Патент USA US2058242код для вставки
Oct. 20, 1936. 2,058,242 R. K. LEE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Original Fil'ed Feb.‘ 16, 1955' s Sheets-Sheet 1‘ .5 INVENTOR‘ Foyer /f. Aee. Oct.2(-),1>936‘. . R_-K_ LEE ' > v 2,058,242 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE _ Original Filed, Feb. 16, 1953 67 6.9- 3 Sheeté-Sheet 2 // ' ’ r 7x4 _ INVENTORi /,222% 2%“ ATTORNEYS. Oct. 20, 1936. R, K_ LEE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ' ENGINE Original Filed Feb. 16, 1953 69@ ‘ Q ‘ ' 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 \ \ \ \ ’ I 2,058,242 / \ 2 ' \ " lill/ /' “$1441.41 s, age)’ Klee. 5% ATTORNEYS. ' 2,058,242», Patented Oct. 20,1936 'ATENT OFFICE mural) sr 2,058,242 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Roger K. Lee, Highland Park, Mich., as‘signor to ’ Chrysler Corporation, Detroit, Mich., a. corpoé ration of Delaware _ Original application February 16, 1933, Serial No. 657,146. Divided and this application June 30, 1934, Serial No. 733,199 26 Claims. (Cl. 123—90) This invention relates to internal combustion engines and refers more particularly to improve ments in engine valve operating mechanisms. 7 This application is adivision of my co-pending 5 or disassembled with respect to the operating cams; and to provide an improved valve operating mechanism conveniently located for operation application Serial No. 657,146, ?led, February from the engine crankshaft but separated from the crankcase to minimize oil travel from the 16, 1933. valving mechanism to the engine cylinders. _ ' It is an object of my invention to provide an im proved valve operating mechanism which may be V _ Further objects and advantages of 'my inven tion will be more apparent from'the' following successfully operated at speeds materially higher detailed description of one illustrative embodi l O than the usual speeds of conventional engines, used for driving motor vehicles, for example. ment thereof, reference being had to the accom While my improvements are not necessarily lim ited in their application to such high speed en gines or to engines for driving motor vehicles, they Fig. 1 is a sectional elevational view longi are particularly adapted to such applications. panying drawings in which; I v, tudinally through my engine, the section being taken along the. line l-I of Fig. I Fig. 2 isa detail sectional View illustrating my i5 My invention is particularly related to internal combustion engines of the type having their cyl inders arranged radially about the crankshaft; also to radial engines of the positive valve operat tion being taken along the line 2-2 of Fig. 1. I Fig. 3 is a further detail sectional View of the ing type. along the line 3-3 of Fig. 2. ' Another object of my invention is to provide improved valve operating means for radial en gines wherein the timing of the valve operations Will be maintained with improved precision, there by resulting in greater engine e?iciency, smooth er engine operation, and adaptability to relatively high engine speeds. A further object of my invention is to provide an improved valve operating means especially adapted for radial engines wherein a plurality of valve operating shafts are cooperatively associ ated with each other and simultaneously driven in a novel manner from the engine. An additional object of my invention resides in the provision of improved means for drivlng the valve shafts wherein the crankshaft drives the valve shafts but the crankshaft and valve driv lng mechanism are free to de?ect relatively to each other. This feature of my invention provides improvements especially in connection with en: gines having cantilever crank pins, my invention making it possible to utilize a crank pin of this type to drive the valve operating mechanism with out influence from crank pin deflections. Still further objects of my invention are to pro vide, especially in a radial engine, valve opera tion mechanism having a relatively low frictional resistance to operation; to provide a valving mechanism wherein cooperating valve shafts drive each valve in a positive manner and wherein the valve shafts rotate in the same direction to minimize discrepancies in the valve timing; to provide an improved arrangement of cam driven valve operating arms especially adapted for a J‘ radial engine, the arms being readily assembled connecting rod and crank pin assembly, the sec assembly shown in Fig.2, the section being taken . _‘ Fig. 4 is a sectional elevational view take-n along the line 4-4 of Fig._ 1 and illustrating the drive from the crankshaft forv operating the. valve shafts. . , . ; Fig. 5 is a detail sectional plan view taken along the line 5-4 of Fig. 6. ' i 25 Fig.. 6 is a side elevational view of the engine illustrated in‘ Fig.1 but on a reduced scale, parts of the cylinders and valve shaft receiving cham ber being broken away to illustrate the valve oper- ‘ ating mechanisms respectively operatively asso- 0 ciated therewith. . r' Fig. '7 is a sectionalplan view looking, down on one of the engine cylinders with the cylinder head cover removed, the section being taken along the ' line 1-1 ofFig. 6. V p . Fig. 8 is a fragmentary side elevational view showinga modi?ed form of valve and operating mechanism therefor. Fig. 9 is a fragmentary sectional elevational view of the parts illustrated in Fig. 8, the section being taken along the line 9—-9 of Fig. 8. i Referring to the drawings, it will be noted that‘ I have illustrated my improvements in‘ an. in-’ ternal combustion engine of the three-cylinder 45 radial type, the engine including a ?xed crank case I G and radially disposed cylinders l'l secured in equiangular relation on said crankcase. The cylinders ll may have any desired suitable con struction, the novel cylinder structure illustrated in the! drawings not forming a part of the‘ subject matter claimed in this application.’ As illustrated ‘in the drawings, each of the cyl-' inders ll may be formed of an inner sleeve I12 and an outer sleeve 53 maintained‘ in concentric 55 2 2,058,242 and spaced relation by a base member i4 and a the forward face of the bearing 43 and by a nut top member or cylinder head l5, these members being suitably bonded to the sleeves. The base members I4 may be provided with ?anges l6 shown in Figs. 5 and 6 by which the cylinders 45 secured to the rear end of the spindle. The forwardly projecting end 4| of the spindle ders in a transverse direction as indicated in 40 forms the engine crank pin on which is jour naled the annular bearing member 28 connected to the aforesaid connecting rod member 2?, and also journals the annular bearing members 47 and 48 on the connecting rods of the remaining cylinders. Referring also to Figs. 2 and 3, it will be noted that the annular bearing member 41 is offset rearwardly to a slight extent relative to its connecting rod member and that the annular bearing member 48 is offset forwardly to a slight extent relative to the tubular member 21 of its connecting rod. All of the bearing members 28, 15 41 and 48 are directly journaled on the crank Fig. 6. Each cylinder is provided with a cylinder head pin M which, in turn, is rotatably journaled rela tive to the crankshaft 34. may be secured to the crank-case by means of bolts I ‘l. The spaced concentric sleeves l2 and 13 provide water-jacket spaces along the cylinder walls, these jacket spaces communicating through 10 ports [9 with water-jacket spaces 20 provided in the top members I5. In the present illustrated embodiment of my invention, the upper surfaces of the top members [5 are square relative to the cylinder in a longitudinal direction as viewed in 15 Fig. 1 but slightly inclined relative to the cylin cover 2| in which are formed Water-jacket spaces 20 22 communicating with the spaces 20 in the top members l5. Referring also to Fig. '7, bolts 23 are provided for securing the cylinder head cové ers 2i to the top members l5, a suitable gasket 24 being disposed between'each top member and A spark plug 25 25 associated cylinder head cover. seen in Fig. 7 is provided in each of the cylinder heads 15. Slidable within the inner sleeve 12 which con stitutes the cylinder wall of each cylinder is a piston 26 which may be of any suitable construc tion and which does not in itself constitute a part of my invention as claimed in this application. The main portion of the connecting rod is indi cated at 21 and may be tubular in form for light 35 ness in weight, an annular bearing member 28 being permanently secured to the tubular rod por tion 21, the bearing member being adapted to engage the crank pin of the engine. The crankcase I0 comprises a substantially 40 cylindrical body member 29 and end members 30 and BI. The parts of the crankcase are prefer ably aluminum or similar light weight metal or alloy castings and the body member 29 is cored as indicated at 32 for the reception of the cylin 4.5 der sleeve l2 and as indicated at 33 in Figs. 5 and 6 for the accommodation of the pairs of cam actuated valve operating arms which will be pres ently described in detail. The end member 30 of the crankcase is substantially bell-shaped and 50 centrally apertured at the smaller end thereof for the reception of a crankshaft 34. This crank shaft is journaled in ball and race types of bear ings 35 and 35 mounted in the crankcase and arranged adjacent the ends of the crankshaft, 55 the bearing 35 being arranged in an enlargement 31 adjacent the central aperture at the rear end of crankcase member 30 and the bearing 36, of considerably larger diameter than bearing 35, be ing mounted in inturned flanges 38 at the rear margin of the body member 29 of the crankcase. The forward portion of the crankshaft 34 is provided with an enlargement 39 in which is journaled, eccentrically with respect to the axis of the crankshaft, a spindle 40 which projects 65 forwardly beyond the end of the crankshaft to provide a crank pin 4|. The spindle 40 is journaled adjacent its for ward end by a roller bearing 42 arranged at the forward end of the enlarged portion 39 and a ball 70 and race type bearing 43 journaled in the rear end of spindle 40 at the rearwardly disposed end of the enlargement 39 of the crankshaft. The spindle 40 is maintained in position within the 75 bearings 42 and 43 by a shoulder 44 which abuts The bearing members 47 and 48, together with a forwardly offset portion of the bearing member 20 28, are disposed in side-by-side relation on the crank pin 4 i , while the rear edge of bearing mem ber 41 abuts a shoulder 49 on the spindle 40 and the rearwardly offset portion of the bearing mem ber 28 abuts another shoulder-portion 50 at its 25 rear edge. The spindle 40 is centrally cored as indicated at 5! and the forward margin is inter nally threaded as indicated at 52. A plug 53 or driving pin for the valve operating mechanism is received within the threaded portion 52 and abuts the forward margin of the bearing member 28 to maintain the bearing members 28, 41 and 48 in assembled relation. The bearing member 28 is slotted as indicated at’ 54 and 55 in Fig. 2 par tially about its periphery so that any two adja cent connecting rods of the group of three will not come into contact even when the connecting rods are at the minimum relative angle. It is apparent that in the present embodiment of my invention all of the connecting rods bear directly 40 on the engine crank pin and all are of the same length so as to insure uniform compression ratio of all of the cylinders of the engine. The struc tural details of the connecting rods do not form a part of this invention and they may be of any 