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Патент USA US2062825

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1,1936;
2,062,825
0. A. ROSS
METHOD FOR FORMING COMBUSTI'BLE MIXTURES
Original Filed Jan. 8, 192a ’. 2 Sheets~Sheet 1
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INVENTOR
.
5° 23
2,062,825
‘Patented Dec. 1, 1936
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE‘.
2,062,825
METHOD FOR FORMING COMBUSTIBLE
MIXTURES
‘
Oscar A. Ross, New York, N. Y.
‘Continuation of application Serial No. 80,000,
January 8, 1926. This application July 22,
1931, Serial No. 552,528
'
-
5 Claims.
(Cl. 261-90)
taneously with creating an air ?ow into which
_ This invention refers to apparatus for produc
the dispersed‘ fuel is suspended, the dispering
ing combustible mixtures from- non-readily vola
tilized liquid fuels and more particularly.to that members, by a beating and cutting action break
class of apparatus for producing said mixtures ing up said fuel to particle size approximating
5 for internal _ combustion motors and fuel oil the micron, the air suspended fuel particles ap- 5
burners.
‘
' pearing as a fog or nebular body, said particles, as
'
Internal combustion motors employing the
more heavy hydro-carbon oils are known as the
Diesel type and the fuel is either solidily or air
10 injected thereinto, the heat of compression act
ing to destructively’distill the more orless solid
fuel particles injected into its cylinders. Other
lower compression motors employing kerosene as
fuel are provided with gasifying devices heated
15 by the exhaust gases for converting the liquid fuel
into a gas before entry into the motor cylinders
thereof.
'
The di?iculty in employing non-readily vo1a—
tilized liquid fuels in low compression motors
20 arises from the fact that a comparatively small
portion of the fuel is readily volatilized at atmos
pheric temperature, and therefore the compara
tively large fuel particles produced in ordinary
carbureters do not furnish su?icient globular
25 surface whereby the readily volatilized portions
therein are exposed to form an electrically ignit
able mixture when starting a mptor from cold
state. Furthermore assuming the mixture to be
in the case‘ of aqueous fog, being gas tensionly
suspended in the air, it being suggested that said
particles are electro-statically separated one from '
another and therefore remain as closely approxl- 10
mated but independent bodies.
By thus reducing non-volatilized liquid fuels
to comparatively small particle size, a tremendous
globular area of the fuel is exposed to the air in
which it is suspended.
Therefore a compare.- 15
tively large portion of the more‘readily volatile
components of the fuel are exposed and convert
ed into a gas which comingled with the surround
ing air produces a readily ignitable mixture
throughout the entire combustible mixture, this 20
condition occurring even at atmospheric pressure.
The aforesaid readily ignitable mixture furnishes
a path of substantially instantaneous ?ame prop
agation throughout the combustible mixture,
and owing to the comparatively small particle size 25
of the dispersed fuel, the flame propagation
throughout the readily ignitable mixture acts to
substantially instantaneously distill, or gasify said
ignitible, the comparatively large particle size of particles thereby effecting comparatively rapid
?ame propagation through the entire combustible 30
30 the fuel prevent its being wholly consumed dur
ing the power cycle of the motor thereby causing mixture and therefore comparatively rapid ex
poor economy, or in the ‘case of van oil burner, plosion-thereof whereby high speed ‘internal com-,
will produce soot or mal-combustion owing to the vbustion motors may be economically operated.
- improper balance of fuel and air required to ’The applicant’s novel form vof combustible mix
35 maintain combustion.- Furthermore in the case ture. is equally well adapted for use in fuel burn- 35
ers, the highly dispersed fuel burning completely
of the internal combustion motor, the compara
tively large particlesize of the fuel produces a without forming soot on the burner or the fur
comparatively slow combustion, .or distructive , nace chamber wherein it is located. .
