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Патент USA US2062054

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NOV. 24, 1936.
I
|_, G_ HUGGlNs
2,062,054
AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS
Filed April 26, 1935
33
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INVENTOR
-
LEROY ‘ GA 1.5 Huaams
“21,.
L260.
F'G' ‘ 2 '
MW
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ATTOR Y Y
2,062,054
Patented n... 1,24‘, “193-6 ,
UNITED STATESLPATE NT OFFICE
2,062,054
.
I
'
AIR CONDITIONING 'mnna'rus
Leroy Gale Huggins, Wilkinsburg, Pat, assignor
to Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing
Pa., a corporation
I Company, East Pittsburgh,
of Pennsylvania
Application ‘April 26,1935, ‘Serial No. 18,295
(CI; 62-129)
~My invention relates to air conditioning ap
- over the ‘evaporators I4 and I5 in parallel for
paratus, more particularly to apparatus com- , the ?rst stage of air cooling,~'and the respective ‘
- prising a plurality of evaporators for cooling-a ‘parallel portions then pass over the evaporators
stream of air, and it has for an object to pro
i6 and II, respectively, for the second stage of
vide improved apparatus.)
-
_
I
A further object is, in connection with an air
conditioning system comprising a plurality of
compressors or compressor-condenser units and
a plurality of evaporators connected to each
is
air cooling. In other words, the group of evapo- 5
rators i4 and I5 is in parallel with the ‘group of
evaporators i5 and I1 and the evaporators- of
eachgroup are in series with, each other with
respect to air ?ow. vThe evaporators are pref
erably of the same capacity, ifor example, each 10
compressor, to equalize the loads on the com:
pressors and to cool the entire air stream at. evaporator may be a standard developed evap- ‘
partial load. ,
_
oratorof 6-ton or 72,000 13. t, u.' per hour capac
ity, or any other desired size. They may be of
A‘ further object is’ to utilize standard devel
oped apparatus.
"
v ’ the usual cross-?nned coil type. or of any other
. In accordance with niy invention, I arrange suitable type known in the art.
_
15
In the present'embodiment, I provide two com‘
the evaporators in a plurality of groups, the air
to be cooled passing through the groups in par
pressor-condenser unit's\i8 and I! for withdraw
allel and through the evaporators of each group ing vaporized refrigerant from the evaporators
and for supplying liq‘uid refrigerant thereto.
?rst- evaporator in series in one group and to the Each unit includes, a compressor 20, a motor 2|
second or subsequent evaporator in another. ,ior driving the same, a'condenser 22 and a liq
. group. Thus, the higher load of the ?rst ev'apo-_ uid receiver 23." Each unit maybe of standard
design, having a capacity, for example, of 12
rators,‘ due to the higher temperature'of the in
coming air, is distributed among a plurality of tons or 144,000 B. t. u. 'per'hour, serving two
‘
I
of the above-mentioned evaporators. While I
26 condensing units.
These and other objects are effected by my have shown separate compressor condenser units,
the invention is not so limited but may be eminvention as will be apparent from the follow
ing description and claims taken in connection - ployed where only ‘separate compressors are
in series, and I connect each compressor to the
‘with the accompanying drawing, forming a part
of this application, in which:
I
25
a
.
.
Inasmuch as the air passing over the evapo- 30
I
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of apparatus
raters i4 and i5 is at higher temperature than
the partially cooled air passing over the evapo
' embodying my invention; and
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic 'view of a secondtem
bodiment of my invention.
used.
20
'
'
-
rators l6_ and II, the refrigerating load on the ,
former'will be greater than the load on the latter.
Referring to the drawing in detail, I'show an . As stated above, it is an object of the invention 35
air conditioning chamber Ill, which is connected I to impose equal loads on the compressors or the.
to the enclosure to be air conditioned through a
tan II and a duct l2. The fan ll eiiects cir
culation of the air to be cooled ‘through the
chamber ill, the flow being from left toright in»
compressor condenser units, inorder to provide
the’best performance with apparatus embodying
standard developed elements, and also to cool
the entire air stream at partial load. I accom- 40
the embodiment ‘illustrated in Fig. 1. v The fan ' plish this by connecting each compressor con
may be located at any suitable point in the air ‘denser, unit to the ?rst stage evaporator vof one - '
stream, and location at the outlet of the cham ‘group and to a second stage evaporator of the
other group.