45 appropriate type or construction. During operation of the engine at high speed, the bearing members 28, 47 and 48 of the crank pin 4| and spindle 40 will exert relatively great centrifugal forces on the spindle bearings 42 and 50 43, it being apparent that the bearing 42 must carry the major portion of this load. In order to distribute this load more uniformly between the bearings 42 and 43 and to generally counter balance the moving parts of the engine, I have provided a novel distribution of counterweights fully disclosed in my aforesaid co-pending ap plication. I have herein illustrated a portion of such counterweighting, a counterweight being illustrated in the form of the eccentric mass 56 60 integral with the enlarged portion 39 and dis— posed diametrically opposite the bearing 42. In asmuch as my novel system of counterbalancing is not in itself a part of this invention claimed in this application, the details of the counter 65 weighting system will not be further illustrated or described in this application. My valve operating mechanism which, together with the parts associated therewith constitutes the subject-matter of this application, is capa ble of improved operation at relatively high en gine speeds approximating 5,000 to 10,000 R. P. M., although I do not limit my invention in this respect. Referring particularly to Figs. 1 and 4 to '7 inclusive. the construction and arrangement 3, 2,058,242 of the engine valves and operating means there for will now be described. » ‘ ~ » The body portion 29 of the crankcase I6 is pro vided with a transversely disposed supporting partition 51 in which a hollow stub shaft'58 is supported in alignment with the axis of the crankshaft 34. The partition 5'! divides the crankcase body 29 into the crankcase properin termediate the partition 51 and bearing 36 and driving. allof thecam ‘shafts 65 from a common driving gear .59 andin the same direction. for all of‘ the .va-Ivezshafts, I haveavoided the possi bility' of acollection of errors which mightother wise alter ‘the precision .timing where ‘the shafts ' might be'driven in relatively different directions and from different operating gears. In order to prevent possibility of the plugs 53 from rotating relative to the crank pin 4| and the cam receiving chamber or valve shaft con also ‘for locking the plugs and bearing member ID taining chamber 5'1EL located intermediate the partition 57 and the front cover member 3|. 7 By providing the partition 51 it will be apparent that I have separated the chamber 5'!a from 26 with the crank pin, I have provided vthe snap locking ring 53a best shown in Figs. 1 and 3, this ring ?tting within a groove formed between the plug, 53 and the forwardly extending hub portion of the bearing member 28. One end of the ring 532:“ extends radially inwardly as indicated at. 53*), this end entering suitable openings provided for the accommodation of the ring end and formed in the crankpinflll, .plug 53, and bearing mem ber 28 forpreventing relativerotation of thes 15 the crankcase proper insofar as there is any possibility of lubricating oil being thrown from the cams and valve shafts contained in cham ber 5*!a as will be presently apparent. By thus separating the valve shaft chamber from the crankcase, the engine valve operating cams may be thoroughly lubricated without the lubricating oil being thrown to the engine cylinders which parts .as-will be apparent from :Fig. 3.. otherwise would require the usual four or more chamber 5'!a is-such that a line between the axes ' - ' The arrangement of the valveshafts 65 in the sealing rings associated with the pistons 26 to 25 prevent undue escape of the lubricating oil out 45 50 55 60 of two adjacent shafts will ‘be bisected by a line normal thereto‘ and passing through the axis of 252 wardly. of the cylinders to the engine combustion ’ a valve operating shaft 61 journaled between the chambers. By minimizing the travel of lubricat cylinder head cover 2| and the top member [5 ing oil to the cylinders, I am enabled to reduce of a cylinder H. Each valve shaft 65 has four the number of rings associated with piston 26 earns 68 secured thereto against relative rotation tosubstantially one or two in number as indicated and these 'cams'are, arranged in‘pairs on each , so; at 26a and the frictional loss in the engine is shaft, one pair. of cams being adapted to oper therefore greatly diminished. Furthermore, ate the intake and exhaust valves of one cylinder since the pistons 26 do not have to carry the While cooperating with a. pair of cams on the vnext usual relatively large number of piston rings, adjacent shaft and the other‘ pair of cams is these pistons may be made relatively, short and adapted to cooperate with a‘ pair of cams on the 35; therefore of relatively light weight and this is third shaft to. operate the intake» and exhaust very desirable and bene?cial in minimizing the valves of another cylinder. loads on the crank pin 4| clue to the inertia of Each valve operating shaft 61 has an arm 69 the moving parts as well as permitting the use ?xed thereto which supports a valve 10 at the of a relatively light weight construction for the outer end‘thereof. The valves 10 form the ex 40 connecting rods 2‘! and their associated bearing haust valves for the engine cylinders and each members heretofore referred to. . cooperateswith' a valve seat insert ‘H provided in A gear 59 is provided with an integral disc of the upper portion of the top members l5. The larger diameter than that of the gear and is valves 10 cooperate with the valve seatv inserts journaled upon the stub shaft 58 and maintained ‘H to close the exhaust passages 12 provided in 45 in position by means of a bolt 66. This disc 6| the cylinder head covers 2i. Each valve oper is provided with slot-like apertures 63 