the partition 51 and bearing 36 and
driving. allof thecam ‘shafts 65 from a common
driving gear .59 andin the same direction. for
all of‘ the .va-Ivezshafts, I haveavoided the possi
bility' of acollection of errors which mightother
wise alter ‘the precision .timing where ‘the shafts '
might be'driven in relatively different directions
and from different operating gears.
In order to prevent possibility of the plugs 53
from rotating relative to the crank pin 4| and
the cam receiving chamber or valve shaft con
also ‘for locking the plugs and bearing member ID
taining chamber 5'1EL located intermediate the
partition 57 and the front cover member 3|.
7 By providing the partition 51 it will be apparent
that I have separated the chamber 5'!a from
26 with the crank pin, I have provided vthe snap
locking ring 53a best shown in Figs. 1 and 3, this
ring ?tting within a groove formed between the
plug, 53 and the forwardly extending hub portion
of the bearing member 28. One end of the ring
532:“ extends radially inwardly as indicated at. 53*),
this end entering suitable openings provided for
the accommodation of the ring end and formed
in the crankpinflll, .plug 53, and bearing mem
ber 28 forpreventing relativerotation of thes
15 the crankcase proper insofar as there is any
possibility of lubricating oil being thrown from
the cams and valve shafts contained in cham
ber 5*!a as will be presently apparent. By thus
separating the valve shaft chamber from the
crankcase, the engine valve operating cams may
be thoroughly lubricated without the lubricating
oil being thrown to the engine cylinders which
parts .as-will be apparent from :Fig. 3..
otherwise would require the usual four or more
chamber 5'!a is-such that a line between the axes
'
- '
The arrangement of the valveshafts 65 in the
sealing rings associated with the pistons 26 to
25 prevent undue escape of the lubricating oil out
45
50
55
60
of two adjacent shafts will ‘be bisected by a line
normal thereto‘ and passing through the axis of 252
wardly. of the cylinders to the engine combustion ’ a valve operating shaft 61 journaled between the
chambers. By minimizing the travel of lubricat
cylinder head cover 2| and the top member [5
ing oil to the cylinders, I am enabled to reduce of a cylinder H. Each valve shaft 65 has four
the number of rings associated with piston 26 earns 68 secured thereto against relative rotation
tosubstantially one or two in number as indicated
and these 'cams'are, arranged in‘pairs on each , so;
at 26a and the frictional loss in the engine is shaft, one pair. of cams being adapted to oper
therefore greatly diminished. Furthermore, ate the intake and exhaust valves of one cylinder
since the pistons 26 do not have to carry the While cooperating with a. pair of cams on the vnext
usual relatively large number of piston rings, adjacent shaft and the other‘ pair of cams is
these pistons may be made relatively, short and adapted to cooperate with a‘ pair of cams on the 35;
therefore of relatively light weight and this is third shaft to. operate the intake» and exhaust
very desirable and bene?cial in minimizing the valves of another cylinder.
loads on the crank pin 4| clue to the inertia of
Each valve operating shaft 61 has an arm 69
the moving parts as well as permitting the use ?xed thereto which supports a valve 10 at the
of a relatively light weight construction for the outer end‘thereof. The valves 10 form the ex 40
connecting rods 2‘! and their associated bearing haust valves for the engine cylinders and each
members heretofore referred to.
.
cooperateswith' a valve seat insert ‘H provided in
A gear 59 is provided with an integral disc of the upper portion of the top members l5. The
larger diameter than that of the gear and is valves 10 cooperate with the valve seatv inserts
journaled upon the stub shaft 58 and maintained
‘H to close the exhaust passages 12 provided in 45
in position by means of a bolt 66. This disc 6|
the cylinder head covers 2i. Each valve oper
is provided with slot-like apertures 63 elongated ating shaft-61» is also‘ provided with an operating
in a radial direction, one of which is adapted arm 13 upon the free end of which is disposeda
for engagement with the driving pin. 64 project
roll 14 adapted to cooperate with the cams 68
ing from the aforesaid plug 53 threaded into the ?xed to the cam shafts 65.
'
50,
end of the crank pin 4|.