I _
_
j
ber l0 being but one example of a suitable‘ lo
Conduit means 24 connect the ‘liquid receiver 45
cation. Air to be treated is conveyed to the
chamber through a duct l3 and may be either 23 of the unit it with the expansion valves ll’
air withdrawn from the enclosure, outdoor air, of the evaporators I! and i0, and conduit means
or preferably a mixture of both, as is well known 2! connect the outlet ends of said evaporators
with the suction of the compressor. Likewise,
in the art.
.
.
.
conduit means 2. connect the liquid receiver of 50
The chamber i0 contains a plurality of refrig
erating evaporators for cooling the air and may, the unit I! with expansion valves 25 of the evap
orators H and I1 and conduit means'i‘l con
of course,‘ contain any other‘ desired air treat
ing elements. In the present embodiment, I nect the outlet ends of‘ 'said' evaporators withtlie
show four evaporator-s, it to II, the evapor. ‘tors suction of the compressor. The expansion valves 7,
being arranged ‘so that the air stream ?rst
es - Y are preferably oi.’ the time knownas thermostatic.“ I
2
2,002,054
ture, the thermostat ?rst closes the switch is
, expansion valves, which control the admission of
to effect operation of the unit l8, and upon ‘
-refrigerant in accordance'with the superheat of
the vaporized refrigerant, discharged from the
evaporator, thereby serving to supply such quan
tity of refrigerant as canbe fully vaporized. Any
further increase in temperature, it closes the
switch 28 to e?ect‘operation of the unit l8. ‘
In Fig. 2, I show anembodiment of my inven
tion in which a greater number of evaporators
are required to supply the cooling load. Three
' other vsuitable ‘form of pressure-reducing de
vice or restrlctor may be used.
Thermostatic control mechanism is preferably
provided for controlling operation of the com
10 pressors. This mechanism includes a thermo
groups of evaporators are arranged for cool-v
ing the air in three parallel portions, each group -
including two evaporators in series with respect
'15
10
to air ?ow, as in Fig. 1. In this case, the con
duit means Ha and 25a connectthe' unit l8
stat T that is responsive to the temperature of
the air in the enclosure, and may be positioned
to a third evaporator 33 in the ?rst stage of air
cooling of a third parallel portion of the air
stream, as well as to the evaporators l5 and I8. itv
Conduit means 26a and ‘21a connect the unit
N to a third evaporator 84 disposed in the second
stage of air cooling, as well as the evaporators
l4 and H. In this case, the loads on the com
pressor condenser units are only partially bal 20
anced; however, the difference in load is only
either in the enclosure or in the stream of air
returning from the enclosure to the chamber In
through the .duct IS. The thermostat V1!‘ is pro
vided with two switches 28 and 28 for control
ling circuits 3] and 32, respectively, which sup
ply current to the motors .of the units I8 and
I9, respectively. The thermostat and the switches
20 are arranged so that the'switch 28 is ?rst closed.
upon increase in temperature to a predetermined
value at which it is desired to maintain the en _ one-third of that which would be obtained if all
closure, and so that the switch 28 is closed upon three ?rst stage evaporators were connected to
one unit and the second stage evaporators con
further increase to a slightly higher predeter
.25 mined value.
nected to the other unit. The‘ difference in loads
The switches open in reverse or
der upon decrease to slightly lower respective
is reduced to a sui?ciently low value to be unob
predetermined temperatures.
jectionable.
It is to be- under- '
lllustratedhand that any other control feature
30
may be employed.
_
_
_
'
'
.
-
that I have‘ provided an arrangement in which
the evaporators are so arranged as to equalize
or substantially balance the loads on the com
Operation
The operation of the above-described appara
35
.
From the above description, it will be seen
stood that only the novel features of control are
tus is as follows: The fan‘ H e?ects circulation
of‘ air throughthe evaporators ‘I4 to l1 in the
chamber In in the manner described above.
When the air cooling load of the__enclosure is
su?lciently high to require operation of both com
pressors, the temperature rises to a value caus
ing the thermostat T to close both switches.
,Ene'rgization of both circuits and operation of
both units is effected, the unit l8 supplying liq
uid refrigerant to the evaporators I! and I8
and withdrawing vaporized refrigerant there
from, and the unit i8 supplying liquid refriger
45
40
so
pressors or compressor condenser units to which
‘they are connected, and so that all portions of
air stream are cooled when only one unit is op
crating.
This arrangement greatly facilitates
is
f the use of developed apparatus of standard ca-v" '
pacity.