elongated ating shaft-61» is also‘ provided with an operating in a radial direction, one of which is adapted arm 13 upon the free end of which is disposeda for engagement with the driving pin. 64 project roll 14 adapted to cooperate with the cams 68 ing from the aforesaid plug 53 threaded into the ?xed to the cam shafts 65. ' 50, end of the crank pin 4|. Each cam upongthe shafts 65 cooperates with By means of the driving pin 64 the gear 60 a suitably shaped cam provided upon an adja and disc 6! are given equal rotation with the cent shaft sothat both cams remain in contact crankshaft, and the slot 63 permits relative move with roll‘ ‘M at all times. These cams are so ment other than rotation of either the stub shaft shaped that when the cam on one shaft begins to 55 58 or crankshaft 34 and crank pin 4! in the event lift the roll 14, the cam surface of the camon of deflection of any of these parts. The provi the other shaft allows the roll 14 to approach the sion of a plurality of the spaced slots 63 permits axis of the latter shaft. In the construction the driving pin 64 to be selectively engageable shown in Fig. 6 the cams which open the/valves with these slots in order to vary or alter the 70 are in the general form of an involute tooth 60 timing relationship between the crankshaft and and the cams which close the valves ‘I0 and co the valve driving mechanism. operated by the disc 6|. A plurality of cam shafts 65, preferably three in number for a three-cylinder radial engine as' operate with the ?rst-mentioned cams are es sentially circular in outline with a wedge-shaped portion removed therefrom. The cam operating shafts 61 are journaled in aligned recesses 15 65 illustrated, are journaled in the supporting ‘.par and 16 provided in' the contacting faces of the tition 51 and the end member 3!, and each cam shaft is provided with a gear 66 arranged in cylinder head covers 2| and top members l5 re spectively. The recesses 16 are enlargedas indi cated/at 11 for the reception of a sleeve 18 to which is ?xed an operating arm 19 for an intake 70 equidistant and equiangular position relative to 70 the axis of the stub shaft 58 and the crankshaft 34. The gears 66 are each of a diameter twice that of gear 59 for the four-stroke cycle'engine illustrated so that each of the cam shafts 65 re ceives equal rotation in the same direction at 75 one-half the speed of the crankshaft‘ ‘3.4; By valve 80. ' ' The operating shafts 6‘! and T8 are teles'coped one within the other so'that one ‘forms-a- bearing for the other‘while additional bearings for these operating shafts? are‘1 providedl- by the cylinder 75 4 2,058,242 head covers 2i and top members I5 of the cylin offset in the direction of their pivots provided ders II. provided with annular shoulder portions 8| which cooperate with correspondingly shaped recesses between the companion bearing portions at the cylinder head and cylinder head cover. Referringwto Figs. 8 and 9, I have shown a 82 in the cylinder head covers and top members to. prevent axial displacement of the valve oper ating shafts. modi?ed form of valve and valve operating mech anism. In this embodiment of my invention the top member I5’ of the cylinder II' is provided The operating arms 89 and 19 may be An operating arm 83 is ?xed to the valve op erating sleeve 18 and the free end of this arm 10 terminates in a roll ‘I4 as previously described. It will be apparent that the arm 83 together with the sleeve or shaft 78 and the arm ‘I9 form a bell crank lever, the lever portions or arms ‘I9 and 83 thereof being spaced axially of the sleeve 15 TI. The cylinder top members I5 and cylinder head covers 2| may be provided with comple mentary extension members 84 adjacent the ends of the recesses ‘15 and 16 to provide outboard bearings for the longer operating shafts 61 and 20 18. The bosses 84 will be different lengths for two of the cylinders and the third cylinder will not require an outboard bearing. As will be noted in Figs. 1 and 6, the rear wardly disposed pair of cams 68 shown in Fig. 25 I cooperates with a pair of cams on another shaft 65 to. operate the valve means for the cylinder shown in Fig. 1, the valve operating arms 13 and 83 being mounted on the shafts BI and 78 at points adjacent the side of the cylinder head cover 2| as 30 indicated in Fig. l. The valves of another cyl inder require shafts of a length indicated in Fig. 6 and the operating arms therefor cooperate with the pair of cams 68 shown in the foremost posi tion in Fig. 1. The cams for operating the valves 35 of the remaining cylinder are not shown in Fig. l but are mounted on the two remaining cam shafts 85 and occupy the intermediate position between the pairs of cams shown on the valve shaft 65. In the case of the last mentioned cyl inder the valve shafts will be of an intermediate length and the extension members 84 will ter minate at a point indicated by the dot and dash line 85 of Fig. 8. Casing members 86 cover the cored out openings 33 in the crankcase body por tion 29 and also cover the valve operating arms ‘I3 and 83. These casing members may be at tached to the crankcase portion 29 by screws 81 as indicated in Fig. 6. It will be noted that the openings or slots 33 provide guides for the arms 50 ‘I3 and 83. The arms ‘I3 and 83 are freely engaged by the cams so that the arms may be withdrawn or as sembled into engagement with the cams by a simple outward or inward movement thereof. 55 In Figs. 1 to '7, the cylinders are illustrated as forming a unitary assembly with each valve op‘ erating mechanism associated therewith, the cyl inder head cover 2| being removable independ ently of this assembly. 