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Патент USA US2058814

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Oct. 27,1936.
v. w. MOODY
Filed March 9, 1955
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Patented Oct. 27, 1936
Virginius W. Moody, Jackson Heights, N. Y., as
signor to Reynolds Metals Company, New York,
N. Y., a corporation of Delaware
Application March 9, 1935, Serial No. 10,160
2 Claims. (Cl. 62-—91.5)
The present invention has to do with refrig- - the various elements shown to provide a satis
eration and relates particularly to a valve used
factory circulatory system for the smallest of
in a brine circulating system.
household refrigerators as well“ as for the largest
It has been common to employ mechanical
5 valves in brine circulating systems. Such valves
require packing and ordinarily use non-metallic
facings in the valves. From time to time, adjust
The schematic representation of a circulatory
leak-proof. The facings generally are of leather
which is quickly devitalized becausev of the chem
system embodying the subject matter of the
present invention employs solidi?ed carbon di 10
ical characteristics of the brine. The leather
warps or decomposes with a resulting inaccuracy
in the seating of the valve. The systems that
by the sublimation of such carbon dioxide en
properly seating.
ergizes the circulating system. In the illustrated
form of the invention, there is a container l0
having a cover II. There is between the con 15
tainer l0 and the cover II a suitable gasket 12
to make the container gas-tight when thedevice
Adjacent the top of the con
Over these‘ disadvantages, the present inven
tainer I0 is an aperture to which a gas conduit
, tion provides a system in which but one valve ad
I3 is connected. At the bottom of the container
ID are two apertures. In the container and of
suitable form and arrangement, is a coil l4, one
end l5 of which projects through one of the
tial adjustment or assembly. There are no mov
~ ing parts in the valve; there is no decomposi
tion of the valve material; and the presence of
dirt and debris does not effect its operation.
There is no possibility of jamming the valve,
there is no problem of leakage from warping,
shrinking or improper adjustments, and the
valve itself provides a safety measure not pos
3 O sible in any valve having moving mechanical
The objects of the invention, among others,
include the following:
A liquid valve suitable for use in the brine cir
culating system of refrigerating apparatus;
A valve free from‘ mechanical parts and free
from materials subject to decomposition in the
brine of such a system;
apertures adjacent the bottom of the container.
The other end I6 of the coil I4 projects through
the second aperture adjacent the bottom of the
The connection of the gas conduit [3 and the
insertion of the coil I 4 in respect to the several
apertures in the container is such that there can
be no leakage of gas between the. conduit 1 3 and
container l0 and around the apertures through
which the ends l5 and it of the coil project.
The system for circulating brine comprises a
-conduit I‘! connected to the end iii of coil Ill and
a conduit l8 connected to the end i5 of said coil
M. In the conduit iii are a number of coils H!
which are disposed in the space, room or cham
A valve free from packings of any sort and
40 suitable for use in a brine circulating system;
A valve in which mercury is substituted for
mechanically moving parts and which is suitable
ber to be refrigerated. From- coils IS, a suitable
conduit 2|] extends for the return of the brine to 40
the circulating system.
A novel construction for a mercury trap valve.
These objects, and such other objects as may
hereinafter appear, are obtained by the novel
‘To urge the refrigerating brine into the con
duit ll running to the coil 14 and to receive the
brine discharged from the circulatory system, dis
charged from conduit 20, two ta‘nks 2| ‘and 22 45
are provided. These are generally superposed.
construction, unique arrangement, and improved
They may be in the form of a single tank having -
for use in a brine circulating system; and ‘
oxide as a refrigerant. The gas which is released
is functioning.
justment is ever necessary and that is the ini
description hereinafter given.
ments are required and such valves are seldom
employ mechanical valves have di?iculties aris
15 ing from the‘presence of dirt and debris in the
brine. Such dirt and debris has a tendency to
collect in the valve to prevent the valve from
of cold storage plantsw
Like reference characters are used to desig 5
nate similar parts in the drawing and in the
combination of the several elements combined in ‘a partition suitably disposed thereacross. The
the form of vthe invention schematically illus
capacity of the lower tank 22 should‘be less thanv
the capacity of the upper tank 2! so that the en 50
50 trated in the‘ accompanying single sheet of draw
tire contents of the circulatory, system may be
The apparatus shown in the drawing is but forced out of the lower tank into the upper tank
one form which the invention may assume. The with ample room therefor to prevent an overflow.
construction and arrangement of parts is a mat
In tank 2!, there is a vent to charge the sys-'
55 ter of great ?exibility. It is possible to modify tem with brine. The vent is closed by cap 23. In 55
addition, there is a breather tube 24 which ex
tends preferably from the top wall of the tank 2|
to the open atmosphere. The brine discharge
conduit 20 empties in the tank 2| preferably at
or adjacent to the top thereof.