The applicant’s combustible mixture also
distillation thereof thereby producing a compar
40 atively slow power cycle and in the case ‘of motors forms an ideal mixture for starting internal com- 40
operating‘ at high rotative speed the efficiency
bustion motors'from a cold state without the
thereof will be comparatively low.
abnormal addition‘ of liquid fuel much of which
may ?ow to the crank of the motor and dilute
-
The applicant has discovered that by mechan
ically breaking up the non-readily volatile fuel
45 of a combustible mixture into-particle size which ‘
is comparatively small as compared to the par.
ticle size of mixtures produced by ordinary car-.
bureters, that‘ said mixture is not only readily
ignitable in cold state, but also has an exceedingly '
50 rapid ?ame propagation .therethrough thereby
producing the rapid explosion required in high
speed motors. The mechanical breaking up of
the fuel is accomplished by directing a stream of
non-readily volatilized fuel against moving fuel
55 dispersion, or distintegrating members simul
the lubricating oil therein.
v
It is one object of this invention to furnish 45
apparatus for producing a combustible mixture
having the characteristics hereintofore named
and wherein the nonreadily volatilized liquid
fuels are disintegrated, dispersed, nebulized, or
reduced to particle size approximating the mi-, 50
cron in diameter and all the particles'are of sub
stantially uniform size and closely approxi
mated giving the appearance of fog.
‘
Another object is to furnish apparatus for pro
’ducing combustible mixtures from hydrocarbon 55
fuels wherein no comparatively small ori?ces or
passageways are required for controlling the flow
Also secured to hearing bracket iii, is fitting
Bil adapted to receive nozzle 35.
'
_ of said fuel informing a combustible mixture,
Fixed nebulizing member 22 comprises upper
in this manner preventing failure of the appa
ratus due to the clogging of said ori?ces‘ and
passageways.
Other objects and advantages will appear as
the description of the invention progresses, and
the novel features thereof will be pointed out
and lower distribution plates or members 36 and
3?, also nebulizing vanes or disintegrators 3$—-38.
10 in the appended claims.
‘
This invention consists in the novel construc
tion and arrangement of parts hereinafter de-‘
scribed, delineated in the accompanying draw
ings and particularly pointed out in that portion
15 of this instrument wherein patentable novelty is
claimed for the certain and peculiar system and
apparatus, it being understood that, within the
scope of what hereinafter thus is claimed, divers
changes in the form, proportions, size and minor
20 details of the structure may be made without
departing from the spirit of the invention, or
sacri?cing any of its details.
'
In describing the invention in detail, reference
is had to the accompanying drawings wherein
Fixed nebulizing member iii! secured to housing
if by brackets iltc—?ila, supports nebulizing
vanes or disintegrators l3?—d@.
Shaft 27?, the driven end of which is keyed to
hub H, supports rotating spider nebulizing mem 10
ber d! comprising hub i2 keyed to shaft 2?, bolts
fit-53 and plate as securing spider plate member
d5 thereto, said member supporting nebulizing
or disintegrating vanes 88 and éi'l.
.
Annular members 438 having openings 59 serve 15
to prevent liquid fuel from being drawn into
the blower housing i3.
Reserve fuel reservoir 5%, secured to housing
ill by brackets 5ii—-5!, has over-flow pipe 52, in
let 53, outlet
and heater unit 55 ins'ulatively 20
supported thereon.
‘
Ori?ce as serves to drain the non-nebulized
liquid fuel from housing ii to main reservoir 92.
Referring to Fig. 4, illustrating a complete
combustible producing and actuating unit to 25
vention, and wherein like characters of refer
gether with a fuel burner and ‘system of control
ence designate corresponding parts throughout ‘ therefor, the combustible mixture producing and
the several views, and in which:—-.~
actuating unit 2 is connected to burner Bil by
25 I have illustrated one embodiment of the in
Ii is a sectional view on the line A-—A of
30 Fig. 3 and shows various features of the con
struction of the combustible mixture producing
means and the combustible mixture actuating
means. Fig. 2 is a crosssectional view, the right
' hand half of which is taken on line B—B of Fig.'
35 i and the left hand half on line C—C of Fig. i.
Fig. 3 is an end view of the apparatus in Fig. i
the direction‘ of the view being indicated by the
line D—D in that ?gure. Fig. 4 is a view part
ly diagrammatic and partly in section of various
40 features of the mechanisms for producing and
burning combustible mixtures and also includes
a wiring diagram of the circuits for controlling
I said mechanisms. Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic view
illustrating an installation in which the com
45 bustible mixture producing means. and the actu
ating means for the mixture are placed in a
location remote from the burner arranged to
consume said mixture.