Each cam upongthe shafts 65 cooperates with
By means of the driving pin 64 the gear 60 a suitably shaped cam provided upon an adja
and disc 6! are given equal rotation with the cent shaft sothat both cams remain in contact
crankshaft, and the slot 63 permits relative move
with roll‘ ‘M at all times. These cams are so
ment other than rotation of either the stub shaft shaped that when the cam on one shaft begins to 55
58 or crankshaft 34 and crank pin 4! in the event lift the roll 14, the cam surface of the camon
of deflection of any of these parts. The provi
the other shaft allows the roll 14 to approach the
sion of a plurality of the spaced slots 63 permits axis of the latter shaft. In the construction
the driving pin 64 to be selectively engageable shown in Fig. 6 the cams which open the/valves
with these slots in order to vary or alter the
70 are in the general form of an involute tooth 60
timing relationship between the crankshaft and and the cams which close the valves ‘I0 and co
the valve driving mechanism. operated by the
disc 6|.
A plurality of cam shafts 65, preferably three
in number for a three-cylinder radial engine as'
operate with the ?rst-mentioned cams are es
sentially circular in outline with a wedge-shaped
portion removed therefrom. The cam operating
shafts 61 are journaled in aligned recesses 15 65
illustrated, are journaled in the supporting ‘.par
and 16 provided in' the contacting faces of the
tition 51 and the end member 3!, and each cam
shaft is provided with a gear 66 arranged in
cylinder head covers 2| and top members l5 re
spectively. The recesses 16 are enlargedas indi
cated/at 11 for the reception of a sleeve 18 to
which is ?xed an operating arm 19 for an intake 70
equidistant and equiangular position relative to
70 the axis of the stub shaft 58 and the crankshaft
34. The gears 66 are each of a diameter twice
that of gear 59 for the four-stroke cycle'engine
illustrated so that each of the cam shafts 65 re
ceives equal rotation in the same direction at
75 one-half the speed of the crankshaft‘ ‘3.4; By
valve 80.
'
'
The operating shafts 6‘! and T8 are teles'coped
one within the other so'that one ‘forms-a- bearing
for the other‘while additional bearings for these
operating shafts? are‘1 providedl- by the cylinder 75
4
2,058,242
head covers 2i and top members I5 of the cylin
offset in the direction of their pivots provided
ders II.
provided with annular shoulder portions 8| which
cooperate with correspondingly shaped recesses
between the companion bearing portions at the
cylinder head and cylinder head cover.
Referringwto Figs. 8 and 9, I have shown a
82 in the cylinder head covers and top members
to. prevent axial displacement of the valve oper
ating shafts.
modi?ed form of valve and valve operating mech
anism. In this embodiment of my invention the
top member I5’ of the cylinder II' is provided
The operating arms 89 and 19 may be
An operating arm 83 is ?xed to the valve op
erating sleeve 18 and the free end of this arm
10 terminates in a roll ‘I4 as previously described.
It will be apparent that the arm 83 together with
the sleeve or shaft 78 and the arm ‘I9 form a
bell crank lever, the lever portions or arms ‘I9
and 83 thereof being spaced axially of the sleeve
15 TI. The cylinder top members I5 and cylinder
head covers 2| may be provided with comple
mentary extension members 84 adjacent the ends
of the recesses ‘15 and 16 to provide outboard
bearings for the longer operating shafts 61 and
20 18. The bosses 84 will be different lengths for
two of the cylinders and the third cylinder will
not require an outboard bearing.
As will be noted in Figs. 1 and 6, the rear
wardly disposed pair of cams 68 shown in Fig.
25 I cooperates with a pair of cams on another shaft
65 to. operate the valve means for the cylinder
shown in Fig. 1, the valve operating arms 13 and
83 being mounted on the shafts BI and 78 at points
adjacent the side of the cylinder head cover 2| as
30 indicated in Fig. l. The valves of another cyl
inder require shafts of a length indicated in Fig.
6 and the operating arms therefor cooperate with
the pair of cams 68 shown in the foremost posi
tion in Fig. 1. The cams for operating the valves
35 of the remaining cylinder are not shown in Fig.
l but are mounted on the two remaining cam
shafts 85 and occupy the intermediate position
between the pairs of cams shown on the valve
shaft 65. In the case of the last mentioned cyl
inder the valve shafts will be of an intermediate
length and the extension members 84 will ter
minate at a point indicated by the dot and dash
line 85 of Fig. 8. Casing members 86 cover the
cored out openings 33 in the crankcase body por
tion 29 and also cover the valve operating arms
‘I3 and 83. These casing members may be at
tached to the crankcase portion 29 by screws 81
as indicated in Fig. 6. It will be noted that the
openings or slots 33 provide guides for the arms
50 ‘I3 and 83.
