Патент USA US2062054код для вставки
NOV. 24, 1936. I |_, G_ HUGGlNs 2,062,054 AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS Filed April 26, 1935 33 Ii Lg 16 24; ?t 250. v. Li H —_ ° 2.4-. h %$55 " INVENTOR - LEROY ‘ GA 1.5 Huaams “21,. L260. F'G' ‘ 2 ' MW '' ATTOR Y Y 2,062,054 Patented n... 1,24‘, “193-6 , UNITED STATESLPATE NT OFFICE 2,062,054 . I ' AIR CONDITIONING 'mnna'rus Leroy Gale Huggins, Wilkinsburg, Pat, assignor to Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Pa., a corporation I Company, East Pittsburgh, of Pennsylvania Application ‘April 26,1935, ‘Serial No. 18,295 (CI; 62-129) ~My invention relates to air conditioning ap - over the ‘evaporators I4 and I5 in parallel for paratus, more particularly to apparatus com- , the ?rst stage of air cooling,~'and the respective ‘ - prising a plurality of evaporators for cooling-a ‘parallel portions then pass over the evaporators stream of air, and it has for an object to pro i6 and II, respectively, for the second stage of vide improved apparatus.) - _ I A further object is, in connection with an air conditioning system comprising a plurality of compressors or compressor-condenser units and a plurality of evaporators connected to each is air cooling. In other words, the group of evapo- 5 rators i4 and I5 is in parallel with the ‘group of evaporators i5 and I1 and the evaporators- of eachgroup are in series with, each other with respect to air ?ow. vThe evaporators are pref erably of the same capacity, ifor example, each 10 compressor, to equalize the loads on the com: pressors and to cool the entire air stream at. evaporator may be a standard developed evap- ‘ partial load. , _ oratorof 6-ton or 72,000 13. t, u.' per hour capac ity, or any other desired size. They may be of A‘ further object is’ to utilize standard devel oped apparatus. " v ’ the usual cross-?nned coil type. or of any other . In accordance with niy invention, I arrange suitable type known in the art. _ 15 In the present'embodiment, I provide two com‘ the evaporators in a plurality of groups, the air to be cooled passing through the groups in par pressor-condenser unit's\i8 and I! for withdraw allel and through the evaporators of each group ing vaporized refrigerant from the evaporators and for supplying liq‘uid refrigerant thereto. ?rst- evaporator in series in one group and to the Each unit includes, a compressor 20, a motor 2| second or subsequent evaporator in another. ,ior driving the same, a'condenser 22 and a liq . group. Thus, the higher load of the ?rst ev'apo-_ uid receiver 23." Each unit maybe of standard design, having a capacity, for example, of 12 rators,‘ due to the higher temperature'of the in coming air, is distributed among a plurality of tons or 144,000 B. t. u. 'per'hour, serving two ‘ I of the above-mentioned evaporators. While I 26 condensing units. These and other objects are effected by my have shown separate compressor condenser units, the invention is not so limited but may be eminvention as will be apparent from the follow ing description and claims taken in connection - ployed where only ‘separate compressors are in series, and I connect each compressor to the ‘with the accompanying drawing, forming a part of this application, in which: I 25 a . . Inasmuch as the air passing over the evapo- 30 I Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of apparatus raters i4 and i5 is at higher temperature than the partially cooled air passing over the evapo ' embodying my invention; and Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic 'view of a secondtem bodiment of my invention. used. 20 ' ' - rators l6_ and II, the refrigerating load on the , former'will be greater than the load on the latter. Referring to the drawing in detail, I'show an . As stated above, it is an object of the invention 35 air conditioning chamber Ill, which is connected I to impose equal loads on the compressors or the. to the enclosure to be air conditioned through a tan II and a duct l2. The fan ll eiiects cir culation of the air to be cooled ‘through the chamber ill, the flow being from left toright in» compressor condenser units, inorder to provide the’best performance with apparatus embodying standard developed elements, and also to cool the entire air stream at partial load. I accom- 40 the embodiment ‘illustrated in Fig. 1. v The fan ' plish this by connecting each compressor con may be located at any suitable point in the air ‘denser, unit to the ?rst stage evaporator vof one - ' stream, and location at the outlet of the cham ‘group and to a second stage evaporator of the other group. I _ _ j ber l0 being but one example of a suitable‘ lo Conduit means 24 connect the ‘liquid receiver 45 cation. Air to be treated is conveyed to the chamber through a duct l3 and may be either 23 of the unit it with the expansion valves ll’ air withdrawn from the enclosure, outdoor air, of the evaporators I! and