60 By providing the aforesaid outwardly extending arms 13 and 83 carried by the outer end of the associated cylinder and extending inwardly in the general direction of the cylinder for freely engaging the operating cams 98, each cylinder 65 may expand and contract under temperature va riations without binding the operating mecha— nism. When such temperature changes take place the various lever arms ‘I3 and 83 merely lightly move radially inwardly or outwardly at 70 the earns 68, the cam operated valve timing being unchanged for all practical purposes and notice able results in the engine operation. It will further be apparent that the cams 68 may be located offset from the plane of the cyl 75 inder axis, the bell cranks having their lever arms with an upper surface which lies in a plane per pendicular to the cylinder axis, this surface re ceiving the cylinder head structure H’ which is secured thereto. A poppet valve ‘I9’ is provided with a hollow stem 93 which is internally thread ed to receive the lug 94 of a guide means 95. A look nut 96 may be provided to maintain the lug 94 and stem 93 in locked adjustment. A valve guide 91 is provided to slidably receive the stem 93 and by loosening the nut 93 the valve stem may be rotated on the threaded lug 94 to axially adjust the stem relative to lug 94 and thereby adjust the valve 10' relative to its seat. A slide member‘ 98 is pivotally connected to the end of operating arm 99 and slidably received within the guide 95. The operating arm 99 is secured to a valve operating shaft 61' to which is also secured the operating arm ‘I3’ extending inwardly of the associated cylinder to the valve operating cams 68’ substantially in accordance with the prior embodiment. The intake valve associated with cylinder I I’ is not illustrated al though from the teaching of my prior embodi ment it will be apparent that this intake valve is operated substantially in accordance with my prior embodiment employing a mechanism of the type illustrated in Fig. .9. 10 15 20 25 The intake valve is thus provided with a simi 35 lar guide 95 operated by an arm 99’ secured to the sleeve 18' which, in turn, is operated by the inwardly extending lever arm 83' the lower end of which is adaptedfor operation by a pair of cams 68'. In Figs. 8 and 9 the journal for the 40 shafts 81' and ‘I8’ is provided by a bracket I89 ex tending from the cylinder head 2I' and the co operating bearing cap member “II. It will be understood that each cylinder of the engine shown in Fig. 1 may be constructed in accord 45 ance with the embodiment of my invention illus trated in Figs. 8 and 9 and to avoid duplication I have not illustrated the engine proper in asso ciation with the modi?ed embodiment of my in‘ vention. The cam members 68' mounted on the valve shafts 65 are, as before, shaped to afford posi tive opening and closing movements of the valves associated with the cylinders II’ and in this in stance the cam for opening the valve 78’, for ex 55 ample, is essentially wedge-shaped while the cam employed for closing the valve T8’ is of cir cular outline with an arcuate portion removed therefrom. The outlines of the cams 68' are so shaped that as one cam is lifting the operating arm ‘I3’ or 83' the other cam allows such lifting movement while maintaining the cam surfaces of both cams in contact with the end of the oper ating arm. As in the case of the previous embodiment it 65 will be apparent that the respective pairs of lat erally extending valve actuating arms and down wardly extending cam actuated arms form bell crank levers, the component lever arms of each bell crank being spaced axially of the rocking 7,0 sleeve or shaft to which the pairs of arms are attached. ' It will be noted that in Fig. 9 the lever arm 99 is connected by the slide 98 to positively recipro cate the valve stem 93 and to compensate for the 75 2,058,242 variation in distance between the lever support shaft axis, means for driving said shafts from and valve stem axis during reciprocation of the said crankshaft, and a plurality of means each. stem and valve. The slide 98 acts substantially driven from pairs of said shafts for operating the. along the axis of the valve stem and slides trans 1 versely to said axis. In the embodiment of my invention illustrated in Figs. 8 and 9, the valve operating mechanism may be readily assembled and disassembled as a unitary assembly into engagement with or out 10' of engagement from the operating cams 68’ by moving the operating mechanism including arms 13' and 83’ in the general direction of the asso ciated cylinder ll’, viz., outwardly or inwardly as in the case of the Fig. 1 embodiment. How 15 ever, in Figs. 8 and 9, the valve operating mech anism for each cylinder may be assembled or dis assembled as a unitary assembly without disturb ing the associated cylinder since each mechanism may be movedas a unitary assembly with the 20 cylinder head 2|’. When the cylinder head 2!’ is removed from v the cylinder with the valve operating mechanism, the valves may then be readily reached from the underside of the cylinder head and the valves 25 unscrewed to release the driving mechanism from the valve stems at the threaded lug 94. An advantage, in addition to those aforesaid, of my'sliding member 98 resides in facilitating the manufacture and assembly of the valve oper 30 ating mechanism by providing a self-alignment of the parts without requiring extreme accuracy of machining and location of parts. Thus, the distances between the axes of the valve stems 93 and shafts '61’ and 18’ may slightly vary since 35 the slide 98 will readily accommodate itself to such variations. In each embodiment of my invention, the cams for operating the bell crank levers are located laterally adjacent the inner end of the cylinders while the supports for the actuating bell crank levers are spaced circumferentially of the cams, such arrangement being of particular advantage for radially arranged cylinders. In