The arms ‘I3 and 83 are freely engaged by the
cams so that the arms may be withdrawn or as
sembled into engagement with the cams by a
simple outward or inward movement thereof.
55 In Figs. 1 to '7, the cylinders are illustrated as
forming a unitary assembly with each valve op‘
erating mechanism associated therewith, the cyl
inder head cover 2| being removable independ
ently of this assembly.
60
By providing the aforesaid outwardly extending
arms 13 and 83 carried by the outer end of the
associated cylinder and extending inwardly in
the general direction of the cylinder for freely
engaging the operating cams 98, each cylinder
65 may expand and contract under temperature va
riations without binding the operating mecha—
nism. When such temperature changes take
place the various lever arms ‘I3 and 83 merely
lightly move radially inwardly or outwardly at
70 the earns 68, the cam operated valve timing being
unchanged for all practical purposes and notice
able results in the engine operation.
It will further be apparent that the cams 68
may be located offset from the plane of the cyl
75 inder axis, the bell cranks having their lever arms
with an upper surface which lies in a plane per
pendicular to the cylinder axis, this surface re
ceiving the cylinder head structure H’ which is
secured thereto. A poppet valve ‘I9’ is provided
with a hollow stem 93 which is internally thread
ed to receive the lug 94 of a guide means 95. A
look nut 96 may be provided to maintain the lug
94 and stem 93 in locked adjustment. A valve
guide 91 is provided to slidably receive the stem
93 and by loosening the nut 93 the valve stem
may be rotated on the threaded lug 94 to axially
adjust the stem relative to lug 94 and thereby
adjust the valve 10' relative to its seat.
A slide member‘ 98 is pivotally connected to the
end of operating arm 99 and slidably received
within the guide 95. The operating arm 99 is
secured to a valve operating shaft 61' to which
is also secured the operating arm ‘I3’ extending
inwardly of the associated cylinder to the valve
operating cams 68’ substantially in accordance
with the prior embodiment. The intake valve
associated with cylinder I I’ is not illustrated al
though from the teaching of my prior embodi
ment it will be apparent that this intake valve is
operated substantially in accordance with my
prior embodiment employing a mechanism of the
type illustrated in Fig. .9.
10
15
20
25
The intake valve is thus provided with a simi 35
lar guide 95 operated by an arm 99’ secured to
the sleeve 18' which, in turn, is operated by the
inwardly extending lever arm 83' the lower end
of which is adaptedfor operation by a pair of
cams 68'. In Figs. 8 and 9 the journal for the 40
shafts 81' and ‘I8’ is provided by a bracket I89 ex
tending from the cylinder head 2I' and the co
operating bearing cap member “II. It will be
understood that each cylinder of the engine
shown in Fig. 1 may be constructed in accord 45
ance with the embodiment of my invention illus
trated in Figs. 8 and 9 and to avoid duplication
I have not illustrated the engine proper in asso
ciation with the modi?ed embodiment of my in‘
vention.
The cam members 68' mounted on the valve
shafts 65 are, as before, shaped to afford posi
tive opening and closing movements of the valves
associated with the cylinders II’ and in this in
stance the cam for opening the valve 78’, for ex 55
ample, is essentially wedge-shaped while the
cam employed for closing the valve T8’ is of cir
cular outline with an arcuate portion removed
therefrom.
The outlines of the cams 68' are so
shaped that as one cam is lifting the operating
arm ‘I3’ or 83' the other cam allows such lifting
movement while maintaining the cam surfaces
of both cams in contact with the end of the oper
ating arm.
As in the case of the previous embodiment it 65
will be apparent that the respective pairs of lat
erally extending valve actuating arms and down
wardly extending cam actuated arms form bell
crank levers, the component lever arms of each
bell crank being spaced axially of the rocking 7,0
sleeve or shaft to which the pairs of arms are
attached.