In tank 22, there is an aperture adjacent to the
bottom thereof to receive the end of the conduit
|1 through which brine ?ows to the cooling coil
l4 within the container I0. Beneath the tank 22
10 is a mercury trap. This comprises a vessel 25 of
relatively small capacity directly connected to
the tank 22 by a conduit 26. The mercury trap 25
has a substantially flat bottom wall 21 which has
thereina small depression or pocket 28.
will result in a relatively shallow pool of mer
cury over the upper side of wall 21.
Suitable brine is then poured into the tank
2| through the vent therein. The quantity of
brine is measured so that the amount is sub
stantially the capacity of the lower tank 22.
This will be less than the capacity of. the tank
2|. Such brine will ?ow into the tube 29 and
downwardly into the mercury trap 25, The
height of the column of brine will be such that 10
it will displace the mercury in and collected
about the lower end of the mercury tube. The'
major portion of the brine will ?ow through the
mercury trap 25, and ?ow upwardly into the tank
The / 22, there remaining of course a relatively small 15
Extending upwardly through the mercury trap quantity of such brine in the tube 29 above the
mercury collected in the pocket 28. The" air
25 is a tube 29, the lower end of which is in a .
pipe 36 is useful at this time and during the
horizontal plane in substantial alinement with operation of the device to prevent trapping of
the ?at wall 21 forming the bottom of the mer
air within the tube 29 and such tube prevents 20
20 cury trap 25. The end of the tube 29 preferably is _ the possibility of the mercury, in conjunction
about a_ quarter of an inch from the bottom of with trapped air, forming a seal in such tube
pocket 28 in a household refrigerator, the lower
which would prevent the ready ?ow of the'brine
most section of the tube 29 being about M4 inch through the tube 29 in the manner just de
removed from any adjacent mercury supporting scribed. After the cap 23 is placed on the vent
25 surface. The tube 29 extends out of the top wall
in tank 2|, solidi?ed carbon dioxide is then
30 of the mercury trap 25 through the bottom wall placed in the container HI and the cover ||
of the container 22 to contiguity with the bottom fastened securely thereon to prevent the escape
15 pocket 28 is preferably shallow.
wall of the container 2|. As shown, tube 29 ter
minates in a furmel-like or ?aring section 3|
30 which has a vertical ?ange 32 thereabout.
I In the mercury trap 25, there is at the bottom
of the pocket 28 a discharge ori?ce which is suit-v
of gas.
The solidi?ed carbon dioxide immediately be 30
gins to sublimate. In so doing, it builds up a
gas pressure within the container l0. Such pres
sure extends outwardly through the gas conduit
ably sealed by a screw block 33/ or the like and -i3 and into the upper section of the brine tank
there is a vent at a higher level in the trap 25
22. The escape of the gas through the valve 40 35
35 sealed in the same manner by. screw block 34.
is prevented for such valve is thermostatically
An air escape tube 36 may be disposed within '
controlled and will open only when the atmos
the tube 29 connecting the tank 2| and the mer
cury trap 25. The lower end of the tube 35 is
at a slightly higher level than the normal level
40 of the mercury in the trap 25, the upper end of
the tube 36 to extend into proximity with the top
of the tank 2|. The upper end of the tube 35
should be above any possible level that the brine
may reach in the upper tank 2| . The air tube 36
45 permits of the escape of air which might other
wise be trapped in the tube 29 and which be
cause of the mercury at one side and the brine
at the other side might tend .to produce a seal in
the tube 29 preventing the" brine from ?owing
50 freely downwardly in the tube 29.
There is a gas conduit |3, as previously indi
Tcated, extending from the container lo. Conduit
|3 has one leg 38, extending to the upper sec-l
tion of the tank 22. It has another leg 39 which
55 extends to a temperature controlled gas valve 40.
vThe temperature control valve 40 when open al
lows gas to escape into a conduit 4| which may be
connected to the breather tube 24 running from
the tank 2| and heretofore described orit may
discharge directly to the atmosphere if preferred.
When the apparatus is assembled in the man
ner shown in the schematic drawing, it is rendered
operable by closing the mercury drain vent 33.
Mercury is then poured into the mercury trap
65 25 through the upper vent in the trap 25. There
phere thereabout has reached a predetermined
low level. The thermostat is marked 31.
- As the amount of gas which sublimes from the 40
solid carbon dioxide increases, its pressure in
creases and it establishes a pressure within the
brine tank 22 equal to that within the container
l0. Such pressure is distributed throughout the
contents of the tank 22 and brine is forced there
from into the cooling coil |4 within the container
Hi to make room for the increasing volume of gas.
Such pressure also effects the mercury in the
mercury trap 25 and the mercury which is im
miscible with the brine is forced upwardly in " 50
the tube 29. Asmercury is displaced upwardly
in such tube from the pocket 28, the excess
volume of mercury within the mercury trap 25
runs vinto the pocket so that until a certain
de?nite limit of pressure is attained, only‘ mer 55
cury will be forced upwardly in the tube 29.