While I'have shown my invention in two forms, '
it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that
it is not so limited, butis susceptible of various
other changes and modi?cations, without de
parting from the spirit thereof, and I deslre,~
therefore, that only such limitations shall be '
placed thereupon as are imposed by the prior
art or as are speci?cally set forth in the ap
ant to the evaporators l4 and i1 and withdraw pended claims.
ing vaporized refrigerant therefrom. One‘ half.
What I claim is:
.
,
_
of the. air is partially cooled by the evaporator
1. In air cooling apparatus, the combination
I4 and then further cooled by the evaporator I8 ‘of a plurality of compressors, a plurality ‘of evapo
and the other half of the air stream is cooled rator elements connected to each compressor, and
50
.by the evaporators H ‘and I1, successively. As means for conveying ‘air over said evaporator ele 50
each unit serves one evaporator in in the ?rst
_stage of air cooling and one evaporator in the
second stage of air cooling, it will be apparent‘
that the loads on the two units will be equal.
its. When the temperature decreases to the lower
value indicating that operation of one compres
sor will supply su?lcient refrigeration, the switch
28 is opened by the thermostat T to shut down
the
unit l8. The unit 18 continues to operate
60
to serve the evaporators l4 and H. In this case,
both portions of the air stream are cooled, one
by the evaporator l4 and the other by the evap
orator I'I. Both evaporators are subject to the
temperature of the incoming air and are subject
65
to equal loads. However, the temperature is
now lower than when operation of both units is
.required, so that the total load on the two evap
orators and the unit is will be approximately the
same, or not much greater than when both units
are operating.
‘
.
_
,
.
\Further decrease in temperature results in
opening of the switch as and. shutting down .of
the unit I9 to discontinue further cooling of
75 the air. Upon subsequent increase in tempera
ments, said evaporator elements being arranged
and distributed in parallel portions of the air‘
stream so as to impose substantially equal loads
on the compressors and so that each compressor is
55
connected to evaporator elements in a plurality of ' ' 1
parallel portions of the air stream.
2. In air cooling apparatus, the combination
of a" plurality of groups of evaporators, means for '
conveying‘ air over said groups in parallel, the
evaporators‘ in each group being arranged to cool
the air in successive stages, a plurality of coni
so
pressors, each compressor being connected to at
least one evaporator in each stage of air cooling
and in each parallel portion of the air stream.
'
65
3.1 In air cooling apparatus, the combination of
a plurality of compressors including ?rst and
second compressors, a plurality of evaporators
connected to each compressor, means for circu
lating air over said evaporators, said evapora 70
tors and the circulating means being ‘arranged
so that one portion of the air stream is ?rst cooled
by an evaporator of the ?rst compressor and then
by an evaporator of the second compressor and
another parallel portion of thealr streamlis ?rst 75
3
2,062,064
cooled by an evaporator of said second compres
sor and then by an evaporator of a compressor
other than the second compressor.
, 4. In air cooling apparatus, the combination
6. In air‘cooling apparatus, the combination
of a plurality of compressors, a plurality of evapo
rators connected to each compressor, means for
circulating air over said evaporators,’ said evapo
of a plurality of evaporators, means for convey-
rators and the circulating means being arranged
ing air over‘said evaporators, said evaporators
so that each parallel portion of the air stream is
cooled in successive stages by evaporators of a‘
plurality of compressors and so that at least two
evaporators of each compressor are in different
being arranged in-a plurality of groups that are in
parallel with respect to air ?ow,» each group com
prising a ?rst and a second evaporator over which
10 the air flows in the order named, and a plurality
of compressors each connected to the ?rst evap
orator of at least one group and to the second
evaporator of at least one other group.
-
5. In air cooling apparatus, the combination
15 of a plurality of compressors, a ?rst and a sec—
ond evaporator connected to each compressor,
means for circulating air over said evaporators,
said evaporators and the circulating means be
ing arranged so thatair ?ows over a ?rst evapora
20' tor and then over a second evaporator and so that
each ?rst evaporator is in series with the second
evaporator of another compressor and in parallel
with the ?rst evaporator of another compressor
with respect to air flow.‘
air cooling stages.
_
10'
7. In air cooling apparatus, the combination
of a plurality of evaporators arranged in groupsr ‘
means for circulating air over the evaporators,
‘the several groups being arranged in parallel and
the evaporators in each group being arranged in 15
series with respect to air ?ow, a plurality of com
pressors for said evaporators, each compressor
being connected to a plurality of evaporators dis
posed in different groups and in di?erent posi 20
tions in the order of air ?ow.
LEROY GALE'IIUGGI‘NS.
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