'
It will be noted that in Fig. 9 the lever arm 99
is connected by the slide 98 to positively recipro
cate the valve stem 93 and to compensate for the 75
2,058,242
variation in distance between the lever support shaft axis, means for driving said shafts from
and valve stem axis during reciprocation of the said crankshaft, and a plurality of means each.
stem and valve. The slide 98 acts substantially driven from pairs of said shafts for operating the.
along the axis of the valve stem and slides trans
1 versely to said axis.
In the embodiment of my invention illustrated
in Figs. 8 and 9, the valve operating mechanism
may be readily assembled and disassembled as
a unitary assembly into engagement with or out
10' of engagement from the operating cams 68’ by
moving the operating mechanism including arms
13' and 83’ in the general direction of the asso
ciated cylinder ll’, viz., outwardly or inwardly
as in the case of the Fig. 1 embodiment. How
15 ever, in Figs. 8 and 9, the valve operating mech
anism for each cylinder may be assembled or dis
assembled as a unitary assembly without disturb
ing the associated cylinder since each mechanism
may be movedas a unitary assembly with the
20 cylinder head 2|’.
When the cylinder head 2!’ is removed from
v the cylinder with the valve operating mechanism,
the valves may then be readily reached from the
underside of the cylinder head and the valves
25 unscrewed to release the driving mechanism from
the valve stems at the threaded lug 94.
An advantage, in addition to those aforesaid,
of my'sliding member 98 resides in facilitating
the manufacture and assembly of the valve oper
30 ating mechanism by providing a self-alignment
of the parts without requiring extreme accuracy
of machining and location of parts. Thus, the
distances between the axes of the valve stems 93
and shafts '61’ and 18’ may slightly vary since
35 the slide 98 will readily accommodate itself to
such variations.
In each embodiment of my invention, the cams
for operating the bell crank levers are located
laterally adjacent the inner end of the cylinders
while the supports for the actuating bell crank
levers are spaced circumferentially of the cams,
such arrangement being of particular advantage
for radially arranged cylinders. In order to effi
ciently transmit the positive valve movement
.45 from the cams, the cam actuated bell crank lever
arms ‘I3, 83 and 13', 83' extend upwardly and
outwardly from the cams to the bell crank lever
supports, the other lever arms 69, 79 or 99, 99'
being offset from the respectively connected cam
'50 actuated lever arms so as to extend inwardly at
the outer cylinder ends from the lever supports
to the valves.
The pair of bell crank levers and associated
mechanisms for a single cylinder are'claimed in
55 my co-pending application Serial No. ‘726,488
?led May 19, 1934, the'subject application being
particularly directed to my valve operating mech
anisms for multiple cylinders especially when ra
dially arranged, the drive from the engine to the
T60 valve operating mechanisms, the construction
and arrangement of the crankcase and cam shaft
chamber, and other features noted hereinbefore
in the objects and speci?cation of my invention.
'Various modi?cations and changes will be ap
65 parent from the teachings of my invention, as set
forth in the appended claims, and it is not my
intention to limit my invention to the particular
details of construction and operation shown and
described’ for illustrative purposes.
70
What I'claim is:
1. In an engine having a crankshaft and a plu
rality of' cylinders radially disposed about said
crankshaft, valving means associated with each
of said cylinders, a plurality of valve operating
175 shafts having their axes parallel to the crank
valving means of said cylinders.
.
l 2. In an engine having a crankshaft and a plu
rality of cylinders radially disposed about said
crankshaft, valving means associated witheach
of said cylinders, a plurality of ‘valve operating
shafts having their axes parallel to the crank
shaft axis and lying substantially at equal radial
distances fromsaid crankshaft axis, means for
driving said shafts in the same direction of ro-~
tation from said crankshaft, and a pluralityof
means each driven from pairs of said shafts for
operating the valving means of ‘said cylinders.
