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Патент USA US2061122

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ij’atentecl Nov. 17, 1936
2,061,122
1
, UNITED STATES ‘PATENT OFFICE
2,061,122
COOKING FAT AND PROCESS OF MAKING
SAME
Herbert S. Coith and Verling M. Votaw, Wyo
ming, Ohio, assignors to The Procter & Gamble
- Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, a corporation of
Ohio
.
No Drawing. Application October 3, 1932,
Serial No. 636,016
24 Claims. (Cl. 99-123)
Our invention relates to edible fats and fatty be greatly improved by incorporating an addi
oils and the process of making same, and relates tional amount of free fatty acid. This improve
speci?cally to the improvement of cooking fats ment manifests itself particularly in the light,
by adding thereto free fatty acid of edible grade. tender texture and greater volume of baked prod
Heretofore a low percentage of ‘free fatty acid ucts, especially cakes.
.
Cl
has been regarded as one‘ of the principal criteria
Our invention is applicable particularly but not
of good quality of edible fats,.whi_ch term we exclusively to the production of shortening for
use herein in its broad sense to include solid and use in baked products containing sugar, and
semi-solid fats and also fatty oils. It so hap
usually also a chemical leavening agent, as well
m pens that the established methods of producing, as ?our and shortening. Cakes made with the
transporting, storing and processing edible fats shortening as disclosed in the present invention
have been such that the production of a com
have unusually light texture, their increased vol
mercial edible fat of good color, ?avor, odor, and ume as compared with cakes made in the usual
stability has necessarily produced also fat of way being of considerable commercial advantage
15 low free fatty acid content.
in bakery practice. Production of cakes of light
For instance, vegetable oils are commonly re
texture and correspondingly large volume ‘has
?ned with alkali, and animal fats are frequently heretofore been particularly di?lcult in the case
also so re?ned, with iesulting decrease in free of cakes of relatively high sugar content, for ex
fatty acid to a small fraction of 1%. Steam de
20 odorization under vacuum, with or without al
kali re?ning as a preceding step, is another com
mon process which tends markedly to decrease
5
'
10
'
15
>
ample those containing a quantity of sugar more
than 100% of the weight of the ?our present. 20
With use of the shortening of the present in
vention, cakes containing even 50 or 75 percent
the free fatty acid content of edible fats. Both more sugar than ?our are readily produced with- ,
these steps are commonly regarded as being es
out sacri?ce of the light, tender texture gen
‘ sential for the production of edible vegetable fat
erally desired in the ?nished product. Such 25
of the best quality.
cakes are very pleasing on account of their un
Even in the case of edible fats which do not ‘usually soft, smooth, and moist eating quality,
require either alkali re?ning or steam deodoriz
as well as on account of their sweetness and
ing, carefui manufacturing results in low free
30 fatty acid content. Thus high grade butter fat,
lard, and olive oil do not require alkali re?ning
or steam deodorization. Nevertheless, determi
’ nation of free fatty acid is the outstanding chem
ical test in general use for checking the quality
35 of such fats, and a low percentage of free fatty
acid is regularly accepted as evidence of high
quality.
.
According to the present invention, we start
with a fat known to be of good edible grade, and
4,) incorporate therewith a relatively small propor
tion of free fatty acid of edible grade. We have
found that this step increases the value of the
fat as a cooking fat, without any substantial
sacri?ce of quality with respect to color, odor,
, 45 ?avor, or stability. This is a surprising discovery,
because removal of free fatty acid by the cus
tomary re?ning of fats has been generally ac
cepted as bene?cial, and some authorites have
even considered it the major purpose of re?n
50 ing.
'
In general, we ?nd that the cooking fats now
vcommercially available contain considerably less
free fatty acid than could be advantageously
present. We find that the quality of baked goods
55 made with these cooking fats can on the average
volume.
The free fatty acid suitable for use in ac- 30
cordance with the present invention should be
derived predominantly from fatty acids having
16 or more carbon atoms in their molecular for
mula. Both saturated and unsaturated fatty
acids are of value, but we prefer predominantly 35
unsaturated fatty acids for best results. Fatty
acids of coconut oil and similar oils have an
undesirable flavor and should not be used in
substantial amount. As is well known, butter
fatty acids also have an undesirable ?avor. The 40
ordinary fatty acids of 16 or higher carbon con-.
tent in their molecular formula are practically
odorless, and do not have a pronounced ?avor.
Suitable fatty acids may be made by alkali
saponi?cation of common fats already processed 45
so as to be of edible grade, such as lard, peanut
oil or hydrogenated cottonseed oil, and by treat
ment of the resulting soap with mineral acid.