order to effi ciently transmit the positive valve movement .45 from the cams, the cam actuated bell crank lever arms ‘I3, 83 and 13', 83' extend upwardly and outwardly from the cams to the bell crank lever supports, the other lever arms 69, 79 or 99, 99' being offset from the respectively connected cam '50 actuated lever arms so as to extend inwardly at the outer cylinder ends from the lever supports to the valves. The pair of bell crank levers and associated mechanisms for a single cylinder are'claimed in 55 my co-pending application Serial No. ‘726,488 ?led May 19, 1934, the'subject application being particularly directed to my valve operating mech anisms for multiple cylinders especially when ra dially arranged, the drive from the engine to the T60 valve operating mechanisms, the construction and arrangement of the crankcase and cam shaft chamber, and other features noted hereinbefore in the objects and speci?cation of my invention. 'Various modi?cations and changes will be ap 65 parent from the teachings of my invention, as set forth in the appended claims, and it is not my intention to limit my invention to the particular details of construction and operation shown and described’ for illustrative purposes. 70 What I'claim is: 1. In an engine having a crankshaft and a plu rality of' cylinders radially disposed about said crankshaft, valving means associated with each of said cylinders, a plurality of valve operating 175 shafts having their axes parallel to the crank valving means of said cylinders. . l 2. In an engine having a crankshaft and a plu rality of cylinders radially disposed about said crankshaft, valving means associated witheach of said cylinders, a plurality of ‘valve operating shafts having their axes parallel to the crank shaft axis and lying substantially at equal radial distances fromsaid crankshaft axis, means for driving said shafts in the same direction of ro-~ tation from said crankshaft, and a pluralityof means each driven from pairs of said shafts for operating the valving means of ‘said cylinders. 15, 3. In an engine having a crankshaft and a plu rality of cylinders radially disposed about said crankshaft, valving means associated with each of said cylinders, a plurality of valve operating shafts equal in number to the number of said cyl inders and having’ their axes’ parallel ,to the crankshaft axis, cams carried by each of said shafts, means for driving said shaft from said crankshaft, and means for operating said valving means including a cam follower associated with each of said cylinders and positioned for operation by camson a pair of said shafts. ' 2s 25 1 4. In an engine having a crankshaft and aplu rality of cylindersradially disposed about said crankshaft, valving means associated with>each ‘of said cylinders, a plurality of valve operating shafts having their axes parallel to the crank shaft axis, a plurality of- pairs of cams carried by each of said shafts, means-for driving‘said shafts from said crankshaft, and means for oper ating said valving means including a plurality of pairs of cam followers, each vof said pairr‘of cam followers being positioned for operation by a pair of cams on two adjacent shafts. ' 5. In an engine having a crankshaft and a plu 30. 35 4.0 rality of cylinders radially disposed about'said crankshaft, valving means associated with’each of said cylinders, ‘a plurality of "valve operating shafts having their axes parallel to‘ the crank shaft axis, a plurality of‘ pairs 'of cams carried 45 by each of said‘ shafts, means for 'drivingsaid shafts from said crankshaft, and means for op erating said valvingmeans including a plurality of pairs of cam followers, each of said~pair of cam followers being positioned for operation by a 50 pair of cams on two adjacent shafts, each of ‘said pairs of cam followers being adapted to operate the valving means of one of ‘said cylinders; 6. In an engine having a crankshaft'and a plu rality of cylinders radially disposed'about'said crankshaft, valving means associated with each of said cylinders, a plurality of valve'operating shafts having their axes parallel to the crank shaft axis, a plurality of pairs "of oamscarried by each of ‘said shafts, means for driving said to shafts from said‘crankshaft, and means for oper ating said valving. means including a plurality of pairs of arms extending outwardly'of the-~en-, gine, each pair of said arms having their inner vends positioned between pairs of said shafts, each 1.165 of said arms being actuated by a pair of cams ‘ carried by a pair of said shafts. '7. In an engine having a crankshaft'and a plu rality of cylinders radially disposed about said crankshaft, valving means associated with each .70 of said cylinders,‘ a plurality of valve operating 'sha'fts‘iha’ving their axes-parallel 'to the crank shaft axis, a disc concentric with said crank shaft, means for driving said disc from said-crank shaft, a pinion driven by said disc, ‘each of said 6 2,058,242 shafts having a gear driven by said pinion, and means operated by said shafts for actuating said 16. In an engine having a crankshaft and a plurality of cylinders radially disposed about said crankshaft, valving means associated with each of said cylinders, a plurality of valve operating shafts having their axes parallel to the crank crankshaft, each of said cylinders having a plu rality of valving means associated with the outer ends thereof, a plurality of valveshafts equal in: number to the number of said cylinders and posi-v tioned adjacent the inner ends of said cylinders, means for mounting said valveshafts with their . shaft axis, a disc concentric with said crankshaft, axes parallel to the crankshaft axis, means for valving means. 