15,
3. In an engine having a crankshaft and a plu
rality of cylinders radially disposed about said
crankshaft, valving means associated with each
of said cylinders, a plurality of valve operating
shafts equal in number to the number of said cyl
inders and having’ their axes’ parallel ,to the
crankshaft axis, cams carried by each of said
shafts, means for driving said shaft from said
crankshaft, and means for operating said valving
means including a cam follower associated with
each of said cylinders and positioned for operation by camson a pair of said shafts. '
2s
25
1
4. In an engine having a crankshaft and aplu
rality of cylindersradially disposed about said
crankshaft, valving means associated with>each
‘of said cylinders, a plurality of valve operating
shafts having their axes parallel to the crank
shaft axis, a plurality of- pairs of cams carried
by each of said shafts, means-for driving‘said
shafts from said crankshaft, and means for oper
ating said valving means including a plurality
of pairs of cam followers, each vof said pairr‘of
cam followers being positioned for operation by
a pair of cams on two adjacent shafts. '
5. In an engine having a crankshaft and a plu
30.
35
4.0
rality of cylinders radially disposed about'said
crankshaft, valving means associated with’each
of said cylinders, ‘a plurality of "valve operating
shafts having their axes parallel to‘ the crank
shaft axis, a plurality of‘ pairs 'of cams carried 45
by each of said‘ shafts, means for 'drivingsaid
shafts from said crankshaft, and means for op
erating said valvingmeans including a plurality
of pairs of cam followers, each of said~pair of
cam followers being positioned for operation by a 50
pair of cams on two adjacent shafts, each of ‘said
pairs of cam followers being adapted to operate
the valving means of one of ‘said cylinders;
6. In an engine having a crankshaft'and a plu
rality of cylinders radially disposed'about'said
crankshaft, valving means associated with each
of said cylinders, a plurality of valve'operating
shafts having their axes parallel to the crank
shaft axis, a plurality of pairs "of oamscarried
by each of ‘said shafts, means for driving said to
shafts from said‘crankshaft, and means for oper
ating said valving. means including a plurality
of pairs of arms extending outwardly'of the-~en-,
gine, each pair of said arms having their inner
vends positioned between pairs of said shafts, each 1.165
of said arms being actuated by a pair of cams ‘
carried by a pair of said shafts.
'7. In an engine having a crankshaft'and a plu
rality of cylinders radially disposed about said
crankshaft, valving means associated with each .70
of said cylinders,‘ a plurality of valve operating
'sha'fts‘iha’ving their axes-parallel 'to the crank
shaft axis, a disc concentric with said crank
shaft, means for driving said disc from said-crank
shaft, a pinion driven by said disc, ‘each of said
6
2,058,242
shafts having a gear driven by said pinion, and
means operated by said shafts for actuating said
16. In an engine having a crankshaft and a
plurality of cylinders radially disposed about said
crankshaft, valving means associated with each
of said cylinders, a plurality of valve operating
shafts having their axes parallel to the crank
crankshaft, each of said cylinders having a plu
rality of valving means associated with the outer
ends thereof, a plurality of valveshafts equal in:
number to the number of said cylinders and posi-v
tioned adjacent the inner ends of said cylinders,
means for mounting said valveshafts with their
. shaft axis, a disc concentric with said crankshaft,
axes parallel to the crankshaft axis, means for
valving means.
8. In an engine having a crankshaft and a
plurality of cylinders radially disposed about said
10' means for driving said disc from said crankshaft,
a pinion driven by said disc, each of said shafts
having a gear driven by said pinion whereby said
shafts are driven in unison and in the same ro
-» tational direction, and means operated by said
15 shafts for actuating said valving means.
9. In a radial engine having a crankshaft pro
vided with a cantilever crank pin, engine valve
operating means adapted to be driven from said
crank pin, and means for driving said valve oper
20' atlng means including a connection between said
crank pin and said valve operating means, said
connection being adapted to accommodate de
?ection of said crank pin relative to said valve
_ operating means connected thereto.
25
10. In a radial engine having a crankshaft pro
vided with a cantilever crank pin, engine valve
operating means adapted to be driven from said
crank pin, and means for driving said valve oper
ating means including a connection between said
30 crank pin and said valve operating means, said
connection being adapted to unrestrictedly ac
commodate de?ection of said crank pin.
11. In a radial engine having a crankshaft pro
vided with a cantilever crank pin, engine valve
35 operating means adapted to be driven from said
crank pin, and means for driving said valve oper
ating means including a connection between said
crank pin and said valve operating means, said
connection being adapted to transfer rotation of
40 said crank pin to said valve operating means and
to freely accommodate radial de?ection of said
crank pin.