These reactions may be carried out according to
well-known methods. During processing, and 50
thereafter, it is desirable that contact of the free
fatty acid with air be avoided or kept to the
practical minimum, for instance, by the use of
tight containers and by use of an inert gas, such
as nitrogen.
55
'aoomaa
2
The quantity of fatty acid incorporated with .
cooking fat according to our invention may be
varied within wide limits. In the case of a short
- ening'made from alkali re?ned fat, such as
‘partially hydrogenated cottonseed oil, the effec
tiveness of even a few tenths of one percent of
free fatty acid added to this plastic shortening
can be detected in the improved appearance and
eating quality-of sweet baked goods. In the case
10 of an unre?ned edible fat already containing,
for example, about one per cent free fatty acid,
the improvement due to addition of a few tenths
of one per cent additional free fatty acid may
not be easily observed, but doubling the amount
15 of free fatty acid produces a marked di?erence
in the action of the fat in _bakery practice.
The amount of free fatty acid actually to be
added to any given cooking fat will depend upon
the nature of the fat and particularly upon its
20 intended use. For instance, in the case of cock
ing fat to be used both in baked goods and for
frying, we prefer to use alkali refined and de
odorized fat and bring the ?nal free fatty acid
to a percentage between .25 and 2.0; but in the
25 case of a shortening intended for use only in
baked products, we prefer to start with an al-‘
ready prepared edible fat which, whether alkali
re?ned or not, is of high grade and contains less
than one (1) per cent free fatty acid, and to
30 adjust the final free fatty acid to a percentage
between 2 and 10.
~
For the manufacture of our product, we prefer
_the method of producing separately almost
neutral fat and free fatty acid, both of edible
grade, and. thereafter mixing same either in the
molten or partially solidi?ed condition. How
ever, other methods of accomplishing the same
result may be used. For instance, an ordinary
40
edible fat may be partially saponi?ed with caus
tic alkali, preferably'sodium- hydroxide in con—
centrated solution, and the reaction product
then acidulated with a strong acid, preferably
sulfuric or phosphoric, thereby liberating the
45 required fatty acid in the cooking fat and form
ing an alkali salt which, together with any ex
cess of acid used, can be washed out of the fat
by means of water. Likewise the free fatty
acid required in our product can be formed
50 from the neutral fat by direct reaction with wa
ter. For instance, the edible fat may be sub
jected to a limited hydrolysis by the use of -
enzymes and the reaction product ?ltered after
55
removal of the excess water.
Likewise partial
hydrolysis may be e?ected according to the well
known autoclave-method, and the small quan
tity of soap catalyst used in this reaction re
moved by acid Washing the reaction product.
60 We do not consider the Twitchell process, as
commonly practiced, suitable for ‘the production
of a partially hydrolyzed fat of edible grade, but
our product may be prepared by a modi?cation
of the Twitchell process in which the sulfonic
65 acid catalyst is water soluble, as described in U.
S. Patent No. 1,622,974.
'
7
Examples of shortening made in accordance '
with the present invention are-as follows:
Example 1
70
Per cent
Hydrogenated cottonseed oil _of 66 iodine
value __________________ _‘_ ___________ __
98.0
Free fatty acids-derived from hydrogenated
76
cottonseed oil of 66 iodine value ______ __
Example 2
'
'
Per cent
Lard
98.0
Free fatty acids derived from lard ...... __
'
Example 3
'
.
4.0
“
Per cent
Butter
'
'
_
94.0.
Freefatty acids derived from hydrogenated
cottonseed oil of 86 iodine value ______ __
6.0
Sugar __
Salt _
>
1
___
; 1%
_ 0
Cake ?our __________________________ __ l
%
0
Baking powder _____________________ _- 0
5/;
Fat such as that described in Example l_ 0
61/8
Milk ______________________________ -_ 0
11%
Egg whites _________________________ __ 0
7%
20
All of the ingredients with the exception of
the egg whites are placed in the bowl of a mix 25
ing machine, for example a Hobart mixer, and
mixed at slow speed for 7 minutes. The egg
whites are then added and the mixing continued
for 7 minutes at slow speed. A temperature of
30
375° F. is used in baking the cakes.
Baked goods, such as the above, are not claimed
herein, but are further described and claimed in
our copending application, Serial Number 636,014,
filed concurrently herewith.
We claim:
35
1. A substantially dry shortening agent of lard
like to solid consistency comprising edible fat and
added free fatty acid of molecular formula con
taining predominantly at least 16 carbon atoms,
the amount of added free fatty acid being suf
?cient to effect substantial increase in volume
of cakes baked with the shortening agent and
containing more sugar than flour as compared
with similar cakes baked with a shortening agent
otherwise similar but without the increased free 45
fatty acid content. -
, 2. A substantially dry cooking fat consisting of
alkali-re?ned edible fat and added free fatty acid
of molecular formula containing predominantly
at least 16 carbon atoms, the amount of this
fatty acid being sufdcient to effect substantial
50 ..
increase in volume of cakes baked with the cook—
ing fat and containing more sugar than ?ouras
compared with similar cakes baked with a fat
otherwise the same but without the increased 55
free fatty acid content.