Referring to Figs. 1, 2 and 3, the combustible
50 mixture producing and actuating unit 2, com
>
I Burner till comprises main burner member E2,
circular in form and having threaded extension
83 receiving nut 553 arranged to secure cylin
drical insulating member 55 supporting electrode
iii positioned by nuts 66--86, said electrode re
ceiving energy through terminal Ella. Loosely
mounted on the upper end of said electrode is
vaporizing plate or member 58 having vaporizing
ribs 5§—-$€l radially disposed. Orifice 'lil serves
to drain any liquid entering chamber ‘H. Pipe
72 drains off any liquid which may how to cham 40
ber '13. Electrodes ‘ill-“id serve to form an air
gap between electrode 61 and ribs 69-459 across
which the ignition spark jumps for initially ig
niting the combustible mixtu're supplied to the
burner by the unit 2.
so
Thermoresponsive device comprises housing
16 and annular members Ti and ‘it clamped be
tween which are thermoresponsive disk 79 and
heat radiating disk 80. Thermoresponsive disk
19 composed of bi-metallic material is arranged
prises motor 3, blower or fan d, and fuel dis
to have the center portion thereof abruptlyv as
. persing or nebulizing unit 5,‘ suitably mounted
on a base as 6. Motor 3, comprises frame 1; ar
sume either one of two stable positions, and dur
ing the movement thereof is arranged to move
mature 8, having shaft 9, mounted in bearing
operating rod 88 rigidly secured thereto, said rod
being arranged to actuate contact lever 82 piv
55 in, and attached to the driving end of which is
secured hub H, supporting blades l2-l2, rotat
ing in housing I3 having annular side walls It
and I5 and, also exhaust opening l6.
Nebulizing unit 5 comprises housing‘ I ‘I, one
60 end of which is joined to housing l3 by conical
65
pipe
de?ector la, the other end. supporting bearing
bracket 19, bolts 20 and nuts 2| serving to ad
justablypunite said housing and bracket together
with the ?xed nebulizing member 22.
oted at 83.
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Dash-pot 84 having piston 90 secured to arms.
ture 85 of solenoid 86 by rod 92a, comprises cyl
inder 81 having valve 88 arranged to permit pis
ton 90 to lower' rapidly but rise slowly.’ Ori?ce 60
89 permits a quick rising of said piston during
the initial upward movement thereof only, the
ori?ce 9| thereafter restraining a slow move
ment thereof.
,
»
-
The operation of the system is as follows; 65
referring to Fig. 4 all the parts are shown in in
operative position, it being assumed that the tem
perature of space I90 is sufficiently high. to
maintain thermostat H)! in open position. Upon
a predetermined lowering of the temperature in 70
said space saidthermostat will act to establish
the following circuit; from positive energy to
Secured to bearing .bracket l9, by bolts 23
and nuts 24,_is pump body 25 having gland nut
26 adapted to pack shaft 21 against leakage
frompressure produced by pump gears 28 and
70 29, gear-28 being keyed to shaft 21 and gear 29
rotating on its'own shaft. Also secured by bolts
23 and nuts 24, is the bearing housing 30 sup
porting ball bearing 3|, the inner race of, which " contact I02, wire “)3, operating winding of sole
is secured to shaft .27 by nut 32,_cap 33 acting noid 86, Wires H34, H35, 139, circuit closer I32,
‘
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75 in enclose said bearing. '
wires “0 and MI. to negative energy. With said
2,082,825 '
circuit energized armature 85 moves up quickly upward movement of said armature, collars I30
until piston 90 covers port. 89, said movement _ and I3l will act to raise circuit closers I63 and
causing circuit closer I06 to establish the fol
H6. As closer I I5 is raised energy to motor 3
lowing circuit;_ from positive energy to~ contact will ?ow from contact lever 82 through wires I33,
lever 82, wires I01, I62, circuit closer I63, wire H8, and circuit_closer II4, wire II9 to‘ motor 3
I08, where it divides, the fuel'heating circuit run
and thence to negative energy, in this manner
ning through wire I09 to heating unit 55"and maintaining continued operation of said motor.