As the mercury is approximately thirteen times
heavier than the brine, that is, has a speci?c
gravity thirteen times greater. than that of the
brine, brine will be forced upwardly thirteen 60
inches in conduit |1, coil l4‘, conduit I8, and
coil |9[f01‘ every inch of mercury that is forced
upwardly in the tube 29. If four inches of
mercury are forced upwardly in the tube 29.
the brine in conduit |1, coil l4, conduit l8 and 65
coil l9 will be forced approximately ?fty-two
after the screw plug 34 for such upper vent is inches, which is as great a height as is necessary
forced home to seal the mercury trap 25.
' in ordinary household refrigeration.
The depth of the mercury pool should be ‘slight
With the continued sublimation of the solidi
even in large installations. A relatively thin sub
?ed carbon dioxide, the major portion of the 70
brine is forced out of the tank 22 through the
inch. The greatest depth of the mercury will be conduit H to the cooling coil M where it is
in the pocket 28 in the mercury trap 25 below rapidly chilled by the solidi?ed carbon dioxide
the end of the tube 29. But one-sixteenth inch resting upon such coil I4, into the conduit l8,
of the mercury in such pool should extend up the and. through the refrigerating coils I9, and. from
75 walls of said tube 29 from the bottom edge. This
the refrigerating coils l9 where there is heat ex
change with the contents of the chamber with
in which said coils are disposed, through the
discharge conduit 20 and into the upper tank
at. As the brine is discharged into the tank
til, the air therein is displaced therefrom and
escapes by way of the breather M. The breather
2t, therefore, prevents any possibility of gas
pressure into the tank 2|.
The thermostat 31 is disposed in such positive
juxtaposition to coils it that before all of the
brine from ‘tank 22 shall have passed into tank
H, such brine will suf?ciently chill the thermo
stat t'l to open valve 4|). Should a single surge
15 of brine through coil I9 not lower the tempera
ture of the cabinet or chamber to the desired
level, the then chilled thermostat M will quickly
absorb heat from the chamber and expand to
close valve 4|]. Another surge of brine will then
20 be sent into coils Hi. This operation will be re
peated inde?nitely until the temperature of the
cabinet or chamber has been reduced su?iciently
to maintain valve 40 in a ?xed open position
and so permit the continuously sublimating gas
25 to escape through vent 24. At any time during
the movement of the brine, the atmosphere
within .the chamber to be cooled has reached a
predetermined low level, the thermostatically
controlled valve #0 will open and the gas in the
30 container l0 and in the tank 22 and in the con
duits therebetween will escape through the valve
40 and breather 24. The entire system will im
mediately be reduced -to atmospheric pressure.
.As soon as the valve 40 opens and the gas
35 pressure within the whole system is reduced to ,,
atmospheric, whatever brine has collected in
tank 2| flowsback through tube 29 into mercury
trap 25 and then outwardly through tube 26 into
tank 22. That part of the brine collected in the
conduits and elsewhere in the system other than
in tank 2| will flow back to tank 2|.
Should the thermostatically controlled valve
40 for any reason fail to work, no harm may
result. As the gas pressures are built up in the
45 tank 22, the brine is forced therefrom and even-~
Should the-circulatory system for any reason
become clogged, the increased pressure in the
tank 22 will be communicated to the mercury
trap 25 and eventually all of the mercury in the
trap 25 forced upwardly in the tube 29‘except
a small quantity thereof which would remain
in the pocket 28. When the amount of mercury
forced upwardly in the tube 29 reduces the sup
ply of mercury in the trap 25 to a predetermined
amount, then brine will be forced into the tube 10
29 and eventually all of the brine will be driven
from the trap 25 along with the mercury into
the tube 29. When this abnormal condition is
attained, then gas will follow the mercury and
brine up, the tube 29 bubbling therethrough and 15
escaping into the tank 2| and from the tank 2i
to the atmosphere by the breather 24.
What is claimed as new and is desired to be
secured by Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A circulatory system for a cooling medium 20
and comprising a storage tank, a discharge tank
to receive the medium from said storage tank,
a conduit between said tanks and having refrig
erating coils therein, a return conduit from the
discharge tank to the storage tank, means in said 25
storage tank to receive a quantity of mercury for
forming a well about the discharge end of said
return conduit; and means in said discharge tank
for trapping mercury forced out of said storage
tank into said discharge tank through said re 30
turn conduit.
2. A system for the circulation of a cooling
medium and comprising a storage tank, a dis
charge tank above said storage tank, a conduit
between said tanks and having refrigerating coils 35
therein, a return conduit from the discharge
tank to the storage tank, means in said stor
age tank for receiving a body of mercury, an end
of the return conduit being immersed in said
body of mercury, a conduit extending from with 40
in the return conduit to the atmosphere for the
escape of gas trapped in said return conduit,
means for increasing the pressure in said storage
tank to force cooling medium therefrom through
tually all of such brine above the level of the
conduit I‘! will be driven from lower tank 22.
the refrigerating coil conduit and into the dis- ‘
When this occurs, the gas may escape through
means for reducing such pressure.
charge tank, and thermostatically actuated
the circulatory system into the tank 2| and to
50 the atmosphere by way of the breather 24.
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