i0, and conduit means or preferably a mixture of both, as is well known 2! connect the outlet ends of said evaporators with the suction of the compressor. Likewise, in the art. . . . conduit means 2. connect the liquid receiver of 50 The chamber i0 contains a plurality of refrig erating evaporators for cooling the air and may, the unit I! with expansion valves 25 of the evap orators H and I1 and conduit means'i‘l con of course,‘ contain any other‘ desired air treat ing elements. In the present embodiment, I nect the outlet ends of‘ 'said' evaporators withtlie show four evaporator-s, it to II, the evapor. ‘tors suction of the compressor. The expansion valves 7, being arranged ‘so that the air stream ?rst es - Y are preferably oi.’ the time knownas thermostatic.“ I 2 2,002,054 ture, the thermostat ?rst closes the switch is , expansion valves, which control the admission of to effect operation of the unit l8, and upon ‘ -refrigerant in accordance'with the superheat of the vaporized refrigerant, discharged from the evaporator, thereby serving to supply such quan tity of refrigerant as canbe fully vaporized. Any further increase in temperature, it closes the switch 28 to e?ect‘operation of the unit l8. ‘ In Fig. 2, I show anembodiment of my inven tion in which a greater number of evaporators are required to supply the cooling load. Three ' other vsuitable ‘form of pressure-reducing de vice or restrlctor may be used. Thermostatic control mechanism is preferably provided for controlling operation of the com 10 pressors. This mechanism includes a thermo groups of evaporators are arranged for cool-v ing the air in three parallel portions, each group - including two evaporators in series with respect '15 10 to air ?ow, as in Fig. 1. In this case, the con duit means Ha and 25a connectthe' unit l8 stat T that is responsive to the temperature of the air in the enclosure, and may be positioned to a third evaporator 33 in the ?rst stage of air cooling of a third parallel portion of the air stream, as well as to the evaporators l5 and I8. itv Conduit means 26a and ‘21a connect the unit N to a third evaporator 84 disposed in the second stage of air cooling, as well as the evaporators l4 and H. In this case, the loads on the com pressor condenser units are only partially bal 20 anced; however, the difference in load is only either in the enclosure or in the stream of air returning from the enclosure to the chamber In through the .duct IS. The thermostat V1!‘ is pro vided with two switches 28 and 28 for control ling circuits 3] and 32, respectively, which sup ply current to the motors .of the units I8 and I9, respectively. The thermostat and the switches 20 are arranged so that the'switch 28 is ?rst closed. upon increase in temperature to a predetermined value at which it is desired to maintain the en _ one-third of that which would be obtained if all closure, and so that the switch 28 is closed upon three ?rst stage evaporators were connected to one unit and the second stage evaporators con further increase to a slightly higher predeter .25 mined value. nected to the other unit. The‘ difference in loads The switches open in reverse or der upon decrease to slightly lower respective is reduced to a sui?ciently low value to be unob predetermined temperatures. jectionable. It is to be- under- ' lllustratedhand that any other control feature 30 may be employed. _ _ _ ' ' . - that I have‘ provided an arrangement in which the evaporators are so arranged as to equalize or substantially balance the loads on the com Operation The operation of the above-described appara 35 . From the above description, it will be seen stood that only the novel features of control are tus is as follows: The fan‘ H e?ects circulation of‘ air throughthe evaporators ‘I4 to l1 in the chamber In in the manner described above. When the air cooling load of the__enclosure is su?lciently high to require operation of both com pressors, the temperature rises to a value caus ing the thermostat T to close both switches. ,Ene'rgization of both circuits and operation of both units is effected, the unit l8 supplying liq uid refrigerant to the evaporators I! and I8 and withdrawing vaporized refrigerant there from, and the unit i8 supplying liquid refriger 45 40 so pressors or compressor condenser units to which ‘they are connected, and so that all portions of air stream are cooled when only one unit is op crating. This arrangement greatly facilitates is f the use of developed apparatus of standard ca-v" ' pacity. While I'have shown my invention in two forms, ' it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that it is not so limited, butis susceptible of various other changes and modi?cations, without de parting from the spirit thereof, and I deslre,~ therefore, that only such limitations shall be ' placed thereupon as are imposed by the prior art or as are speci?cally set forth in the ap ant to