thence to negative energy, the other branch, If the burner had failed to ignite, the failure of
namely the ignition circuit, running through wire circuit closer 82 to move to the right would have
10 IIO, transformer III, wire II2, circuit closer I06
opened the circuit to the motor when closer II6
and wire II3 to negative energy. This latter cir
was raised. Said failure would also effect ?ow of
cuit, by induction in transformer, produces high energy from lever 82 through wires I01, I34, cir
voltage current through wires I29 and I30 act
cuit closer I35 wire I36, alarm I31 and thence to
ing to create ignition sparks between electrodes negative energy through wire I38; in this manner
61 and 14—14.
‘
.
calling attention to the abnormal condition of
'
After a predetermined interval of time, the
upward movement of armature 85 will actuate
circuit closer II4 to establish thefmotor operat
ing circuit as follows; from positive energy to
the burner.
burning ?ame under vaporizing plate 68 will move
outwardly to the'annular opening formed by the
negative energy by wire I20. This circuit acts
to operate motor 3 and rotation of shaft 21 will
?anges I56 and I51, thereafter continuing to burn ’
cause pump 30 to withdraw fuel from main reser
at this point until the motor 3 is stopped.
It will be noted that simultaneously with the 25
opening of the circuit to the transformer II I, the
voir 92 through pipe 93, strainer 94, pipe 95,
25
_
act to open the circuit to transformer I I I, and as
the electrical discharges cease, the origin of the '
wire II5, wires H1 and H8, circuit'closer II4,
wires “9 and I33, to motor 3 and thence to
20
'
Assuming. that circuit closer 82 has moved to
the right normally, the raising of closer II6 will
check valve 96, pipe 91, said pump delivering said
fuel to the reserve reservoir 50, said fuel eventu
ally ?owing through pipe 99 to nozzle 35, the
surplus fuel returning to main reservoir 92
30 through pipes 52 and 'I2I.
After being heated by heater 55 the fuel ?rst
?ows to nozzle 35 and thence to distributer plate
circuit to the heating unit 55 is likewise opened.
As armature 85 completes its upward move
ment, circuit closer I32 raises and includes a hold
ing winding I58 in the windingsof the solenoid 30
86, in this manner materially reducing the
amount of energy‘required thereby during the
36 where it is divided into a number of streams
holding periods thereof.
by grooves or troughs I22--| 22, thereafter falling
35 to distributer plate 31 and is further sub-divided
into a larger number of streams by- grooves or
Referring to Fig. 5, the combustible mixture
producing unit 2 is located in a building I52 re
motely ‘from the burner 60, the pipe 6 I' being con
ducted under ground therebetween, said building
I52 having a control panel I53 containing the
apparatus 84 controlled by the thermostat IOI in
building I5I said building having a furnace I50
troughs I23—,I23, thereafter passing to the rap
idly revolving nebulizing members 46-46 where
the ?rst stages of substantial dispersion or
40 nebulizing begins, thereafter passing through
stationary nebulizing members 39 and 38 to mov
ing nebulizing members 41-41 for further
nebulization thereby. It will be noted that the
angularity of said moving and stationary mem
45 bers is suchthat not only will it effect outward
wherein said burner 60 is located.
-
_
.
Whereas the combustible mixture producing
unit 2 has been shown as supplying a combustible
mixture for a fuel burner said‘ unit is equally well
adapted to supply said combustible mixture to an 45
. movement of the nebulized and non-nebulized
intemal combustion motor. of the high speed ‘type.