12. In an engine having a crankshaft provided
with a crank pin, a disc rotatably driven by said
45 crank pin, a gear rotating with said disc, valve
shafts drivingly connected with said gear and
grouped around the axis of rotation of said gear,
cams mounted on said valveshafts, and engine
valve operating means driven by pairs of cams
50 on adjacents valveshafts.
13. In a radial engine having a cantilever crank
pin carried by the engine crankshaft, a drive pin
projecting from the free end of said crank pin, a
driving said valveshafts in unison from said 10
crankshaft, a plurality of bell crank levers each
having an arm thereof extending generally in
wardly of the engine for actuation by a pair of
said valveshafts, means for supporting said bell
crank levers, each of said bell crank levers hav 15
ing its other arm operably connected to one of
said valving means.
17. In an engine having a crankshaft provided
with a cantilever crank pin and a plurality of
multiple valve controlled cylinders radially dis 20
posed about said crankshaft, a plurality of valve
shafts grouped in “angularly spaced relation ad
jacent the projecting end of said crank pin, said
valveshafts having their axes parallel with the
crankshaft axis, means for driving said valve 25
shafts from said crank pin, a plurality of bell
crank levers adapted to positively operate the
valves of said cylinders, said levers each having
one arm thereof operably connected to one of said
valves, said levers having their other arms grouped 30
in pairs spaced about the axis of rotation of said‘
crankshaft and extending generally outwardly
therefrom, the inner ends of said pairs of, arms
lying between a pair of said valveshafts for actu
ation thereby, and means for pivotally support 35
ing said levers with the levers having said pairs
of arms pivoting on a common axis.
18. In an engine having a, crankshaft provided
with a cantilever crank pin and a plurality of
multiple valve controlled cylinders radially dis 40
posed about said crankshaft, a plurality of valve
shafts grouped in angularly spaced relation adja
cent the projecting end of said crank pin, said
valveshafts having their axes parallel with the
crankshaft axis, a plurality of cooperating pairs 45
of cams carried by adjacent valveshafts, means
for driving said valveshafts in unison and in the
same rotational direction from said crank pin, a
plurality of bell crank levers adapted to positively
operate the valves of said cylinders, said levers 50
each having one arm thereof operably connected
to one of said valves, said levers having their other
arms grouped in pairs spaced about said valve
disc mounted on an axis concentric with the axis
shafts and extending outwardly therefrom, the
of said crankshaft and driven by said drive pin,
cam carrying valveshafts grouped around said
axis, and engine valve operating means driven
by the cams of adjacent valveshafts.
inner ends of the last said arms each lying be
tween one of said cooperating pairs of cams for
14. In a radial engine having a cantilever crank
60 pin carried by the engine crankshaft, .a drive pin
projecting from the free end of said crank pin,
a disc mounted on an axis concentric with the
axis of said crankshaft and driven by said drive
pin, and engine valve operating means driven by
65 said disc, said drive pin having radial movement
relative to said disc.
15. In an engine having a crankshaft and a
plurality of cylinders radially disposed about said
crankshaft, each of said cylinders having a plu
rality of valving means associated therewith,
camshafts equal in number to the number of said
cylinders, means for driving said camshafts from
said crankshaft, and means driven by pairs of
said camshafts for operating valving means for
75 each of said cylinders.
operation thereby.
19. In an internal combustion engine having
a crankshaft and a plurality of cylinders, a plu
rality of valve operating shafts each carrying a 60
plurality of cams more than two in number, means
for driving said shafts from said crankshaft,
valving means for said cylinders, and means for
operating said valving means including a plu
rality of pairs of cam followers, each pair being 65
adapted for operation by an associated pair of
valve operating shafts, each cam follower of each
of said pairs having a cam operated portion posi
tioned between and operated by a pair of cams
carried by a pair of valve operating shafts asso 70
ciated therewith, at least one .of the cams carried
by the valve operating shafts of each of said
associated pairs cooperating with a cam carried
by another of said valve operating shafts for op
erating a cam follower of another of said pairs. 75
7
2,058,242
20. In an internal combustion engine having a
crankshaft and a plurality .of cylinders, a plural
ity of valve operating shafts each carrying a plu
rality of cams more than two in number, means
for driving said shafts from said crankshaft,
valving means for said cylinders, means for oper
ating said valving means including a plurality of
of cams more than two in number, means for
pairs of cam followers, each pair being adapted
pairs having a cam operated portion positioned
between and operated by a pair of cams carried
by a pair of valve operating shafts associated
groups, said cams of each valve operating shaft
cooperating with pairs of cams on shafts adja
cent thereto for operating a plurality of said 10
paired groups of cam followers.