the evaporators l4 and i1 and withdraw pended claims. ing vaporized refrigerant therefrom. One‘ half. What I claim is: . , _ of the. air is partially cooled by the evaporator 1. In air cooling apparatus, the combination I4 and then further cooled by the evaporator I8 ‘of a plurality of compressors, a plurality ‘of evapo and the other half of the air stream is cooled rator elements connected to each compressor, and 50 .by the evaporators H ‘and I1, successively. As means for conveying ‘air over said evaporator ele 50 each unit serves one evaporator in in the ?rst _stage of air cooling and one evaporator in the second stage of air cooling, it will be apparent‘ that the loads on the two units will be equal. its. When the temperature decreases to the lower value indicating that operation of one compres sor will supply su?lcient refrigeration, the switch 28 is opened by the thermostat T to shut down the unit l8. The unit 18 continues to operate 60 to serve the evaporators l4 and H. In this case, both portions of the air stream are cooled, one by the evaporator l4 and the other by the evap orator I'I. Both evaporators are subject to the temperature of the incoming air and are subject 65 to equal loads. However, the temperature is now lower than when operation of both units is .required, so that the total load on the two evap orators and the unit is will be approximately the same, or not much greater than when both units are operating. ‘ . _ , . \Further decrease in temperature results in opening of the switch as and. shutting down .of the unit I9 to discontinue further cooling of 75 the air. Upon subsequent increase in tempera ments, said evaporator elements being arranged and distributed in parallel portions of the air‘ stream so as to impose substantially equal loads on the compressors and so that each compressor is 55 connected to evaporator elements in a plurality of ' ' 1 parallel portions of the air stream. 2. In air cooling apparatus, the combination of a" plurality of groups of evaporators, means for ' conveying‘ air over said groups in parallel, the evaporators‘ in each group being arranged to cool the air in successive stages, a plurality of coni so pressors, each compressor being connected to at least one evaporator in each stage of air cooling and in each parallel portion of the air stream. ' 65 3.1 In air cooling apparatus, the combination of a plurality of compressors including ?rst and second compressors, a plurality of evaporators connected to each compressor, means for circu lating air over said evaporators, said evapora 70 tors and the circulating means being ‘arranged so that one portion of the air stream is ?rst cooled by an evaporator of the ?rst compressor and then by an evaporator of the second compressor and another parallel portion of thealr streamlis ?rst 75 3 2,062,064 cooled by an evaporator of said second compres sor and then by an evaporator of a compressor other than the second compressor. , 4. In air cooling apparatus, the combination 6. In air‘cooling apparatus, the combination of a plurality of compressors, a plurality of evapo rators connected to each compressor, means for circulating air over said evaporators,’ said evapo of a plurality of evaporators, means for convey- rators and the circulating means being arranged ing air over‘said evaporators, said evaporators so that each parallel portion of the air stream is cooled in successive stages by evaporators of a‘ plurality of compressors and so that at least two evaporators of each compressor are in different being arranged in-a plurality of groups that are in parallel with respect to air ?ow,» each group com prising a ?rst and a second evaporator over which 10 the air flows in the order named, and a plurality of compressors each connected to the ?rst evap orator of at least one group and to the second evaporator of at least one other group. - 5. In air cooling apparatus, the combination 15 of a plurality of compressors, a ?rst and a sec— ond evaporator connected to each compressor, means for circulating air over said evaporators, said evaporators and the circulating means be ing arranged so thatair ?ows over a ?rst evapora 20' tor and then over a second evaporator and so that each ?rst evaporator is in series with the second evaporator of another compressor and in parallel with the ?rst evaporator of another compressor with respect to air flow.‘ air cooling stages. _ 10' 7. In air cooling apparatus, the combination of a plurality of evaporators arranged in groupsr ‘ means for circulating air over the evaporators, ‘the several groups being arranged in parallel and the evaporators in each group being arranged in 15 series with respect to air ?ow, a plurality of com pressors for said evaporators, each compressor being connected to a plurality of evaporators dis posed in different groups and in di?erent posi 20 tions in the order of air ?ow. LEROY GALE'IIUGGI‘NS.