8. In an engine having a crankshaft and a plurality of cylinders radially disposed about said 10' means for driving said disc from said crankshaft, a pinion driven by said disc, each of said shafts having a gear driven by said pinion whereby said shafts are driven in unison and in the same ro -» tational direction, and means operated by said 15 shafts for actuating said valving means. 9. In a radial engine having a crankshaft pro vided with a cantilever crank pin, engine valve operating means adapted to be driven from said crank pin, and means for driving said valve oper 20' atlng means including a connection between said crank pin and said valve operating means, said connection being adapted to accommodate de ?ection of said crank pin relative to said valve _ operating means connected thereto. 25 10. In a radial engine having a crankshaft pro vided with a cantilever crank pin, engine valve operating means adapted to be driven from said crank pin, and means for driving said valve oper ating means including a connection between said 30 crank pin and said valve operating means, said connection being adapted to unrestrictedly ac commodate de?ection of said crank pin. 11. In a radial engine having a crankshaft pro vided with a cantilever crank pin, engine valve 35 operating means adapted to be driven from said crank pin, and means for driving said valve oper ating means including a connection between said crank pin and said valve operating means, said connection being adapted to transfer rotation of 40 said crank pin to said valve operating means and to freely accommodate radial de?ection of said crank pin. 12. In an engine having a crankshaft provided with a crank pin, a disc rotatably driven by said 45 crank pin, a gear rotating with said disc, valve shafts drivingly connected with said gear and grouped around the axis of rotation of said gear, cams mounted on said valveshafts, and engine valve operating means driven by pairs of cams 50 on adjacents valveshafts. 13. In a radial engine having a cantilever crank pin carried by the engine crankshaft, a drive pin projecting from the free end of said crank pin, a driving said valveshafts in unison from said 10 crankshaft, a plurality of bell crank levers each having an arm thereof extending generally in wardly of the engine for actuation by a pair of said valveshafts, means for supporting said bell crank levers, each of said bell crank levers hav 15 ing its other arm operably connected to one of said valving means. 17. In an engine having a crankshaft provided with a cantilever crank pin and a plurality of multiple valve controlled cylinders radially dis 20 posed about said crankshaft, a plurality of valve shafts grouped in “angularly spaced relation ad jacent the projecting end of said crank pin, said valveshafts having their axes parallel with the crankshaft axis, means for driving said valve 25 shafts from said crank pin, a plurality of bell crank levers adapted to positively operate the valves of said cylinders, said levers each having one arm thereof operably connected to one of said valves, said levers having their other arms grouped 30 in pairs spaced about the axis of rotation of said‘ crankshaft and extending generally outwardly therefrom, the inner ends of said pairs of, arms lying between a pair of said valveshafts for actu ation thereby, and means for pivotally support 35 ing said levers with the levers having said pairs of arms pivoting on a common axis. 18. In an engine having a, crankshaft provided with a cantilever crank pin and a plurality of multiple valve controlled cylinders radially dis 40 posed about said crankshaft, a plurality of valve shafts grouped in angularly spaced relation adja cent the projecting end of said crank pin, said valveshafts having their axes parallel with the crankshaft axis, a plurality of cooperating pairs 45 of cams carried by adjacent valveshafts, means for driving said valveshafts in unison and in the same rotational direction from said crank pin, a plurality of bell crank levers adapted to positively operate the valves of said cylinders, said levers 50 each having one arm thereof operably connected to one of said valves, said levers having their other arms grouped in pairs spaced about said valve disc mounted on an axis concentric with the axis shafts and extending outwardly therefrom, the of said crankshaft and driven by said drive pin, cam carrying valveshafts grouped around said axis, and engine valve operating means driven by the cams of adjacent valveshafts. inner ends of the last said arms each lying be tween one of said cooperating pairs of cams for 14. In a radial engine having a cantilever crank 60 pin carried by the engine crankshaft, .a drive pin projecting from the free end of said crank pin, a disc mounted on an axis concentric with the axis of said crankshaft and driven by said drive pin, and engine valve operating means driven by 65 said disc, said drive pin having radial movement relative to said disc. 15. In an engine having a crankshaft and a plurality of cylinders radially disposed about said crankshaft, each of said cylinders having a plu rality of valving means associated therewith, camshafts equal in number to the number of said cylinders, means for driving said camshafts from said crankshaft, and means driven by pairs of said camshafts for operating valving means for 75 each of said cylinders. operation thereby. 19. In an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and a plurality of cylinders, a plu rality of valve operating shafts each carrying a 60 plurality of cams more than two in number, means for driving said shafts from said crankshaft, valving means for said cylinders, and means for operating said valving means including a plu rality of pairs of cam followers, each pair being 65 adapted for operation by an associated pair of valve operating shafts, each cam follower of each of said pairs having a cam operated portion posi tioned between and operated by a pair of cams carried by a pair of valve operating shafts asso 70 ciated therewith, at least one .of the cams carried by the valve operating shafts of each of said associated pairs cooperating with a cam carried by another of said valve operating shafts for op erating a cam follower of another of said pairs. 