24. In an engine, a crankshaft having a crank
connected at one end with said crankshaft and
therewith, at least one of the cams carried by the
having its opposite end extending cantilever-like,
for operation by an associated pair of valve oper
10 ating shafts, each cam follower of each of said
15 valve operating shafts of each of said associated
pairs cooperating with a cam carried by another
of said valve operating shafts for operating a cam
follower of another of said pairs, and means for
mounting the cam followers of said pairs on a
20 common axis of pivotal support.
21. In an internal combustion engine having a
crankshaft and a plurality of cylinders, a plu
rality of valve operating shafts corresponding in
number to the number of said cylinders and each
25 carrying a plurality of cams more than two in
driving said shafts from said crankshaft, valving
means for said cylinders, means for operating
said valving means including a plurality of cam
followers each adapted for operation by a pair of
cams on adjacent valveshafts, and means for op
erably positioning said cam followers in paired
a shaft concentric with the axis of rotation of 15
said crankshaft, means for driving said shaft
from said crank at the same rotational speed as
that of said crankshaft, a driving pinion'on said
shaft, a plurality of gears driven by said pinion,
a shaft for each of said gears, means for mount
ing said shafts for rotation about parallel axes,
and engine valve operating means driven by said
shafts.
25. In an engine, a crankshaft having a crank
connected at one end with said crankshaft and 25
number, means for driving said shafts from said
crankshaft, valving means for said cylinders, and
means for operating said valving means includ
ing a plurality of pairs of cam followers, each
having its opposite end extending cantilever-like,
pair being adapted for operation by an associated
pair of valve operating shafts, each cam follower
that of said crankshaft, a driving pinion on said 30
a shaft concentric with the axis of rotation of
said crankshaft, means for driving said shaft
from said crank at the same rotational speed as
shaft, a plurality of gears driven by said pinion,
of each of said pairs having a cam operated por
a shaft for each of said gears, means for mount
tion positioned between and operated by a pair
of cams carried by a pair of valve operating shafts
ing said shafts for rotation about parallel axes,
and engine valve. operating means driven by said
shafts, said shaft driving means including means 35
accommodating deflection of said crank relative
35 associated therewith, at least one of the cams car
ried by the valve operating shafts of each of said
associated pairs cooperating with a cam carried
by another of said valve operating shafts for op
erating a cam follower of another of said pairs.
22. In an internal combustion engine having a
40
crankshaft and a plurality of radially arranged
cylinders, a plurality of valve operating shafts
having their axes disposed at substantially equal
distances from the axis of rotation of said crank—
45 shaft each carrying a plurality of cams more
than two in number, means for driving said
shafts from said crankshaft, valving means for
said cylinders, and means for operating said
valving means including a plurality of cam fol
50 lowers each adapted for operation by a pair of
cams on adjacent valveshafts.
23. In an internal combustion engine having a
crankshaft and a plurality of cylinders, a plurality
of valve operating shafts each carrying a plurality
to said shaft.
26. In an engine having a crankshaft pro
vided with a cantilever crank pin and a plurality
of valve controlled cylinders radially disposed 40
about said crankshaft, a crankcase, means pro
viding hearings in said crankcase for journalling
said crankshaft, said bearing means being con
?ned to one end of said crankcase, the other end
of said crankcase being partitioned to provide a 45
valve operating chamber, a plurality of valve
operating means including actuating members
having follower portions thereof operably'dis
posed in said chamber, a plurality of actuators
operably disposed in said chamber in operative
engagement with the follower portions of said
actuating members, and means for drivingly con
necting said actuators with said crankshaft. .
ROGER K. LEE.
CERTIFICATE 0F CORRECTION.
Patent No. 2,058,242.
October 20, 1936.
ROGER K. LEE.
It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification
of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 5,
second column, line 23, claim 5, for "shaft" read shafts; and that the
said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the
same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.
Signed and sealed this 1st day of June, A. D. 1957.
Henry Van Arsdale
(Seal)
Acting Commissioner of Patents.
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