Патент USA US2060203код для вставки
Nov. 10, 1936. J. H. HAMMOND. JR CALOR IFIG RADIATION DETONATOR Filed Jan. 5, 1934 Ii 2,060,203 2,060,203 Patented Nov. 10, 1936 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ' 2,060,203 CALORIFIC RADIATION DETONATOB John Hays Hammond, Jr., Gloucester, Mass. Application January 5, 1934, Serial No. 705,359 9 Claims. (Cl. 114-21) ‘The invention relates to ordnance devices and The interior of the tube I1 is painted a flat black so as not to re?ect any light. Positioned more particularly to torpedoes. pedo may be provided with radiation sensitive at the focus of the lens I8 is a photoelectric cell l9 which is connected to two brushes 20 and 2| ship. commutator is driven at any suitable speed by According ‘to one form of the invention, a tor which engage a commutator 22 which is made 5 5 devices which control the detonation‘ of the ex ‘plosive charge thereof when it passes beneath a‘ - up to two conducting segments 23 and 25. The The torpedo mechanism may include a heat sensitive device and a light sensitive device. The heat sensitive device may be arranged to 10 control the detonation of the war head of the torpedo. The light sensitive device may govern thecontrol exercised by the heat sensitive device. ' The invention also may provide a means where‘ by the detonation of the war head of the torpedo 15 is delayed a predetermined time after the light . sensitive means had passed into the shadow of the ship in order to allow the explosion to occur near the central portion of the vessel, where it would be most effective, rather than at the so called “blister” where it would be comparatively ineffective. , ' The invention also consists in certain new and original features of construction and combina tions of parts hereinafter set forth and claimed. Although the novel features which are believed 25 to be characteristic of this invention will be par ticularly pointed out in the claims appended hereto, the invention itself, as to its objects and advantages, the mode of its operation and the 30 manner of ‘its organization may be better under stood by referring to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying draw-. ing forming a part thereof, in which: The single ?gure of the drawing represents diagrammatically the' forward portion of a tor pedo provided with this invention. In the following description and in the claims, parts will be identi?ed by speci?c names for con venience, but they are intended to be as generic 40 in their application to similar parts as the art will permit. Referring to the accompanying drawing there is shown a waterborne body such as a carrier of explosives having a water tight torpedo hull 9, and arranged to be propelled in the usual man ner by propellers located at the after end. The hull 9. is provided with two transverse bulkheads II and I2, thus providing two compartments l3 and M, the former being ?lled with an explosive charge l5, such for example as TNT. A hole is provided in the hull 9 t the top V of the compartment M. This hole is covered ‘ by a sheet of glass or other transparent material l6. Mounted in a time I‘! is a lens 13 which means of a motor 26 which is energized bya battery 21 and controlled by a switch 28. En gaging the commutator 22 are two other brushes 10 29 and 30 which are connected through a trans former 3| to the input circuit of an ampli?er 32 the output circuit of which is connected to the winding of a relay 33. The photoelectric cell l9 may be of the new type developed by the 15 Weston Instrument Company which does not require the use of a battery for its operation. Ampli?er 32 is so biased as to have detecting characteristics. A second hole is provided in a hull 9 at the 20 top of the compartment M. This hole is covered by a sheet of glass 35 or other material trans parent to heat rays. Mounted in a tube. 36 is a lens 3'! which is also made of material trans parent to heat rays and is positioned directly be- 25 low the hole in the hull. A ?lter 38 is positioned in the tube 33 and is composed of material which transmits only the desired heat rays, such for example as hard rubber or a special type of glass. Positioned at the focus of the lens 31 is a heat 30 sensitive element such as a thermopile or a bolometer 39. This element is connected to two brushes‘ 40 and III which- engage a commutator 42 which comprises two segments of conducting material 43 and 44. This commutator may also 35 ‘be driven from the shaft of the motor 26 or if desired- may be driven by a separate motor at a different speed. Engaging the commutator 42' are two other brushes 43 and 41 which are con nected through a transformer 48 to the input 40 circuit of an ampli?er 49 the output circuit of which includes a relay 50 and a back contact of the relay 33. Ampli?er 48 is so biased as to have detecting characteristics. A clock-work mechanism 5| is provided which 45 drives a commutator 52. This commutator is provided with a conducting segment 53. To. the shaft of the commutator is secured an arm 55 which normally engages a pin 56. A second pin . 