The solenoid 86.may be controlled by a time
fuel but will also create an outwardly moving air
current through said members, said air entering
interval device I 55, more fully described in my co
I through openings I25-I25 in member I9, thence
pending application for Letters Patent ?led Feb
ruary 14, 1931, Serial Number 515,761 (since is
50 passing through openings I59 and I60 in member
22, thence through said nebulizing members and
therein receiving the dispersed fuel for forming
sued as U. S. Patent 2,030,542 on 'Feb. 11, 1936),
and‘under which conditions the thermostat IOI
the combustible mixture whereafter said mix
ture passes to chamber I24 around the outer would be adjusted to function only in event of
55 edge of member ?39 as shown by the several ar _ excess heating of the space I00.
rows. Any fuel not~nebulized during its move
‘This application forms a continuing applica
ment through said nebulizing members is re
tion of my copending application Serial Number
turned to the main reservoir through passage
80,000, ?led, January 8th, 1926.
way 56, saidnon-nebulized fuel being thrown by
v60 centrifugal e?ect to the inner walls of the hous~
What I claim is:—-
55'
.
1. The method of producing fog combustible
ing I1 whereafter it ?ows downwardly to said mixtures for supporting combustion which in a 0.
v passageway.
volves,simultaneously producing a current of‘air
The blades I2—I2 of blower 4 act to move the and producing a stream of non-readily volatile
combustible mixture through pipe 6I to burner liquid fuel thereinto, the fuel stream being pro
65 60, thence to chamber I28 therein, through screen * duced independently of the air current, mechani a 5
I 21 to- chamber I29 whereinit is ignited by the cally beating ‘the fuel in the stream until it is
electrical discharges between ,electrodes 61 and disintegrated into uniform size closely approxi
14—14, the burning of said mixture being e?fected mated liquid globules so small they become elec
initially under vaporizing plate 68 for the heat
tro-statically suspended in the .air of the air cur
rent and thereby form a fog combustible mixture,
ing thereof.
’
,
x
-
,
'
During the period the mixture is burning under
1 Jthe’vaporizing plate 68, armature 86 continues
' its upward movement and thermostatic device
15 is also heated su?icientlyto ‘effect movement
75 of circuit closer 62 to the right. - During. the ?nal
.
and utilizing the combustible mixture for support
ing
combustion.
_
‘
.
_
.
'
2. The method of‘ producing fog combustible
mixtures for ‘ supporting combustion which in-'~'
volves, simultaneously producing a current of air 75
4-
I
. aooaeae
_ y and producing a stream of non-readily volatile I
liquid fuel ?owing thereinto, the fuel stream being
produced. independently of the air current, mei
chanically beating the fuel in the stream until a
' substantial portion thereof is disintegrated into
uniform size closely approximated liquid globules
so small they become electro-statically suspended
in the air current and, form a fog combustible
mixture, separating the fog combustible mixture
and the liquid fuel in the stream not disintegrated
su?iciently to form a combustible mixture, re
turning the latter fuel portion to the source and
utilizing the fog combustible mixture to support
combustion.
15
'
3. The method of producing combustible mix
tures which involves, simultaneously establishing
a current of combustion supporting gas and a
20
?owing stream of non-readily volatile liquid fuel
in juxtaposition, mechanically beating the stream
sui?ciently to reduce the fuel therein into minute
closely approximated uniform size liquid particles
and simultaneously produce ‘a gas tension there
between and the surrounding combustion sup
porting gas for forming a stable fog combustible
mixture which will support combustion when ig
nited.
'
4. The method of producing combustible mix
tures which involves, simultaneously establishing
a current of air and a ?owing stream of non
readily volatile liquid fuel in juxtaposition, me
chanically beating the stream sufficiently to re
duce the fuel therein into the minutest divisible
liquid particles before gasifioation thereof and
simultaneously producing a gas tension therebe
tween and the surrounding air from forming a
stable fog combustible mixture which will pro 10
duce spontaneous combustion when ignited.
5. The method of producing combustible_mix
tures which involves, simultaneously establishing
a current of air and a ?owing stream of non
readily volatile liquid fuel in juxtaposition from 15
separate sources, mechanically beating the stream
suf?ciently to reduce a substantial portion there
of into the minutest divisible liquid-particles be
fore gasi?cation thereof and simultaneously pro
ducing a gas tension therebetween and the sur 20
rounding air for forming a stable spontaneous
combustible mixture, separating the combustible
mixture from the portion of the fuel stream not
reduced to the minute particle state, and collect
ing and returning the latter named portion to the
fuel source.
v
OSCAR 'A. ROSS.
2.5
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