3. Substantially dry cooking fat consisting of
substantially neutral deodorized fat and added
free fatty acid of molecular formula containing
predominantly at least 16 carbon atoms, the 60
amount of this fatty acid being sumclent. to ef
fect substantial increase in volume of cakes
baked with the cooking fat and containing more
sugar than ?our as compared with similar cakes
baked with a fat otherwise the same but with 65
out the increased free fatty acid content.
4. Substantially dry cooking fat of lard-like
consisting comprising lard and added free fatty
acid of molecular formula containing predomi
nantly at least 16 carbon atoms, the amount of 70
added free fatty acid being su?‘icient to effect
substantial increase in volume of cakes baked
with the fat and containing more sugar than flour .
2.0
10
As an example of baked goods in which the
use of our improved shortenings is advantageous
as compared with the shortenings heretofore
available, we cite the following cake recipe:
15
Pound Ounces
as compared with similar cakes baked with a fat
l
J
3
. 2.902122
otherwise the same but without the increased free therein free fatty acid by subjecting said fat
.
.
_
7
fatty acid content.
.
v
a
_
I
L
.
to limited reaction with water in presence‘ of a
'
-5. A substantially dry plastic shortening com
catalyst, the amount of this fatty acid ‘being
prising partially hydrogenated fat and added) su?icient to effect substantial increase in volume
‘free fatty'acid'of molecular formula containing 'of cakes baked with the cooking fat and con- predominantly at leastg 16' carbon atoms, the
amount of added free fatty acid being su?jicient
taining more sugar than ?our as compared with ' ,
. to effect substantial increase in volume of cakes
baked with the shortening andc'ontaining more.
10 sugar than ?our as compared with similar cakes
baked with a shortening otherwise the same but,
'6. Substantially; drycooking fat comprising
content.
_
’
‘
-
-
>
\13. A substantially dry shortening agent of '10
_. without the increased free fatty acid content. '
substantially neutral ‘fatand free fatty acid de
_rived from a partially hydrogenated,.predomi
similar cakes baked with a fat otherwise the
same .but without the increased free fatty acid
lard-like to solid consistency consisting essentially of edible fat and added free fatty acid of
molecular formula containing predominantly at
least 16 carbomato'ms, the amount‘ of added free
fatty acid being sufficient to e?'ect substantial
nantly unsaturated triglyceride fat of edible. increase in volume of cakes baked with the short
\ grade", the amount
of this fatty acid being sum
‘
ening agent and containing more sugar than
cient to effect substantial increase in volume of ?our as compared with similar cakes baked with
cakes baked with the‘ cooking fat ‘and containing a shortening agent otherwise similar but with
20 more sugar thanr?ou‘r as comparedwith similar
cakes baked with a. fat otherwise the same but.
without the increased free fatty acid content.
7_. A substantiallydry semi-solid cooking fat
comprising partially hydrogenated cottonseed oil
and not substantially less than 2% fatty acid
liberated fromipartially‘hydrogenated cottonseed
oil.
-
-
-
~
.
8. The process of improving lard ‘and like semi
solid substantially dry cooking fats which com
prises incorporating‘ therein free fatty acid of
‘molecular formula containing predominantly at
out the increased free fatty acid content.
20
,
14. Substantially dry cooking fat ‘consisting
essentially of substantially neutral fat and free
fatty acid derived from a partially hydrogenated,
predominantly unsaturated triglyceride Jfat'of
edible grade, the amount of this fatty acid being 25
sufficient to effect substantial increase in volume ‘
of cakes baked with the cooking fat and‘ con-'
taining more sugar than ?our aslcompared with
similar cakes baked with a fat otherwise the
same but without the increased‘ ffee fatty acid 30'
content.
'
.
i
_
’ least 16 carbon atoms, ‘the amount of this fatty
.