51 is provided for limiting the motion of the arm 50 55 and the commutator, 52. Engaging the. commutator 52 are four brushes 58, 59, 60 and GI. The brush 58 is connected through a battery 52 to. one side of a solenoid is positioned directly below the hole in the hull. ~63 the other side of which is connected to the P5 . 2 2,060,203 armature of the relay 50. The back contact of this relay is connected to the brush 59. l The solenoid 63 isprovided with a core 66 which is adapted to be moved to the left when this solenoid is energized.’ Secured to one end of this core is a piston 61 which reciprocates in a cylinder 68. This cylinder is provided with a port 69 covered by a ?ap valve 10, which is adapte ed to allow the air to escape rapidly‘ from this ’ the battery 8| to the detonator at which is det onated, thereby exploding the charge of explosive ' l5 in the warhead of the torpedo. This explo sion will take place directly under the center of the ship as the mechanism has been so timed that it will give the torpedo a su?icient ‘time to reach a position under the center of the ship, thus‘ in suring the destruction of the enemy vessel. An important advantage of this system of 10 cylinder. The cylinder is also provided with a ‘ running torpedoes at considerably greater depths 10 port 1| the opening in which is controlled by a than are now used is the fact that at these depths needle valve 12, for restricting the ?ow of air. through this port. ' . To the other end of the core 66 is secured ‘an 15 insulating member 15 between which and the solenoid 63 is mounted a compression spring ‘I6. Mounted on the insulating member 15 is 'a con tact 11 which is connected to the contact .6! and at suitable times engages a conducting seg-, 20 ment 18 mounted on an insulating base ‘19. The the wakes are much farther behind the torpedoes when they come to the surface due to the longer time it takes the bubbles of air to rise to the surface and that the Wakes are much less con 15' spicuous due to the fact that the air has had a longer time to become diifused in the water. It is, therefore, much more di?icult to observe and locate these torpedoes than those run at present day depths. ~ ' 20 segment 18 is connected to one side of a detonator Although only a few of the various forms in 80, the other side of which is connected to the which this invention may be embodied have been contact 60 through a'battery 8|. . -' herein, it is to be understood that the For automatically starting the clock-work shown 25 mechanism 5| ‘a heavy weight 82_ is secured to_ invention is .not limited to any speci?c con struction, but might be' embodied in various 25 the end of a ?at spring 83 the upper end of which forms without departing from the spirit of the in is fastened to the casing of the clock-work mech vention or the scope of the appended claims. anism 5|. Theweight 82 is provided with a pro What is claimed is: jection 84 which normally engages a ?nger 85 _ 1. In a moving body, an explosive charge, 30 which controls‘ the starting of the clock-work‘ means fordetonating said charge, a heat sensitive 30 mechanism. Engaging the end of the ?nger ‘85 is device for operating said detonating means and a spring 86 which is supported on a bracket 81. a light sensitive device for controlling the opera In the operation of this system when the tor tion of said heat sensitive device so that when the ' pede is ?red the inertia of the weight 82 causes it light sensitive device is illuminated it will pre 35 to be moved backward relative to the torpedo thus 35 the operation of the heat sensitive ‘device. disengaging the‘ projection 84 from the ?nger 85 vent 2. In a moving body, an explosive charge, means which is moved upwardly 'under the action of for detonating said charge, a heat sensitive de the spring 86, thus causing the clock-work mech vice for operating said detonating means and a anism to start turning the commutator 52 at a light sensitive device for controlling the operation 40 predetermined speed. ‘After a predetermined in of said heat sensitive device so that when the terval of time, the segment 53 of the commutator light sensitive device is illuminated it will prevent 40 52 will engage the brushes 58 and 59, thus en the operation of the heat‘ sensitive device, and erg‘izing the solenoid 63 which will cause the when the light sensitive device is not illuminated core 66 to be moved rapidly to the left as. the‘air 45 in the‘ cylinder 68 is freely exhausted through it will permit the operation of the heat sensitive device so that when it receives heat it will cause 45 the port 69. The contact ‘ll is-moved off the the detonation of the explosive charge.