75 7 2,058,242 20. In an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and a plurality .of cylinders, a plural ity of valve operating shafts each carrying a plu rality of cams more than two in number, means for driving said shafts from said crankshaft, valving means for said cylinders, means for oper ating said valving means including a plurality of of cams more than two in number, means for pairs of cam followers, each pair being adapted pairs having a cam operated portion positioned between and operated by a pair of cams carried by a pair of valve operating shafts associated groups, said cams of each valve operating shaft cooperating with pairs of cams on shafts adja cent thereto for operating a plurality of said 10 paired groups of cam followers. 24. In an engine, a crankshaft having a crank connected at one end with said crankshaft and therewith, at least one of the cams carried by the having its opposite end extending cantilever-like, for operation by an associated pair of valve oper 10 ating shafts, each cam follower of each of said 15 valve operating shafts of each of said associated pairs cooperating with a cam carried by another of said valve operating shafts for operating a cam follower of another of said pairs, and means for mounting the cam followers of said pairs on a 20 common axis of pivotal support. 21. In an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and a plurality of cylinders, a plu rality of valve operating shafts corresponding in number to the number of said cylinders and each 25 carrying a plurality of cams more than two in driving said shafts from said crankshaft, valving means for said cylinders, means for operating said valving means including a plurality of cam followers each adapted for operation by a pair of cams on adjacent valveshafts, and means for op erably positioning said cam followers in paired a shaft concentric with the axis of rotation of 15 said crankshaft, means for driving said shaft from said crank at the same rotational speed as that of said crankshaft, a driving pinion'on said shaft, a plurality of gears driven by said pinion, a shaft for each of said gears, means for mount ing said shafts for rotation about parallel axes, and engine valve operating means driven by said shafts. 25. In an engine, a crankshaft having a crank connected at one end with said crankshaft and 25 number, means for driving said shafts from said crankshaft, valving means for said cylinders, and means for operating said valving means includ ing a plurality of pairs of cam followers, each having its opposite end extending cantilever-like, pair being adapted for operation by an associated pair of valve operating shafts, each cam follower that of said crankshaft, a driving pinion on said 30 a shaft concentric with the axis of rotation of said crankshaft, means for driving said shaft from said crank at the same rotational speed as shaft, a plurality of gears driven by said pinion, of each of said pairs having a cam operated por a shaft for each of said gears, means for mount tion positioned between and operated by a pair of cams carried by a pair of valve operating shafts ing said shafts for rotation about parallel axes, and engine valve. operating means driven by said shafts, said shaft driving means including means 35 accommodating deflection of said crank relative 35 associated therewith, at least one of the cams car ried by the valve operating shafts of each of said associated pairs cooperating with a cam carried by another of said valve operating shafts for op erating a cam follower of another of said pairs. 22. In an internal combustion engine having a 40 crankshaft and a plurality of radially arranged cylinders, a plurality of valve operating shafts having their axes disposed at substantially equal distances from the axis of rotation of said crank— 45 shaft each carrying a plurality of cams more than two in number, means for driving said shafts from said crankshaft, valving means for said cylinders, and means for operating said valving means including a plurality of cam fol 50 lowers each adapted for operation by a pair of cams on adjacent valveshafts. 23. In an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and a plurality of cylinders, a plurality of valve operating shafts each carrying a plurality to said shaft. 26. In an engine having a crankshaft pro vided with a cantilever crank pin and a plurality of valve controlled cylinders radially disposed 40 about said crankshaft, a crankcase, means pro viding hearings in said crankcase for journalling said crankshaft, said bearing means being con ?ned to one end of said crankcase, the other end of said crankcase being partitioned to provide a 45 valve operating chamber, a plurality of valve operating means including actuating members having follower portions thereof operably'dis posed in said chamber, a plurality of actuators operably disposed in said chamber in operative engagement with the follower portions of said actuating members, and means for drivingly con necting said actuators with said crankshaft. . ROGER K. LEE. CERTIFICATE 0F CORRECTION. Patent No. 2,058,242. October 20, 1936. ROGER K. LEE. It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 5, second column, line 23, claim 5, for "shaft" read shafts; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office. Signed and sealed this 1st day of June, A. D. 1957. Henry Van Arsdale (Seal) Acting Commissioner of Patents.