15. Semi-solid substantially dry cooking fat
acid being su?icient to effect substantial increase consisting essentially of partially hydrogenated
- in volume of cakes baked) with the-cooking fat’ cottonseed oil and fatty acid‘liberated from the
and containing ‘more sugar than flour as com‘
triglycerides of {partially hydrogenated cotton
pared with similar cakes baked with a fat- other
seed oil, the amount of this fatty‘ acid being
wise the same but without the increased free fatty sufficient to effect substantial increase in volume '
‘acid content;
of cakes baked'with the cooking fat and con
v 9.1n the manufacture of substantially dry taining more sugar than ?our as compared with
'40 cooking fat, the step which comprises incorporat
similar cakes baked with a fat- otherwise the V 40
_
ing therein free fatty acid of molecular formula same
but
without
the
increased‘
free
fatty'acid
containing predominantly at least 16 carbon content.
atoms, the amount of this fatty acid being su?i
_l6. A substantially dry shortening agent'bom
cient to effect substantial increase in volume of -prising an intimate mixture of _edible fat and
cakes
baked
with
the
cooking
fat
and
containing
45
not substantially less ‘than 2% of free higher 45
more sugar than ‘?our as compared with similar
cakes baked with a fat otherwise the same but
without the increased free fatty acidicontent.
50
10. The process of manufacturing substantial
ly dry‘ cookingfat which consists in mixing de
" odorized edible fat with predominantly unsatu
rated free fatty acidlof molecular fo'rmula con-
taining chie?y 16 and’ more ‘carbon atoms‘, the
amount of this fatty acid being suflicient to ef
fect substantial increase in volume of cakes baked
, with the cooking fat and containing more sugar
than ?our'as compared with similar cakes baked
with a fat otherwise the same but without the
‘increased free fatty acid content.
'
11. The process of, improving substantially dry
cooking fat derived from fatty acids of molecular
formula containing predominantly not fewer
than 16 carbon atoms, which comprises forming
65
therein free fatty acid by acidulation of soap
resulting from partial saponi?cation of. said fat,
. the amount of this fatty acid being su?icient to
effect substantial increase in volume of cakes
baked with the cooking fat and containing more
sugar than ?our' asfcompared with similar cakes
fatty acid.
./
-
17. A substantially dry cooking fat consisting
of alkali-re?ned edible fat and not substantially
less than 2% added’ free higher fatty acid.
18. A substantially dry cooking fat consisting 50
of
substantially neutral deodorized fat and not
' substantially less' than‘ 2% added free higher
fatty acid.
. ‘
'
i
19. In the manufacture of substantially dry
cooking fat, the step which comprises incorpo 55
rating therein free higher fatty acid in amount
not substantially less than 2% and ,not sub
stantially greater than'10%.
I‘ v
x
- 20. A substantially dry shortening agent con
sisting essentially of an edible fat of relatively 60
low free fatty acid content'and intimately mixed
therewith separately formed freetfatty acid in
amount to make the total 'free fatty acid con
tent‘ of the shortening not less than about 2%.
1.21. The process of improving substantially dry 65
cooking fat of relatively low-free fatty acid con
tent which comprises partially saponifying edible
triglyceride fat in which the fatty-acid radicals
are principally of molecular formula containing
at least sixteen carbon atoms, acidulating the 70
resulting product so as to liberate the fatty acid
cooking fat derived fromfatty acids of molecular ‘of the soap‘ therein, and embodying’ the acidu
formula containing predominantly not. fewer latedlfatty material in the cooking fat in amount
75 than 16 carbon atom's',.which_ comprises forming ,su?icient to yield a ?nished shortening con 75
70 baked with a fat‘otherwise the same but without
theincr'eased free fatty acid content.
'12. The process- of improving. substantially dry
.5
2,061,123 Jr
' taining between about 2% and about 10% total‘
free fatty acid.
~
_
22. The process of manufacturing substan
tially dry shortening consisting essentially of tri
i.
l
smaller amount but not less than about 2%
of higher free fatty acid, and including the prod
uct 01' the partial saponi?cation of a triglyceride
oil or fat and the acidulation thereof.
\
glyceride-fat and a relatively small proportion I ' 24. A substantially dry cooking fat of im
' oi’ i'ree ‘fatty acid,’ which comprises partially’ proved shortening value comprising a major pro
saponifying edible triglyceride fat, acidulating
the resulting product so as to liberate‘ the fatty
acid of the soap therein; and embodying the
10 acidulated material in‘ the ‘shortening in amount
portion ottriglycegridés 01' higher fatty acids and
containing the product of the partial saponl?ca
tion of a triglyceride oil or fat andvthe ac'idula
tion thereof, the amount of said product being 10
su?lcientto make the‘percentage of higher free su?lcient to make the free fatty‘ acid between
fatty acid in the ?nished product not less than 'about'2%tand about 10% of the whole cooking I
about 2% of the total .fatty material.
fat.
v
23. A substantiallydry shortening agent com- '
prising fatty material, all of said fatty material
consisting essentially of.triglyceride fat and a .
-
-
A
' \.
..
-
HERBERT .S. COITH.
‘ vnanma M. VOTAW._
15
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