‘ segment 18 thus. keeping the circuit of the det 3. In a moving body, an explosive charge, means onator 80 open. If'the torpedo ‘is running in' for‘ detonating said charge, a heat sensitive device daylight by the time this occurs the relay 33' will for operating said detonating means so that when - ' 50 be energized due to the light received by the the heat on said device is changed it will cause photoelectric cell I 9 the output of which has been ‘the detonation of said explosive charge, and light converted to alternating current by means of the sensitive means for preventing the operation of commutator 22, and ampli?ed by the ampli?er 32, the output of which energized the relay 33. This 55 will open ‘the circuit through the relay 50, thus making it ineifective. ' - > This condition will continue as long as light is received by the photoelectric cell I9. When the torpedo passes beneath the hull of an enemy 60 vessel, however, this light will be out 01f, thus deenergizing the relay ‘33, which will then put the relay 50 in an operative condition. As the torpedo passes beneath the hull of a ship heat rays from this vessel will be received by the heat 65 sensitve element 39 the output from which will be converted .into alternating current by the ’ commutator 42 and ampli?ed by the ampli?er 49, thus energizing the relay 58. This will cause the deenergization of the‘ said heat sensitive means as long as said light sensitive means is illuminated. 4. In a moving body, an explosive charge, a 55 detonator for said charge, a photoelectric cell, a thermopile, means operated by said thermopile for causing the detonation of said explosive charge, and means operated by said photoelectric cell for preventing the explosion of said charge while said cell is illuminated. 5.. In a moving body, an explosive charge, a detonator for said charge, a photoelectric cell, a bolometer, means operated by said b'olometer for causing the detonation of said explosive 65 charge, and means operated by said photoelectric cell for preventing the explosion of said charge while said cell is illuminated. . 470 solenoid 63 which allows its core 66 to be moved to the‘ right under the action of the spring 16. 6. In a torpedo, an explosive charge, a heat sensitive device, means responsive to a change in The speed of this motion is determined by the the intensity of heat received by vsaid device to detonate said charge, a light sensitive devicev and setting of the needle valve ‘I2. After a predeterJ mined‘interval of time the contact 11 will en ; means to disable said heat sensitive device re 75 gage thesegment 18, thus closing the circuit from ' ' sponsive to said light sensitive device. 70, 2,060,203 3 ship when the torpedo passes thereunder, where torpedo which comprises running said torpedo by the charge is caused to explode when the tor is underneath the ship. at a substantial depth below the surface of the, pedo 9. In a torpedo, an explosive charge, means 7. The method of maneuvering a submarine water and utilizing the heat waves transmitted‘ vertically through the water from the bottom of the hull of the enemy ship when the torpedo passes thereunder for detonating the explosive charge of the torpedo. 8. In a torpedo, an explosive charge, means to cause the, torpedo to pass underneath the hull of an enemy ship, a thermocouple in said torpedo, means to focus radiant heat waves from directly above said torpedo onto said thermocouple, means to detonate the explosive charge in response to 15 the heat thus received from the bottom of said to cause the torpedo to pass underneath the hull of an enemy ship, a thermocouple in said torpedo, means to focus radiant heat waves from directly above said torpedo onto said thermocouple, and means responsive to variations in heat received by said thermocouple caused by passage of the 10 torpedo beneath the hull of the enemy ship for causing detonation of said charge, whereby the charge is detonated when the torpedo is beneath the ship. 15 JOHN‘ HAYS HAMMOND. JR.